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  1. Think Solar USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy andInstitute JumpWashSolar USA Jump to:

  2. Scheuten Solar USA Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,SageScheuco International Jump to: navigation, searchUSA Inc Jump

  3. Solar Millennium LLC USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium deEnergy InformationDepotGreenPalen Solar

  4. PALEOMAGNETISM Solar nebula magnetic fields recorded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    REPORTS PALEOMAGNETISM Solar nebula magnetic fields recorded in the Semarkona meteorite Roger R. Walsworth,6,7 Aaron T. Kuan9 Magnetic fields are proposed to have played a critical role in some of the most on the intensity of these fields. Here we show that dusty olivine-bearing chondrules from the Semarkona meteorite

  5. Measuring Magnetic Fields in the Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wijn, A G

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery by Hale in the early 1900s that sunspots harbor strong magnetic field, magnetism has become increasingly important in our understanding of processes on the Sun and in the Heliosphere. Many current and planned instruments are capable of diagnosing magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Photospheric magnetometry is now well-established. However, many challenges remain. For instance, the diagnosis of magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona is difficult, and interpretation of measurements is harder still. As a result only very few measurements have been made so far, yet it is clear that if we are to understand the outer solar atmosphere we must study the magnetic field. I will review the history of solar magnetic field measurements, describe and discuss the three types of magnetometry, and close with an outlook on the future.

  6. Toward magnetic field dissipation during the 23 July 2002 solar flare measured with Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zharkova, Valentina V.

    Toward magnetic field dissipation during the 23 July 2002 solar flare measured with Solar. Benkhalil (2005), Toward magnetic field dissipation during the 23 July 2002 solar flare measured with Solar] It is widely accepted that the source of primary energy release in solar flares is associated with magnetic

  7. Neutrino Oscillations, Solar Antineutrinos and the Solar Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Dev; Sanjeev Kumar

    2003-08-05

    Even after the confirmation of the large mixing angle (LMA) solution of the solar neutrino problem, the scope for resonant spin- flavor precession (RSFP) transitions as a subdominant effect still exists. In this work,we have considered suitably suppressed RSFP transitions in addition to the dominant LMA flavor transitions and translated the bounds on the antineutrino flux into the bounds on the product of neutrino magnetic moment and solar magnetic field. The low and intermediate energy neutrinos have been included in the analysis by obtaining indirect bounds on the corresponding antineutrino fluxes for these components. It is assumed that the missing beryllium neutrinos are being converted into muon antineutrinos via RSFP transitions in the Sun.

  8. Adaptive Receding Horizon Control of a Distributed Collector Solar Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    Adaptive Receding Horizon Control of a Distributed Collector Solar Field J.M. Igreja, J. M. Lemos for a distributed collector solar field which ex- plicitly explores its distributed parameter character. The plant considered is a distributed collector solar field, being described by a nonlinear hyperbolic partial

  9. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    guide. Field test edition. Includes glossary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field test edition. Includes...

  10. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    guide. Field test edition. Includes glossary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field test edition. Includes...

  11. Solar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 -340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    1981-01-01

    . CUEVAS, A. LUQUE, J. EGUREN and J. DEL ALAMO Instituto de Energia Solar, Escuela Tdcnica Superior deSolar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 - 340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS A solar cells are presented. Effi- ciencies of 15.7% and 13.6% were measured under front and back air mass

  12. Solar World USA not SolarWorld AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium deEnergyCompany Limited SPCSolarVision JumpWorld USA

  13. Calyxo USA Solar Fields LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County, California:InformationInformationCalvert

  14. 1 Magnetic Fields and Solar This article describesthe relationshipbetweenmagnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reconnection. The free magnetic energy is con- verted to thermal and non- thermal energy to power solar ares, which create thermal emissions and accel- eration of non-thermal particles. The total energy1 Magnetic Fields and Solar Flares This article describesthe relationshipbetweenmagnetic elds

  15. 1 CONFIDENTIAL1 CONFIDENTIAL GreenField Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    &M costs o Lower manufacturing costs Triple-junction cells difficult to densely pack PhotoVoltTM cells can1 CONFIDENTIAL1 CONFIDENTIAL GreenField Solar: Testing and Reliability needs of CPV Systems Dr-south movements only required once a day West East #12;CONFIDENTIAL 7 Industry-wide issues - Solar Issues from

  16. Efficient solar anti-neutrino production in random magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. G. Miranda; T. I. Rashba; A. I. Rez; J. W. F. Valle

    2004-05-12

    We have shown that the electron anti-neutrino appearance in the framework of the spin flavor conversion mechanism is much more efficient in the case of neutrino propagation through random than regular magnetic field. This result leads to much stronger limits on the product of the neutrino transition magnetic moment and the solar magnetic field based on the recent KamLAND data. We argue that the existence of the random magnetic fields in the solar convective zone is a natural sequence of the convective zone magnetic field evolution.

  17. Relation between photospheric flow fields and the magnetic field distribution on the solar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, G.W.; Title, A.M.; Topka, K.P.; Tarbell, T.D.; Shine, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Using the technique of local correlation tracking on a 28 minute time sequence of white-light images of solar granulation, the horizontal flow field on the solar surface is measured. The time series was obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 (Space Shuttle flight 51-F) and is free from atmospheric blurring and distortion. The SOUP flow fields have been compared with carefully aligned magnetograms taken over a nine hour period at the Big Bear Solar Observatory before, during, and after the SOUP images. The flow field and the magnetic field agree in considerable detail: vectors which define the flow of the white-light intensity pattern (granulation) point toward magnetic field regions, magnetic fields surround flow cells, and magnetic features move along the flow arrows. The projected locations of free particles (corks) in the measured flow field congregate at the same locations where the magnetic field is observed. 31 references.

  18. Lense-Thirring Field and the Solar Limb Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Wanas; A. B. Morcos; S. I. El Gammal

    2010-08-05

    Solar-Limb Effect is an observational phenomena connected to the solar gravitational red-shift. It shows a variation of the magnitude of the gravitational red-shift from the center to the limb of the solar disc. In the present work an attempt, for interpreting this phenomena using a general relativistic red-shift formula, is given . This formula takes into account the effect of the the Sun's gravitational field, the effect of the solar rotation, the effect of inclination of the line of sight and the motion of the observer. In this study the gravitational field of the Sun is assumed to be given by Lense-Thirring field instead of the Schwarzschild one. The Earth is assumed to move along an elliptic orbit. Comparison with a previous relativistic study and with observation is given.

  19. Periodicity of the solar full-disk magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, N. B.; Qu, Z. N.; Zhai, Q. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, CAS, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2014-07-01

    A full-disk solar magnetogram has been measured each day since 1970 January 19, and the daily Magnetic Plage Strength Index (MPSI) and the daily Mount Wilson Sunspot Index (MWSI) were calculated for each magnetogram at the Mount Wilson Observatory. The MPSI and MWSI are used to investigate the periodicity of the solar full-disk magnetic activity through autocorrelation analyses. Just two periods, the solar cycle and the rotation cycle, are determined in both the MPSI (the solar full-disk weak magnetic field activity) and MWSI (the solar full-disk strong magnetic field activity) with no annual signal found. The solar cycle for MPSI (10.83 yr) is found to be obviously longer than that for MWSI (9.77 yr). The rotation cycle is determined to be 26.8 ± 0.63 sidereal days for MPSI and 27.4 ± 2.4 sidereal days for MWSI. The rotation cycle length for MPSI is found to fluctuate around 27 days within a very small amplitude, but for MWSI it obviously temporally varies with a rather large amplitude. The rotation cycle for MWSI seems longer near solar minimum than at solar maximum. Cross-correlation analyses of daily MPSI and MWSI are carried out, and it is inferred that the MPSI components partly come from relatively early MWSI measurements.

  20. Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed and Coronal Magnetic Field Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Iju, Tomoya; Hakamada, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the solar-wind speed $[V]$ and the coronal magnetic-field properties (a flux expansion factor [$f$] and photospheric magnetic-field strength [$B_{\\mathrm{S}}$]) at all latitudes using data of interplanetary scintillation and solar magnetic field obtained for 24 years from 1986 to 2009. Using a cross-correlation analyses, we verified that $V$ is inversely proportional to $f$ and found that $V$ tends to increase with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}$ if $f$ is the same. As a consequence, we find that $V$ has extremely good linear correlation with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$. However, this linear relation of $V$ and $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$ cannot be used for predicting the solar-wind velocity without information on the solar-wind mass flux. We discuss why the inverse relation between $V$ and $f$ has been successfully used for solar-wind velocity prediction, even though it does not explicitly include the mass flux and magnetic-field strength, which are important physical parameters for solar-wind accele...

  1. Solar performance: results from the field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    Actual monitored data are presented on 7 homes and an office complex to illustrate energy savings possible through the use of solar energy and energy conservation. In the Brookhaven house (superinsulated) a Trombe wall is shown to be superior to a sunspace. Energy-Efficient Residence I (Mt. Airy, MD) is compared to a conventional house next door and found to use 70% less energy for heating and 31% less energy for cooling. Energy-Efficient Residence II (Damascus, MD) is a two-story residence using passive and hybrid solar space heating, rockbin heat storage, greywater recycling and an earth-source heat pump. It's energy heating costs are reported at $120/yr. In an office complex in Taos, NM solar energy was reported to provide 67% of the heating and a large fraction of the lighting requirements. The Mastin Double-Envelope House in Middletown, RI is described as operating quite effectively although some problems remain. Rymark I, II, and III (Frederick, MD) are described as modular homes with various amounts of north and south glazing, and differing amounts of insulation and thermal mass. One finding is that 85 ft/sup 2/ of glass and R-5 window insulation saves the same amount of energy as adding 125 ft/sup 2/ of south glass and eutectic salts for thermal mass, but costs $2200 less. (MJJ)

  2. Magnetic field confinement by meridional flow and the solar tachocline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. L. Kitchatinov; G. Ruediger

    2006-03-16

    We show that the MHD theory that explains the solar tachocline by an effect of the magnetic field can work with the decay modes of a fossil field in the solar interior if the meridional flow of the convection zone penetrates slightly the radiative zone beneath. An equatorward flow of about 10 m/s penetrating to a maximum depth of 1000 km below the convection zone is able to generate almost horizontal field lines in the tachocline region so that the internal field is almost totally confined to the radiative zone. The theory of differential solar rotation indeed provides meridional flows of about 10 m/s and a penetration depth of < 1000 km for viscosity values that are characteristic of a stable tachocline.

  3. Visualizing and predicting CMEs and geomagnetic storms from solar magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yan

    1 Visualizing and predicting CMEs and geomagnetic storms from solar magnetic fields Yan Li. Because solar photospheric magnetic fields are the main source of the magnetic field in the corona. However, because the solar field is both complex and influenced by the solar wind, it is difficult

  4. MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. FIELD-PLASMA INTERACTION B. Fornberg,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fornberg, Bengt

    MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. FIELD-PLASMA INTERACTION N. Flyer,1 B. Fornberg In the first paper of this series, we treated the self-confinement of nonlinear force-free magnetic fields study of axisymmetric force-free magnetic fields in the unbounded space outside a unit sphere, presented

  5. MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS B. Fornberg,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fornberg, Bengt

    MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS N. Flyer,1 B, plasma density and magnetic field. We present a hydromag- netic study of the self-confinement of magnetic Axisymmetric force-free magnetic fields external to a unit sphere are studied as solutions to boundary value

  6. S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, K. Hoffman, S. Sugiyama, and J. Call United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, Michigan 48084 USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, K. Hoffman, S. Sugiyama, and J. Call United Solar Systems Corp Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, Michigan 48084 USA spectral-splitting, triple-junction a-S alloy solar cell deionized water rinsing baths, and an infrared drying oven. The clean, dry and dust-free web is next loaded

  7. Solar nebula magnetic fields recorded in the Semarkona meteorite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Roger R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Lima, Eduardo A.; Harrison, Richard J.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Desch, Steven J.; Ebel, Denton S.; Suavet, Clement; Wang, Huapei; Glenn, David; Le Sage, David; Kasama, Takeshi; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Kuan, Aaron T.

    2014-11-13

    stream_source_info Final-Revised-Submisson.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 143440 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Final-Revised-Submisson.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8   1   Solar nebula... constrain the strength of nebular magnetic fields. Chondrules are 55   millimeter-sized lithic constituents of primitive meteorites that formed in transient heating events 56   in the solar nebula. If a stable field was present during cooling...

  8. SMALL AND LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS INVOLVED WITH SOLAR FLARES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT SMALL AND LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS INVOLVED WITH SOLAR FLARES by Chang Liu Solar flares of an EUV sigmoid. #12;SMALL AND LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS INVOLVED WITH SOLAR FLARES by Chang Liu RESERVED #12;APPROVAL PAGE SMALL AND LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS INVOLVED WITH SOLAR FLARES Chang Liu Dr

  9. Solar neutrino oscillations and bounds on neutrino magnetic moment and solar magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Kh. Akhmedov; J. Pulido

    2002-09-18

    If the observed deficit of solar neutrinos is due to neutrino oscillations, neutrino conversions caused by the interaction of their transition magnetic moments with the solar magnetic field (spin-flavour precession) can still be present at a subdominant level. In that case, the combined action of neutrino oscillations and spin-flavour precession can lead to a small but observable flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the sun. Non-observation of these nuebar's could set limits on neutrino transition moment \\mu and the strength and coordinate dependence of the solar magnetic field B_\\perp. The sensitivity of the nuebar flux to the product \\mu B_\\perp is strongest in the case of the vacuum oscillation (VO) solution of the solar neutrino problem; in the case of the LOW solution, it is weaker, and it is the weakest for the LMA solution. For different solutions, different characteristics of the solar magnetic field B_\\perp(r) are probed: for the VO solution, the nuebar flux is determined by the integral of B_\\perp(r) over the solar convective zone, for LMA it is determined by the magnitude of B_\\perp in the neutrino production region, and for LOW it depends on the competition between this magnitude and the derivative of B_\\perp(r) at the surface of the sun.

  10. Magnetic field gradients in solar wind plasma and geophysics periods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2006-11-16

    Using recent data obtained by Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) the pumping scale of the magnetic field gradients of the solar wind plasma has been calculated. This pumping scale is found to be equal to 24h $\\pm$ 2h. The ACE spacecraft orbits at the L1 libration point which is a point of Earth-Sun gravitational equilibrium about 1.5 million km from Earth. Since the Earth's magnetosphere extends into the vacuum of space from approximately 80 to 60,000 kilometers on the side toward the Sun the pumping scale cannot be a consequence of the 24h-period of the Earth's rotation. Vise versa, a speculation is suggested that for the very long time of the coexistence of Earth and of the solar wind the weak interaction between the solar wind and Earth could lead to stochastic synchronization between the Earth's rotation and the pumping scale of the solar wind magnetic field gradients. This synchronization could transform an original period of the Earth's rotation to the period close to the pumping scale of the solar wind magnetic field gradients.

  11. The Solar $hep$ Processes in Effective Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tae-Sun Park; Kuniharu Kubodera; Dong-Pil Min; Mannque Rho

    2001-10-31

    By combining effective field theory with the standard nuclear physics approach (SNPA) we obtain a high-precision estimate of the $S$ factor for the solar $hep$ process. The accurate wave functions available in SNPA are used to evaluate the nuclear matrix elements for the transition operators that result from chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). All the contributions up to \

  12. Solar wind driving of magnetospheric ULF waves: Field line resonances driven by dynamic pressure fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar wind driving of magnetospheric ULF waves: Field line resonances driven by dynamic pressure observational studies suggest that solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations can drive magnetosphericFedderMobarry (LFM) global, threedimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind

  13. Interplanetary Field Enhancements: The Interaction between Solar Wind and Interplanetary Dusty Plasma Released by Interplanetary Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    R.A. , 1976. Depletion of solar wind plasma near a planetaryLayers………………………. ………. ………………1 1.1.2. Solar MagneticField and Solar Wind……………………………. …………. …2 1.2. Small

  14. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    are many solar photovoltaic power plants internationally andUSA, Blythe, CA Solar electric power plant, Blythe USA, SanTX Blue Wing solar electric power plant USA, Jacksonville,

  15. History of Solar Magnetic Fields since George Ellery Hale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stenflo, Jan

    2015-01-01

    As my own work on the Sun's magnetic field started exactly 50 years ago at Crimea in the USSR, I have been a participant in the field during nearly half the time span since Hale's discovery in 1908 of magnetic fields in sunspots. The present historical account is accompanied by photos from my personal slide collection, which show a number of the leading personalities who advanced the field in different areas: measurement techniques, from photographic to photoelectric and imaging methods in spectro-polarimetry; theoretical foundations of MHD and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields (birth of dynamo theory); the quest for increased angular resolution from national projects to international consortia (for instruments both on ground and in space); introduction of the Hanle effect in astrophysics and the Second Solar Spectrum as its playground; small-scale nature of the field, the fundamental resolution limit, and transcending it by resolution-independent diagnostics.

  16. On Predicting the Solar Cycle using Mean-Field Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul J. Bushby; Steven M. Tobias

    2007-04-18

    We discuss the difficulties of predicting the solar cycle using mean-field models. Here we argue that these difficulties arise owing to the significant modulation of the solar activity cycle, and that this modulation arises owing to either stochastic or deterministic processes. We analyse the implications for predictability in both of these situations by considering two separate solar dynamo models. The first model represents a stochastically-perturbed flux transport dynamo. Here even very weak stochastic perturbations can give rise to significant modulation in the activity cycle. This modulation leads to a loss of predictability. In the second model, we neglect stochastic effects and assume that generation of magnetic field in the Sun can be described by a fully deterministic nonlinear mean-field model -- this is a best case scenario for prediction. We designate the output from this deterministic model (with parameters chosen to produce chaotically modulated cycles) as a target timeseries that subsequent deterministic mean-field models are required to predict. Long-term prediction is impossible even if a model that is correct in all details is utilised in the prediction. Furthermore, we show that even short-term prediction is impossible if there is a small discrepancy in the input parameters from the fiducial model. This is the case even if the predicting model has been tuned to reproduce the output of previous cycles. Given the inherent uncertainties in determining the transport coefficients and nonlinear responses for mean-field models, we argue that this makes predicting the solar cycle using the output from such models impossible.

  17. Performance Enhancement of a Graphene-Zinc Phosphide Solar Cell Using the Electric Field-Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    Performance Enhancement of a Graphene-Zinc Phosphide Solar Cell Using the Electric Field for photovoltaics. We present a field-effect solar cell using graphene to form a tunable junction barrier of photovoltaic devices incorporating graphene. KEYWORDS: Graphene, zinc phosphide, field effect solar cell

  18. Microwave Mapping As a Possible New Diagnostic Tool for LargeScale Solar Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Microwave Mapping As a Possible New Diagnostic Tool for Large­Scale Solar Magnetic Fields M of microwave maps in the study of weak large­scale solar magnetic fields is discussed. Our knowledge of the large­scale solar background magnetic fields is limited by the circumstance that magnetograph

  19. A COMPARISON BETWEEN GLOBAL SOLAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC AND POTENTIAL FIELD SOURCE SURFACE MODEL RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A COMPARISON BETWEEN GLOBAL SOLAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC AND POTENTIAL FIELD SOURCE SURFACE MODEL of the solar corona are (1) potential field source surface (PFSS) models, and (2) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD ABSTRACT The large-scale, steady-state magnetic field configuration of the solar corona is typically

  20. Height variation of the vector magnetic field in solar spicules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suarez, D Orozco; Bueno, J Trujillo

    2015-01-01

    Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He I 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife; Canary Islands; Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical height of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss and then it decreases rapidly with height to about 30 gauss at a height of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid inclinations (about 50 degree) above 2 Mm height.

  1. The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field are the boundaries of small-scale and mid- dle-scale solar wind structures. We describe the behavior of the solar boundaries of small and medium scale solar wind plasma structures which we identify by looking for sharp

  2. Magnetic Field Rotations in the Solar Wind at Kinetic Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, C H K; Burgess, D; Horbury, T S

    2015-01-01

    The solar wind magnetic field contains rotations at a broad range of scales, which have been extensively studied in the MHD range. Here we present an extension of this analysis to the range between ion and electron kinetic scales. The distribution of rotation angles was found to be approximately log-normal, shifting to smaller angles at smaller scales almost self-similarly, but with small, statistically significant changes of shape. The fraction of energy in fluctuations with angles larger than $\\alpha$ was found to drop approximately exponentially with $\\alpha$, with e-folding angle $9.8^\\circ$ at ion scales and $0.66^\\circ$ at electron scales, showing that large angles ($\\alpha > 30^\\circ$) do not contain a significant amount of energy at kinetic scales. Implications for kinetic turbulence theory and the dissipation of solar wind turbulence are discussed.

  3. Prediction of solar activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21-23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, Simon J. [School of Engineering, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP (United Kingdom); Zharkov, Sergei I. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Kingston upon Tyne, HU6 7RS (United Kingdom); Zharkova, Valentina V., E-mail: s.j.shepherd@brad.ac.uk, E-mail: s.zharkov@hull.ac.uk, E-mail: valentina.zharkova@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics and Information Systems, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  4. Transient horizontal magnetic fields in solar plage regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Ishikawa; S. Tsuneta; K. Ichimoto; H. Isobe; Y. Katsukawa; B. W. Lites; S. Nagata; T. Shimizu; R. A. Shine; Y. Suematsu; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title

    2008-02-13

    We report the discovery of isolated, small-scale emerging magnetic fields in a plage region with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. Spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out with a cadence of 34 seconds for the plage region located near disc center. The vector magnetic fields are inferred by Milne-Eddington inversion. The observations reveal widespread occurrence of transient, spatially isolated horizontal magnetic fields. The lateral extent of the horizontal magnetic fields is comparable to the size of photospheric granules. These horizontal magnetic fields seem to be tossed about by upflows and downflows of the granular convection. We also report an event that appears to be driven by the magnetic buoyancy instability. We refer to buoyancy-driven emergence as type1 and convection-driven emergence as type2. Although both events have magnetic field strengths of about 600 G, the filling factor of type1 is a factor of two larger than that of type2. Our finding suggests that the granular convection in the plage regions is characterized by a high rate of occurrence of granular-sized transient horizontal fields.

  5. The Solar-Stellar-MHD Connection We focus on the magnetic-field driven similarities,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Solar-Stellar-MHD Connection We focus on the magnetic-field driven similarities, and differences, between our Sun and other solar- type stars (the "solar-stellar connection"). Are the properties, and the build-up of a planetary magnetic field must have been achieved early on in the Sun's 4.5 billion year

  6. Field Fabrication of Solar-Thermal Powered Steam Turbines for Generation of Mechanical Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    investigate a solar thermal steamdriven turbine system and build and evaluate several versions in fieldField Fabrication of Solar-Thermal Powered Steam Turbines for Generation of Mechanical Power by Amy and repeatability necessary for regular people to design, manufacture, and install a system to convert solar

  7. Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A Tutorial C. T. Russell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Christopher T.

    Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A Tutorial C. T. Russell Institute of Geophysics at the center of the sun to its radiation into space by the photosphere, but most importantly for the solar wind controls the properties of the solar wind. In this tutorial review we examine the properties of the fields

  8. Tectonic Deformation of a Lacustrine Mudstone at Soda Lake Geothermal Field, Western Nevada, USA, from 3D Seismic Interpretation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    enhanced extension and pull-apart basins that bring about structural controls for geothermal systems comprehensive seismic survey of a geothermal system in the world Seismic Survey The authors would like to thankTectonic Deformation of a Lacustrine Mudstone at Soda Lake Geothermal Field, Western Nevada, USA

  9. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    USA, Jacksonville, FL Jacksonville Solar Energy Generation Facility Constructed Systems that produce electricity

  10. SEP Success Story: Solar Field Powers Historic Garden Holiday...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the University of Tennessee at the official opening of the West Tennessee Solar Farm. | Energy Department photo. SEP Success Story: Harvesting the Sun at the West Tennessee Solar...

  11. Beryllium anomalies in solar-type field stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. C. Santos; G. Israelian; S. Randich; R. J. Garcia Lopez; R. Rebolo

    2004-08-05

    We present a study of beryllium (Be) abundances in a large sample of field solar-type dwarfs and sub-giants spanning a large range of effective temperatures. The analysis shows that Be is severely depleted for F stars, as expected by the light-element depletion models. However, we also show that Beryllium abundances decrease with decreasing temperature for stars cooler than $\\sim$6000 K, a result that cannot be explained by current theoretical models including rotational mixing, but that is, at least in part, expected from the models that take into account internal wave physics. In particular, the light element abundances of the coolest and youngest stars in our sample suggest that Be, as well as lithium (Li), has already been burned early during their evolution. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for the existence of a Be-gap for solar-temperature stars. The analysis of Li and Be abundances in the sub-giants of our sample also shows the presence of one case that has still detectable amounts of Li, while Be is severely depleted. Finally, we compare the derived Be abundances with Li abundances derived using the same set of stellar parameters. This gives us the possibility to explore the temperatures for which the onset of Li and Be depletion occurs.

  12. Massless scalar field and solar-system experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Formiga, J. B.

    2011-04-15

    The solution of Einstein's field equations with the energy-momentum tensor of a massless scalar field is known as the Fisher solution. It is well known that this solution has a naked singularity due to the ''charge''{Sigma} of the massless scalar field. Here I obtain the radial null geodesic of the Fisher solution and use it to confirm that there is no black hole. In addition, I use the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism to show that the Fisher spacetime predicts the same effects on solar-system experiments as the Schwarzschild one does, as long as we impose a limit on {Sigma}. I show that this limit is not a strong constraint and we can even take values of {Sigma} bigger than M. By using the exact formula of the redshift and some assumptions, I evaluate this limit for the experiment of Pound and Snider [Phys. Rev. 140, B788 (1965)]. It turns out that this limit is {Sigma}<5.8x10{sup 3} m.

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF ENERGY STORAGE INTEGRATED WITH A SOLAR DISH FIELD IN WHYALLA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy storage into the thermal cycle is a key point of differentiation between solar thermalDEMONSTRATION OF ENERGY STORAGE INTEGRATED WITH A SOLAR DISH FIELD IN WHYALLA Joe Coventry 1-of-a-kind demonstration of an integrated solar dish and molten- salt storage system, using the superheated steam energy

  14. RFID TECHNOLOGY FOR AVI: FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A WIRELESS SOLAR POWERED E-ZPASS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John E.

    - 1 - RFID TECHNOLOGY FOR AVI: FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A WIRELESS SOLAR POWERED E-ZPASS®1 TAG READER solar powered E-ZPass tag readers were deployed and tested at two locations in upstate New York). EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY The wireless, solar powered E-ZPass tag readers were developed and deployed by RPI

  15. Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Wide-field X-ray Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Wide-field X-ray Telescopes CREOL & FPCE: The College of Optics of the Earth). The detrimental effects of solar storm induced "space weather" ranges from disruption of our. The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA are cooperating on a Solar X-ray Imager (SXI

  16. Discrepancies in the Prediction of Solar Wind using Potential Field Source Surface Model: An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xuepu

    Discrepancies in the Prediction of Solar Wind using Potential Field Source Surface Model. This inverse relation has been made use of in the prediction of solar wind speed at 1 AU using a potential between the magnetic flux tube expansion factor (FTE) at the source surface and the solar wind speed

  17. A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If solar power could score a touchdown, then this week’s news would definitely count. The Washington Redskins are working with NRG Energy, one of America’s largest energy companies, to install 8,000 translucent solar panels.

  18. A SURVEY OF FIELD-ALIGNED MACH NUMBER AND PLASMA BETA IN THE SOLAR WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Sterck, Hans

    A SURVEY OF FIELD-ALIGNED MACH NUMBER AND PLASMA BETA IN THE SOLAR WIND JOHAN DE KEYSER and MICHEL Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract. We have surveyed solar wind plasma beta and field-aligned Alfvénic Mach number using Ulysses and Wind data. We show the characteristic timescale and occurrence

  19. Impact of the solar wind dynamic pressure on the Region 2 field-aligned currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    Impact of the solar wind dynamic pressure on the Region 2 field-aligned currents S. Nakano,1,2 G and the solar wind dynamic pressure is investigated using magnetic field data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F13 (DMSP-F13). The generation of the Region 2 currents is associated with the direction

  20. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    and Yablonovitch, E. , Hybrid solar system, USA Provisionaland Yablonovitch, E. , Hybrid solar system, USA ProvisionalEfficiency/power Correlations,” Solar Energy, 83 (5), 614–

  1. Solar Field Gives Tennessee Economy a Boost | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficient Energy of Tennessee installs panels at a 1-MW solar farm outside Knoxville in July. | Photo by Harvey Abouelata and courtesy of Efficient Energy of Tennessee Efficient...

  2. SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES, CORONAL POTENTIAL FIELD MODELS AND ERUPTION RATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2013-05-10

    We study the evolution of the observed photospheric magnetic field and the modeled global coronal magnetic field during the past 3 1/2 solar activity cycles observed since the mid-1970s. We use synoptic magnetograms and extrapolated potential-field models based on longitudinal full-disk photospheric magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory's three magnetographs at Kitt Peak, the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun vector spectro-magnetograph, the spectro-magnetograph and the 512-channel magnetograph instruments, and from Stanford University's Wilcox Solar Observatory. The associated multipole field components are used to study the dominant length scales and symmetries of the coronal field. Polar field changes are found to be well correlated with active fields over most of the period studied, except between 2003 and 2006 when the active fields did not produce significant polar field changes. Of the axisymmetric multipoles, only the dipole and octupole follow the poles whereas the higher orders follow the activity cycle. All non-axisymmetric multipole strengths are well correlated with the activity cycle. The tilt of the solar dipole is therefore almost entirely due to active-region fields. The axial dipole and octupole are the largest contributors to the global field except while the polar fields are reversing. This influence of the polar fields extends to modulating eruption rates. According to the Computer Aided CME Tracking, Solar Eruptive Event Detection System, and Nobeyama radioheliograph prominence eruption catalogs, the rate of solar eruptions is found to be systematically higher for active years between 2003 and 2012 than for those between 1997 and 2002. This behavior appears to be connected with the weakness of the late-cycle 23 polar fields as suggested by Luhmann. We see evidence that the process of cycle 24 field reversal is well advanced at both poles.

  3. Scaling anisotropy of the power in parallel and perpendicular components of the solar wind magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughton, Sean

    Scaling anisotropy of the power in parallel and perpendicular components of the solar wind magnetic of the Power in Parallel and Perpendicular Components of the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Miriam A. Forman1 ZLWK GLVWDQFH IURP WKH 6XQ 7KLV GDWD LQFOXGHV WKH VRlar wind whose total power (Pxx + Pyy + Pzz#12; LQ

  4. Coronal Currents, Magnetic Fields and Heating in a Solar Active Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    Park, MD 20742 Abstract. We compare microwave images of a solar active region with stateCoronal Currents, Magnetic Fields and Heating in a Solar Active Region Jeongwoo Lee Astronomy the assumption that the microwave emission is dominated by optically thick gyroresonance radiation, we may use

  5. field fabricated solar powered steam turbinesfield fabricated solar powered steam turbines energy and computationenergy and computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and computationenergy and computation 5/10/065/10/06 Amy SunAmy Sun Center for Bits and AtomsCenter for Bits and Atoms energy using a parabolic troughfocusing solar energy using a parabolic trough concentrator sun light also, demo!)(see also, demo!) efficiency cost Solar collector 50% $50 Boiler 50% $35 Turbine 40% $60

  6. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  7. TRANSPORT EFFECTS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    TRANSPORT EFFECTS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD K. PETROVAY Instituto de model of the passive transport of the mean poloidal magnetic field in the convec­ tive zone, including of the transport coefficients we find that diffusivity is prevalent, and the latitudinal distribution of the field

  8. Large-scale solar cycle features of solar photospheric magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Song

    2007-05-14

    It is well accepted that the solar cycle originates from a magnetohydrodynamics dynamo deep inside the Sun. Many dynamo models have long been proposed based on a lot of observational constraints. In this paper, using 342 NSO/Kitt Peak solar synoptic charts we study the solar cycle phases in different solar latitudinal zones to set further constraints. Our results can be summarized as follows. (1) The variability of solar polar regions' area has a correlation with total unsigned magnetic flux in advance of 5 years. (2) The high-latitude region mainly appears unipolar in the whole solar cycle and its flux peak time lags sunspot cycle for 3 years. (3) For the activity belt, it is not surprised that its phase be the same as sunspot's. (4) The flux peak time of the low-latitude region shifts forward with an average gradient of 32.2 $day/deg$. These typical characteristics may provide some hints for constructing an actual solar dynamo.

  9. One-point statistics and intermittency of induced electric field in the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Sorriso-Valvo; Vincenzo Carbone; Roberto Bruno

    2004-05-26

    The interplanetary induced electric field e=vxb is studied, using solar wind time series. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the electric field components are measured from the data and their non-gaussianity is discussed. Moreover, for the first time we show that the electric field turbulence is characterized by intermittency. This point is addressed by studying, as usual, the scaling of the PDFs of field increments, which allows a quantitative characterization of intermittency.

  10. Solar Field Powers Historic Garden Holiday Display | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipment Certification SolarPowers

  11. Solar axions as an energy source and modulator of the Earth magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D. Rusov; E. P. Linnik; K. Kudela; S. Cht. Mavrodiev; T. N. Zelentsova; V. P. Smolyar; K. K. Merkotan

    2010-08-16

    We show existence of strong negative correlation between the temporal variations of magnetic field toroidal component of the solar tachocline (the bottom of convective zone) and the Earth magnetic field (Y-component). The possibility that hypothetical solar axions, which can transform into photons in external electric or magnetic fields (the inverse Primakoff effect), can be the instrument by which the magnetic field of convective zone of the Sun modulates the magnetic field of the Earth is considered. We propose the axion mechanism of "solar dynamo-geodynamo" connection, where an energy of axions, which form in the Sun core, is modulated at first by the magnetic field of the solar tachocline zone (due to the inverse coherent Primakoff effect) and after that is absorbed in the liquid core of the Earth under influence of the terrestrial magnetic field, thereby playing the role of an energy source and a modulator of the Earth magnetic field. Within the framework of this mechanism new estimations of the strength of an axion coupling to a photon (ga_gamma about 5*10^-9 GeV^-1) and the axion mass (ma ~ 30 eV) have been obtained.

  12. A Twenty Year Decline in Solar Photospheric Magnetic Fields: Inner-Heliospheric Signatures and Possible Implications?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janardhan, P; Ananthakrishnan, S; Tokumaru, M; Fujiki, K; Jose, L; Sridharan, R

    2015-01-01

    We report observations of a steady 20 year decline of solar photospheric fields at latitudes $\\geq$45${^{o}}$ starting from $\\sim$1995. This prolonged and continuing decline, combined with the fact that Cycle 24 is already past its peak, implies that magnetic fields are likely to continue to decline until $\\sim$2020, the expected minimum of the ongoing solar Cycle 24. In addition, interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations of the inner heliosphere for the period 1983--2013 and in the distance range 0.2--0.8 AU, have also shown a similar and steady decline in solar wind micro-turbulence levels, in sync with the declining photospheric fields. Using the correlation between the polar field and heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) at solar minimum, we have estimated the value of the HMF in 2020 to be 3.9 ($\\pm$0.6) and a floor value of the HMF of $\\sim$3.2 ($\\pm$0.4) nT. Given this floor value for the HMF, our analysis suggests that the estimated peak sunspot number for solar Cycle 25 is likely to be $\\sim$ 62 (...

  13. George L. Trager’s Field Notes on the Prekmurje Dialect Spoken in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    The paper briefly describes a collection of field notes on the Prekmurje dialect as spoken by immigrants to the Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania, which were collected in 1941 by the renowned American structural linguist George ...

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Absolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer (ASTI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012III ARMgovCampaignsAbsolute Solar Transmittance

  15. Tracking Solar Energy Conersion Unit Adapted For Field Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaminar, Neil R. (Boulder Creek, CA); Ross, III, James G. (Bothell, WA); Carrie, Peter J. (Toronto, CA)

    2000-02-01

    A modular solar energy collector having elongated V-shaped side walls formed by a pair of coplanar panels for each side wall. The upper panels, occupying most of the wall area are diffusely reflective, but the lower panels are specularly reflective. A Fresnel lens, having a snap fit relation to the side walls focuses some light on the lower specularly reflective panels which direct light to the solar cells at the base of the V-shaped walls. A heat sink provides support for the two panels with two opposed, upwardly extending wings terminating in opposed linear clips located near the lengthwise seam of the coplanar panels, each clip holding two coplanar panels in parallel alignment. The clips not only provide support for the panels, but also transfer heat to the remainder of the heat sink. The clips are shaped so that edges of the panels engage each clip by a snap fit, outside of the clip in one embodiment and inside of the clip in another embodiment. End caps are also formed with structures which snap to the wall panels. Since all junctions of components snap together, the collector of the present invention is easily assembled without specialized tools. Using side walls which are only partly specularly reflective permits a large angle of acceptance, yet provides an economical wall design because the entire wall need not be specularly reflective.

  16. LONG EXPOSURE POINT SPREAD FUNCTION ESTIMATION FROM SOLAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS LOOP DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Astronomer, National Solar Observatory, New Mexico, USA Dr. Haimin Wang, Dissertation Co-Advisor DateABSTRACT LONG EXPOSURE POINT SPREAD FUNCTION ESTIMATION FROM SOLAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS LOOP DATA during solar observations due to the lack of point sources in the field-of-view. Moreover, the highly

  17. Department of Solar Energy & Environmental Physics Conference presentations, 2006-2007.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    . (2007), Airborne dust on solar collectors ­ protection of surface by electric field. First SpanishDepartment of Solar Energy & Environmental Physics Conference presentations, 2006-2007. Albu: L. Vayssieres (ed.) Solar Hydrogen and Nanotechnology - Proceedings of SPIE, San Diego, USA. Albu

  18. 3D magnetic field configuration of small-scale reconnection events in the solar plasma atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimizu, T

    2015-01-01

    The outer solar atmosphere, i.e., the corona and the chromosphere, is replete with small energy-release events, which are accompanied by transient brightening and jet-like ejections. These events are considered to be magnetic reconnection events in the solar plasma, and their dynamics have been studied using recent advanced observations from the Hinode spacecraft and other observatories in space and on the ground. These events occur at different locations in the solar atmosphere, and vary in their morphology and amount of the released energy. The magnetic field configurations of these reconnection events are inferred based on observations of magnetic fields at the photospheric level. Observations suggest that these magnetic configurations can be classified into two groups. In the first group, two anti-parallel magnetic fields reconnect to each other, yielding a 2D emerging flux configuration. In the second group, helical or twisted magnetic flux tubes are parallel or at a relative angle to each other. Reconne...

  19. Magnetic field restructuring associated with two successive solar eruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Hu, Huidong

    2014-08-20

    We examine two successive flare eruptions (X5.4 and X1.3) on 2012 March 7 in the NOAA active region 11429 and investigate the magnetic field reconfiguration associated with the two eruptions. Using an advanced non-linear force-free field extrapolation method based on the SDO/HMI vector magnetograms, we obtain a stepwise decrease in the magnetic free energy during the eruptions, which is roughly 20%-30% of the energy of the pre-flare phase. We also calculate the magnetic helicity and suggest that the changes of the sign of the helicity injection rate might be associated with the eruptions. Through the investigation of the magnetic field evolution, we find that the appearance of the 'implosion' phenomenon has a strong relationship with the occurrence of the first X-class flare. Meanwhile, the magnetic field changes of the successive eruptions with implosion and without implosion were well observed.

  20. Solar Magnetic Field Studies Using the 12-Micron Emission Lines. IV. Observations of a Delta-Region Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donald E. Jennings; Drake Deming; George McCabe; Pedro Sada; Thomas Moran

    2001-12-05

    We have recently developed the capability to make solar vector (Stokes IQUV) magnetograms using the infrared line of MgI at 12.32 microns. On 24 April 2001, we obtained a vector magnetic map of solar active region NOAA 9433, fortuitously just prior to the occurrence of an M2 flare. Examination of a sequence of SOHO/MDI magnetograms, and comparison with ground-based H-alpha images, shows that the flare was produced by the cancellation of newly emergent magnetic flux outside of the main sunspot. The very high Zeeman-sensitivity of the 12-micron data allowed us to measure field strengths on a spatial scale which was not directly resolvable. At the flare trigger site, opposite polarity fields of 2700 and 1000 Gauss occurred within a single 2 arc-sec resolution element, as revealed by two resolved Zeeman splittings in a single spectrum. Our results imply an extremely high horizontal field strength gradient (5 G/km) prior to the flare, significantly greater than seen in previous studies. We also find that the magnetic energy of the cancelling fields was more than sufficient to account for the flare's X-ray luminosity.

  1. VLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements: Ulysses observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    solar wind streams, Ulysses observed nearly continuous electric wave activity with peak power belowVLF wave activity in the solar wind and the photoelectron effect in electric field measurements present observations of very low frequency (VLF) waves (0.2 to 448 Hz) made by Ulysses during the solar

  2. Four-Field Equations: a New Model for Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind and the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Four-Field Equations: a New Model for Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind Flight Center Turbulent plasmas in the solar wind and the interstellar medium of- ten contain a large to be in agreement. The scaling of density uctuations with Mach number are compared with solar wind data from Helios

  3. Discrepancies in the prediction of solar wind using potential field source surface model: An investigation of possible sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Discrepancies in the prediction of solar wind using potential field source surface model expansion factor (FTE) at the source surface and the solar wind speed (SWS) observed at Earth, which has been made use of in the prediction of solar wind speed near the Earth with reasonable accuracy. However

  4. Influence of solar chaotic magnetic fields on neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Torrente-Lujan

    1999-12-02

    We consider the effect of a random magnetic field in the convective zone of the Sun on resonant neutrino spin-flavour oscillations. The expected signals in the different experiments (SK, GALLEX-SAGE,Homestake) are obtained as a function of the level of noise, regular magnetic field and neutrino mixing parameters. Previous results obtained for small mixing and ad-hoc regular magnetic profiles are reobtained. We find that MSW regions are stable up to very large levels of noise (P=0.7-0.8) and they are acceptable from the point of view of antineutrino production. For strong noise any parameter region $(\\Delta m^2, \\sin^2 2\\theta)$ is excluded: this model of noisy magnetic field is not compatible with particle physics solutions to the SNP. scenario.

  5. Nonlinear force-free modeling of the solar coronal magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wiegelmann

    2008-01-18

    The coronal magnetic field is an important quantity because the magnetic field dominates the structure of the solar corona. Unfortunately direct measurements of coronal magnetic fields are usually not available. The photospheric magnetic field is measured routinely with vector magnetographs. These photospheric measurements are extrapolated into the solar corona. The extrapolated coronal magnetic field depends on assumptions regarding the coronal plasma, e.g. force-freeness. Force-free means that all non-magnetic forces like pressure gradients and gravity are neglected. This approach is well justified in the solar corona due to the low plasma beta. One has to take care, however, about ambiguities, noise and non-magnetic forces in the photosphere, where the magnetic field vector is measured. Here we review different numerical methods for a nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolation: Grad-Rubin codes, upward integration method, MHD-relaxation, optimization and the boundary element approach. We briefly discuss the main features of the different methods and concentrate mainly on recently developed new codes.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience

  7. Electron heat flow in the solar corona: Implications of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions, the solar gravitational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scudder, Jack

    Electron heat flow in the solar corona: Implications of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions, the solar gravitational field, and Coulomb collisions John C. Dorelli Space and Atmospheric Science Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA Jack D. Scudder Department of Physics

  8. Magnetic fields at the solar wind termination shock L. F. Burlaga1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    LETTERS Magnetic fields at the solar wind termination shock L. F. Burlaga1 , N. F. Ness2 , M. H and dynamics of the termination shock, made by Voyager 2 on 31 August­1 September 2007 at a distance of 83.7 AU') at the shock. This Letter discusses three termination shock crossings (TS-2, TS- 3 and TS-4) that were observed

  9. Solar system tests of scalar field models with an exponential potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Paramos; O. Bertolami

    2008-04-06

    We consider a scenario where a scalar field has dynamics ruled by an exponential potential, such as those arising from some quintessence type models, and aim at obtaining phenomenological manifestations of this entity within our Solar System. To do so, we assume a perturbative regime, derive the perturbed Schwarzschild metric, and extract the relevant post-Newtonian parameters.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience ofConstructionProcessedition. [Includes

  11. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience ofConstructionProcessedition.

  12. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience ofConstructionProcessedition.edition

  13. Twisting Toroidal Magnetic Fields and the Seasonal Oscillation of the Solar Neutrino Flux II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Kubota; Takeshi Kurimoto; Eiichi Takasugi

    1993-07-19

    An intriguing possibility is explored that the solar neutrino data could be used as a probe to the magnetic field structure in the sun. Various cyclic phenomena occurring on the surface of the sun have been accounted for by the so-called dynamo-mechanism. According to this, a self-generating mechanism of solar cyclic activities gives rise to twisting toroidal magnetic fields in the convective zone. Although its magnitude is not known, the orientation of the twist is certainly opposite in northern and southern hemispheres of the sun. We show by numerical calculation that the solar neutrino flux, being sensitive to the twist, could exhibit observable seasonal oscillation, provided that the twist is sizable in magnitude and the neutrinos have reasonably large magnetic moments. This oscillation is ascribed to the fact that the earth's orbit is slightly inclined to the sun's equator, and that solar neutrinos pass through the northern (southern) hemisphere of the sun around September (March). We also argue that similar seasonal oscillation could be exhibited in the azimuthal asymmetry of recoiling electrons scattered by the solar neutrinos which are expected to be observed in the super-Kamiokande detector.

  14. THERMAL FINE STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE: SPICULES AND FIBRILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judge, Philip G.; Low, Boon Chye [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research , P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Tritschler, Alexandra, E-mail: judge@ucar.edu, E-mail: low@ucar.edu, E-mail: ali@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak , P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM-88349 (United States)

    2011-03-20

    The relationship between observed structures in the solar atmosphere and the magnetic fields threading them is known only for the solar photosphere, even then imprecisely. We suggest that some of the fine structures in the more tenuous chromosphere and corona-specifically some populations of spicules and fibrils-correspond to warps in two-dimensional sheet-like structures, as an alternative to conventional interpretations in terms of tube-like structures. The sheets are perhaps related to magnetic tangential discontinuities, which Parker has argued arise naturally in low-{beta} conditions. Some consequences of this suggestion, if it can be confirmed, are discussed.

  15. NEW OBSERVATION OF FAILED FILAMENT ERUPTIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF ASYMMETRIC CORONAL BACKGROUND FIELDS ON SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Su, J.; Lin, H.; Shibata, K.; Kurokawa, H.

    2009-05-01

    Failed filament eruptions not associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) have been observed and reported as evidence for solar coronal field confinement on erupting flux ropes. In those events, each filament eventually returns to its origin on the solar surface. In this Letter, a new observation of two failed filament eruptions is reported which indicates that the mass of a confined filament can be ejected to places far from the original filament channel. The jetlike mass motions in the two failed filament eruptions are thought to be due to the asymmetry of the background coronal magnetic fields with respect to the locations of the filament channels. The asymmetry of the coronal fields is confirmed by an extrapolation based on a potential field model. The obvious imbalance between the positive and negative magnetic flux (with a ratio of 1:3) in the bipolar active region is thought to be the direct cause of the formation of the asymmetric coronal fields. We think that the asymmetry of the background fields can not only influence the trajectories of ejecta, but also provide a relatively stronger confinement for flux rope eruptions than the symmetric background fields do.

  16. DECLINE AND RECOVERY OF THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD DURING THE PROTRACTED SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Charles W.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; DeForest, Craig E. E-mail: N.Schwadron@unh.edu

    2013-09-20

    The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is determined by the amount of solar magnetic flux that passes through the top of the solar corona into the heliosphere, and by the dynamical evolution of that flux. Recently, it has been argued that the total flux of the IMF evolves over the solar cycle due to a combination of flux that extends well outside of 1 AU and is associated with the solar wind, and additionally, transient flux associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In addition to the CME eruption rate, there are three fundamental processes involving conversion of magnetic flux (from transient to wind-associated), disconnection, and interchange reconnection that control the levels of each form of magnetic flux in the interplanetary medium. This is distinct from some earlier models in which the wind-associated component remains steady across the solar cycle. We apply the model of Schwadron et al. that quantifies the sources, interchange, and losses of magnetic flux to 50 yr of interplanetary data as represented by the Omni2 data set using the sunspot number as a proxy for the CME eruption rate. We do justify the use of that proxy substitution. We find very good agreement between the predicted and observed interplanetary magnetic flux. In the absence of sufficient CME eruptions, the IMF falls on the timescale of ?6 yr. A key result is that rising toroidal flux resulting from CME eruption predates the increase in wind-associated IMF.

  17. Potential Magnetic Field around a Helical Flux-rope Current Structure in the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. J. D. Petrie

    2007-02-06

    We consider the potential magnetic field associated with a helical electric line current flow, idealizing the near-potential coronal field within which a highly localized twisted current structure is embedded. It is found that this field has a significant axial component off the helical magnetic axis where there is no current flow, such that the flux winds around the axis. The helical line current field, in including the effects of flux rope writhe, is therefore more topologically complex than straight line and ring current fields sometimes used in solar flux rope models. The axial flux in magnetic fields around confined current structures may be affected by the writhe of these current structures such that the field twists preferentially with the same handedness as the writhe. This property of fields around confined current structures with writhe may be relevant to classes of coronal magnetic flux rope, including structures observed to have sigmoidal forms in soft X-rays and prominence magnetic fields. For example, ``bald patches'' and the associated heating by Parker current sheet dissipation seem likely. Thus some measurements of flux rope magnetic helicities may derive from external, near-potential fields. The predicted hemispheric preference for positive and negative magnetic helicities is consistent with observational results for prominences and sigmoids and past theoretical results for flux rope internal fields.

  18. THE DYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD: POLARITY REVERSALS, BUTTERFLY DIAGRAM, AND QUASI-BIENNIAL OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vecchio, A.; Meduri, D.; Carbone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (Italy); Laurenza, M.; Storini, M., E-mail: vecchio@fis.unical.it [INAF/IFSI-Roma, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-04-10

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of the solar magnetic field has been investigated by using NSO/Kitt Peak magnetic synoptic maps covering the period 1976 August-2003 September. The field radial component, for each heliographic latitude, has been decomposed in intrinsic mode functions through the Empirical Mode Decomposition in order to investigate the time evolution of the various characteristic oscillating modes at different latitudes. The same technique has also been applied on synoptic maps of the meridional and east-west components, which were derived from the observed line-of-sight projection of the field by using the differential rotation. Results obtained for the {approx}22 yr cycle, related to the polarity inversions of the large-scale dipolar field, show an antisymmetric behavior with respect to the equator in all the field components and a marked poleward flux migration in the radial and meridional components (from about -35 Degree-Sign and +35 Degree-Sign in the southern and northern hemispheres, respectively). The quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) are also identified as a fundamental timescale of variability of the magnetic field and associated with poleward magnetic flux migration from low latitudes around the maximum and descending phase of the solar cycle. Moreover, signs of an equatorward drift, at a {approx}2 yr rate, seem to appear in the radial and toroidal components. Hence, the QBO patterns suggest a link to a dynamo action. Finally, the high-frequency component of the magnetic field, at timescales less than 1 yr, provides the most energetic contribution and it is associated with the outbreaks of the bipolar regions on the solar surface.

  19. The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folsom, C P; Bouvier, J; Morin, J; Lèbre, A

    2015-01-01

    Surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars display drastic changes at the end of the pre-main sequence through the early main sequence. This may trigger corresponding changes in the magnetic dynamos operating in these stars, which ought to be observable in their surface magnetic fields. We present here the first results of an observational effort aimed at characterizing the evolution of stellar magnetic fields through this critical phase. We observed stars from open clusters and associations, which range from 20 to 600 Myr, and used Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their complex magnetic fields. We find a clear trend towards weaker magnetic fields for older ages, as well as a tight correlation between magnetic field strength and Rossby number over this age range. Comparing to results for younger T Tauri stars, we observe a very significant change in magnetic strength and geometry, as the radiative core develops during the late pre-main sequence.

  20. Structure and Stability of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Region12192 Based on Nonlinear Force-Free Field Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inoue, S; Kusano, K

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure and its stability in large solar active region(AR) 12192, using the 3D coronal magnetic field constructed under a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation. In particular, we focus on the magnetic structure that produced an X3.1-class flare which is one of the X-class flares observed in AR 12192. According to our analysis, the AR contains multiple-flux-tube system, {\\it e.g.}, a large flux tube, both of whose footpoints are anchored to the large bipole field, under which other tubes exist close to a polarity inversion line (PIL). These various flux tubes of different sizes and shapes coexist there. In particular, the later are embedded along the PIL, which produces a favorable shape for the tether-cutting reconnection and is related to the X-class solar flare. We further found that most of magnetic twists are not released even after the flare, which is consistent with the fact that no observational evidence for major eruptions was found. On the oth...

  1. On the solar neutrino problem in the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Oberhummer; A. N. Ivanov; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

    1997-05-16

    The relativistic field theory model of the deuteron suggested by us previously is applied to the calculation of the reaction rate of the low-energy two-proton fusion p + p -> D + e+ + nu. The theoretical prediction of the reaction rate obtained is 2.9 times larger than given by the potential approach. This leads to a strong suppression of the high energy solar neutrino fluxes.

  2. Spectropolarimetric diagnostics of unresolved magnetic fields in the quiet solar photosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shchukina, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    A few years before the Hinode space telescope was launched, an investigation based on the Hanle effect in atomic and molecular lines indicated that the bulk of the quiet solar photosphere is significantly magnetized, due to the ubiquitous presence of an unresolved magnetic field with an average strength = 130 G. It was pointed out also that this "hidden" field must be much stronger in the intergranular regions of solar surface convection than in the granular regions, and it was suggested that this unresolved magnetic field could perhaps provide the clue for understanding how the outer solar atmosphere is energized. In fact, the ensuing magnetic energy density is so significant that the energy flux estimated using the typical value of 1 km/s for the convective velocity (thinking in rising magnetic loops) or the Alfven speed (thinking in Alfven waves generated by magnetic reconnection) turns out to be substantially larger than that required to balance the chromospheric energy losses. Here we present a brief re...

  3. Solar coronal magnetic field topology inferred from high resolution optical and x-ray movies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Hurlburt, N.; Morrison, M.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Acton, L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors are using high resolution digital movies of solar active regions in optical and X-ray wavelengths to study solar flares and other transients. The optical movies were collected at the Swedish Solar Observatory on La Palma using the Lockheed tunable filtergraph system, in May-July, 1992. They include longitudinal and transverse magnetograms, H-alpha Doppler and intensity images at many wavelengths, Ca K, Na D, and white light images. Simultaneous X-ray images from Yohkoh are available much of the time. Several ways to establish the connectivity of some coronal magnetic field lines are being explored. Some of the clues available are: magnetic footpoint polarities and transverse field direction; H-alpha fibrils and loops seen in several wavelengths; proper motion and Dopper shifts of blobs moving along field lines; footprint brightening in micro-flares; spreading of flare ribbons during gradual phases of flares; X-ray morphology and correlations with H-alpha; and draining of flare loops. Examples of each of these will be shown on video.

  4. Acoustic oscillations in a field-free cavity under solar small-scale bipolar magnetic canopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Kuridze; T. V. Zaqarashvili; B. M. Shergelashvili1; S. Poedts

    2008-01-18

    Observations show the increase of high-frequency wave power near magnetic network cores and active regions in the solar lower atmosphere. This phenomenon can be explained by the interaction of acoustic waves with a magnetic field. We consider small-scale, bipolar, magnetic field canopy structure near the network cores and active regions overlying field-free cylindrical cavities of the photosphere. Solving the plasma equations we get the analytical dispersion relation of acoustic oscillations in the field-free cavity area. We found that the m = 1 mode, where m is azimuthal wave number, cannot be trapped under the canopy due to energy leakage upwards. However, higher ($m \\geq 2$) harmonics can be easily trapped leading to the observed acoustic power halos under the canopy.

  5. Solar Energetic Particle Access to Distant Longitudes via Turbulent Field-Line Meandering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laitinen, T; Effenberger, F; Dalla, S; Marsh, M S

    2015-01-01

    Current Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) propagation models describe the effects of IMF turbulence on SEPs as diffusion, using a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. However, these models cannot explain the observed fast access of SEPs to regions widely separated in longitude within the heliosphere, across the average magnetic field, without use of unrealistically strong cross-field diffusion. Here, we show that accounting for the SEP propagation along field-lines that meander due to plasma turbulence provides an explanation for the wide SEP events. Using a model that includes the non-diffusive effects caused by field-line meandering, we reproduce the observed longitudinal extent of SEP peak fluxes characterised by a Gaussian profile with sigma=30-50 degrees, while current diffusion theory can only explain extents of 10 degrees with realistic diffusion coefficients. Our model also reproduces the timing of SEP arrival at distant longitudes, which cannot be explained using the diffusion model.

  6. Simulation study of solar plasma eruptions caused by interactions between emerging flux and coronal arcade fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Takafumi; Yokoyama, Takaaki, E-mail: kaneko@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the triggering mechanisms of plasma eruptions in the solar atmosphere due to interactions between emerging flux and coronal arcade fields by using two-dimensional MHD simulations. We perform parameter surveys with respect to arcade field height, magnetic field strength, and emerging flux location. Our results show that two possible mechanisms exist, and which mechanism is dominant depends mostly on emerging flux location. One mechanism appears when the location of emerging flux is close to the polarity inversion line (PIL) of an arcade field. This mechanism requires reconnection between the emerging flux and the arcade field, as pointed out by previous studies. The other mechanism appears when the location of emerging flux is around the edge of an arcade field. This mechanism does not require reconnection between the emerging flux and the arcade field but does demand reconnection in the arcade field above the PIL. Furthermore, we found that the eruptive condition for this mechanism can be represented by a simple formula.

  7. Apparent cross-field superslow propagation of magnetohydrodynamic waves in solar plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, T; Soler, R; Terradas, J; Van Doorsselaere, T; Yokoyama, T; Wright, A N

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show that the phase mixing of continuum Alfv\\'{e}n waves and/or continuum slow waves in magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere as, e.g., coronal arcades, can create the illusion of wave propagation across the magnetic field. This phenomenon could be erroneously interpreted as fast magnetosonic waves. The cross-field propagation due to phase mixing of continuum waves is apparent because there is no real propagation of energy across the magnetic surfaces. We investigate the continuous Alfv\\'{e}n and slow spectra in 2D Cartesian equilibrium models with a purely poloidal magnetic field. We show that apparent superslow propagation across the magnetic surfaces in solar coronal structures is a consequence of the existence of continuum Alfv\\'{e}n waves and continuum slow waves that naturally live on those structures and phase mix as time evolves. The apparent cross-field phase velocity is related to the spatial variation of the local Alfv\\'{e}n/slow frequency across the magnetic surfaces and is ...

  8. edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Home economics: student activities. Field test edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL TOOLS; CURRICULUM GUIDES; GLAZING; HOUSES; SOLAR COOKERS; SOLAR...

  9. LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES AT THE MINIMUM OF THE 23rd SOLAR CYCLE This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the harmonic power spectrum of the solar magnetic field demonstrates a greater prevalence of multiLOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES AT THE MINIMUM OF THE 23rd SOLAR CYCLE This article has been downloaded reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES AT THE MINIMUM OF THE 23rd SOLAR CYCLE Valentyna

  10. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    investigated in the build-up to one of the deepest solar minima expe- rienced in the past 100 years1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-013-0335-3 Changes in Quasi-periodic Variations of Solar Photospheric Fields: Precursor to the Deep Solar Minimum

  11. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated withmore »MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.« less

  12. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  13. MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY AND THE THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE CORONA OVER SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; DeRosa, Marc L.; Title, Alan M., E-mail: schryver@lmsal.co [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of quiescent active-region coronae are characterized by ensembles of bright 1-2 MK loops that fan out from select locations. We investigate the conditions associated with the formation of these persistent, relatively cool, loop fans within and surrounding the otherwise 3-5 MK coronal environment by combining EUV observations of active regions made with TRACE with global source-surface potential-field models based on the full-sphere photospheric field from the assimilation of magnetograms that are obtained by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on SOHO. We find that in the selected active regions with largely potential-field configurations these fans are associated with (quasi-)separatrix layers (QSLs) within the strong-field regions of magnetic plage. Based on the empirical evidence, we argue that persistent active-region cool-loop fans are primarily related to the pronounced change in connectivity across a QSL to widely separated clusters of magnetic flux, and confirm earlier work that suggested that neither a change in loop length nor in base field strengths across such topological features are of prime importance to the formation of the cool-loop fans. We discuss the hypothesis that a change in the distribution of coronal heating with height may be involved in the phenomenon of relatively cool coronal loop fans in quiescent active regions.

  14. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Solar Energy Center USA, Blythe, CA Solar electric power plant,Solar Wind Total Northwest Imports Southwest Imports Total Energy System Table 1.18: Largest PV Power PlantsPlants……………………………………………………32 Table 1.19: Solar Desalination Systems…………………………………………………34 Table 1.20: Energy

  15. Plasma ? scaling of anisotropic magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind flux tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Aveek; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ebrahimi, Fatima E-mail: amitava@princeton.edu

    2014-03-10

    Based on various observations, it has been suggested that at 1 AU, solar wind consists of 'spaghetti'-like magnetic field structures that have the magnetic topology of flux tubes. It is also observed that the plasma fluctuation spectra at 1 AU show a plasma ? dependence. Reconciling these two sets of observations and using the Invariance Principle, Bhattacharjee et al. suggested that the plasma inside every flux tube may become unstable with respect to pressure-driven instabilities and gives rise to fluctuation spectra that depend on the local plasma ?. The present work is the first direct numerical simulation of such a flux tube. We solve the full magnetohydrodynamic equations using the DEBS code and show that if the plasma inside the flux tube is driven unstable by spatial inhomogeneities in the background plasma pressure, the observed nature of the fluctuating power spectra agrees reasonably well with observations, as well as the analytical prediction of Bhattacharjee et al.

  16. The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley · Changes to surface and atmosphere by aerosols · Climate sensitivity to changes in aerosols and CO2 Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central

  17. Cross-Calibrating Sunspot Magnetic Field Strength Measurements from the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Dunn Solar Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Fraser T; Penn, Matthew J; Tritschler, Alexandra; Pillet, Valentin Martinez; Livingston, William C

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe a recent effort to cross-calibrate data from an infrared detector at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Facility InfraRed Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A synoptic observation program at the McMath-Pierce has measured umbral magnetic field strengths since 1998, and this data set has recently been compared with umbral magnetic field observations from SOHO MDI and SDO HMI. To further improve on the data from McMath-Pierce, we compared the data with measurements taken at the Dunn Solar Telescope with far greater spectral resolution than has been possible with space instrumentation. To minimise potential disruption to the study, concurrent umbral measurements were made so that the relationship between the two datasets can be most accurately characterised. We find that there is a strong agreement between the umbral magnetic field strengths recorded by each instrument, and we reduced the FIRS data in two different ways to successfully test this correlation ...

  18. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar- Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-010-9653- x Solar Polar Fields During Cycles 21??? 23: Correlation with Meridional Flows #12;1 23 Your article's request, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. #12;Solar Phys

  19. TWO NOVEL PARAMETERS TO EVALUATE THE GLOBAL COMPLEXITY OF THE SUN'S MAGNETIC FIELD AND TRACK THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Gibson, S. E.

    2013-08-20

    Since the unusually prolonged and weak solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 (2008-2010), the sunspot number is smaller and the overall morphology of the Sun's magnetic field is more complicated (i.e., less of a dipole component and more of a tilted current sheet) compared with the same minimum and ascending phases of the previous cycle. Nearly 13 yr after the last solar maximum ({approx}2000), the monthly sunspot number is currently only at half the highest value of the past cycle's maximum, whereas the polar magnetic field of the Sun is reversing (north pole first). These circumstances make it timely to consider alternatives to the sunspot number for tracking the Sun's magnetic cycle and measuring its complexity. In this study, we introduce two novel parameters, the standard deviation (SD) of the latitude of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and the integrated slope (SL) of the HCS, to evaluate the complexity of the Sun's magnetic field and track the solar cycle. SD and SL are obtained from the magnetic synoptic maps calculated by a potential field source surface model. We find that SD and SL are sensitive to the complexity of the HCS: (1) they have low values when the HCS is flat at solar minimum, and high values when the HCS is highly tilted at solar maximum; (2) they respond to the topology of the HCS differently, as a higher SD value indicates that a larger part of the HCS extends to higher latitude, while a higher SL value implies that the HCS is wavier; (3) they are good indicators of magnetically anomalous cycles. Based on the comparison between SD and SL with the normalized sunspot number in the most recent four solar cycles, we find that in 2011 the solar magnetic field had attained a similar complexity as compared to the previous maxima. In addition, in the ascending phase of cycle 24, SD and SL in the northern hemisphere were on the average much greater than in the southern hemisphere, indicating a more tilted and wavier HCS in the north than the south, associated with the early reversal of the polar magnetic field in the north relative to the south.

  20. Intermittency Spectra of the Magnetic Field in Solar Active Valentyna Abramenko and Vasyl Yurchyshyn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Physical Data and Processes: turbulence 1. Introduction Energy release processes in solar active regions of the solar disk from January 1997 until December 2006 are utilized. Data from the Michelson Doppler Imager is straightforward and reliable. Another type of energy release is an impulsive process known as solar flares

  1. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Isenberg, P.A. (eds. ) Solar Wind Nine, AIP Conf. Proc. 471,AT SOLAR MINIMUM Solar Wind Sources in the Late Decliningfor their high speed solar wind streams that dominate the

  2. Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2011-07-01

    Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

  3. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE 1/f SPECTRUM IN THE SOLAR WIND MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdini, Andrea [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence-SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Bruxelles (Belgium); Grappin, Roland [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris-Diderot, 92190 Meudon (France); Pinto, Rui [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu, and Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, Gis-sur-Yvette (France); Velli, Marco, E-mail: verdini@oma.be, E-mail: Roland.Grappin@obspm.fr, E-mail: rui.pinto@cea.fr, E-mail: mvelli@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-05-10

    We present a mechanism for the formation of the low-frequency 1/f magnetic spectrum based on numerical solutions of a shell-reduced MHD model of the turbulent dynamics inside the sub-Alfvenic solar wind. We assign reasonably realistic profiles to the wind speed and the density along the radial direction, and a radial magnetic field. Alfven waves of short periodicity (600 s) are injected at the base of the chromosphere, penetrate into the corona, and are partially reflected, thus triggering a turbulent cascade. The cascade is strong for the reflected wave while it is weak for the outward propagating waves. Reflection at the transition region recycles the strong turbulent spectrum into the outward weak spectrum, which is advected beyond the Alfvenic critical point without substantial evolution. There, the magnetic field has a perpendicular power-law spectrum with slope close to the Kolmogorov -5/3. The parallel spectrum is inherited from the frequency spectrum of large (perpendicular) eddies. The shape is a double power law with slopes of {approx_equal} - 1 and -2 at low and high frequencies, respectively, with the position of the break depending on the injected spectrum. We suggest that the double power-law spectrum measured by Helios at 0.3 AU, where the average magnetic field is not aligned with the radial (contrary to our assumptions), results from the combination of such different spectral slopes. At low frequency the parallel spectrum dominates with its characteristic 1/f shape, while at higher frequencies its steep spectral slope (-2) is masked by the more energetic perpendicular spectrum (slope -5/3).

  4. Field lines twisting in a noisy corona: implications for energy storage and release, and initiation of solar eruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappazzo, A F; Einaudi, G

    2013-01-01

    We present simulations modeling closed regions of the solar corona threaded by a strong magnetic field where localized photospheric vortical motions twist the coronal field lines. The linear and nonlinear dynamics are investigated in the reduced magnetohydrodynamic regime in Cartesian geometry. Initially the magnetic field lines get twisted and the system becomes unstable to the internal kink mode, confirming and extending previous results. As typical in this kind of investigations, where initial conditions implement smooth fields and flux-tubes, we have neglected fluctuations and the fields are laminar until the instability sets in. But previous investigations indicate that fluctuations, excited by photospheric motions and coronal dynamics, are naturally present at all scales in the coronal fields. Thus, in order to understand the effect of a photospheric vortex on a more realistic corona, we continue the simulations after kink instability sets in, when turbulent fluctuations have already developed in the co...

  5. The Astrophysical Journal, 698:21212130, 2009 June 20 doi:10.1088/0004-637X/698/2/2121 C 2009. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    ´ia, Universidad Nacional Aut´onoma de M´exico, D.F., M´exico, 04510, USA 10 Department of Physics and Astronomy detector located in the Jemez mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico. With a high duty cycle and large field ­ ISM: magnetic fields ­ solar neighborhood ­ Sun: activity ­ supernova remnants 1. INTRODUCTION

  6. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    solar energy conversion .This new paradigm of solar energy conversion, based on theon this field, solar energy conversion aimed at photovoltaic

  7. The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars I: the first 250 Myr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folsom, C P; Bouvier, J; Lèbre, A; Amard, L; Palacios, A; Morin, J; Donati, J -F; Jeffers, S V; Marsden, S C; Vidotto, A A

    2016-01-01

    The surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars vary rapidly with age from the end of the pre-main sequence through the early main sequence. Important changes in the dynamos operating in these stars may result from this evolution, which should be observable in their surface magnetic fields. Here we present a study aimed at observing the evolution of these magnetic fields through this critical time period. We observed stars in open clusters and stellar associations of known ages, and used Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their complex magnetic large-scale fields. Presented here are results for 15 stars, from 5 associations, with ages from 20 to 250 Myr, masses from 0.7 to 1.2 solar masses, and rotation periods from 0.4 to 6 days. We find complex large-scale magnetic field geometries, with global average strengths from 14 to 140 G. There is a clear trend towards decreasing average large-scale magnetic field strength with age, and a tight correlation between magnetic field strength and Rossby number. ...

  8. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    P. , Arge, C.N. : 2008, Solar Phys. Lee, C.O. , Luhmann,De Pater, I. , et al. : 2009, Solar Phys. in press. Li, Y. ,G.W. , Kopp, R.A. : 1971, Solar Phys. 18, 258. Schatten,

  9. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells by photonic and electrostatic-field enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalwa, Kanwar

    2012-11-03

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is an attractive solar-electric conversion paradigm due to the promise of low cost roll-to-roll production and amenability to flexible substrates. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 7% has recently been achieved. OPV cells suffer from low charge carrier mobilities of polymers, leading to recombination losses, higher series resistances and lower fill-factors. Thus, it is imperative to develop fabrication methodologies that can enable efficient optical absorption in films thinner than optical absorption length. Active layers conformally deposited on light-trapping, microscale textured, grating-type surfaces is one possible approach to achieve this objective. In this study, 40% theoretical increase in photonic absorption over flat OPVs is shown for devices with textured geometry by the simulation results. For verifying this theoretical result and improving the efficiency of OPVs by light trapping, OPVs were fabricated on grating-type textured substrates possessing t pitch and -coat PV active-layer on these textured substrates led to over filling of the valleys and shunts at the crest, which severely affected the performance of the resultant PV devices. Thus, it is established that although the optical design is important for OPV performance but the potential of light trapping can only be effectively tapped if the textures are amenable for realizing a conformal active layer. It is discovered that if the height of the underlying topographical features is reduced to sub-micron regime (e.g. 300 nm) and the pitch is increased to more than a micron (e.g. 2 ?m), the textured surface becomes amenable to coating a conformal PV active-layer. The resultant PV cells showed 100% increase in average light absorption near the band edge due to trapping of higher wavelength photons, and 20% improvement in power conversion efficiency as compared with the flat PV cell. Another factor that severely limits the performance of OPVs is recombination of charge carriers. Thus it becomes imperative to understand the effect of processing conditions such as spin coating speed and drying rate on defect density and hence induced carrier recombination mechanism. In this study, It is shown that slow growth (longer drying time) of the active-layer leads to reduction of sub-bandgap traps by an order of magnitude as compared to fast grown active-layer. By coupling the experimental results with simulations, it is demonstrated that at one sun condition, slow grown device has bimolecular recombination as the major loss mechanism while in the fast grown device with high trap density, the trap assisted recombination dominates. It has been estimated that non-radiative recombination accounts nearly 50% of efficiency loss in modern OPVs. Generally, an external bias (electric field) is required to collect all the photogenerated charges and thus prevent their recombination. The motivation is to induce additional electric field in otherwise low mobility conjugated polymer based active layer by incorporating ferroelectric dipoles. This is expected to facilitate singlet exciton dissociation in polymer matrix and impede charge transfer exciton (CTE) recombination at polymer:fullerene interface. For the first time, it is shown that the addition of ferroelectric dipoles to modern bulk heterojunction (BHJ) can significantly improve exciton dissociation, resulting in a ~50% enhancement of overall solar cell efficiency. The devices also exhibit the unique ferroelectric-photovoltaic effect with polarization-controlled power conversion efficiency.

  10. SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING SDO/HMI VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD DATA WITH A MACHINE-LEARNING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobra, M. G.; Couvidat, S.

    2015-01-10

    We attempt to forecast M- and X-class solar flares using a machine-learning algorithm, called support vector machine (SVM), and four years of data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, the first instrument to continuously map the full-disk photospheric vector magnetic field from space. Most flare forecasting efforts described in the literature use either line-of-sight magnetograms or a relatively small number of ground-based vector magnetograms. This is the first time a large data set of vector magnetograms has been used to forecast solar flares. We build a catalog of flaring and non-flaring active regions sampled from a database of 2071 active regions, comprised of 1.5 million active region patches of vector magnetic field data, and characterize each active region by 25 parameters. We then train and test the machine-learning algorithm and we estimate its performances using forecast verification metrics with an emphasis on the true skill statistic (TSS). We obtain relatively high TSS scores and overall predictive abilities. We surmise that this is partly due to fine-tuning the SVM for this purpose and also to an advantageous set of features that can only be calculated from vector magnetic field data. We also apply a feature selection algorithm to determine which of our 25 features are useful for discriminating between flaring and non-flaring active regions and conclude that only a handful are needed for good predictive abilities.

  11. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    B spacecraft for L1 solar wind prediction purposes (e.g.solar wind model currently running at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction

  12. Testing a Solar Coronal Magnetic Field Extrapolation Code with the Titov-Demoulin Magnetic Flux Rope Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    In the solar corona, magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of magnetic field from boundary data is the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information of the corona. As a result, the ability of reliable recovering coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code (CESE-MHD-NLFFF, Jiang & Feng 2012) is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Demoulin (1999), which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding an semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field is reconstructed with high accuracy. Especially, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rop...

  13. Effects of the scatter in sunspot group tilt angles on the large-scale magnetic field at the solar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, J.; Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M.

    2014-08-10

    The tilt angles of sunspot groups represent the poloidal field source in Babcock-Leighton-type models of the solar dynamo and are crucial for the build-up and reversals of the polar fields in surface flux transport (SFT) simulations. The evolution of the polar field is a consequence of Hale's polarity rules, together with the tilt angle distribution which has a systematic component (Joy's law) and a random component (tilt-angle scatter). We determine the scatter using the observed tilt angle data and study the effects of this scatter on the evolution of the solar surface field using SFT simulations with flux input based upon the recorded sunspot groups. The tilt angle scatter is described in our simulations by a random component according to the observed distributions for different ranges of sunspot group size (total umbral area). By performing simulations with a number of different realizations of the scatter we study the effect of the tilt angle scatter on the global magnetic field, especially on the evolution of the axial dipole moment. The average axial dipole moment at the end of cycle 17 (a medium-amplitude cycle) from our simulations was 2.73 G. The tilt angle scatter leads to an uncertainty of 0.78 G (standard deviation). We also considered cycle 14 (a weak cycle) and cycle 19 (a strong cycle) and show that the standard deviation of the axial dipole moment is similar for all three cycles. The uncertainty mainly results from the big sunspot groups which emerge near the equator. In the framework of Babcock-Leighton dynamo models, the tilt angle scatter therefore constitutes a significant random factor in the cycle-to-cycle amplitude variability, which strongly limits the predictability of solar activity.

  14. Solar proton burning, photon and anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron in the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Ivanov; H. Oberhummer; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

    1998-10-26

    The relativistic field theory model of the deuteron (RFMD) is applied to the calculation of the astrophysical factor S_{pp}(0) for the process of the solar proton burning p + p -> D + e^+ + \

  15. FIELD LINES TWISTING IN A NOISY CORONA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY STORAGE AND RELEASE, AND INITIATION OF SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rappazzo, A. F. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, DE 19716 (United States); Velli, M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Einaudi, G., E-mail: rappazzo@udel.edu [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., 6537 Mid Cities Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2013-07-10

    We present simulations modeling closed regions of the solar corona threaded by a strong magnetic field where localized photospheric vortical motions twist the coronal field lines. The linear and nonlinear dynamics are investigated in the reduced magnetohydrodynamic regime in Cartesian geometry. Initially the magnetic field lines get twisted and the system becomes unstable to the internal kink mode, confirming and extending previous results. As typical in this kind of investigations, where initial conditions implement smooth fields and flux-tubes, we have neglected fluctuations and the fields are laminar until the instability sets in. However, previous investigations indicate that fluctuations, excited by photospheric motions and coronal dynamics, are naturally present at all scales in the coronal fields. Thus, in order to understand the effect of a photospheric vortex on a more realistic corona, we continue the simulations after kink instability sets in, when turbulent fluctuations have already developed in the corona. In the nonlinear stage the system never returns to the simple initial state with ordered twisted field lines, and kink instability does not occur again. Nevertheless, field lines get twisted, although in a disordered way, and energy accumulates at large scales through an inverse cascade. This energy can subsequently be released in micro-flares or larger flares, when interaction with neighboring structures occurs or via other mechanisms. The impact on coronal dynamics and coronal mass ejections initiation is discussed.

  16. Application of a solar wind model driven by turbulence dissipation to a 2D magnetic field configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran; Velli, Marco E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com E-mail: mikic@predsci.com

    2014-12-01

    Although it is widely accepted that photospheric motions provide the energy source and that the magnetic field must play a key role in the process, the detailed mechanisms responsible for heating the Sun's corona and accelerating the solar wind are still not fully understood. Cranmer et al. developed a sophisticated, one-dimensional (1D), time-steady model of the solar wind with turbulence dissipation. By varying the coronal magnetic field, they obtain, for a single choice of wave properties, a realistic range of slow and fast wind conditions with a sharp latitudinal transition between the two streams. Using a 1D, time-dependent model of the solar wind of Lionello et al., which incorporates turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves to provide heating and acceleration of the plasma, we have explored a similar configuration, obtaining qualitatively equivalent results. However, our calculations suggest that the rapid transition between slow and fast wind suggested by this 1D model may be disrupted in multidimensional MHD simulations by the requirement of transverse force balance.

  17. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 78 (2003) 567595 Low-mobility solar cells: a device physics primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 78 (2003) 567­595 Low-mobility solar cells: a device physics, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130, USA Abstract The properties of pin solar cells based on photogeneration for the solar conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon-based cells that are limited by valence bandtail

  18. The Dependence of the Strength and Thickness of Field-Aligned Currents on Solar Wind and Ionospheric Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Wing, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Sheared plasma flows at the low-latitude boundary layer correlate well with early afternoon auroral arcs and #12;eld-aligned currents [Sonnerup, 1980; Lundin and Evans, 1985]. We present a simple analytic model that relates solar wind and ionospheric parameters to the strength and thickness of field-aligned currents in a region of sheared velocity, such as the low latitude boundary layer. We compare the predictions of the model with DMSP observations and #12;nd remarkably good scaling of the currents with solar wind and ionospheric parameters. The sheared boundary layer thickness is inferred to be around 3000km consistent with observational studies. The analytic model provides a simple way to organize data and to infer boundary layer structures from ionospheric data.

  19. Design of a telescope pointing and tracking subsystem for the Big Bear Solar Observatory New Solar Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design of a telescope pointing and tracking subsystem for the Big Bear Solar Observatory New Solar Telescope J. R. Varsika and G.Yangb aBig Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, California, U.S.A.; bNew Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The New Solar

  20. Overgeneration from Solar Energy in California - A Field Guide to the Duck Chart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Brinkman, Gregory; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the California Independent System Operator published the "duck chart,"" which shows a significant drop in mid-day net load on a spring day as solar photovoltaics (PV) are added to the system. The chart raises concerns that the conventional power system will be unable to accommodate the ramp rate and range needed to fully utilize solar energy, particularly on days characterized by the duck shape. This could result in "overgeneration"" and curtailed renewable energy, increasing its costs and reducing its environmental benefits. This paper explores the duck chart in detail, examining how much PV might need to be curtailed if additional grid flexibility measures are not taken, and how curtailment rates can be decreased by changing grid operational practices. It finds that under business-as-usual types of assumptions and corresponding levels of grid flexibility in California, solar penetrations as low as 20 percent of annual energy could lead to marginal curtailment rates that exceed 30 percent. However, by allowing (or requiring) distributed PV and storage (including new installations that are part of the California storage mandate) to provide grid services, system flexibility could be greatly enhanced. Doing so could significantly reduce curtailment and allow much greater penetration of variable generation resources in achieving a 50 percent renewable portfolio standard. Overall, the work described in this paper points to the need to fully integrate distributed resources into grid system planning and operations to allow maximum use of the solar resource.

  1. Solar Energy Applications Page 1 Rev. September 23, 2009 Field Office Serial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    MW Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Trough Located in Maricopa Co. between Harquahala Mtns Horn Mountains and north of I- 10. Pending 5. AZA 034540 Aguila Horizon Wind Energy LLC 3/4/2008 11 Valley Arizona Renewable Ventures 8/12/08 14,765 500 MW CSP Trough Located in Maricopa Co. in Dendora

  2. Overgeneration from Solar Energy in California. A Field Guide to the Duck Chart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; O'Connell, Matthew; Brinkman, Gregory; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the California Independent System Operator published the 'duck chart,' which shows a significant drop in mid-day net load on a spring day as solar photovoltaics (PV) are added to the system. The chart raises concerns that the conventional power system will be unable to accommodate the ramp rate and range needed to fully utilize solar energy, particularly on days characterized by the duck shape. This could result in 'overgeneration' and curtailed renewable energy, increasing its costs and reducing its environmental benefits. This paper explores the duck chart in detail, examining how much PV might need to be curtailed if additional grid flexibility measures are not taken, and how curtailment rates can be decreased by changing grid operational practices. It finds that under "business-as-usual"" types of assumptions and corresponding levels of grid flexibility in California, solar penetrations as low as 20% of annual energy could lead to marginal curtailment rates that exceed 30%. However, by allowing (or requiring) distributed PV and storage (including new installations that are part of the California storage mandate) to provide grid services, system flexibility could be greatly enhanced. Doing so could significantly reduce curtailment and allow much greater penetration of variable generation resources. Overall, the work described in this paper points to the need to fully integrate distributed resources into grid system planning and operations to allow maximum use of the solar resource.

  3. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.

    2010-12-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  4. Potential for Photovoltaic Solar Installation in Non-Irrigated Corners of Center Pivot Irrigation Fields in the State of Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, B.

    2011-07-01

    The State of Colorado expressed an interest in assessing the potential for photovoltaic (PV) solar installations on non-irrigated corners of center-pivot irrigation (CPI) fields throughout the state. Using aerial imagery and irrigated land data available from the Colorado Water Conservation Board, an assessment of potentially suitable sites was produced. Productivity estimates were calculated from that assessment. The total area of non-irrigated corners of CPI fields in Colorado was estimated to be 314,674 acres, which could yield 223,418 acres of installed PV panels assuming 71% coverage in triangular plots. The total potential annual electricity production for the state was estimated to be 56,821 gigawatt hours (GWH), with an average of 1.3 GWH per available plot.

  5. The Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System: Spectral Variation on Kuiper Belt Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraser, Wesley C; Glass, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Here we present additional photometry of targets observed as part of the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System. 12 targets were re-observed with the Wide Field Camera 3 in optical and NIR wavebands designed to compliment those used during the first visit. Additionally, all observations originally presented by Fraser and Brown (2012) were reanalyzed through the same updated photometry pipeline. A reanalysis of the optical and NIR colour distribution reveals a bifurcated optical colour distribution and only two identifiable spectral classes, each of which occupies a broad range of colours and have correlated optical and NIR colours, in agreement with our previous findings. We report the detection of significant spectral variations on 5 targets which cannot be attributed to photometry errors, cosmic rays, point spread function or sensitivity variations, or other image artifacts capable of explaining the magnitude of the variation. The spectrally variable objects are found to have ...

  6. Conference Proceedings (Refereed Invited Reviews). 1. "Role of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields and Material Flows in the Formation of Solar Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackay, Duncan

    Conference Proceedings (Refereed Invited Reviews). 1. "Role of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields Scale Structures and their Role in Solar Activity, ASP Conference Proceedings Series, 346, 177. 2. "The-297. Conference Proceedings (Others). 1. "Basic Magnetic Field Configurations for Filament Channels and Filaments

  7. Offshore Wind Power USA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Offshore Wind Power USA conference provides the latest offshore wind market updates and forecasts.

  8. Plasma and Magnetic Field Characteristics of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections in Relation to Geomagnetic Storm Intensity and Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ying D; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei; Zhu, Bei; Liu, Yi A; Luhmann, Janet G; Richardson, John D

    2015-01-01

    The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with $D_{\\rm st}$ minima of $-223$ and $-195$ nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. A particular effort is to reconstruct the in situ structure using a Grad-Shafranov technique and compare the reconstruction results with solar observations, which gives a larger spatial perspective of the source conditions than one-dimensional in situ measurements. Key results are obtained concerning how the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of CMEs control the geomagnetic storm intensity and variability: (1) a sheath-ejecta-ejecta mechanism and a sheath-sheath-ejecta scenario are proposed for the multi-step development of the 2015 March 17 and June 22 geomagnetic storms, respectively; (2) two contrasting cases of how the CM...

  9. Effects of the Weak Polar Fields of Solar Cycle 23: Investigation Using OMNI for the STEREO Mission Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Improvement in the prediction of solar wind conditions usingmodel predictions of the coronal hole areas and the solarmodel predictions of the coronal hole areas and the solar

  10. Ion kinetic energy conservation and magnetic field strength constancy in multi-fluid solar wind Alfv\\'enic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteini, L; Pantellini, F; Velli, M; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate properties of the plasma fluid motion in the large amplitude low frequency fluctuations of highly Alfv\\'enic fast solar wind. We show that protons locally conserve total kinetic energy when observed from an effective frame of reference comoving with the fluctuations. For typical properties of the fast wind, this frame can be reasonably identified by alpha particles, which, owing to their drift with respect to protons at about the Alfv\\'en speed along the magnetic field, do not partake in the fluid low frequency fluctuations. Using their velocity to transform proton velocity into the frame of Alfv\\'enic turbulence, we demonstrate that the resulting plasma motion is characterized by a constant absolute value of the velocity, zero electric fields, and aligned velocity and magnetic field vectors as expected for unidirectional Alfv\\'enic fluctuations in equilibrium. We propose that this constraint, via the correlation between velocity and magnetic field in Alfv\\'enic turbulence, is at the origin of ...

  11. Polar cap electric field dependence on solar wind and magnetotail parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longenecker, D.; Roederer, J.G.

    1981-12-01

    A magnetic field model with a linearly superposed uniform external field is used to study the effects of the magnetotail field intensity B/sub T/ on the relationship between the convection pattern in the polar cap and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). It is found that as B/sub T/ increases, the polar cap size increases, overall electric field intensity decreases, and the dependence of the total ''open'' flux on the magnitude and direction of the IMF weakens. In addition, the tail field introduces significant differences between the convection patterns corresponding to ''toward'' and ''away'' IMF sectors, respectively: in the northern (southern) polar cap, features such as polar cap boundary displacements and electric field intensity gradients are more pronounced when the earth is in an ''away'' (''toward'') sector. On the other hand, in the case of a northward-tilted IMF, sunward convection in the north (south) polar cap is extended over a larger area for a ''toward'' (''away'') sector. Since dipole tilt was not taken into account in the model, these results should mainly apply to periods around equinox.

  12. SOLAR WIND ELECTRIC FIELDS IN THE ION CYCLOTRON FREQUENCY RANGE P. J. Kellogg,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    variation, but the in- strument used a digital transform for onboard frequency analyses whose leakage from are presented and corrected for the Lorentz transformation of magnetic fluctuations to give the electric fields

  13. Solar proton burning, neutrino disintegration of the deuteron and pep process in the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Ivanov; H. Oberhummer; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

    1999-10-19

    The astrophysical factor S_pp(0) for the solar proton burning, p + p -> D + positron + neutrino, is recalculated in the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron (RFMD). We obtain S_pp(0) = 4.08 x 10^{-25} MeV b which agrees good with the recommended value S_pp(0) = 4.00 x 10^{-25} MeV b. The amplitude of low-energy elastic proton-proton (pp) scattering in the singlet S-wave state with the Coulomb repulsion contributing to the amplitude of the solar proton burning is described in terms of the S-wave scattering length and the effective range. This takes away the problem pointed out by Bahcall and Kamionkowski (Nucl. Phys. A625 (1997) 893) that in the RFMD one cannot describe low-energy elastic pp scattering with the Coulomb repulsion in agreement with low-energy nuclear phenomenology. The cross section for the neutrino disintegration of the deuteron, neutrino + D -> electron + p + p, is calculated with respect to S_pp(0) for neutrino energies from threshold to 10 MeV. The results can be used for the analysis of the data which will be obtained in the experiments planned by SNO. The astrophysical factor S_pep(0) for the pep process, p + electron + p -> neutrino + D, is calculated relative to S_pp(0) in complete agreement with the result obtained by Bahcall and May (ApJ. 155 (1969) 501).

  14. The Complex Structure of Magnetic Field Discontinuities in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, A; Servidio, S; Yordanova, E; Veltri, P

    2015-01-01

    Using high resolution Cluster satellite observations, we show that the turbulent solar wind is populated by magnetic discontinuities at different scales, going from proton down to electron scales. The structure of these layers resembles the Harris equilibrium profile in plasmas. Using a multi-dimensional intermittency technique, we show that these structures are connected through the scales. Supported by numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection, we show that observations are consistent with a scenario where many current layers develop in turbulence, and where the outflow of these reconnection events are characterized by complex sub-proton networks of secondary islands, in a self-similar way. The present work establishes that the picture of "reconnection in turbulence" and "turbulent reconnection", separately invoked as ubiquitous, coexist in space plasmas.

  15. Solar Permitting & Inspection Webinar Series

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability U.S.A. and the Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. (IREC) present a series of three webinars on Solar Permitting & Inspection. As part of the U...

  16. Nonlinear force-free field modeling of the solar magnetic carpet and comparison with SDO/HMI and Sunrise/IMAX observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, L. P.; Kariyappa, R. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    In the quiet solar photosphere, the mixed polarity fields form a magnetic carpet that continuously evolves due to dynamical interaction between the convective motions and magnetic field. This interplay is a viable source to heat the solar atmosphere. In this work, we used the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory, as time-dependent lower boundary conditions, to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. We use a magneto-frictional relaxation method, including hyperdiffusion, to produce a time series of three-dimensional nonlinear force-free fields from a sequence of photospheric LOS magnetograms. Vertical flows are added up to a height of 0.7 Mm in the modeling to simulate the non-force-freeness at the photosphere-chromosphere layers. Among the derived quantities, we study the spatial and temporal variations of the energy dissipation rate and energy flux. Our results show that the energy deposited in the solar atmosphere is concentrated within 2 Mm of the photosphere and there is not sufficient energy flux at the base of the corona to cover radiative and conductive losses. Possible reasons and implications are discussed. Better observational constraints of the magnetic field in the chromosphere are crucial to understand the role of the magnetic carpet in coronal heating.

  17. SOLARCAP: Super Capacitor Buffering of Solar Energy for Self-Sustainable Field Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Kai

    , Tolga Soyata, Tai Wang, Gaurav Sharma, Wendi Heinzelman, Kai Shen Dept. of Electrical and Computer-sustainability is a critical foundation for successful field systems that are away from the power grid infrastructure. Instead- tion [2]), safety (automatic speed monitoring and integrated weather/traffic signaling), and efficiency

  18. Solar Sail Technology for Nanosatellites Michael D. Souder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Matthew

    Solar Sail Technology for Nanosatellites Michael D. Souder Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA Matthew West University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA Solar sailing is an attractive means. This allows a solar sail spacecraft to accomplish new classes of missions that would otherwise require

  19. Destabilization of a Solar Prominence/Filament Field System by a Series of Eight Homologous Eruptive Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panesar, Navdeep K; Innes, Davina E; Moore, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    Homologous flares are flares that occur repetitively in the same active region, with similar structure and morphology. A series of at least eight homologous flares occurred in active region NOAA 11237 over 16 - 17 June 2011. A nearby prominence/filament was rooted in the active region, and situated near the bottom of a coronal cavity. The active region was on the southeast solar limb as seen from SDO/AIA, and on the disk as viewed from STEREO/EUVI-B. The dual perspective allows us to study in detail behavior of the prominence/filament material entrained in the magnetic field of the repeatedly-erupting system. Each of the eruptions was mainly confined, but expelled hot material into the prominence/filament cavity system (PFCS). The field carrying and containing the ejected hot material interacted with the PFCS and caused it to inflate, resulting in a step-wise rise of the PFCS approximately in step with the homologous eruptions. The eighth eruption triggered the PFCS to move outward slowly, accompanied by a we...

  20. Halo effective field theory constrains the solar Beryllium-7 + proton -> Boron-8 + photon rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xilin Zhang; Kenneth M. Nollett; D. R. Phillips

    2015-07-26

    We report an improved low-energy extrapolation of the cross section for the process Beryllium-7+proton -> Boron-8+photon, which determines the Boron-8 neutrino flux from the Sun. Our extrapolant is derived from Halo Effective Field Theory (EFT) at next-to-leading order. We apply Bayesian methods to determine the EFT parameters and the low-energy S-factor, using measured cross sections and scattering lengths as inputs. Asymptotic normalization coefficients of Boron-8 are tightly constrained by existing radiative capture data, and contributions to the cross section beyond external direct capture are detected in the data at E prediction for S(E).

  1. Modern Solar Facilities Advanced Solar Science, 18 F. Kneer, K. G. Puschmann, A. D. Wittmann (eds.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modern Solar Facilities ­ Advanced Solar Science, 1­8 F. Kneer, K. G. Puschmann, A. D. Wittmann (eds.) c Universit¨atsverlag G¨ottingen 2007 Ground-Based Solar Facilities in the U.S.A. Carsten Denker.S.A. 2Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany 3National Solar Observatory

  2. Solar Unlimited USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter Battery TechnologySocovoltaicCorporation LtdTracker Home There

  3. Solar Systems USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbH JumpSloughInfra Inc JumpSentry CorporationStyle

  4. TRANSVERSE COMPONENT OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE OBSERVED BY SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilovic, S.; Beeck, B.; Pietarila, A.; Schuessler, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Domingo, V.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    We present the first observations of the transverse component of a photospheric magnetic field acquired by the imaging magnetograph SUNRISE/IMaX. Using an automated detection method, we obtain statistical properties of 4536 features with significant linear polarization signal. We obtain a rate of occurrence of 7 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} arcsec{sup -2}, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the values reported by previous studies. We show that these features have no characteristic size or lifetime. They appear preferentially at granule boundaries with most of them being caught in downflow lanes at some point. Only a small percentage are entirely and constantly embedded in upflows (16%) or downflows (8%).

  5. Solar neutrino processes in the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Ivanov; H. Oberhummer; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

    1998-11-04

    The generalized version of the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron (RFMD) is applied to the description of processes of astrophysical interest and low-energy elastic NN scattering. The value of the astrophysical factor S_{pp}(0) = 5.52x10^{-25} MeV b is found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.42 with respect to the classical value S^*_{pp}(0) = 3.89x10{-25} MeV b obtained by Kamionkowski and Bahcall in the potential model approach (PMA). The astrophysical aspects of this enhancement are discussed. The cross sections for the disintegration of the deuteron by (anti-) neutrinos nu_e + D -> e^- + p + p, anti-nu_e + D -> e^+ + n + n and nu_e(anti-nu_e) + D -> nu_e(anti-nu_e) + n + p are calculated for the energies of (anti-) neutrinos ranging from thresholds up to 10 MeV. The results are discussed in comparison with the PMA data. The cross sections for anti-nu_e + D -> e^+ + n + n and anti-nu_e + D -> anti-nu_e + n + p averaged over the reactor anti-neutrino energy spectrum agree well with experimental data. The astrophysical factor S_{pep}(0) for the process p + e^- + p -> nu_e + D (or pep-process) is calculated relative to S_{pp}(0) in complete agreement with the result obtained by Bahcall and May. The reaction rate for the neutron-proton radiative capture is calculated in agreement with the PMA result obtained for pure M1 transition. It is shown that in the RFMD one can describe low--energy elastic NN scattering in complete agreement with low-energy nuclear phenomenology.

  6. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01

    164. Golden, Colorado, USA: Solar Energy Research Institute;heat storage materials, Solar Energy 30 (1983) 313–332 13-experimental. Trans ASME, J Solar Energy Eng 1990;112:125–

  7. Solar startup to manufacture in Milwaukee | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar startup to manufacture in Milwaukee Solar startup to manufacture in Milwaukee August 10, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Helios USA will build photovoltaic modules such as these this...

  8. Non-linear force-free field modeling of a solar active region around the time of a major flare and coronal mass ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Schrijver; M. L. DeRosa; T. Metcalf; G. Barnes; B. Lites; T. Tarbell; J. McTiernan; G. Valori; T. Wiegelmann; M. S. Wheatland; T. Amari; G. Aulanier; P. Demoulin; M. Fuhrmann; K. Kusano; S. Regnier; J. K. Thalmann

    2007-11-30

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are associated with rapid changes in field connectivity and powered by the partial dissipation of electrical currents in the solar atmosphere. A critical unanswered question is whether the currents involved are induced by the motion of pre-existing atmospheric magnetic flux subject to surface plasma flows, or whether these currents are associated with the emergence of flux from within the solar convective zone. We address this problem by applying state-of-the-art nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling to the highest resolution and quality vector-magnetographic data observed by the recently launched Hinode satellite on NOAA Active Region 10930 around the time of a powerful X3.4 flare. We compute 14 NLFFF models with 4 different codes and a variety of boundary conditions. We find that the model fields differ markedly in geometry, energy content, and force-freeness. We discuss the relative merits of these models in a general critique of present abilities to model the coronal magnetic field based on surface vector field measurements. For our application in particular, we find a fair agreement of the best-fit model field with the observed coronal configuration, and argue (1) that strong electrical currents emerge together with magnetic flux preceding the flare, (2) that these currents are carried in an ensemble of thin strands, (3) that the global pattern of these currents and of field lines are compatible with a large-scale twisted flux rope topology, and (4) that the ~10^32 erg change in energy associated with the coronal electrical currents suffices to power the flare and its associated coronal mass ejection.

  9. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

    field field-type-text field-field-page-name">
  10. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    21 2.5 Solar Thermal Energy and Solar2.5 Solar Thermal Energy and Solar Fields The SA process isCycles,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, v.129, 2007,

  11. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Menicucci, David; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

  12. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Design Package for Solar Collector and Solar Pump",from Flat Plate Solar Collectors, Phase 2", N78 21624 (J, L, Russell, Jr" "Solar Collector Field Subsystem, Program

  13. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    build, finance, and market passive solar systems. Thepassive solar research, development, market field testing,passive solar research, development, market field testing,

  14. Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plans March 2011 #12;2 Why Solar Energy Research at BNL BNL's capabilities can advance solar energy In the Northeast #12;North Array Field South Array Field Variability and Non-Dispatchability · Solar energy varies · Solar generation cannot be dispatched when needed

  15. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  16. HRM in the USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strauss, George

    1991-01-01

    Tower 8-2-91 page 1 HRM in the USA George Strauss* This is aHuman Resources Management (HRM) in the United States duringhuman resources management (HRM) during the late 1970s and

  17. Three-Year Global Survey of Coronal Null Points from Potential-Field-Source-Surface (PFSS) Modeling and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freed, Michael; McKenize, David

    2014-01-01

    This article compiles and examines a comprehensive coronal magnetic-null-point survey created by potential-field-source-surface (PFSS) modeling and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) observations. The locations of 582 potential magnetic null points in the corona were predicted from the PFSS model between Carrington Rotations (CR) 2098 (June 2010) and 2139 (July 2013). These locations were manually inspected, using contrast-enhanced SDO/AIA images in 171 angstroms at the east and west solar limb, for structures associated with nulls. A Kolmogorov--Smirnov (K--S) test showed a statistically significant difference between observed and predicted latitudinal distributions of null points. This finding is explored further to show that the observability of null points could be affected by the Sun's asymmetric hemisphere activity. Additional K--S tests show no effect on observability related to eigenvalues associated with the fan and spine structure surrounding null points or to the orie...

  18. EnergyGauge USA: A Residential Building Energy Simulation Design Tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairey, P.; Vieira, R. K.; Parker, D. S.; Hanson, B.; Broman, P. A.; Grant, J. B.; Fuehrlein, B.; Gu, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has developed new software (EnergyGauge USA) which allows simple calculation and rating of energy use of residential buildings around the United States. In the past, most residential analysis and rating...

  19. SciTech Connect: "solar plasma wind"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar plasma wind" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "solar plasma wind" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  20. PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN RELATION TO GEOMAGNETIC STORM INTENSITY AND VARIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ying D.

    The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with D[subscript st] minima of -223 and -195 nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We ...

  1. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar facilities design integration: collector-field optimization report (RADL item 2-25)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Appropriate cost and performance models and computer codes have been developed to carry out the collector field optimization, as well as additional computer codes to define the actual heliostat locations in the optimized field and to compute in detail the performance to be expected of the defined field. The range of capabilities of the available optimization and performance codes is described. The role of the optimization code in the definition of the pilot plant is specified, and a complete description of the optimization process itself is given. The detailed cost model used by the optimizer for the commercial system optimization is presented in the form of equations relating the cost element to each of the factors that determine it. The design basis for the commercial system is presented together with the rationale for its selection. The development of the individual heliostat performance code is presented. Use of the individual heliostat code in a completed study of receiver panel power under sunrise startup conditions is described. The procedure whereby performance and heliostat spacing data from the representative commercial-scale system are converted into coefficients of use in the layout processor is described, and the actual procedure used in the layout processor is described. Numerous special studies in support of the pilot plant design are described. (LEW)

  2. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    change thermal-storage systems, and solar fields. Chapter 3Storage System . 21 2.5 Solarchange thermal-storage system and the solar field were not

  3. NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATION OF A CORONAL MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE SUPPORTING A LARGE-SCALE SOLAR FILAMENT FROM A PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang; Feng, Xueshang E-mail: wus@uah.edu E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn

    2014-05-10

    Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength ? 100 G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both sides of the PIL and the transverse field has a low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, extrapolating a large-scale FR in such a case represents a far more difficult challenge. We demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code is sufficient for the challenge. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the extrapolated FR match observations of the filament and its barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

  4. MAGNETIC HELICITY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND FLUCTUATIONS AS A FUNCTION OF THE ANGLE WITH RESPECT TO THE LOCAL MEAN MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podesta, J. J.; Gary, S. P., E-mail: jpodesta@solar.stanford.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Magnetic field data acquired by the Ulysses spacecraft in high-speed streams over the poles of the Sun are used to investigate the normalized magnetic helicity spectrum {sigma}{sub m} as a function of the angle {theta} between the local mean magnetic field and the flow direction of the solar wind. This spectrum provides important information about the constituent modes at the transition to kinetic scales that occurs near the spectral break separating the inertial range from the dissipation range. The energetically dominant signal at scales near the thermal proton gyroradius k{sub perpendicular{rho}i} {approx} 1 often covers a wide band of propagation angles centered about the perpendicular direction, {theta} {approx_equal} 90{sup 0} {+-} 30{sup 0}. This signal is consistent with a spectrum of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfven waves with k{sub perpendicular} >> k{sub ||} in which there is more energy in waves propagating away from the Sun and along the direction of the local mean magnetic field than toward the Sun. Moreover, this signal is principally responsible for the reduced magnetic helicity spectrum measured using Fourier transform techniques. The observations also reveal a subdominant population of nearly parallel propagating electromagnetic waves near the proton inertial scale k{sub ||} c/{omega}{sub pi} {approx} 1 that often exhibit high magnetic helicity |{sigma}{sub m}| {approx_equal} 1. These waves are believed to be caused by proton pressure anisotropy instabilities that regulate distribution functions in the collisionless solar wind. Because of the existence of a drift of alpha particles with respect to the protons, the proton temperature anisotropy instability that operates when T{sub pperpendicular}/T{sub p||} > 1 preferentially generates outward propagating ion-cyclotron waves and the fire-hose instability that operates when T{sub pperpendicular}/T{sub p||} < 1 preferentially generates inward propagating whistler waves. These kinetic processes provide a natural explanation for the magnetic field observations.

  5. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-05-04

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  6. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    level [19]. 2.5 Solar Thermal Energy and Solar Fields The SA21 2.5 Solar Thermal Energy and Solarprocess powered by solar thermal energy for hydrogen

  7. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Barclays. (2009). Solar Energysolar development on the public lands of six states (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico,Solar Power. United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Field Hearing in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  8. DRAFT VERSION DECEMBER 11, 2008 c 2006. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Printed in U.S.A. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE BURST PARAMETERS JEONGWOO LEE 1 , GELU M Draft version December 11, 2008 ABSTRACT Microwave bursts during solar flares are known to be sensitive. the large dataset of microwave bursts obtained with Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA). The database uniquely

  9. Nanostructured photon management for high performance solar cells Jia Zhu, Zongfu Yu, Shanhui Fan, Yi Cui *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    research efforts for renewable energy technologies. Solar cells, which harvest energy directly fromNanostructured photon management for high performance solar cells Jia Zhu, Zongfu Yu, Shanhui FanCullough Building 343, Stanford, CA 94305, USA Contents 1. Introduction

  10. FANNING OUT OF THE SOLAR f-MODE IN THE PRESENCE OF NON-UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELDS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Nishant K.; Brandenburg, Axel [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Rheinhardt, Matthias, E-mail: nishant@nordita.org [Physics Department, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, PO Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-11-01

    We show that in the presence of a magnetic field that is varying harmonically in space, the fundamental mode, or f-mode, in a stratified layer is altered in such a way that it fans out in the diagnostic k? diagram, with mode power also within the fan. In our simulations, the surface is defined by a temperature and density jump in a piecewise isothermal layer. Unlike our previous work (Singh et al. 2014), where a uniform magnetic field was considered, here we employ a non-uniform magnetic field together with hydromagnetic turbulence at length scales much smaller than those of the magnetic field. The expansion of the f-mode is stronger for fields confined to the layer below the surface. In some of those cases, the k? diagram also reveals a new class of low-frequency vertical stripes at multiples of twice the horizontal wavenumber of the background magnetic field. We argue that the study of the f-mode expansion might be a new and sensitive tool to determine subsurface magnetic fields with azimuthal or other horizontal periodicity.

  11. MORPHOLOGY DEPENDENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    MORPHOLOGY DEPENDENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELL Biswajit Ray, Pradeep, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Polymer based bulk heterostructure (BH) solar cell offers a relatively inexpensive option for the future solar cell technology, provided its efficiency increases beyond

  12. IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? A REMARK Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat Computer Science Department, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA Abstract. It is not yet known (1994) whether the Solar System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only

  13. ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Gayathri Vijayakumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    . Beckman University of Wisconsin-Solar Energy Laboratory 1500 Engineering Drive Madison, WI, 53706 USA. Simulation studies of solar energy systems have generally used these hourly values to estimate long- term performance of solar energy systems. The inaccuracies are determined by examination of the frequency

  14. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    5000 kg/day Solar Plant Module Cost (with storage) $55determine the capital cost of the solar field and the costof SAIC. The cost of the solar field was determined to be ~$

  15. The Structure of the Solar Wind in the Inner Heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Christina On-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Global Solar Magnetohydrodynamic and Potential Field SourcePFSS - Potential Field Source Surface SC - Solar Cycle SEP -N.R. : 1992, On potential ?eld models of the solar corona,

  16. Solar Policy Environment: Seattle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of the Emerald City Solar Initiative is to overcome the barriers to widespread deployment of solar energy technology, dramatically increasing residential, commercial, City-owned, and community-scale solar energy use. The City has assembled a strong team of partners that have proven track records in the fields of public planning, renewable energy resource mapping, financial analysis, site analysis, education and outreach, policy analysis and advocacy, community organizing and renewable energy project development.

  17. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    demands are high and solar radiation is low. A betterof Tracking for Capturing Solar Radiation in the ContinentalTime Scales of the Surface Solar Radiation Field, Journal of

  18. Geek-Up[11.05.10]: Quark Gluon Plasma, Solar-Power Generating Windows and CCS Field Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) first record-setting run of high-energy proton collisions, new transparent film capable of absorbing light and generating electrical charge developed, and field test finds that opportunities to permanently store carbon in unmineable seams of lignite may be more widespread than previously documented -- all in this week's Geek-Up.

  19. Bandgap Engineering of 1-Dimensional Nitride and Oxynitride Materials for Solar Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Architectures for Solar Energy Conversion. J. Phys. Chem. CHoly Grail” of solar energy conversion. 7 Figure 3. Pathwaysin the field of solar energy conversion as geometries to

  20. Public Lecture Prospects for Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Lecture Prospects for Solar Energy Utilization 4 p.m., October 8 100 Lindquist Hall Scientific lecture O Thermodynamically Efficient Solar Energy Concentration 2 p.m., October 7 128 Jabara Hall-Merced and director of the California Advanced Solar Technologies Institute. He invented the field of non

  1. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arts: student activities. Field test edition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition You are...

  2. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and teacher's guide. Field test edition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition ...

  3. Young Red Spheroidal Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields: Evidence for a Truncated IMF at ~2M_solar and a Constant Space Density to z~2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Broadhurst; Rychard J. Bouwens

    1999-03-08

    The optical-IR images of the Northern and Southern Hubble Deep Fields are used to measure the spectral and density evolution of early-type galaxies. The mean optical SED is found to evolve passively towards a mid F-star dominated spectrum by z ~ 2. We demonstrate with realistic simulations that hotter ellipticals would be readily visible if evolution progressed blueward and brightward at z > 2, following a standard IMF. The colour distributions are best fitted by a `red' IMF, deficient above ~2 M_solar and with a spread of formation in the range 1.5 3 Gyrs independent of its formation redshift. Regarding density evolution, we demonstrate that the sharp decline in numbers claimed at z > 1 results from a selection bias against distant red galaxies in the optical, where the flux is too weak for morphological classification, but is remedied with relatively modest IR exposures revealing a roughly constant space density to z ~ 2. We point out that the lack of high mass star-formation inferred here and the requirement of metals implicates cooling-flows of pre-enriched gas in the creation of the stellar content of spheroidal galaxies. Deep-field X-ray images will be very helpful to examine this possibility.

  4. Solar Circuitry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience of SignaturesSoft0 Soils SoilSolar

  5. Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience(TechnicalFor Milwaukee, BySoft Solar Power

  6. Predicting solar cycle 24 with a solar dynamo model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnab Rai Choudhuri; Piyali Chatterjee; Jie Jiang

    2007-01-18

    Whether the upcoming cycle 24 of solar activity will be strong or not is being hotly debated. The solar cycle is produced by a complex dynamo mechanism. We model the last few solar cycles by `feeding' observational data of the Sun's polar magnetic field into our solar dynamo model. Our results fit the observed sunspot numbers of cycles 21-23 extremely well and predict that cycle~24 will be about 35% weaker than cycle~23.

  7. Magnetic-field annealing of inverted polymer:fullerene hybrid solar cells with FePt nanowires as additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chiang-Ting; Chen, Yang-Fang, E-mail: fangchi@nuu.edu.tw, E-mail: yfchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Fang-Chi, E-mail: fangchi@nuu.edu.tw, E-mail: yfchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 360, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 360, Taiwan (China); Li, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Chia-Chun [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate a facile annealing method to improve the polymer chain ordering of poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT):fullerene blend triggered by a small amount of FePt nanowires (FePt NWs). By applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the substrate during the solvent drying process, the resulting P3HT:fullerene:FePt NWs film becomes highly optical anisotropy and exhibits a much stronger X-ray diffraction intensity of P3HT. We hypothesize that the coupling force between the FePt NWs and P3HT can assist the polymer chain alignment leading to an improved device performance. The proposed approach is simple and can be applied to other polymer blend systems as well.

  8. The solar interior - radial structure, rotation, solar activity cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axel Brandenburg

    2007-03-28

    Some basic properties of the solar convection zone are considered and the use of helioseismology as an observational tool to determine its depth and internal angular velocity is discussed. Aspects of solar magnetism are described and explained in the framework of dynamo theory. The main focus is on mean field theories for the Sun's magnetic field and its differential rotation.

  9. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  10. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widyolar, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    in the field of solar cooling, market penetration remainsa significant global market for solar thermal cooling due tosolar collectors, even though there exists a huge potential market

  11. Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Silicon Genesis advancing the field of solar energy by developing a process that will virtually eliminate all waste when cutting materials needed to implement solar technology.

  12. The Astrophysical Journal, 495:L27L30, 1998 March 1 1998. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    were made at the Vacuum Tower Telescope of the National Solar Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. ON THE ORIGIN OF SOLAR OSCILLATIONS Philip R. Goode,1,2 Louis H and relate them to theories of the excitation of solar oscillations. We also discuss the local seismic

  13. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 552:340347, 2001 May 1 ( 2001. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT Fine temporal structures in hard X-ray and microwave emissions of solar Ñares have been known rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. ON THE FAST FLUCTUATIONS IN SOLAR FLARE Ha BLUE WING EMISSION M. D Sun: Ñares 1. INTRODUCTION It has long been recognized that solar Ñares may exhibit fast spectral

  14. THE HUBBLE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 TEST OF SURFACES IN THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM: THE COMPOSITIONAL CLASSES OF THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E., E-mail: fraserw@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We present the first results of the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System. The purpose of this survey was to measure the surface properties of a large number of Kuiper Belt objects and attempt to infer compositional and dynamical correlations. We find that the Centaurs and the low-perihelion scattered disk and resonant objects exhibit virtually identical bifurcated optical color distributions and make up two well-defined groups of objects. Both groups have highly correlated optical and NIR colors that are well described by a pair of two-component mixture models that have different red components but share a common neutral component. The small, H{sub 606} {approx}> 5.6 high-perihelion excited objects are entirely consistent with being drawn from the two branches of the mixing model, suggesting that the color bifurcation of the Centaurs is apparent in all small excited objects. On the other hand, objects larger than H{sub 606} {approx} 5.6 are not consistent with the mixing model, suggesting some evolutionary process avoided by the smaller objects. The existence of a bifurcation amongst all excited populations argues that the two separate classes of object existed in the primordial disk before the excited Kuiper Belt was populated. The cold classical objects exhibit a different type of surface that has colors that are consistent with being drawn from the red branch of the mixing model, but with much higher albedos.

  15. Community Shared Solar with Solarize

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

  16. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  17. Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plansgy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Overview of BNL's Solar Energy Research Plansgy March 8, 2011, #12;Outline O i f th LISF S l PV P j Field LIPA Substation South Array Field LIPA Substation #12;#12;#12;BNL is developing a solar energy, February 2009 · EERE Renewable Systems interconnection Study, February 2008 · EERE Solar Energy Technology

  18. Solution-Processable Low-Molecular Weight Extended Arylacetylenes: Versatile p-Type Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors and Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, F.; Marrocchi, A.; Seri, M.; Kim, C,; Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Taticchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of five extended arylacetylenes, 9,10-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-anthracene (A-P6t, 1), 9,10-bis-[(p-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy) phenyl]ethynyl}phenyl)ethynyl]-anthracene (PA-P6t, 2), 4,7-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTZ-P6t, 5), 4,7-bis(5-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}thien-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTZ-P6t, 6), and 7,7?-({[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,4?-ethynyl)-2,5-thiophene (BTZT-P6t, 7), and two arylvinylenes, 9,10-bis-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}-anthracene (A-P6d, 3), 9,10-bis-[(E)-(p-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}phenyl)vinyl]-anthracene (PA-P6d, 4). Trends in optical absorption spectra and electrochemical redox processes are first described. Next, the thin-film microstructures and morphologies of films deposited from solution under various conditions are investigated, and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic (OPV) cells fabricated. We find that substituting acetylenic for olefinic linkers on the molecular cores significantly enhances device performance. OFET measurements reveal that all seven of the semiconductors are FET-active and, depending on the backbone architecture, the arylacetylenes exhibit good p-type mobilities (? up to ?0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}) when optimum film microstructural order is achieved. OPV cells using [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.3% under a simulated AM 1.5 solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. These results demonstrate that arylacetylenes are promising hole-transport materials for p-channel OFETs and promising donors for organic solar cells applications. A direct correlation between OFET arylacetylene hole mobility and OPV performance is identified and analyzed.

  19. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    21 2.5 Solar Thermal Energy and Solaris harnessing that thermal energy and storing that energy inlevel [19]. 2.5 Solar Thermal Energy and Solar Fields The SA

  20. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 4CO.11.4 CELL CRACKS MEASURED BY UV FLUORESCENCE IN THE FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 4CO. Kunze Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, Germany Tel homogenous in the PV modules. These cracks are frequently induced by crumbs or needle-shaped production

  1. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  2. Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S

    2013-01-01

    -11-01 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Evaluation of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han..., U.S.A. Abstract Building thermal performance and potential solar applications depend on the quality of the solar resource data available. Unfortunately, most of the locations do not account for measured solar radiation data and, as a result, rely...

  3. Mirror Mode Structures in the Solar Wind: STEREO Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Mirror Mode Structures in the Solar Wind: STEREO Observations O. Enríquez-Rivera1 , X. Blanco-Cano1 Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, D.F., 04510, MEXICO 2. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract. Mirror mode structures occur in the solar wind either

  4. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications John D. Pye1 , Clifford K. Ho2 2 6125 8778, john.pye@anu.edu.au. 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. ckho of the solar-weighted reflectivity of the receiver component in CSP systems. Such reflectivity measurement

  5. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Solar Data a. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide aAppendix C - Appendix 0 - Solar Radiation Glossary. Convers

  6. THE SOLAR DECIMETRIC SPIKE BURST OF 2006 DECEMBER 6: POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR FIELD-ALIGNED POTENTIAL DROPS IN POST-ERUPTION LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cliver, E. W.; White, S. M.; Balasubramaniam, K. S. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States)

    2011-12-20

    A 1.4 GHz solar radio burst associated with a 3B/X6 eruptive flare on 2006 December 6 had the highest peak flux density ({approx}10{sup 6} sfu) of any event yet recorded at this frequency. The decimetric event characteristics during the brightest emission phase (numerous intense, short-lived, narrow-band bursts that overlapped to form a continuous spectrum) suggest electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission. The peak 1.4 GHz emission did not occur during the flare impulsive phase but rather {approx}45 minutes later, in association with post-eruption loop activity seen in H{alpha} and by the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer. During the Waves/LASCO era, three other delayed bursts with peak intensities >10{sup 5} sfu in the 1.0-1.6 GHz (L-band) frequency range have been reported that appear to have characteristics similar to the December 6 burst. In each of these three cases, high-frequency type IV bursts were reported in a range from {approx}150 to {approx}1500 MHz. Assuming a common ECM emission mechanism across this frequency range implies a broad span of source heights in the associated post-eruption loop systems. Difficulties with an ECM interpretation for these events include the generation of the lower frequency component of the type IVs and the long-standing problem of escape of the ECM emission from the loops. Magnetic-field-aligned potential drops, analogous to those observed for Earth's auroral kilometric radiation, could plausibly remove both of these objections to ECM emission.

  7. Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This fact sheet on Next-Generation Collectors for CSP highlights a solar energy program awarded through the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D awards. The team is developing new solar collector base technologies for next-generation heliostats used in power tower systems. If successful, this project will result in a 50% reduction in solar field equipment cost and a 30% reduction in field installation cost compared to existing heliostat designs.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of solar tower power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Multi-objective optimization of solar tower power plants Pascal Richter Center for Computational · Optimization of solar tower power plants 1/20 #12;Introduction ­ Solar tower power plants Solar tower PS10 (11 MW) in Andalusia, Spain · Solar tower with receiver · Heliostat field with self-aligning mirrors

  9. A brief history of the solar oblateness. J.P. Rozelot,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A brief history of the solar oblateness. A review. J.P. Rozelot,a , C. Damianib , S. Lefebvrec , A-4085, (USA) Abstract We hereby present a review on solar oblateness measurements. By emphasizing historical theories. We stress out the need to get accurate data from space to enhance our knowledge of the solar core

  10. Solar Energy 74 (2003) 157173 Comparison between ray-tracing simulations and bi-directional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    Solar Energy 74 (2003) 157­173 Comparison between ray-tracing simulations and bi-Louis Scartezzini a Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory LESO-PB, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL Cyclotron Road, MS 2-300, Berkeley, CA 94720-8134, USA Abstract Evaluation of solar heat gain and daylight

  11. Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum northern polar passage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanahuja, Blai

    Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum northern polar passage D, New Mexico, USA T. R. Sanderson Research and Scientific Support Department of European Space Agency 2001), Ulysses remained immersed in polar coronal hole solar wind flow and observed five intense solar

  12. Solar Thermoelectric Generator for Micropower Applications R. AMATYA1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ram, Rajeev J.

    Solar Thermoelectric Generator for Micropower Applications R. AMATYA1,2 and R.J. RAM1 1.--Research 02139, USA. 2.--e-mail: ramatya@mit.edu Solar thermoelectric generators (STG) using cheap parabolic concentrators with high-ZT modules can be a cost-effective alternative to solar photovoltaics for micropower

  13. Modern Solar Facilities --Advanced Solar Science, 317--320 F. Kneer, K. G. Puschmann, A. D. Wittmann (eds.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    field). In the two right panels the magnetic field is perpendicular to the solar surface and to the lineModern Solar Facilities -- Advanced Solar Science, 317--320 F. Kneer, K. G. Puschmann, A. D@astro.phys.ethz.ch Abstract. The second solar spectrum resulting from coherent scattering is a main tool for diagnostics

  14. Solar Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $8 million to fund two solar projects that are helping utilities and grid operators better forecast when, where, and how much solar power will be produced at U.S....

  15. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  16. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the context of this law, a solar energy device is a system "manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive...

  17. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  18. Total Solar Irradiance Variability and the Solar Activity Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Probhas Raychaudhuri

    2006-05-06

    It is suggested that the solar variability is due to the perturbed nature of the solar core and this variability is provided by the variability of the solar neutrino flux from the solar neutrino detectors i.e., Homestake, Superkamiokande, SAGE and GALLEX-GNO. The solar neutrino flux in the standard solar model (SSM) was calculated on the assumption of L_nu (neutrino luminosity) = L_gamma (optical luminosity) which implies that if there is a change in optical luminosity then solar neutrino flux data will also be changed. An internal dynamo due to the cyclic variation of nuclear energy generation inside the core of the sun is responsible for the solar activity cycle was suggested and thus the internal magnetic field is also variable. Again the changes in the nuclear energy generation induce structural changes that result in variations of the global solar parameters i.e., luminosity, radius and temperatures etc. From the analysis of total solar irradiance (TSI) data during the year from 1970 to 2003 we have found five phases within the solar activity cycle. The first phase (I) starts before two years from the sunspot minimum. The second phase (II) starts at the time of sunspot minimum and phase (III) starts before 2/3 years from sunspot maximum whereas phase (IV) starts at sunspot maximum and fifth phase (V) starts at after 2-3 years from sunspot maximum.

  19. U.S.A.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE:Administration Bratislavat e d N a t i o n s I n

  20. Solar DEM Models : A solar image in color band b, mn pixels,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Solar DEM Models : A solar image in color band b, m×n pixels, containing a particular solar feature, for t = 1, 2, . . . , T. btM sianFieldRandomGaus I M I I bbb T t bbtt bbb bb 2 1 2 )( #12;Solar DEM.bI : the measure error of the ith row and jth column pixel of the certain image in color band b. ijbe #12;Solar DEM

  1. CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS THROUGH GYRORESONANCE EMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    . The spiralling motion of electrons in the 200­ 2000 G fields in the solar corona produces sufficient opacity to render the corona optically thick, making it easy to recognize such sources in microwave images from. Keywords: Sun, solar corona, solar magnetic fields, solar radio emission Introduction Since the realization

  2. Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu,,In,Ga...Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    , USA 2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA 3 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA 4 Division of Materials,Ga Se2 solar cells using energy dependent electron beam induced current. Gallium composition gradients

  3. Worldwide Energy and Manufacturing USA Inc formerly Worldwide...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Worldwide Manufacturing USA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Worldwide Energy and Manufacturing USA Inc (formerly Worldwide Manufacturing USA) Place: San Bruno, California Zip:...

  4. TianRun USA Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy andInstitute JumpWashSolarUSA Inc Jump to:

  5. 53119782000 Solar Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    or degrade of the photocatalyst) The Challenges: Cost + Efficiency Earth ultimate recoverable resource of oil Solar Cells Work Operation of a PV cellThe effect of the electric field in a PV cell General schematic of a residential PV system with battery storage Basic structure of a generic silicon PV cell #12;-2 (photo courtesy

  6. Solar/Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting and Wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    INVITED P A P E R Solar/Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting and Wireless Power Transmission This paper reviews numerous existing efforts and solutions in the field of solar and electromagnetic energy of solar/electromagnetic energy harvest- ing and wireless power transmission. More specifically, the paper

  7. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    network approach of solar potential in Turkey,” Renewabledue to the high solar resource potential. However, the solar

  8. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and teacher's guide. Field test edition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition...

  9. EST: the European Solar Telescope D. Kiselman, M. Lofdahl & G. Scharmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löfdahl, Mats

    is to construct a new large-aperture solar telescope: the European Solar Telescope (EST). 3. EST design studyEST: the European Solar Telescope D. Kiselman, M. L¨ofdahl & G. Scharmer The Institute for Solar of solar magnetism is to measure the structure and dynamics of the magnetic field at the solar surface down

  10. Solar Phys (2009) 256: 285305 DOI 10.1007/s11207-009-9354-5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    2009-01-01

    Solar Phys (2009) 256: 285­305 DOI 10.1007/s11207-009-9354-5 STEREO SCIENCE RESULTS AT SOLAR MINIMUM Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field.com Abstract The declining phases of solar cycles are known for their high speed solar wind streams

  11. Euro Chef USA: Order (2014-CE-23004)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Euro Chef USA Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Euro Chef USA had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. USA Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5336)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered USA Manufacturing to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding USA Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  13. Hisense USA: Order (2010-CE-1211)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued an Order after entering into a Compromise Agreement with Hisense USA Corp. after finding Hisense USA had failed to certify that certain models of residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Weather Data . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . .Solar DataB. l'he Solar Constant. . . . . . C. Solar Time and Standard

  15. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    data records. 1, Solar Data Solar energy is a general termin obtaining reliable data for solar energy applications,data and analyzed the consequences of designing solar energy

  16. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    a characteristic solar potential is expected to prevail, Theso many sites of potential solar energy applications will besun creates a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-

  17. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review,”forecasting of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol.sequences of global solar radiation data for isolated sites:

  18. Ascertaining the Limitations of Low Mobility on Organic Solar Cell Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome, Joseph W.

    Ascertaining the Limitations of Low Mobility on Organic Solar Cell Performance B.M. Savoie*, S. Tan, Evanston, IL 60208 USA Abstract--In the past decade, organic photovoltaics (OPV) have emerged

  19. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values ...

  20. The Astrophysical Journal, 561:L211L214, 2001 November 10 2001. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    carries the most sensitive solar hard X-ray imager to date, and it has observed several coronal hard X Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. HARD X-RADIATION FROM A FAST CORONAL EJECTION H. S. Hudson Solar Physics Research Corporation/Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai

  1. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 543:457471, 2000 November 1 2000. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.(

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.( SOLAR MICROWAVE BURSTS AND INJECTION PITCH-ANGLE DISTRIBUTION of gyrosynchrotron emission, as an aid to interpretation of a particular microwave burst observed using the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA) during a GOES class C2.8 Ñare on 1993 June 3. The electrons are assumed to have

  2. CORRELATED STUDIES AT ACTIVITY MAXIMUM: THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND H. S. Hudson 1 and A. B. Galvin 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA ABSTRACT The breadth and power of the set of solar1 CORRELATED STUDIES AT ACTIVITY MAXIMUM: THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND H. S. Hudson 1 and A. B at solar minimum or in the declining phase of the past maxi­ mum, but we anticipate that most

  3. Resolving the enigmatic solar wind disappearance event of 11 May 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    ), potential field computations of the solar magnetic fields in the period, and HeI 10830A° observations with global, large-scale solar phenomena like the periodic 11-year solar polar field reversal is most likelyResolving the enigmatic solar wind disappearance event of 11 May 1999 P. Janardhan Astronomy

  4. Unified Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unified Solar is an MIT startup that is commercializing an integrated circuit solution that eliminates most of the adverse effects caused by partial shading in photovoltaic power systems. With its patent-pending design, Unified Solar's solution is smaller, cheaper and more powerful than any competing power optimizer in the market.

  5. Building Commissioning in the USA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro, N.; Friedman, H.

    2006-01-01

    $50 billion/yr for energy? Cx energy savings range: 6% - 9% ? California Market Characterization Study (2000) ? RCx energy savings range: 7% - 30 % ? LBNL study: The Cost-Effectiveness of Commissioning New and Existing Commercial Buildings: Lessons... Commissioning in the USA Natascha Castro, Annex 47- US Team Leader National Institute of Standards and Technology Hannah Friedman, Cost-Benefit Subtask Leader Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Asian Pacific Conference on Building Commissioning November 7, 2006...

  6. Detection of solar events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  7. Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    where = T(P0/P) ad (potential temperature) #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology Group velocity Helioseismology Global helioseismology: Determine set of nlm's infer global mean solar structure. LocalPetrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION Small departures from

  8. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, A K; Sykora, M; Weisse-Bernstein, N R; Luk, T S; Taylor, A J; Dalvit, D A R; Chen, H -T

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, omnidirectional absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low emissivity at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of our metasurface absorber design in solar thermophotovoltaics by exploiting refractory plasmonic materials.

  9. How is open solar magnetic flux lost over the solar cycle? M. J. Owens,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    How is open solar magnetic flux lost over the solar cycle? M. J. Owens,1,2 N. U. Crooker,3 and M 2011. [1] The Sun's open magnetic field, magnetic flux dragged out into the heliosphere by the solar wind, varies by approximately a factor of 2 over the solar cycle. We consider the evolution of open

  10. Solar | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar SHARE Solar ORNL's Solar Technologies program supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office - SunShot Initiative goal to make solar energy...

  11. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for Daily Solar Radiation Data. Proceedings ofa. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide a measure ofMonthly Solar Data Latitude: Jan SOLAR RADIATION (kWhJm2 per

  12. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  13. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  14. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  15. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2015, SB 1626 was signed into law. It provides that during the development period, the developer may only prohibit  a property owner from installing solar in developments with 50 or...

  16. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    Performance-Cost analysis of solar combined heat and powerCHP system where the solar field cost is split between thea predicted levelized solar thermal cost of $0.03/kWh, this

  17. ESMN Solar Magnetism ESMN Pages --Plain Text Copy August 13, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    1 European Network ESMN Solar Magnetism ESMN Pages -- Plain Text Copy ­ August 13, 2011 http . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Structure and dynamics of solar surface fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.3 Topology and evolution of solar active regions

  18. Vestas USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin, NewArkansas:Standards JumpUSA Jump to: navigation, search Name:

  19. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Landry, Marc D. (Lafayette, CO); Pitts, John R. (Lakewood, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  20. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  1. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  2. Harmful Shunting Mechanisms Found in Silicon Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Scientists developed near-field optical microscopy for imaging electrical breakdown in solar cells and identified critical electrical breakdown mechanisms operating in industrial silicon and epitaxial silicon solar cells.

  3. A MEASUREMENT OF THE PROTON SPECTRUM AT 1 AU NEAR SOLAR MINIMUM WITH THE CAPRICE EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morselli, Aldo

    OG 5.2.1 A MEASUREMENT OF THE PROTON SPECTRUM AT 1 AU NEAR SOLAR MINIMUM WITH THE CAPRICELaboratori Nazionali INFN, Frascati, Italy 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA 6New Mexico the production and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays, as well as the solar modulation effect

  4. JOINT ULYSSES AND ACE OBSERVATIONS OF A MAGNETIC CLOUD AND THE ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanahuja, Blai

    JOINT ULYSSES AND ACE OBSERVATIONS OF A MAGNETIC CLOUD AND THE ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE.K. 4Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, U.S.A. Abstract. On day 49 of 1999 a strong hours later by a magnetic cloud (MC). A large solar energetic particle (SEP) event was observed

  5. Design of photonic metamaterial multi-junction solar cells using rigorous coupled wave analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansey, Eli

    Design of photonic metamaterial multi-junction solar cells using rigorous coupled wave analysis Eli a horizontally-oriented multi-junction solar cell by creating an array of cavities tuned with targeted CMs of New York, New York, NY, USA 10031 August 26, 2010 ABSTRACT We have developed a method to design multi-junction

  6. Relationship between magnetic power spectrum and flare productivity in solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relationship between magnetic power spectrum and flare productivity in solar active regions V day, being equal to 1 when the specific flare productivity is one C1.0 flare per day. The power index.I. Abramenko Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314, USA ABSTRACT Power

  7. Kinetic And Potential Sputtering Of Lunar Regolith: The Contribution Of The Heavy (Minority) Solar Wind Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Ions F.W. Meyera1 , P.R. Harrisa2 , H.M. Meyer IIIb , H. Hijazia , A.F. Barghoutyc a Physics, Huntsville, AL 35812, USA Abstract. In this paper the sputtering of lunar regolith by protons and solar wind of JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant at solar wind velocities, and TRIM simulations of kinetic

  8. Computational analysis of thin film InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Computational analysis of thin film InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells with back side light, Austin, TX 78758, USA * ety@ece.utexas.edu Abstract: Simulations of thin film (~2.5 µm thick) InGaAs/GaAs. Roberts, G. Hill, and C. Calder, "Progress in quantum well solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511­512, 76

  9. Reply to 'Influence of cosmic ray variability on the monsoon rainfall and temperature': a false-positive in the field of solar-terrestrial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laken, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    A litany of research has been published claiming strong solar influences on the Earth's weather and climate. Much of this work includes documented errors and false-positives, yet is still frequently used to substantiate arguments of global warming denial. This manuscript reports on a recent study by Badruddin & Aslam (2014), hereafter BA14, which claimed a highly significant ($p=1.4\\times10^{-5}$) relationship between extremes in the intensity of the Indian monsoon and the cosmic ray flux. They further speculated that the relationship they observed may apply across the entire tropical and sub-tropical belt, and be of global importance. However, their statistical analysis---and consequently their conclusions---were wrong. Specifically, their error resulted from an assumption that their data's underlying distribution was Gaussian. But, as demonstrated in this work, their data closely follow an ergodic chaotic distribution biased towards extreme values. From a probability density function, calculated using a...

  10. Solar Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Daylighting Solar Pool...

  11. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    will enable optimal solar cell efficiencies in multiple bandlow cost, high efficiency hybrid solar cells. 4.6 Conclusioncosts and improving efficiencies of solar photovoltaic

  12. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  13. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalthe limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric powertechnologies is that of solar photovoltaics due to the high

  14. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    2008, uses concentrated solar power to split water. Figurethe main reason the potential for solar power is boundless.a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible, fairly

  15. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and M. Cony, “Prediction of global solar irradiance based onand C. K. Chan, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation usingand K. C. Chee, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation using

  16. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  17. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    of these errors on solar design is discussed. To facilitateone of the simplified solar design methods discussed inWisconsin Interactive Solar Heating Design Program, , , , c,

  18. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)2.4 Evaluation of Solar Forecasting . . . . . . . . .2.4.1 Solar Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  19. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  20. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the cloud index,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 280 –Cover Indices,” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (inHorizontal Irradiance,” submitted to Solar Energy, 2012.

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  2. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    nanocrystal-polymer solar cells The full potential of hybridto reach the full potential of polymer blend solar cells.solar cells described here offer several potential

  3. Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar resource research focuses on understanding historical solar resource patterns and making future predictions, both of which are needed to support reliable power system operation. As solar...

  4. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)synthetic hourly radiation,” Solar Energy, vol. 49, pp. 67–for supplementing solar radiation network data,” Final

  5. China Solar Clean Energy Solutions Inc formerly Deli Solar USA Inc | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtd Jump to:ChangingCNE Jump to: navigation, searchShoto Plc

  6. Non-basaltic asteroidal magmatism during the earliest stages of solar system evolution: A view from Antarctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-basaltic asteroidal magmatism during the earliest stages of solar system evolution: A view from Sciences, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA b Dept. of Civil Eng. and Geo. Sci., Univ. of Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA c Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

  7. Orion Registrar, Inc., USA Certificate of Registration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orion Registrar, Inc., USA Certificate of Registration !J.fus IS lo cerl!fy !lie Cnuironmen!al2!t'anagemenl c:S!andard: ISO 14001:2004 :Jh.e 0nuironmenfai!J]{'mzagemenl c this certificate please visit www.orion4value.com #12;Orion Registrar, Inc., USA Certificate of Registration :J

  8. 1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA. Presentation at Tohoku University, Japan Aug 6 of Computer Science University of Oklahoma. Email: atiq@ieee.org Web: www.cs.ou.edu/~atiq Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Aug 6, 2002. #12;2Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA. Presentation

  9. 1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA. Presentation at Tohoku University, Japan Aug 6 of Computer Science University of Oklahoma. Email: atiq@ieee.org Web: www.cs.ou.edu/~atiq Presentation at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Aug 6, 2002. #12;2Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA

  10. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 19, no. 6, pp.16 independent data banks,” Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 4,data,” Final Report of International Energy Agency Solar

  11. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation in Canada. Solar Energy ~, p.153. Threlkeld, J.L.pool. As the use of solar energy becomes more widespread,a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-heated swimming

  12. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  13. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  15. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Beckman, Solar Energy Thermal Processes (John Wiley & Sons,New York. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. John Duncan, C,

  16. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and operation of solar power plants and the model- ing offor application to solar ther- mal power plants energy

  17. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops   

  18. CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    READY BUILDINGS Solar access, easements, rights now and future Technical design ­ rCUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership Rooftop Solar Challenge 1 Sunshot #12;WASHINGTON PV CONTEXTWASHINGTON PV CONTEXT 285 cities, 39

  19. USA Science and Engineering Festival: Inspiring and Educating...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    USA Science and Engineering Festival: Inspiring and Educating the Clean Energy Workforce of Tomorrow USA Science and Engineering Festival: Inspiring and Educating the Clean Energy...

  20. Central solar energy receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  1. Heterogeneous Structure Around the Jemez Volcanic Field, New Mexico, USA,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to:Hershey, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources JumpHessen

  2. Solar Physics DOI: 10.1007/----

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Douglas C.

    magnetic indices are used to model the solar irradiance and ultimately to forecast it. However activity. Keywords: Helioseismology, Magnetic fields, Irradiance forecast 1. Introduction Photospheric and far-side maps. The Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) instrument, onboard SOHO, has been producing maps

  3. THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    over large fields, long times and many wave- lengths (heights) simultaneously -- Judge and Peter (1998THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN Sterrekundig Instituut, Postbus 80 000, NL­3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low

  4. STATIONARITY IN SOLAR WIND FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Balogh, A. E-mail: a.balogh@imperial.ac.u

    2010-05-01

    By using single-point measurements in space physics it is possible to study a phenomenon only as a function of time. This means that we cannot have direct access to information about spatial variations of a measured quantity. However, the investigation of the properties of turbulence and of related phenomena in the solar wind widely makes use of an approximation frequently adopted in hydrodynamics under certain conditions, the so-called Taylor hypothesis; indeed, the solar wind flow has a bulk velocity along the radial direction which is much higher than the velocity of a single turbulent eddy embedded in the main flow. This implies that the time of evolution of the turbulent features is longer than the transit time of the flow through the spacecraft position, so that the turbulent field can be considered frozen into the solar wind flow. This assumption allows one to easily associate time variations with spatial variations and stationarity to homogeneity. We have investigated, applying criteria for weak stationarity to Ulysses magnetic field data in different solar wind regimes, at which timescale and under which conditions the hypothesis of stationarity, and then of homogeneity, of turbulence in the solar wind is well justified. We extend the conclusions of previous studies by Matthaeus and Goldstein to different parameter ranges in the solar wind. We conclude that the stationarity assumption in the inertial range of turbulence on timescales of 10 minutes to 1 day is reasonably satisfied in fast and uniform solar wind flows, but that in mixed, interacting fast, and slow solar wind streams the assumption is frequently only marginally valid.

  5. Stability and mode analysis of solar coronal loops using thermodynamic irreversible energy principles II. Modes in twisted non--isothermal magnetic field configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Costa; R. Gonzalez

    2008-07-10

    We study the stability and the modes of non -- isothermal coronal loop models with different intensity values of the equilibrium twisted magnetic field.We use an energy principle obtained via non -- equilibrium thermodynamic arguments. The principle is expressed in terms of Hermitian operators and allows to consider together the coupled system of equations: the balance of energy equation and the equation of motion, to obtain modes and eigenmodes in a spectrum ranging from short to long--wavelength disturbances without having to use weak varying approximations of the equilibrium parameters. Long--wavelength perturbations introduce additional difficulties because the inhomogeneous nature of the medium determines disturbances leading to continuous intervals of eigenfrequencies which cannot be considered as purely sinusoidal.We analyze the modification of periods, modes structure and stability when the helicity, the magnetic field strength and the radius of the fluxtube are varied. The efficiency of the damping due to the resonant absorption mechanism is analyzed in a context of modes that can either impulsively release or storage magnetic energy.We find that the onset of the instability is associated to a critical value of the helicity and that the magnetic energy content has a determinant role on the instability of the system with respect to the stabilizing effect of the resonant absorption mechanism.

  6. SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University.................................................................................................. 2 2.2 Solar Radiation Data for Calculating Solar Energy Resource .................... 3 3 Campus.1 Evaluation of Suitability for Solar Energy Generation................................ 12 4.2 Solar

  7. Statistical analysis of solar irradiation in a distributed microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, James Patrick

    2010-01-01

    builds upon previous research in this field by analyzing 1-second solarrelated to solar PV power output. This paper will build upon

  8. Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Download Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF SWERA UNEP atmospheric water v... solar Additional Info Field Value Source www.nrel.gov Author National Renewable...

  9. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2014-01-07

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  10. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  11. Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. H. Robertson

    2006-02-05

    Experimental work with solar neutrinos has illuminated the properties of neutrinos and tested models of how the sun produces its energy. Three experiments continue to take data, and at least seven are in various stages of planning or construction. In this review, the current experimental status is summarized, and future directions explored with a focus on the effects of a non-zero theta-13 and the interesting possibility of directly testing the luminosity constraint. Such a confrontation at the few-percent level would provide a prediction of the solar irradiance tens of thousands of years in the future for comparison with the present-day irradiance. A model-independent analysis of existing low-energy data shows good agreement between the neutrino and electromagnetic luminosities at the +/- 20 % level.

  12. Solar Blog

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesAVideo »ServicesShaleEnergyValleySolar Access

  13. EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA December 10, 2010 EIS-0449:...

  14. San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  15. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  16. SOLAR MODELS WITH ACCRETION. I. APPLICATION TO THE SOLAR ABUNDANCE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOLAR MODELS WITH ACCRETION. I. APPLICATION TO THE SOLAR ABUNDANCE PROBLEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SOLAR MODELS WITH ACCRETION. I. APPLICATION TO THE SOLAR...

  17. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  18. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

  19. Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  20. Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  1. Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

  2. Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  3. The Solar Dynamo I M.R.E.Proctor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Solar Dynamo I M.R.E.Proctor DAMTP, University of Cambridge Leeds, 6 September 2005 #12;2 Indicators of the Solar Cycle: Sunspots ·Cyclical behaviour of the Sun is shown by the evolution of sunspots magnetic field (~3000G) ·Axes of bipolar spots tilted by ~4 deg with respect to equator ·Part of the solar

  4. Rank Quantization Mountain View, CA, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    Rank Quantization Ravi Kumar Google Mountain View, CA, USA ravi.k53@gmail.com Ronny Lempel Yahoo and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post

  5. USA oilgas production cost : recent changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1991-01-01

    During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

  6. USA Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5336)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that USA Manufacturing failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  7. Hisense USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-1211)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Hisense USA Corp. failed to certify a variety of residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  8. , Effect Publishing, New York, USA, 1991 , Hermitage Publishing, New Jersey, USA, 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karpovsky, Mark

    , 1995 « », , -, 1996 « », -, 1999 «», -, 2003 «», , , 2005 and hints at manifestations of the metaphysical." ("World Literature Today" , Automn, 1995, USA) « . ». ( , 6 ., 1995, ) « «» , , «» , « ». , ...». (, 12, 1995

  9. Piezo-phototronics effect on nano/microwire solar cells Yan Zhang, Ya Yang and Zhong Lin Wang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    the solar cell performance: developing new energy efficient materials and designing new structures non-central symmetric wurtzite structure, and they are important optoelectronic materials for solar of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245, USA. E

  10. Design and Characterization of a Novel Battery-less, Solar Powered Wireless Tag for Enhanced-Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Design and Characterization of a Novel Battery-less, Solar Powered Wireless Tag for Enhanced Georgia Electronic Design Center/ECE, Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA 1 Rushi.Vyas@gatech.edu Abstract-- In this paper, a novel wireless "Battery-less Solar Powered Wireless Tag" with an enhanced range

  11. An Experimental Review of Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanne R. Wilson

    2015-04-16

    Solar neutrinos have been the subject of experimental study for almost half a century. The initial aim was '...to see into the interior of a star and thus verify directly the hypothesis of nuclear energy generation in stars'. Since then the field has advanced a long way. This article reviews what we have learnt from solar neutrinos to date, the current experimental status of the field, and the finer details of solar models and precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters that could be probed with this free source of extra-terrestrial particles.

  12. An Experimental Review of Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Jeanne R

    2015-01-01

    Solar neutrinos have been the subject of experimental study for almost half a century. The initial aim was '...to see into the interior of a star and thus verify directly the hypothesis of nuclear energy generation in stars'. Since then the field has advanced a long way. This article reviews what we have learnt from solar neutrinos to date, the current experimental status of the field, and the finer details of solar models and precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters that could be probed with this free source of extra-terrestrial particles.

  13. Nuclear Magnetohydrodynamic EMP, Solar Storms, and Substorms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabinowitz, M; Glytsis, E N; Cokkinides, G J; Rabinowitz, Mario; Glytsis, Elias N.; Cokkinides, George J.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to a fast electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high altitude nuclear burst produces a relatively slow magnetohydrodynarnic EMP (MHD EMP), whose effects are like those from solar storm geomagnetically induced currents (SS GIC). The MHD EMP electric field E 10^-2 V/m and lasts >10^3 sec. Although the solar storm electric field is lower than MHD EMP, the solar storm effects are generally greater due to their much longer duration. Substorms produce much smaller effects than SS GIC, but occur much more frequently. This paper describes the physics of such geomagnetic disturbances and analyzes their effects.

  14. Nuclear Magnetohydrodynamic EMP, Solar Storms, and Substorms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz; A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos; Elias N. Glytsis; George J. Cokkinides

    2003-07-12

    In addition to a fast electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high altitude nuclear burst produces a relatively slow magnetohydrodynarnic EMP (MHD EMP), whose effects are like those from solar storm geomagnetically induced currents (SS GIC). The MHD EMP electric field E 10^-2 V/m and lasts >10^3 sec. Although the solar storm electric field is lower than MHD EMP, the solar storm effects are generally greater due to their much longer duration. Substorms produce much smaller effects than SS GIC, but occur much more frequently. This paper describes the physics of such geomagnetic disturbances and analyzes their effects.

  15. Solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brin, Raymond L. (Cedar Crest, NM); Pace, Thomas L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  16. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2013-05-29

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  17. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2012-01-01

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  18. Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Pena-Garay; Aldo Serenelli

    2008-11-16

    Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (new) solar metallicity determinations. The uncertainties in iron and carbon abundances are the largest contribution to the uncertainties of the solar neutrino fluxes. The uncertainty on the ^14N+p -> ^15O+g rate is the largest of the non-composition uncertainties to the CNO neutrino fluxes. We propose an independent method to help identify which SSM is the correct one. Present neutrino data can not distinguish the solar neutrino predictions of both models but ongoing measurements can help to solve the puzzle.

  19. Dating of Sand Dunes Using Cosmogenic Chlorine-36: An Example From the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zreda, Marek

    Dating of Sand Dunes Using Cosmogenic Chlorine-36: An Example From the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA Stephen Moysey, Marek Zreda and Jim Goeke The large-scale mobility of sand dunes in continental dune of the history of a dune field can therefore, provide a proxy climate record derived from the continental plains

  20. Since 2003, the L'Oral USA For Women in Science fellowship program has awarded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Dong S.

    . L'ORÉAL USA FOR WOMEN IN SCIENCE FELLOWSHIP In the United States, the For Women in Science for their contributions in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields and commitment to serving as role's application and peer-review process. #12;

  1. Flows and Non-thermal Velocities in Solar Active Regions Observed with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode: A Tracer of Active Region Sources of Heliospheric Magnetic Fields?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. A. Doschek; H. P. Warren; J. T. Mariska; K. Muglach; J. L. Culhane; H. Hara; T Watanabe

    2008-07-17

    From Doppler velocity maps of active regions constructed from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft we observe large areas of outflow (20-50 km/s) that can persist for at least a day. These outflows occur in areas of active regions that are faint in coronal spectral lines formed at typical quiet Sun and active region temperatures. The outflows are positively correlated with non-thermal velocities in coronal plasmas. The bulk mass motions and non-thermal velocities are derived from spectral line centroids and line widths, mostly from a strong line of Fe XII at 195.12 Angstroms. The electron temperature of the outflow regions estimated from an Fe XIII to Fe XII line intensity ratio is about 1.2-1.4 MK. The electron density of the outflow regions derived from a density sensitive intensity ratio of Fe XII lines is rather low for an active region. Most regions average around 7E10+8 cm(-3), but there are variations on pixel spatial scales of about a factor of 4. We discuss results in detail for two active regions observed by EIS. Images of active regions in line intensity, line width, and line centroid are obtained by rastering the regions. We also discuss data from the active regions obtained from other orbiting spacecraft that support the conclusions obtained from analysis of the EIS spectra. The locations of the flows in the active regions with respect to the longitudinal photospheric magnetic fields suggest that these regions might be tracers of long loops and/or open magnetic fields that extend into the heliosphere, and thus the flows could possibly contribute significantly to the solar wind.

  2. Everything under the sun: A review of solar neutrinos

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gann, Gabriel D. Orebi

    2015-07-15

    Solar neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of neutrinos with matter, a sensitive search for potential new physics effects, and a probe of solar structure and solar system formation. This paper describes the broad physics program addressed by solar neutrino studies, presents the current suite of experiments programs, and describes several potential future detectors that could address the open questions in this field. This paper is a summary of a talk presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference in Boston.

  3. Everything Under the Sun: A Review of Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. D. Orebi Gann

    2015-04-10

    Solar neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of neutrinos with matter, a sensitive search for potential new physics effects, and a probe of solar structure and solar system formation. This paper describes the broad physics program addressed by solar neutrino studies, presents the current suite of experiments programs, and describes several potential future detectors that could address the open questions in this field. This paper is a summary of a talk presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference in Boston.

  4. Received 13 May 2013 | Accepted 18 Nov 2013 | Published 16 Dec 2013 All-back-contact ultra-thin silicon nanocone solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    , Stanford, California 94305, USA. 3 Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National, Stanford, California 94305, USA. 2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University-thin silicon nanocone solar cells with 13.7% power conversion efficiency Sangmoo Jeong1, Michael D. McGehee2

  5. Solar Decathlon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy Smooth BromeBuildings |Solar PoolU.S. Department

  6. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    grids,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2011, 95(5),layer,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013, 113,thickness,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013,

  7. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    grids,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2011, 95(5),thickness,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013,analysis,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, [130] J.

  8. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Program Info...

  9. Solar Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  10. copyright 2004 by Elsevier Science (USA) All Rights Reserved copyright 2004 by Elsevier Science (USA) All Rights Reserved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spruth, Wilhelm G.

    copyright 2004 by Elsevier Science (USA) All Rights Reserved copyright 2004 by Elsevier Science (USA) All Rights Reserved copyright 2004 by Elsevier Science (USA) All Rights Reserved copyright 2004 . An vervie o irt l chine Architect res #12; opyright 2004 by Elsevier S ien e (USA) All Rights

  11. Reduced MHD in Nearly Potential Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strauss, Hank

    Reduced MHD in Nearly Potential Magnetic Fields H.R. Strauss Courant Institute of Mathematical that the magnetic field is close to a potential field. The potential field can have an arbitrary three dimensional. It is also the case in solar and stellar coronal magnetic fields, and in regions of the geomagnetic field

  12. TRIPLE-JUNCTION A-SI SOLAR CELLS WITH HEAVILY DOPED THIN INTERFACE LAYERS AT THE TUNNEL W. Wang, H. Povolny, W. Du, X.B. Liao and X. Deng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    TRIPLE-JUNCTION A-SI SOLAR CELLS WITH HEAVILY DOPED THIN INTERFACE LAYERS AT THE TUNNEL JUNCTIONS W of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 USA ABSTRACT Triple-junction a-Si based solar cells, having a structure of SS cells and between the middle and bottom component cells on the efficiency of triple- junction solar

  13. Forecasting Solar Wind Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeru K. Suzuki

    2006-02-03

    By explicitly taking into account effects of Alfven waves, I derive from a simple energetics argument a fundamental relation which predicts solar wind (SW) speeds in the vicinity of the earth from physical properties on the sun. Kojima et al. recently found from their observations that a ratio of surface magnetic field strength to an expansion factor of open magnetic flux tubes is a good indicator of the SW speed. I show by using the derived relation that this nice correlation is an evidence of the Alfven wave which accelerates SW in expanding flux tubes. The observations further require that fluctuation amplitudes of magnetic field lines at the surface should be almost universal in different coronal holes, which needs to be tested by future observations.

  14. Sphere Light Field Rendering Zigang Wang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sphere Light Field Rendering Zigang Wang1 and Zhengrong Liang1,2 Departments of Radiology1 and Computer Science2 , State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA ABSTRACT Light field algorithm is one of the most famous image-based rendering techniques. In this paper, an improved light field

  15. Solar skylight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adamson, James C. (Osprey La., Rumson, NJ 07760)

    1984-01-01

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  16. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    basic bilayer CdTe/CdSe solar cells described above. Figurecomplete CdTe/CdSe nanocrystal solar cell (B). gap variationlength for CdSe-P3HT hybrid solar cells. (b) Current-voltage

  17. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    and William A. Beckman, Solar Energy Thermal Processes (JohnWiley, Inc" New York. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. John1977): SOLCOST, Solar Energy Design Program for Non-Thermal

  18. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Users in a zone with one solar measurement location shouldin California where solar data of one kind or another havelifetime of the solar heating system: one can expect to pay

  19. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recent

  20. Solar Energy Entrepreneurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region May 31, 2012 #12;Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region Meeting Objectives should attend if you.... · ... work in the solar energy market

  1. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    to create low-cost solar cells with performance andachieving stable and low-cost solar energy conversion.of large-scale solar power at low costs (1). The most

  2. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    to be supplied by solar, A cost analysis is not included.predict the performance and cost of solar energy systems forthe performance and costs of solar energy systems for

  3. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish themThe organic donor-acceptor solar cell relies on a type II

  4. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    storage in solar thermal applications," Applied Energy, pp.of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology," 2011. [26] R.C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energy

  5. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional

  6. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  7. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  8. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  9. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    ) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System CHEMICAL DIFFERENTIATION IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chemical choose from theoretical models, based on empirical constraints. Constraints: > surface, gravity field mostly consist of ice. beyond r 30 AU methane ice also persists. Volatiles: gas or liquid at room

  10. Solar wind drivers of large geomagnetically induced currents during the solar cycle 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    amplitudes. The best correlation with the GIC amplitudes was found with the solar wind electric field geomagnetically induced currents during the solar cycle 23, Space Weather, 6, S10002, doi:10.1029/2007SW000374. 1) in tech- nological conductor systems such as power grids or pipelines [e.g., Boteler, 2003; Pirjola, 2000

  11. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solaraided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsobesides MVC require thermal energy as their primary energy

  12. Solar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Sources Renewables Solar Solar July 13, 2015 The New York City College of Technology is weatherproofing its house, called DURA, at a Brooklyn Navy Yard construction...

  13. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  14. Solar Permitting Law

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation also addressed permitting fees for solar systems.  Counties and cities may not charge permit fees for solar permit applications specifically, but they can charge building permit ...

  15. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  16. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical modeling and validated with measurements using constructed prototypes under different solar intensities

  17. Your Solar Home

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Schoolhouse Education supplement for the Sacramento Bee to introduce solar to elementary school children and introduce the design and AD contest for local students.

  18. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    from industries or solar collectors 1.2.2 Multi-stage FlashWilliams Large area solar collector Desalination Process

  19. Solar Energy Technologies Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2011, the Energy Department's Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) became the SunShot Initiative, a collaborative national effort that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy...

  20. Solar cycle changes in coronal holes and space weather cycles J. G. Luhmann,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar cycle changes in coronal holes and space weather cycles J. G. Luhmann,1 Y. Li,1 C. N. Arge,2-heliolatitude solar wind over approximately the last three solar cycles. Related key parameters like interplanetary explain solar magnetic field control of long-term interplanetary variations. In particular, the enduring

  1. Solar Phys (2009) 256: 345363 DOI 10.1007/s11207-009-9345-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    2009-01-01

    Solar Phys (2009) 256: 345­363 DOI 10.1007/s11207-009-9345-6 STEREO SCIENCE RESULTS AT SOLAR MINIMUM Effects of the Weak Polar Fields of Solar Cycle 23: Investigation Using OMNI for the STEREO(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The current solar cycle

  2. Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren Østergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre Søren Østergaard Jensen and Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre, Danish Technological Institute

  3. The Astrophysical Journal, 720:548554, 2010 September 1 doi:10.1088/0004-637X/720/1/548 C 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandran, Ben

    of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA; benjamin.chandran@unh.edu Received 2010 April in the velocity, magnetic field, and electric field are often present in the interplanetary medium, with power

  4. The Astrophysical Journal, 501:L213L216, 1998 July 10 1998. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF HEATING PROCESSES IN THE QUIET SOLAR of the Sun. The emission measure is found to vary significantly in at least 85% of all the pixels within 42 the observed increases in emission measure and the derived temperature. Heating events have been found

  5. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 504 : 9961001, 1998 September 10 1998. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahcall, John

    Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. ( SCREENING IN THERMONUCLEAR REACTION RATES IN THE SUN+ect of electrostatic screening by ions and electrons on low­Z thermonuclear reac­ tions in the Sun. We use a mean Ðeld devoted to calculating more accurately the e+ects on the rates of solar fusion reactions of electrostatic

  6. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 504:9961001, 1998 September 10 1998. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.(

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahcall, John

    . All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.( SCREENING IN THERMONUCLEAR REACTION RATES IN THE SUN ANDREI V by ions and electrons on low-Z thermonuclear reac- tions in the Sun. We use a mean Ðeld formalism devoted to calculating more accurately the eects on the rates of solar fusion reactions of electrostatic

  7. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 545:11161123, 2000 December 20 2000. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.(

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.( CORRELATION OF MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL PARAMETERS ABSTRACT We present the analysis of 27 solar Ñares with multiple peaks that were observed at hard X-ray and microwave wavelengths. A total of 57 simultaneous peaks were observed by BATSE (hard X-rays) and Owens

  8. THE SECULAR EVOLUTION OF THE PRIMORDIAL KUIPER BELT. J. M. Hahn, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston TX 77058, USA, (hahn@lpi.usra.edu).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    THE SECULAR EVOLUTION OF THE PRIMORDIAL KUIPER BELT. J. M. Hahn, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston TX 77058, USA, (hahn@lpi.usra.edu). The Kuiper Belt is a vast swarm of comets orbiting at the Solar System's outer edge. This Belt is comprised of debris that was left over from the epoch of planet

  9. Solar in Cold, Cloudy Climates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation delivered by Chuck Marken during the 2009 Northeastern Solar Cities Conference Solar Survey session.

  10. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    2007). Global Concentrated Solar Power Markets andLLC. (2007). Global Concentrated Solar Power Markets and

  11. Solar for All: A Community Solar Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability U.S.A. presents the second part of the Members’ Webinar Series highlighting best practices and innovative local solutions from the ICLEI member network....

  12. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10): 1728-1723,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39. Sima, C.Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (

  13. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    glass contact Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10):cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39.potential of these materials for solar energy conversion,

  14. Magneto-Vortex Dynamo Model in Solar convection zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey V. Ershkov

    2011-01-06

    Here is presented a new magneto-vortex dynamo model for modeling & predicting of a processes in Solar plasma convection zone. Solar convection zone is located above the level r > 0,6-0,7 R, where R is a Solar radius. A key feature of such a model is that equation of Solar plasma motion as well as equation of magnetic fields evolution - are reduced to Helmholtz's vortex equation, which is up-graded in according with alpha-effect (Coriolis force forms an additional vorticity field or magnetic field due to Sun's differential rotation). Such an additional vorticity or magnetic field are proved to be concentrated at the proper belt in Solar convection zone under the influence of Coriolis force (at the middle latitudes of the Sun in respect to equator). Besides, such an an additional vorticity & magnetic fields are to be the basic sources of well-known phenomena "Maunder's butterfly" diagram.

  15. H2USA | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting Oversight CommitteeandEnergyPub.USA H2USA

  16. Solar neutrinos and neutrino physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Maltoni; Alexei Yu. Smirnov

    2015-08-11

    Solar neutrino studies triggered and largely motivated the major developments in neutrino physics in the last 50 years. Theory of neutrino propagation in different media with matter and fields has been elaborated. It includes oscillations in vacuum and matter, resonance flavor conversion and resonance oscillations, spin and spin-flavor precession, etc. LMA MSW has been established as the true solution of the solar neutrino problem. Parameters theta12 and Delta_m21^2 have been measured; theta13 extracted from the solar data is in agreement with results from reactor experiments. Solar neutrino studies provide a sensitive way to test theory of neutrino oscillations and conversion. Characterized by long baseline, huge fluxes and low energies they are a powerful set-up to search for new physics beyond the standard 3nu paradigm: new neutrino states, sterile neutrinos, non-standard neutrino interactions, effects of violation of fundamental symmetries, new dynamics of neutrino propagation, probes of space and time. These searches allow us to get stringent, and in some cases unique bounds on new physics. We summarize the results on physics of propagation, neutrino properties and physics beyond the standard model obtained from studies of solar neutrinos.

  17. A Science White Paper submitted in response to the 2010 Decadal Survey Call Solar Dynamo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simitev, Radostin D

    A Science White Paper submitted in response to the 2010 Decadal Survey Call Solar Dynamo A-mail: sasha@sun.stanford.edu #12;Solar Dynamo 1 Overview It is generally accepted that cosmic magnetic fields are essentially the same. The solar magnetism is studied in great details, from global fields of the interior

  18. Dynamic Magnetography of Solar Flaring Loops Gregory D. Fleishman1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) demonstrated that the mean magnetic field in a solar flare derived from the microwave spectrum yields resultsDynamic Magnetography of Solar Flaring Loops Gregory D. Fleishman1,2 , Gelu M. Nita1 , Dale E. Gary with shaking, which allows the derivation of the magnetic field and other parameters along a solar flaring loop

  19. CALLISTO - A new concept for solar radio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Christian Monstein; HAnsueli Meyer

    2004-10-19

    A new radio spectrometer, CALLISTO, is presented. It is a dual-channel frequency-agile receiver based on commercially available consumer electronics. Its major characteristic is the low price for hardware and software, and the short assembly time, both two or more orders of magnitude below existing spectrometers. The instrument is sensitive at the physical limit and extremely stable. The total bandwidth is 825 MHz, and the width of individual channels is 300 kHz. A total of 1000 measurements can be made per second. The spectrometer is well suited for solar low-frequency radio observations pertinent to space weather research. Five instruments of the type were constructed until now and put into operation at several sites, including Bleien (Zurich) and NRAO (USA). First results in the 45 - 870 MHz range are presented. Some of them were recorded in a preliminary setup during the time of high solar activity in October and November 2003.

  20. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavin, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Olympic Peninsula, Washington (USA). Ecological Monographs,gradients, Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA. Holocene, 15,forests, Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA. Holocene, 11,

  1. Solar Policy Environment: Houston

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Houston is committed to achieving a sustainable solar infrastructure through strategic partnerships that address market barriers for solar energy through the Houston Solar Initiative. The initiative is dedicated to this long-term goal while focusing on near- and mid-term results that go beyond demonstration solar projects.

  2. Solar Policy Environment: Sacramento

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Sacramento and the greater Sacramento region is the home of a long standing history of commitment to solar. Sacramento Solar Access seeks to further widespread adoption of solar energy by addressing current market barriers and preparing, through design guidelines and education, the infrastructure that will optimize solar production in the future.

  3. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viorel Badescu; Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2007-07-21

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with hydrogeology and some hydromancy. We estimate its cost at 1 billion dollars - about 0.01 per sent of the USA 2007 Gross Domestic Product.

  4. Region Solar Inc Solar Inc California Renewable Energy Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Lexington Massachusetts Solar Developer of technologies for enhancing PV efficiency including new cell wiring and wafer packaging systems http www tech com Soltech Inc...

  5. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  6. Fifteenth DOE solar photochemistry research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The annual Solar Photochemistry Research Conference brings together contractors and grantees of the Division of Chemical Sciences engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion to exchange information on recently completed studies, research in progress, and future plans. The meeting also provided an opportunity for interested representatives of government and industry to assess the current status of the field. The program encompassed the themes of photoelectrochemistry, organic and inorganic photochemistry, supramolecular assemblies, solvent effects on electron transfer, and photosynthesis. This year, in an effort to provide an overview on solar photochemical energy conversion to new participants and to foster a cohesive approach in problem solving, a panel discussion was added, in which the panelists addressed the current status of the field and identified propitious pathways in solar photochemistry.

  7. Nuclear magnetohydrodynamic EMP, solar storms, and substorms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinowitz, M. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Meliopoulous, A.P.S.; Glytsis, E.N. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical Engineering); Cokkinides, G.J. (Electrical Engineering Dept., Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))

    1992-10-20

    In addition to a fast electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high altitude nuclear burst produces a relatively slow magnetohydrodynamic EMP (MHD EMP), whose effects are like those from solar storm geomagnetically induced currents (SS-GIC). The MHD EMP electric field E [approx lt] 10[sup [minus] 1] V/m and lasts [approx lt] 10[sup 2] sec, whereas for solar storms E [approx gt] 10[sup [minus] 2] V/m and lasts [approx gt] 10[sup 3] sec. Although the solar storm electric field is lower than MHD EMP, the solar storm effects are generally greater due to their much longer duration. Substorms produce much smaller effects than SS-GIC, but occur much more frequently. This paper describes the physics of such geomagnetic disturbances and analyzes their effects.

  8. Norfolk, Virginia USA DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yaohang

    academic & research positions after graduation research digital library web science & Michael L. Nelson wwwNorfolk, Virginia USA #12;DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE http://www.cs.odu.edu 22 FACULTY MEMBERS 8 strategies Interactive assessment of reading strategies Use of games in tutoring #12;· web science, social

  9. IEEE Energy2030 Atlanta, GA USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    of an aggregation of battery vehicles for the provision of frequency regulation ­ requiring very fast response timesIEEE Energy2030 Atlanta, GA USA 17-18 November, 2008 Design of a Conceptual Framework for the V2G in common is the batteries, which provide good storage capacity that can be effectively integrated

  10. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-01-01

    colorants. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, [30]materials. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, [31] NRELmeasurements. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 89:319–

  11. Solar Policy Environment: Pittsburgh

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, Pittsburgh plans to build on its reputation as a national leader in green practices. Its Solar America Cities project will develop a distributed approach to adoption of solar energy technologies. Pittsburgh’s partnership includes universities, non-profit organizations, and business, labor and foundation communities. The city plans to transform the solar energy market and stimulate early adoption of solar technology, to show that solar technology works in a northern city.

  12. Solar collector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  13. International French-USA Workshop Toward Low Power Spintronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Paul H.

    International French-USA Workshop Toward Low Power Spintronic Devices International French-USA Workshop Toward Low Power Spintronic DevicesToward Low Power Spintronic DevicesToward Low Power Spintronic

  14. International French-USA Workshop Toward Low Power Spintronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Paul H.

    International French-USA Workshop Toward Low Power Spintronic Devices International French-USA Workshop Toward Low Power Spintronic Devices July 8th - 12th , 2013 La Jolla, CaliforniaJuly 8th - 12th

  15. Smeg USA: Order (2011-CE-14/1909)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Smeg USA, Inc. to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Smeg USA had failed to certify that certain models of dishwashers and refrigerators comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  16. DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered DuraLamp USA, Inc. to pay a $2,500 civil penalty after finding DuraLamp USA had failed to certify that model PAR 30, an incandescent reflector lamp, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  17. Theory of solar luminosity variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. C. Spruit

    2000-03-03

    The theory of stellar structure can be used to identify the most plausible mechanisms for the irradiance variations associated with the solar cycle. Changes in surface emissivity, i.e. the reduced cooling in spots and enhanced emission by small scale magnetic fields, are the most effective mechanisms and account for most of the observed variation. Helioseismology will soon be able to test the consequences of changes in surface emissivity, and distinguish them from other scenarios for irradiance variability.

  18. Solar paint: From synthesis to printing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick; Dastoor, Paul

    2014-11-13

    Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint) offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. We review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV) devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of solar cells based on this technology.

  19. Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klima, Peter Miloslaw

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal...

  20. The Sun's interior structure and dynamics, and the solar cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broomhall, A -M; Howe, R; Norton, A A; Thompson, M J

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's internal structure and dynamics can be studied with helioseismology, which uses the Sun's natural acoustic oscillations to build up a profile of the solar interior. We discuss how solar acoustic oscillations are affected by the Sun's magnetic field. Careful observations of these effects can be inverted to determine the variations in the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior as the solar cycle progresses. Observed variations in the structure and dynamics can then be used to inform models of the solar dynamo, which are crucial to our understanding of how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and maintained.

  1. Ordred-Modification (1) SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    C-7-2 SOL SOLAR 3 (1) SOLAR (2) (3) (1) SOL Ordred-Modification SOLAR CF SOLAR (2) BDD EM PRISM (3) CF SOLAR () (1) SOLAR SOLAR 2008 2011 20240016 Inference-based Hypothesis-finding and its Application to Systems Biology

  2. QUANTIFICATION OF LOSSES IN THIN-FILM CdS/CdTe SOLAR CELLS S.H. Demtsu and J.R. Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    QUANTIFICATION OF LOSSES IN THIN-FILM CdS/CdTe SOLAR CELLS S.H. Demtsu and J.R. Sites Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA ABSTRACT Quantification of solar cell Thin-film CdS/CdTe devices have been studied extensively, but some basic underlying properties

  3. Sandia Energy - Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Solar...

  4. The Astrophysical Journal, 654: L163L166, 2007 January 10 2007. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roussev, Ilia I.

    successfully reproduce the mass flux from Sun to Earth, the temperature structure, and the large the asymptotic solar wind speed with the assumed distribution of the polytropic index on the solar surface. We: interplanetary medium -- methods: numerical -- MHD -- solar wind -- Sun: evolution -- Sun: magnetic fields 1

  5. The Astrophysical Journal, 563:L183L186, 2001 December 20 2001. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    INHIBIT SOLAR PROMINENCE ERUPTIONS J. Freddy Hansen and Paul M. Bellan Department of Applied Physics November 16; published 2001 December 12 ABSTRACT It has been conjectured that the eruption of a solar strapping field acts on a scaled simulation of a solar prominence. The required magnitude of the strapping

  6. The Astrophysical Journal, 595:L57L61, 2003 September 20 2003. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    the three-dimensional structure of the solar wind under steady state conditions. The initial potential the global structure of the heliosphere under realistic conditions. The initial magnetic field at the solar reproduced the global structure of the outer solar corona, 1 Center for Space Environment Modeling

  7. Solar Design Workbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  8. xtreme space weather storms are driven by solar activity, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheatland, Michael S.

    magnetic fields (with field strengths up to 3000 gauss, or 0.3 tesla) emerge into the overlying atmosphere://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/SunspotCycle.shtml #12;The magnetic fields are generated inside the Sun by a "solar dynamo" driven by solar rotation, or of magnitude 10­4 tesla) and predominantly of one sign at the north pole and predominantly the opposite sign

  9. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    1999). Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization,Basic Energy Science Advisory Committe (BESAC), (2005),and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 94 (

  10. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  11. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    IRS 2009). 57 By funding amount, solar accounted for 21% orto 2008. In addition, funding to solar companies increasedfor solar installation technicians by providing funding to

  12. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACEVEDO-ARREGUIN, LUIS ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    4.3 A “solar” model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of the solar tachocline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pro?le needed to recover the solar ? pro?le in our numerical

  13. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.

  14. SOLAR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    for Conservation and Solar Applications of the U.S.~ the Fifth National Passive Solar Conference, University ofInsulation- Proceedings the Solar Glazing Conference,

  15. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    which uses solar energy to generate electricity." Like otherwhich uses solar energy to generate electricity” qualifiesenergy technologies, solar PV creates the most jobs per unit of electricity

  16. Utah Solar Outlook March 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of Utah's solar market, policy initiatives, and progress to date on the Solar America Cities Project: Solar Salt Lake.

  17. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    10MW Thin Film Solar Power Plant for Sempra Generation. ”2009). “Concentrating solar power plants of the southwest1.11. Concentrating solar power plants of the southwest

  18. Solar Impulsive Energetic Electron Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Linghua

    2009-01-01

    Deduced from Impulsive Solar Flare Particles, Astrophys.the Propagation of Solar-Flare Electrons in Interplanetary,1995), The nature of solar flares associated with coronal

  19. Solar Impulsive Energetic Electron Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Linghua

    2009-01-01

    coronal mass ejections and solar energetic proton events, J.Voyager observations of solar wind proton temperature:1- 10Howard (2004), Variability of solar eruptions during cycle

  20. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    National Laboratories Solar Renewable Energy CertificateCSP Of all the renewable resources, solar is by far the mostal. New Jersey announced its Solar Renewable Energy Credit

  1. Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Senate Bill 1 of 2006, which established the statewide California Solar Initiative, also required the California Energy Commission (CEC) to implement regulations that require sellers of production...

  2. EA-1784: Fotowatio Nevada Solar, LLC's Apex Solar Power Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    84: Fotowatio Nevada Solar, LLC's Apex Solar Power Project in Clark County, NV EA-1784: Fotowatio Nevada Solar, LLC's Apex Solar Power Project in Clark County, NV July 1, 2010...

  3. Solar Goes Big: Launching the California Valley Solar Ranch ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Goes Big: Launching the California Valley Solar Ranch Solar Goes Big: Launching the California Valley Solar Ranch October 31, 2013 - 4:14pm Addthis The California Valley...

  4. EIS-0454: Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS-0454: Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project in Nye County, NV EIS-0454: Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project in Nye County, NV Documents...

  5. SolarTech: Sun Sets on Yesterday's Solar Permitting Practices...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SolarTech: Sun Sets on Yesterday's Solar Permitting Practices SolarTech: Sun Sets on Yesterday's Solar Permitting Practices October 1, 2012 - 3:26pm Addthis Lengthy reviews, high...

  6. Could Solar Energy Storage be Key for Residential Solar? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Could Solar Energy Storage be Key for Residential Solar? Could Solar Energy Storage be Key for Residential Solar? October 26, 2010 - 4:52pm Addthis This is the silent power storage...

  7. Heterogeneous Structure Around the Jemez Volcanic Field, New...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Field, New Mexico, USA, as Inferred from the Envelope Inversion of Active-Experiment Seismic Data Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  8. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-12-10

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (?11%), temperature (?40%), thermal pressure (?55%), mass flux (?34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (?41%), energy flux (?48%), IMF magnitude (?31%), and radial component of the IMF (?38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ?1.4 nPa, compared to ?2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ?11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  9. Rooftop Solar Potential Distributed Solar Power in NW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Rooftop Solar Potential Distributed Solar Power in NW Massoud Jourabchi June 2013 1 Renewables;3 Regional Growth In Solar Energy Consumption Solar consumption both Thermal and PV h b t d i i lhas been on steady increase since early 1990s. From 2000-2010 Solar PV grow at annual rate of 13% and solar thermal

  10. BIG BEAR SOLAR OBSERVATORY CENTER FOR SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIG BEAR SOLAR OBSERVATORY CENTER FOR SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH Faculty Position in Solar Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology A tenure track faculty position in solar physics is available of NJIT's program in solar physics, visit http://solar.njit.edu. Applicants are required to have a Ph

  11. Solar Impulsive Energetic Electron Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Linghua

    2009-01-01

    Study of Solar Electron Events over one Solar Cycle …… 3.1occurrence vary over one solar cycle? How is the correlationevents measured over one solar cycle, to address the

  12. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    Solar Completes 10MW Thin Film Solar Power Plant for SempraT. ; (2008) Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and2009). “Concentrating solar power plants of the southwest

  13. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  14. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,

  15. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, BasicS. Pillai and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and SolarPlasmonic conversion of solar energy César Clavero Plasma

  16. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 Solar Technologies Market Report NOVEMBER 2011 #12;ii #12;iii 2010 Solar Technologies Market Solar Power ........................1 1.1 Global Installed PV Capacity ........................................................................................................................................18 2 Industry Trends, Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power ...........................21 2.1 PV

  17. Bright Ideas in Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melville, Jo

    2014-01-01

    output of 300 megawatts, though Solar Thermal Energy (STE).Solar Thermal Energy is solar it is expected to reach 550This class of solar thermal energy collection, known as a

  18. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    requisite, for solar energy conversion based on the donor-stable and low-cost solar energy conversion. Supplementalsolar cells blending organic semiconductors and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion

  19. Solar 2015 Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The American Solar Energy Society is hosting a three-day conference where attendees can share sustainable energy ideas and network with other clean energy professionals who are driving solar change...

  20. CT Solar Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CT Solar Lease allows homeowners to lease a photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal system, with fixed monthly payments, for a term of 20 years, at no upfront down payment.* This program, which takes...

  1. Junior Solar Sprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Junior Solar Sprint Overview The Junior Solar Sprint (JSS) Car Competition is a classroom-based, hands-on educational program for 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. Student teams...

  2. Solar 2015 Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar 2015 Conference is a three-day conference where attendees can share sustainable energy ideas and network with other clean energy professionals who are driving solar change and industry innovation.

  3. LADWP- Solar Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's (LADWP) Solar Incentive Program began in 2000, with a funding level of $150 million. The California Solar Initiative, created in 2007 upon the...

  4. Solar Construction Permitting Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Owners of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heating systems in Colorado are required to obtain a building permit before their systems may be installed. Permits are handled at the l...

  5. Anchorage Solar Tour

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Alaska Center for Appropriate Technology has partnered with the American Solar Energy Society to share how solar energy is being used and developed in Alaska communities. Tours take place in Fairbanks, Mat Su, Kenai, and Anchorage.

  6. Alaska Solar Energy Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Solar Energy Workshop is a forum to exchange ideas and information about best practices, performance of systems in the arctic, project development and financing, and lessons learned about solar energy.

  7. Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of...

  8. Solar Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  9. REAP Anchorage Solar Tour

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Alaska Center for Appropriate Technology has partnered with the American Solar Energy Society to share how solar energy is being used and developed in Alaska communities. Tours take place in...

  10. The solar wind interaction with Mars: Recent progress and future directions The Sun has a powerful influence on planetary atmospheres.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Editorial The solar wind interaction with Mars: Recent progress and future directions The Sun has field, because the solar wind can interact directly with the upper atmo- sphere. Neutral particles in the upper atmosphere are ionized by solar photons and through interactions with solar wind charged particles

  11. Initial Observations of Sunspot Oscillations Excited by Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Kosovichev; T. Sekii

    2007-10-09

    Observations of a large solar flare of December 13, 2006, using Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode spacecraft revealed high-frequency oscillations excited by the flare in the sunspot chromosphere. These oscillations are observed in the region of strong magnetic field of the sunspot umbra, and may provide a new diagnostic tool for probing the structure of sunspots and understanding physical processes in solar flares.

  12. Prospects of solar magnetometry - from ground and in space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleint, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of observing facilities for solar research, which are planned or will come to operation in near future. We concentrate on facilities, which harbor specific potential for solar magnetometry. We describe the challenges and science goals of future magnetic measurements, the status of magnetic field measurements at different major solar observatories, and provide an outlook on possible upgrades of future instrumentation.

  13. Solar Webinar Text Version

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download the text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on solar renewable energy.

  14. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACEVEDO-ARREGUIN, LUIS ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    years (from NASA). Prediction of solar weather from theseyears (from NASA). Prediction of solar weather from these

  15. Complex Magnetic Evolution and Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pevtsov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    Solar atmosphere is a single system unified by the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Topological changes in magnetic fields that occur in one place may have consequences for coronal heating and eruptions for other, even remote locations. Coronal magnetic fields also play role in transport of magnetic helicity from Sun's subphotosphere/upper convection zone to the interplanetary space. We discuss observational evidence pertinent to some aspects of the solar corona being a global interconnected system, i.e., large-scale coronal heating due to new flux emergence, eruption of chromospheric filament resulting from changes in magnetic topology triggered by new flux emergence, sunspots rotation as manifestation of transport of helicity through the photosphere, and potential consequences of re-distribution of energy from solar luminosity to the dynamo for solar cycle variations of solar irradiance.

  16. POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCHER Solar Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to availability of funding. Candidates must have expertise in solar physics, in particular the interpretation andPOSTDOCTORAL RESEARCHER Solar Physics A fixed-term postdoctoral research position tenable/or modelling of small-scale solar transient features. Expertise in the use of data from different instruments

  17. Solar Policy Environment: Milwaukee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Milwaukee’s SAC Initiative, Milwaukee Shines, works to reduce informational, economic and procedural barriers to the widespread adoption of solar energy systems. While the City of Milwaukee and its partners have demonstrated commitment and experience in implementing solar technologies, Milwaukee Shines aims to enhance these efforts and make solar a viable alternative throughout the region.

  18. Consumer Guide for Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MARC’s Consumer Guide to Solar provides answers to frequently asked questions, as well as guidance on how to get started with solar energy. The objective in creating this resource was to provide clear information to consumers in the Kansas City region who are interested in installing solar on their home or business.

  19. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  20. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2014-02-26

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.