Sample records for urban wood waste

  1. Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nailen, R. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recently, the Singer Furniture Co., Lenoir, N. Carolina, purchased a 450 kilowatt steam turbine/induction generator set to use extra steam - produced by 'free' waste wood fuel - in generating 15% of the plant's electrical energy demand. The turbine...

  2. Presentation 2.6: Wood waste for energy: lessons learnt from tropical regions Paul Vantomme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presentation 2.6: Wood waste for energy: lessons learnt from tropical regions Paul Vantomme of forest products with more value adding, and promoting the use of wood waste to increase energy efficiency to promote the use of wood waste for energy production. Not only the financial viability of the process needs

  3. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  4. Sustainable Decentralized Model for Solid Waste Management in Urban India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Sustainable Decentralized Model for Solid Waste Management in Urban India Hita Unnikrishnan, Brunda the sustenance of a decentralized solid waste management system in urban India. Towards this end, two a national legislation ­ the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) rules, 2000 (Ministry

  5. Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011 Fact 775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011...

  6. An evaluation of atmospheric evaporation for treating wood preserving wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shack, Pete A

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i. hat a constant rate of total organi carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewai. r was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant.... From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design con- siderations such as the input data, modifications to the design pro- cedure, solids accumulation...

  7. The treatment of wood preserving wastes with activated carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pence, Robert Fuller

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requirement and treatment schemes should be based on these combined requirements. Current treatment schemes employed in the wood preserving industry combine physical, chemical, and biological processes and operations in treating wastewaters. Jones, et al...-five of the plants performed secondary treatment on-site of which 32 used biological methods. Only 6 per- cent discharged their wastewaters directly to the environment without any form of treatment and approximately 40 percent of the plants planned to change...

  8. Decentralised composting of urban waste an overview of community and private initiatives in Indian cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Decentralised composting of urban waste ­ an overview of community and private initiatives Before Disposal`` and clearly stipulates composting as an option for organic waste treatment. It also recommends waste separation as prerequisite for treatment. Although various composting schemes of different

  9. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a coal, wood, and waste fired boiler system to serve two plants. This case history will document payback periods of less than three years; return on investments of 20% plus; benefits of North Carolina and federal investment tax credits; EPA...

  10. Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

  11. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  12. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  13. CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW February 2007 Available online 9 April 2007 Abstract Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential

  14. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  15. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shortage of affordable gas and oil boiler fuels and the recent Iran/Iraq war underscores the urgent need for the American industrial system to convert to domestically controlled fuels and particularly coal, wood, and waste. More talk than action...

  16. Evaluation of XRF and LIBS technologies for on-line sorting of CCA-treated wood waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Evaluation of XRF and LIBS technologies for on-line sorting of CCA-treated wood waste Helena M technologies evaluated included X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The XRF detector system utilized in this study was capable of rapidly detecting the presence

  17. Urban solid waste in southern countries: from a blurred object to common pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Urban solid waste in southern countries: from a blurred object to common pool resources Jérémie long that the question of the municipal solid waste management in developing cities has had elephants' have followed. Comprehending the solid waste handling in the South implies reconsidering

  18. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai, E-mail: liangsai09@gmail.com [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  19. Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper Science and Technology; Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper lignocellulosics to biodiesel fuel Feedstocks ABSTRACT This poster examines the potential of utilizing waste paper CelluloseHemicelluloseLigninResource Cracking and Refining of Polysaccharides Bio-Diesel Substitutes

  20. Exergy analysis of the Chartherm process for energy valorization and material recuperation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosmans, A., E-mail: anouk.bosmans@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Auweele, M. Vanden; Govaerts, J.; Helsen, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chartherm process (Thermya, Bordeaux, France) is a thermochemical conversion process to treat chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wood waste. The process aims at maximum energy valorization and material recuperation by combining the principles of low-temperature slow pyrolysis and distillation in a smart way. The main objective of the exergy analysis presented in this paper is to find the critical points in the Chartherm process where it is necessary to apply some measures in order to reduce exergy consumption and to make energy use more economic and efficient. It is found that the process efficiency can be increased with 2.3-4.2% by using the heat lost by the reactor, implementing a combined heat and power (CHP) system, or recuperating the waste heat from the exhaust gases to preheat the product gas. Furthermore, a comparison between the exergetic performances of a 'chartherisation' reactor and an idealized gasification reactor shows that both reactors destroy about the same amount of exergy (i.e. 3500 kW kg{sub wood}{sup -1}) during thermochemical conversion of CCA-treated wood. However, the Chartherm process possesses additional capabilities with respect to arsenic and tar treatment, as well as the extra benefit of recuperating materials.

  1. Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzman, M.I.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit requirements for the proposed power plant and to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the project compared to more conventional small power plants. The project`s goal was to help promote the commercialization of biomass gasification as an environmentally acceptable and economically attractive alternative to conventional wood combustion. The specific components of this research included: (1) Development of a permitting strategy plan; (2) Characterization of New York City waste wood; (3) Characterization of fluidized bed gasifier/boiler emissions; (4) Performance of an environmental impact analysis; (5) Preparation of an economic evaluation; and (6) Discussion of operational and maintenance concerns. The project is being performed in two phases. Phase I, which is the subject of this report, involves the environmental permitting and environmental/economic assessment of the project. Pending NYSERDA participation, Phase II will include development and implementation of a demonstration program to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the full-scale gasification project.

  2. LCA for household waste management when planning a new urban settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene, E-mail: helene.slagstad@ntnu.no [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Brattebo, Helge [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household waste management of a new carbon neutral settlement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EASEWASTE as a LCA tool to compare different centralised and decentralised solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental benefit or close to zero impact in most of the categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper and metal recycling important for the outcome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the challenges of waste prevention planning. - Abstract: When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new greenfield settlement with carbon-neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralised waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention and reuse issues.

  3. Urban Waste Conversion Systems. IGT Project 61030 final report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowen, D.S.; Daniels, E.J.; Novil, M.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to assess the market potential of the various systems available, or under development, for converting urban wastes into synthetic gas or liquids. The primary data base for this assessment is a survey which IGT has sent out to experts in this field. The experts were asked to evaluate various conversion systems by assigning point totals to an evaluation matrix. They were also asked to summarize their work in urban waste conversion, to list critical paths which represent obstacles to be surmounted by R and D, and to assess the effect of those obstacles on the market potential of that process. Critical areas for R and D work focus on materials handling and separation techniques, and protection of equipment from abrasive, caustic, or corrosive chemicals in the wastes. Also, prohibitive capital and operating costs in some existing systems must be cited, since investor confidence is eroded by evidence of such experiences. Downtime has been excessive with many systems, stemming from feed problems brought on by the heterogeneous nature of the feedstock. Systems using homogeneous feeds have shown considerably less problems. Perhaps a critical area from a social impact point of view is, can garbage separation be instituted for the home, factory, etc. If so, the chances for waste converison systems to overcome technical problems on the front end are greatly improved, and so is the potential for market penetration.

  4. Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 7591 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 75­91 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching

  5. Home and community composting for on-site treatment of urban organic waste: perspective for Europe and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Home and community composting for on-site treatment of urban organic waste: perspective for Europe practice (Base Sce), this paper examines on-site UOW composting strategies using a combination of centralized composting facilities (CCF), community composting centres (CCC) and home composting (HC) (Sce 1, 2

  6. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  7. Building stability through decentralization : the environmental, economic, and ethical argument for informal sector collection and decentralized waste processing in urban India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howe, Caroline Louise

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid population growth, urbanization and increasing affluence have led to increases in consumption and waste generation in all Indian cities. The current system, a mix of informal recyclables collection and centralized ...

  8. PROSPECTS FOR CO-FIRING OF CLEAN COAL AND CREOSOTE-TREATED WASTE WOOD AT SMALL-SCALE POWER STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janis Zandersons; Aivars Zhurinsh; Edward Someus

    If a small-scale clean coal fu eled power plant is co-fu eled with 5 % of cre o-sote-treated used-up sleeper wood, the de con tam i na tion by carbonisation at 500 °C in an in di rectly heated ro tary kiln with the di am e ter 1.7 m and ef fec-tive length 10 m can be real ised. It should be in cluded in the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant ” sys tem, which pro cesses coal. It will im prove the heat bal ance of the sys tem, since the carbonisation of wood will de liver a lot of high caloricity pyroligneous vapour to the joint fur nace of the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant”. Pine wood sleeper sap wood con tains 0.25 % of sul phur, but the av er age pine sleeper wood (sap wood and heart wood) 0.05% of sul phur. Most of the sul phur is lost with the pyroligneous vapour and burned in the fur nace. Since the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant ” is equipped with a flue gases clean ing sys tem, the SO2 emis sion level will not ex-ceed 5 mg/m 3. The char coal of the sap wood por tion of sleep ers and that of the av er age sleeper wood will con tain 0.22 % and 0.035 % of sul phur, re spec-tively. The in crease of the carbonisation tem per a ture does not sub stan tially de crease the sul phur con tent in char coal, al though it is suf fi ciently low, and the char coal can be co-fired with clean coal. The con sid ered pro cess is suit-able for small power plants, if the bio mass in put in the com mon en ergy bal-ance is 5 to 10%. If the mean dis tance of sleep ers trans por ta tion for Cen tral and East ern Eu-rope is es ti mated not to ex ceed 200 km, the co-com bus tion of clean coal and carbonised sleep ers would be an ac cept able op tion from the en vi ron men tal and eco nomic points of view.

  9. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  10. Waste Management in Dsseldorf Combination of separate collection,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Waste Management in Düsseldorf Combination of separate collection, recycling and waste-to-energy Biowaste Garden waste Light packaging Paper Glass Wood from bulky waste Bulky waste Rest / mixed waste Bio- Garden- Paper Glass Light Metals Wood Bulky Rest waste waste Card- Pack. waste board Saved CO2

  11. QUANTITATIVE MICROBIAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN A PERI-URBAN COMMUNITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    i QUANTITATIVE MICROBIAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN A PERI transfer station and the households who helped me in getting food waste samples. It should thing in my life with this little effort. #12;iii Abstract The growth of municipal solid waste

  12. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting Bypaper was to compare the hydrology of the East Bay Municipala stream and watershed hydrology. Using stream flow data for

  13. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    etc. ). Most oil and grease (aka sludge) are removed andoils, and greases; Page 14 of 20  winery waste; municipal water and wastewater sludge;

  14. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    field receiving repeated urban waste compost application Vilim Filipovi1,2,3 , Yves Coquet2 , Valérie properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence

  15. Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas...

  16. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  17. Urban Reclamation in São Paulo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskinazi, Victor

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The urbanized terrain of São Paulo is characterized by wasteful landscapes on peripheral areas of the metropolitan agglomeration, and decaying landscapes of waste in the core of the city. If on the one hand, the increasingly ...

  18. Wood-based Energy Technologies Michigan offers some significant advantages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    quality stan- dards. Wood pellets are an attractive alternative for home heating or for larger individual--ground wood. Pellet storage area. #12;distributed through a District Energy grid. Efficiencies are high on municipal solid waste. Both district heating and CHP plants can also pro- duce pellets for local housing

  19. Journal of Hazardous Materials A135 (2006) 2131 Leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Monofills are a type of landfill designed and operated to dispose a single waste type, such as ash, tires-treated wood is commingled with untreated wood as part of recycling operations, the mulch product produced

  20. Quantities of Arsenic-Treated Wood in Demolition Debris Generated by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Research Quantities of Arsenic-Treated Wood in Demolition Debris Generated by Hurricane Katrina B R of the demolition debris is wood waste of which a significant proportion is treated with preservatives, including preservatives containing arsenic. As a result of the large scale destruction of treated wood structures

  1. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

  2. Waste Toolkit A-Z Food waste (recycling on-site)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    into compost in 14 days, when mixed with wood chippings (from your grounds/gardens). The waste is heated usingWaste Toolkit A-Z Food waste (recycling on-site) How can I recycle food waste on-site? Recycling food waste on-site is a new concept as the University typically has its waste collected and taken away

  3. Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

  4. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherubini, Francesco [Joanneum Research, Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010, Graz (Austria)], E-mail: cherufra@yahoo.it; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio [Universita degli Studi di Napoli 'Parthenope', Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Ambiente, Centro Direzionale, Isola C4, 80133 Napoli (Italy)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  5. Urban Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    property taxation regional economics residential segregationexternalities urban economics urban production externalitiesproperty taxation regional economics residential segregation

  6. Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .3% Sweden 5.3% Finland 4.1% Russia 13.8% US 37.3% Germany 3.3% France 2.8% Poland 2.1% Other Europe 14 International Wood Fuel Removals in Europe 2002 Turkey 12.2% Poland 3.6% Romania 5.3% Hungary 4.1% Germany 7;Wood Resources International Production of energy from wood fuels in 2000 Source: EUBIONET 0 50 100 150

  7. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions.

  8. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  9. Waste wood processing and combustion for energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth Annual National Biofuels Conference and Exhibition held October 19--22, 1992 in Newton, Massachusetts. Individual papers have been abstracted and indexed for the database.

  10. Marketing of Tropical Hardwood Wood Products from Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    productive · Causes: farming, bush fires, fuel wood, wasteful logging practices, mining and quarrying #12;Fuelwood #12;Current Industry Structure · 8% of GDP · 250 companies involved in primary operations · 180 companies in secondary operations · Over 200 companies involved in tertiary operations · General

  11. Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing clean dry sawdust, under very high pressure into a pellet as it cools. The material used for producing pellets usually comes from industries who are already pellets reduces the volume of material they have to treat as waste, reducing landfill. Pellets have

  12. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  13. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  14. WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    not require extensive cultivation and extraction methods, and it uses less manmade energy to manufacture, these trees are a vital component of wildlife and plant ecosystems, water quality, recreation, and esthetic and firewood harvesting are two activities that consume large quantities of wood from oak woodlands. Finding

  15. Rheological Model for Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

  16. Review and Status of Solid Waste Management Practices in Multan, Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Mirza, Umar Karim; Sarwar, Muhammad Avais

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bones Metals Textile Wood Composting Community Developmentestablished a solid waste composting plant as a theme ofwaste sorting and composting plant, which was manufactured

  17. Industrial Wastes as a Fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, G.; Hendrix, W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    objects. Screw conveyors are relatively inexpensive and of simple construction. Their capacity becomes re stricted when they are inclined. The pneumatic conveyor is one type of equipment that finds more widespread use in wood and similar materials.... These are relatively simple devices that are most effective on dry wood waste particles of small size. The principal drawbacks to pneumatics are the requirement for cyclones to perform air/ particle separation at the delivery points (since particulates can cause...

  18. UrbanSolutionsCenter Soil Organic Matter and Compost Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Soil Organic Matter and Compost Utilization Background High clay content soils is yard waste compost, and composting is becoming increasingly common in urban areas due to municipal yard waste collection and composting programs such as the one in Plano, Texas. Wastewater biosolids

  19. Status report on energy recovery from municipal solid waste: technologies, lessons and issues. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the lessons learned and issues raised regarding the recovery of energy from solid wastes. The review focuses on technologies and issues significant to currently operating energy recovery systems in the US - waterwall incineration, modular incineration, refuse derived fuels systems, landfill gas recovery systems. Chapters are: Energy Recovery and Solid Waste Disposal; Energy Recovery Systems; Lessons in Energy Recovery; Issues in Energy Recovery. Some basic conclusions are presented concerning the state of the art of energy from waste. Plants in shakedown or under construction, along with technologies in the development stages, are briefly described. Sources of additional information and a bibliography are included. (MCW)

  20. FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM Slovenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in developing pellet production and district heating systems; the formulation of a national wood energy strategyFAO ­ Forestry Department ­ Wood Energy WISDOM ­ Slovenia Spatial woodfuel production Rudi Drigo Forestry Specialist - Wood energy planning and forest resources monitoring Zivan Veseli

  1. DIVISION 6 -WOOD AND PLASTICS 06000 GENERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIVISION 6 - WOOD AND PLASTICS ________________________________________________________________________ 06000 GENERAL 1. For both woods and plastics, special attention is called to matters of flame spread-dried. 3. For exterior wood or plastic framed structures, see Division 4 for dimensions of Sample Panel

  2. Beverly Woods | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beverly Woods Beverly Woods Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake...

  3. Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood 6495_C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, February 1, 2006 5:48 PM #12 through the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions, National Science Foundation Grant No. 0126172. Any of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts

  4. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department Wood Pellet plant in North Pole, Alaska. Clockwise from upper left: pelleting machine; pellets bagged for home use; a Superior Pellet Fuels bag; inventory of product ready for shipment to retailers. Upper

  5. GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson Biomass and Resource Efficiency: the need for a supply led approach the wood come from? Western EU Deficit Eastern EU Deficit Rest of Eastern Europe Balanced Russia Rest of Eastern Europe Balanced Russia Is probably at production ceiling under current conditions Japan

  6. DOE/LX/07-0097&D1 Secondary Document DMSA C-400-04 Solid Waste...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    included an empty container. The low-level waste formerly stored included wood, metal, plastic, carboys, empty containers, ferrous sulfate, sodium hydroxide, personal protective...

  7. DOE/LX/07-0315&D1 Secondary Document DMSA C-333-14 Solid Waste...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mix, metal items, wire, cloth, and wood pallets. Solid waste formerly stored consisted of containers of paperplasticdirtrope. Reusable materials identified in the SWMU were...

  8. Urban Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. , Hanushek, E. and Quigley, J. 2004. Opportunities, race,Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Press. Quigley, J. 2001. Theof Regional Science 35, Quigley, J. 1998. Urban diversity

  9. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doležalová, Markéta, E-mail: mdolezalova@email.cz [Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benatska 2, 128 01 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Benešová, Libuše [Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benatska 2, 128 01 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Závodská, Anita [School of Adult and Continuing Education, Barry University, 8001 SW 36th Street, Suite #1, Davie, FL 33328 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. • The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. • The physicochemical characteristics were determined. • The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. • The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories – urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Union’s solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the Czech Ministry of Environment to optimise the national waste management strategy.

  10. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blijderveen, Maarten van [TNO, Schoemakerstraat 97, 2628 VK Delft (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Bramer, Eddy A. [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit, E-mail: g.brem@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is applied on a packed bed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

  11. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

  12. Wood Fuel Task Force Response 2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;Wood Fuel Task Force Response | 3 Wood Fuel Task Force Response Scottish Government response by Minister for Environment, Michael Russell I am pleased to present on behalf of the Scottish Government our response to the Wood Fuel

  13. Industrial Wastes as a Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, G.; Hendrix, W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    available for coal since it was at one time a major industrial fuel and is still used extensively for electric power generation. However, combustion data for other fuels such as wood and solid materials typically generated as industrial wastes can only...

  14. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  15. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  16. Integrated Industrial Wood Chip Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, E. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sources of supply of wood residues for energy generation are described and the rationale for exploring the potential available from forest harvesting is developed. Details of three industrial-scale projects are presented and the specific...

  17. Combustion of waste fuels in a fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylkowski, J.; Ehrlich, S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a project whose objectives are to determine the impact of the waste fuels on Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) operating procedures, boiler performance, and emissions and to assess the potential for fuel-specific operating problems. The low-grade waste fuels investigated are hogged railroad ties, shredded rubber tires, peat, refuse-derived fuel, and one or more agricultiral wastes. The Northern States Power (NSP) Company converted their French Island Unit No. 2 stoker-fired boiler to a fluidized-bed combustor designed to burn wood waste. NSP and EPRI are investigating cofiring other waste fuels with wood waste. Topics considered include fluidized-bed boiler conversion, fuel resources, economic justification, environmental considerations, the wood-handling system, an auxiliary fuel system, the air quality control system, ash handling and disposal, and the alternate fuels test program.

  18. automotive waste heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat... Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E....

  19. The Conversion of Waste to Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.; Cheek, L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quent slagging of cyclones and boilers. (3) Large fan power requirements. The gasification of solid wastes may be advantageous especially when converting equipment designed to burn oil or gas. Fixed bed gasifiers have been found to be a problem... costing $78,000 and saving $33,000/year. Fluidized beds are used for a variety of combustion applications including wood and agricultural wastes, waste treatment sludge, and chemical incineration. A fluidized bed can be used to recover non...

  20. Utilization of Agricultural WasteUtilization of Agricultural Waste for Composite Panelsfor Composite Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utilization of Agricultural WasteUtilization of Agricultural Waste for Composite Panelsfor to increase. There is potential for agricultural residue fiber toThere is potential for agricultural residue. The benefits of utilizing agricultural residues for woodbenefits of utilizing agricultural residues for wood

  1. Flexible urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anandam, Anahita

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis seeks to find a new approach/method towards urbanization in existing low density neighborhoods in major metropolitan cities in the United States. The near South side of the city of Chicago (a city that carries ...

  2. Urban stairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yoonhee

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent decades, Seoul in Korea has experienced a rapid economic and urban development. As a result, the city exposes extreme disharmony between different zones. For example, the heavy mega structures are inconsiderately ...

  3. Science Highlight June 2011 Chromium forms in coal and wood and their converted forms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    as a component in fly-ash, the major waste product from coal combustion. Disposal practices for coal-derived fly-ash Science Highlight ­ June 2011 Chromium forms in coal and wood and their converted forms in fly-ash(VI) in Coal-Derived Fly-Ash The two common chromium oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI), differ greatly

  4. Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    form · Separate liquid from solid · Radionuclide · Separate all but H3/C14 #12;#12;Radioactive Waste;Radioactive Waste H3/C14 solids Type B (non-incinerable) metal glass hazardous materials #12;#12;Radioactive#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to

  5. CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H.G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of the wood-oil product derived from the above2 g It is probable that oil products with oxygen contentscollected with the wood-oil product. The condensate contains

  6. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and fireplace inserts) with cleaner burning stoves...

  7. Leonard Wood and the American Empire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruitt, James Herman

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a ...

  8. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  9. Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gezer, Engin Derya

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

  10. Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    established technologies of District Energy and Combined Heat and Power plants. Using wood to makeEmerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and electricity using such as flooring and siding. In Europe, torrefaction has been explored to produce an improved wood pellet

  11. Creating Value Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisiana Forest Products Development Center #12;2 Louisiana is blessed with quality timberland for the Wood Products Industry The forest industry contributes more than 50 percent of the total value of all for quality information, research and education in forest products in Louisiana, recognized regionally

  12. Optical computing Damien Woods a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Damien

    Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract In this survey we consider optical computers of such optical computing archi- tectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical

  13. Optical computing Damien Woods a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Damien

    Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical

  14. Measuring bulky waste arisings in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung Shanshan, E-mail: sschung@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Lau, Ka-yan Winifred; Zhang Chan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    All too often, waste authorities either assume that they know enough about their bulky waste stream or that it is too insignificant to deserve attention. In this paper, we use Hong Kong as an example to illustrate that official bulky waste figures can actually be very different from the reality and therefore important waste management decisions made based on such statistics may be wrong too. This study is also the first attempt in Hong Kong to outline the composition of bulky waste. It was found that about 342 tonnes/day of wood waste were omitted by official statistics owing to incomplete records on actual bulky waste flow. This is more than enough to provide all the feedstock needed for one regular-sized wood waste recycling facility in Hong Kong. In addition, the proportion of bulky waste in the municipal solid waste (MSW) streams in Hong Kong should be about 6.1% instead of the officially stated 1.43%. Admittedly, there are limitations with this study. Yet, present findings are suggestive of significant MSW data distortion in Hong Kong.

  15. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  16. The renewable energy contribution from waste across Europe.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Incineration with Energy Recovery Mixed residual waste WtE Steam -> Electr. & Heat Av 50 Range 47-80 Landfill Biomass Energy Plants incineration,gasification Collected & sorted waste wood BEP Steam -> Electr. & Heat in total 11 #12;Anaerobic Digestion underlying assumptions units 2006 2010 2020Real 2020 Pot Volume

  17. User Guide for Disposal of Unwanted Items and Electronic Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Dyche

    User Guide for Disposal of Unwanted Items and Electronic Waste January 31, 2012 Jointly developed metal and wood o Waste/trash management o Recycle, reuse or disposal of materials D&S does not process o and electronics of all types (working or not) o Furniture o Reusable/Recyclable items o Assets with UC Property

  18. Going Green? Urban vs. Rural Residency and Pro-Environmental Attitudes in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu, Samantha

    drinking water by 2010 [?] and demands to improve urban sewage systems in cities with populations over 200,000; hoping that by 2010 at least 60% of urban water and 95% of industrial waste will be processed in order to reach a certain environmental... of hukou? household registration categorized by urban or rural residency. The following is an overview of the CCP?s distinct urban and rural measurement system and justifies why this measurement is necessary to understand economic and social reform...

  19. PPPO-02-427-07 Revised Solid Waste Management Unit Assessment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5&D1 Secondary Document Staging Area for Concrete Piers, Rubble, and Wood on the North Side of C-745-B Cylinder Yard Solid Waste Management Unit Assessment Report UNIT NUMBER: 548...

  20. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine)] [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Voropay, Dmitry [Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory', 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation)] [Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory', 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  1. The conservation of waterlogged wood using sucrose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrent, James Michael

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as resins or creosote, which are 13 volatilized by heating, the standard methods for moisture determination yield false values (Panshin a de Zeeuw 1980:203). This should not be a problem when working with waterlogged wood since only small samples... water. Formation of hydrogen bonds releases energy which can be measured as the "heat of wetting" for dry wood. In turn, energy must be supplied to wet wood to remove any water that is present. 14 "The forces of attraction between dry wood and water...

  2. One on One- Douglas K Woods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing.

  3. WoodPolymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood­Polymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood Yong-Feng Li in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: Wood­polymer composites (WPCs) were prepared words: composites; mechanical properties; modifi- cation; monomers; renewable resources INTRODUCTION

  4. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood@aol.com; hekstrom@wri-ltd.com October, 2004 #12;Page ES - 1 Illegal Logging and Global Wood Markets: The Competitive, LLC Executive Summary Illegal logging has been high on the agenda, if not directly at the center

  5. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC SUMMARY "Illegal" Logging and Global Resources International, LLC Illegal Logging and Global Wood Markets: The Competitive Impacts on the U.S. Wood Products Industry1 Summary Study Objectives Illegal logging and illegal forest activities, in one

  6. Daniel Wood | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePARTOfficeOctoberDaniel Wood About Us Daniel

  7. automatic wood furnaces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressure differences that included standard rating points 11 Wood Products 201213 Student Handbook Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Wood Products 201213 Student...

  8. Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Michael

    Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods, SciSys Ltd., Clothier Road, Bristol, UK BS4 5SS Email: mark.woods@scisys.co.uk Tel: +44 117 9717251 ESA's Aurora programme incorporates a strategy for European involvement in future robotic and human exploration of our Solar System. The Aurora roadmap calls

  9. Leonard Wood and the American Empire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruitt, James Herman

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a symbol of the empire...

  10. Bioremediation: a study of genotoxicity of soil and groundwater from a former wood treatment facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Cristi Lea Rysc

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 2001). PAHs are commonly found in wood treatment and petroleum waste. The goal of bioremediation is to completely mineralize hazardous constituents into carbon dioxide, water, and other less toxic compounds by way of microbial degradation...). Bioventing aerates contaminated soils by forcing oxygen into the unsaturated soil. The addition of oxygen stimulates aerobic degradation. Other in situ treatments include biosparging, phytoremediation, and slurry-phase lagoon aeration. The USEPA lists...

  11. Genotoxicity profiles during KPEG dehalogenation of wood preserving waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Marjorie S

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and evaluation data, needs except permits and checkout 7. lowest estimated cost ra. nge among alternative emerging technologies The ranking order from highest to lowest of these methods with their associated costs per cubic meter of sediment treated a. re... for estiniated first year costs for the treatment of 1. 50i0 yd of contaminated soil, incineration. topped the list at $28&&5t!0, followed by Ianclfilling at 8322, 500. Bioreniediation was tlie least costly altern. ative aud first year cosi. s v, ere...

  12. Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    the area used for garbage collection and landfilling; and how to provide sufficient energy to power a city. However, `waste-to-energy' as a viable energy source in urban areas is a relatively new concept and is one at Bombay, which is the largest city in India, and how the waste-to-energy process has played out

  13. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Phillips, Rhiannon, E-mail: rhiannon.jones@environment-agency.gov.uk [Strategy Unit, Welsh Assembly Government, Ty Cambria, 29 Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 0TP (United Kingdom); Coleman, Terry, E-mail: terry.coleman@erm.com [Environmental Resources Management Ltd, Eaton House, Wallbrook Court, North Hinksey Lane, Oxford OX2 0QS (United Kingdom); Rampling, Terence, E-mail: twa.rampling@hotmail.com [7 Thurlow Close, Old Town Stevenage, Herts SG1 4SD (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  14. Can a City of 5,000,000 Recycle 60% of its Organic Waste? Lessons from 1910 New York.!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    and horse manure from the streets. Ashes: Coal and wood ash from fireplaces, stoves, and boilers. Refuse a complete overhaul of its municipal solid waste management systems. Street sweeping, solid waste disposal for the disposal of organic wastes. The incinerator technology of the era only allowed for low temperature

  15. Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: II. Effects on Tropical and Subtropical Tree Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    data for Hurricane Andrew for some analyses. The percent urban forest loss ranged from 13% for Georges species in Hurricanes Jeanne, Charley, Georges, or Andrew. Two other measurements of wood strength survival in Hurricane Georges. A reanalysis of seven dicot species and their survival in Hurricane Andrew

  16. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  17. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of Existing and Alternative Management Options (FINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CCA-TREATED WOOD ASH II.1 Sample Preparation 10 II.2 Laboratory Methods 15 II.3 Laboratory Results 24 CHAPTER III, SORTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SEPARATING TREATED WOOD FROM UNTREATED WOOD III.1

  19. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  20. North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    themes were: 1. softwood market developments, and 2. wood energy and wood mobilization. The main use of wood for energy throughout the UNECE region, driven by policy measures and high oil prices development, which will have to try to balance the needs of the established wood products sector and the bio-energy

  1. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  2. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New York exempts retail sales of wood used for residential heating purposes from the state sales tax. The law also permits local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from...

  3. Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulpitt, W. S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    suppliers. Based upon the designs submitted and subsequent negotiations, the Applied Engineering Company (APCO) in Orangeburg, South Carolina, was chosen to do the job. Applied Engineering has been working on wood gasification systems for several years...-20, 1983 company has a large manufacturing plant in Orange burg and is fully capable of fabricating large pressure vessels and heavy industrial equipment. The overall wood gasification system is shown in Figure 1. The fuel for the gasifier is green...

  4. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    A WOOD-FIRED GAS TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood...-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 50l-k). A...

  5. Contextualizing urban mobile fabrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Michael Chia-Liang

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is focus on the urban fabric issues. To be more specific, I will focus on the "Mobile Fabrics" within the larger Asian urban context. Instead of working with a specific geographical site; I will focus on the ...

  6. New York looks to the future of waste (10 March 2006) New York City has been investigating ways to manage its waste more sustainably in years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    and the lack of sites within the urban area itself which can process it. The city produces 46,000 tons of waste City Department of Sanitation (DSNY) attempted to build a series of waste-to-energy facilities and cleaner waste-to-energy facilities in New York City four years #12;ago, the proposal was met

  7. European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --called "green energy"called "green energy" ·· Simultaneously, the taxes on the use of fossil fuelsSimultaneously, the taxes on the use of fossil fuels increaseincrease ·· This leads to increasing costs for wood productsIncreasing use of wood for energy production ·· Governments in Europe are granting subsidies for

  8. Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood.2 million cubic meters) of lumber treated with CCA are produced annually in the United States (Micklewright 1998). ·In 1997, for example, some 581.4 million cu. ft. was treated with waterborne preservatives

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - Overview of Biomass Energy and Economic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sources? Overgrown forests - Fire hazard reduction Urban wood waste * Biomass feedstocks - How reliable is the source? Price? Due diligence is needed for a long-term...

  10. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of useful products using this technology is to scale the technology from the 700-L pilot reactor to a small-scale production facility, with dedicated operation staff and engineering controls. In addition, we recommend that a market study be conducted as well as further product development for construction products that will utilize the unique properties of this bio-based material.

  11. Role Of Informal Solid Waste Management Sector And Possibilities Of Integration; The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Role Of Informal Solid Waste Management Sector And Possibilities Of Integration; The Case 2047 GMT GPC Composition of Urban solid waste in India Organic 40% Recyclable 20% Inert debris 35% Misc religion. Attracts tourist from all over the globe. #12;Municipal Solid Waste management : Current Formal

  12. Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure Kieron Doick and Tony Hutchings to a UHI include the thermal properties, height and spacing of buildings, the production of waste heat, air years. An estimated 8­11 extra deaths occur each day for each degree increase in air temperature during

  13. Department of Forest and Wood Science Academic Programmes for 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    ; harvesting and supply; biomass conversion; energy production; marketing of bio-energy; economicsDepartment of Forest and Wood Science Academic Programmes for 2014 Postgraduate Diploma Enquiries: Head of Department Contact details: Department of Forest and Wood Science Stellenbosch University

  14. Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http://www.unece.org/trade/timber/docs/tc-sessions/tc-61/presentations/10-hillring.pdf #12;Introduction · Industrial use of wood fibre has increased · Oil

  15. A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

  16. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  17. Assembly history dictates ecosystem functioning: evidence from wood decomposer communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    ForReview Only Assembly history dictates ecosystem functioning: evidence from wood decomposer change, community assembly, ecosystem functioning, New Zealand Nothofagus (beech) forests, priority dictates ecosystem functioning: evidence from wood decomposer communities Tadashi Fukami1,2,3 , Ian A

  18. Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program...

  19. Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    from larger commercial sources such as wood-burning biomass plants which produce heat or electricity in the soil. Wood ash is more soluble and reactive than ground limestone, and brings about a Benefits Recycles

  20. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  1. Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534) and identity of liquid waste Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534

  2. Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    2/2009 Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 200 West Arbor Dr. San Diego, CA 92103 (619 (9:1) OR Biohazard symbol (if untreated) and identity of liquid waste Biohazard symbol Address

  3. The Storage and Seasoning of Pecan Bud Wood.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brison, Fred R. (Fred Robert)

    1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be returned to cold storage and will remain ready for use at a later date. It has been found that bud wood cut late in the dormant period seasons in a shorter time than that cut early. Bud wood of the Delmas variety seasons more readiIy than that of Stuart... _._-_._.--__..__------~-..._..--_...._.--_.....-. Relation of Time of Cutting Bud Wood to Seasoning ._.__....._._-___._------------ ., Relative Response of Stuart and Delmas in Seasoning _---..__._.__....._.---....-....--.- 10 Number of Days for Seasoning Bud Wood During Different Months .... 12 Storage...

  4. ERDCTR-14-3 Leonard Wood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    through biogas. The project focused on laboratory studies to evaluate the treatment of applicable wastes and determine gas production. The study found that food waste is very effectively treated, and generates in particular uses a mix of wastes, along with food, and this mixture should improve stability and increase

  5. APPLIED ISSUES Effects of agriculture on wood breakdown and microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Jackson R.

    creating the potential for recovery of ecosystem processes. 2. We examined wood breakdown and microbial breakdown. Wood may not be desirable as a tool for Correspondence: M. E. McTammany, Biology DepartmentAPPLIED ISSUES Effects of agriculture on wood breakdown and microbial biofilm respiration

  6. Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris: Arsenic phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills

  7. Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text 31st December 2010 Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Wood Fuel Future : The Potential Renewable Energy is a key part of our Energy Policy. This UK Government by 2020. This should reduce carbon emissions from fossil fuel by 60% by the year 2050. The Welsh Assembly

  8. Center for Wood Utilization Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    , Asia, and Latin America. A business plan was developed to capture 1% of the $2.5 billion h manufacturing; and (c) lead to more efficient use of renewable wood-based materials for the benefit of Americans. Renewable wood is essential to human existence. Wood utilization research is critical to national needs

  9. Modeling urban runoff characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Alfred

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the impact that urban1zation has on storm runoff. An accurate method is required to model urban watersheds and to simulate storm runoff. Research Objectives The purpose of this research was to quantitatively define the effect that urbanization has... are typical in the sense that they follow the steps outlined above. These models include: the British Road Research Laboratory Nodel (RRL), 1962; the Chicago Hydrograph Method (NERO), 1970; the Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model...

  10. Conversion of a black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eleniewski, M.A. [Detroit Stoker Company, Monroe, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1983 a large integrated pulp and paper mill in southeastern United States retired an older chemical recovery boiler when it was replaced by a newer and larger unit as part of a mill expansion. At that time the mill was generating steam and power using wood waste, natural gas and black liquor, a common fuel mix for pulp mills. The retirement of the recovery boiler presented an opportunity for the mill and corporate engineering to evaluate various mixes of fuels for the mill.

  11. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Waste Analysis Plan The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Waste Analysis Plan This...

  12. Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulpitt, W. S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Shortly after that time, Georgia Tech and the Georgia Forestry Commission embarked on a number of projects directed toward providing the use of wood as an industrial energy source. This paper will present an overview of these programs with an emphasis...

  13. Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09 #12;Working alone #12;Poison Plants Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) Poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens) #12;Commonly Mistaken Plants Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) Blackberry (Rubus spp.) Three leaflets let it be! #12;Poison Ivy/Oak Prevention: · Wear long

  14. Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as an attorney with the Department of the Navy's Office of the General Counsel (OGC). Initially appointed as ONR Counsel in 2007, he was the first Navy OGC attorney to deploy to a combat zone in his civilian OGC Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) in Djibouti, Africa. Mr. Wood began his career with Navy OGC

  15. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T...

  16. CORRUPTION AND ILLEGAL LOGGING IN THE WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettenella, Davide

    CORRUPTION AND ILLEGAL LOGGING IN THE WOOD PRODUCTS MARKET: the Italian experience in controlling Science 7 May 2004 Paper organization 1. State of the problem 2. Are Italian companies involved in deforestation and trade of illegal logging? 3. Which are the most affected countries? 4. Why do we need

  17. PASSION FOR WOOD THE DLH GROUP 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    countries on 5 continents · 19 timber merchant companies in Denmark, 10 of which have do-it-yourself stores Division consists of 19 timber merchant companies in Denmark, just over half of which have an adjacent doPASSION FOR WOOD THE DLH GROUP 2006 #12;54% 21% 25% ONE OF THE WORLD'S MAJOR TIMBER WHOLESALERS

  18. Harvested Wood Products -an Incentive for Deforestation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    1 Harvested Wood Products - an Incentive for Deforestation? Andreas Fischlin1 Abstract Mitigation for deforestation is real. To curb the disadvantages of HWP, some debiting of non-sustainable forest management activities are implemented that provide true disincentives to deforestation, HWP may continue to create some

  19. Alternative Fuels, Vehicle Technologies and Urban Logistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witt, Maggie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies and Urban Logistics Policy Note prepared byvehicle technologies, urban logistics, and VMT reduction. It

  20. Hazardous Waste Program (Alabama)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule states criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste and for listing hazardous waste, lists of hazardous wastes, standards for the management of hazardous waste and...

  1. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  2. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  3. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes...

  4. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MHRC System Concept ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with...

  5. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry

  6. Generation, Use, Disposal, and Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Generation, Use, Disposal, and Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood May 1998 Helena Solo, INVENTORY OF CCA-TREATED WOOD IN FLORIDA II.1 Characteristics of the Florida Wood Treatment Industry in 1996 10 II.2 Generation and Disposal of Cca-treated Wood 14 II.3 Disposal Reservoirs for Cca-treated Wood

  7. Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review CHEMICAL COUPLING IN WOOD FIBER. In this paper, we review coupling agents, pretreatment, and mixing technology for wood fiber and polymer and adhesion Wood ond trhc,r S c r r ~ ~ Society of Wood Sclencc

  8. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  9. Towards sustainable urban communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haapio, Appu, E-mail: appu.haapio@vtt.fi

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Requirements for the assessment tools of buildings have increased, assessing of building components or separate buildings is not enough. Neighbourhoods, built environment, public transportations, and services, should be considered simultaneously. Number of population living in urban areas is high and increasing rapidly. Urbanisation is a major concern due to its detrimental effects on the environment. The aim of this study is to clarify the field of assessment tools for urban communities by analysing the current situation. The focus is on internationally well known assessment tools; BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development and LEED for Neigborhood Development. The interest towards certification systems is increasing amongst the authorities, and especially amongst the global investors and property developers. Achieved certifications are expected to bring measureable publicity for the developers. The assessment of urban areas enables the comparison of municipalities and urban areas, and notably supports decision making processes. Authorities, city planners, and designers would benefit most from the use of the tools during the decision making process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The urban assessment tools have strong linkage to the region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tools promote complementary building and retrofitting existing sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sharing knowledge and experiences is important in the development of the tools.

  10. Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains how to identify and control wood-boring insects that invade shrubs and shade trees in Texas. 12 pages, 9 figures, 6 photographs, 1 table...

  11. From: FERGAS To: Wood, Natalie (CONTR); Moore, Larine Subject...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wood, Natalie (CONTR); Moore, Larine Subject: FW: FE Docket No. 14-96-LNG Date: Friday, October 24, 2014 3:17:49 PM Attachments: image001.png ---...

  12. arsenate cca wood: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of primary energy in Estonia Wood fuels production Pellet firing projects in Estonia - SIDA Demo East firing projects in...

  13. anisotropic olivier wood: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of primary energy in Estonia Wood fuels production Pellet firing projects in Estonia - SIDA Demo East firing projects in Estonia:...

  14. Microsoft Word - CX-Murray-CusterWoodPoles_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Covington SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Steve Scott Line Foreman III - TFNF-Snohomish Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at selected locations along the...

  15. FIEA Advancing Wood Technology Forest Industry Engineering Scholarship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    year. Forestry and wood products companies, key product suppliers, researchers and technology qualification. This FIEA Scholarship has also been set up to encourage and support an outstanding student

  16. Reducing the solid waste stream: reuse and recycling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, K. L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) increased its solid waste diversion by 365 percent over FY 1992 in five solid waste categories - paper, cardboard, wood, metals, and miscellaneous. (LLNL`s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.) LLNL reused/ recycled 6,387 tons of waste, including 340 tons of paper, 455 tons of scrap wood, 1,509 tons of metals, and 3,830 tons of asphalt and concrete (Table1). An additional 63 tons was diverted from landfills by donating excess food, selling toner cartridges for reconditioning, using rechargeable batteries, redirecting surplus equipment to other government agencies and schools, and comporting plant clippings. LLNL also successfully expanded its demonstration program to recycle and reuse construction and demolition debris as part of its facility-wide, comprehensive solid waste reduction programs.

  17. Home Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Europe searching for additional sources of woody biomass, it is likely that trade with wood chips On March 16-17, 2010, the 4th Global Wood Fiber Conference: Trade in Wood chips and Biomass worldwide, European demand for pellets and biomass chips, outlook for plantation wood chip supply, ocean

  18. How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Jerry

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature treatment of aspen. Wood Sci Technol 40:371-391size- reduction of Poplar and Aspen wood. Biotechnology andHydrothermal Pretreatment of Aspen Wood Chips 5.1. Abstract

  19. NRDC: Good Wood: How Forest Certification Helps the Environment The Natural Resources Defense Council works to protect wildlife and wild places and to ensure a healthy environment for all life on earth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Health Environmental Justice U.S. Law & Policy Nuclear Weapons, Waste & Energy Smart Growth their buying power for good. 1. Why is it important to protect forests? 2. What is forest certification and how I buy FSC-certified wood products? 1. Why is it important to protect forests? Forests are more than

  20. Volatile constituents in a wood pyrolysis oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Shih-Chien

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 1958]. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Pyrolysis products of cellulose and treated cellulose at 600oC f Chin, 1973]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Pyrolysis products of lignin at 450-550 C [Allen and Nattil a, 1971] Properties of wood pyrolysis oil. 12... and decom- 0 poses at 225-325 C. Cellulose decompos s at higher temp- eratures within a narrow range of 320-375 C. In other 0 words, the cell wall polysaccharides provide most of the vol ati) e products, while lignin predominantly forms a charred...

  1. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy Resources JumpWood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump

  2. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin: Energy ResourcesWolverineWood3

  3. Wood Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWindManitoba,WisconsinWonder SourceWood

  4. Wood To Fuel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWindManitoba,WisconsinWonderWood To Fuel

  5. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1994-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream.

  6. Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas! Center for Transportation Studies Research of Minnesota Grant No. 0853467 #12;Air Pollution Impacts on Health 2 EPA, 2010 Ozone PM2.5 PM10 Lead Nitrogen #12;Purpose and Research Questions 4 Purpose: Explore relationship between air pollution and urban

  7. Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I strength and flexural modulus of the resultant composites. With 50 wt % wood fiber, the optimum compounding of the modified blends and the dynamic mechanical properties of the resultant composites. The melt torque

  8. Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's woodfuel boiler provides a renewable source of energy and demonstrates that locally- produced wood has economic and sustainable value is stored outside but stacked off the ground to allow air to circulate. It is essential that the chips

  9. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  10. Wood, energy and households: Perspectives on rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, C.; Ensminger, J.; O'Keefe, P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents papers on the use of wood fuels in Kenya. Topics considered include domestic energy consumption, historical aspects, the Kenyan economy, ecology, supply and demand, forests, aspects of energy consumption in a pastoral ecosystem, estimation of present and future demand for wood fuels, and energy source development.

  11. Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) are Woody Biomass Utilization Grants (Woody BUG) and Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Renewable Fuel · The Louisiana Forest Products Development Center · Wood-to-Energy · Wood Biomass · Energy Options · Current Forest Products Development Center School of Renewable Natural Resources, LSU AgCenter & School

  12. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  13. Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood Products Using Batch Leaching Tests treated with one of five different waterborne chemical preservatives, were leached using 18-h batch- treated wood at concentrations above the U.S. federal toxicity characteristic limit (5 mg/L). All

  14. A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood (FINAL) Submitted June 23, 2006 Amy Omae.2 Motivation 4 I.3 Objectives 5 CHAPTER II, DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL STAIN FOR IDENTIFYING ARSENIC-TREATED Applications 22 II.5 Resulting Stain to Identify Arsenic-Treated Wood and Methods of Testing 25 CHAPTER III

  15. FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM East Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAO ­ Forestry Department ­ Wood Energy WISDOM ­ East Africa Woodfuel Integrated Supply and Tropical Southern Africa woodfuels, mainly fuelwood, contribute from 75 to 86 percent of total primary African countries Rudi Drigo Consultant - Wood energy planning and forest resources monitoring August 2005

  16. SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED WOOD: DYNAMIC WETTABILITY1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wetting slope and K value) were used to illustrate the dynamic wetting process. Dynamic contact angle the dynamic wettability of wood surfaces modified with different coupling agents. Keywords: Chemical articles on dynamic wetting process for wood adhesion have been published (Scheikl and Dunky 1998

  17. Urban Growth and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air pollution or urban water pollution, local and nationalbasic services of clean water and sanitation for a growing

  18. Waste processing air cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases.

  19. HAZARDOUS WASTE [Written Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    HAZARDOUS WASTE MANUAL [Written Program] Cornell University [10/7/13 #12;Hazardous Waste Program................................................... 8 3.0 MINIMIZING HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION.........................................................10 4.0 HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATOR REQUIREMENTS.....................................................10

  20. Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

  1. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  2. Waste Disposal (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article lays an outline of waste disposal regulations, permits and fees, hazardous waste management and underground storage tank requirements.

  3. 9th World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists WWW-YES-Brazil-2009: Urban waters: resource or risks? 26-30 October 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . INTRODUCTION Problem The landfilling is an attractive method for the municipal solid waste management due9th World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists WWW-YES-Brazil-2009: Urban waters problems of the urban water management in developing countries C. Madera* and Viviana Valencia

  4. 9th World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists WWW-YES-Brazil-2009: Urban waters: resource or risks? 26-30 October 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    supply, sanitation and waste management facilities. Urban context of the Mingoa River watershed9th World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists WWW-YES-Brazil-2009: Urban waters on the Municipal Lake of Yaoundé, Cameroon Marielle Naah* *Laboratoire Eau Environnement et Systèmes Urbains (LEESU

  5. Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

  6. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  7. Technology demonstration summary: Bio Trol soil-washing system for treatment of a wood-preserving site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was instituted in 1986 to promote the development and application of innovative technologies to the remediation of Superfund and other sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. The Project Summary highlights the results of an evaluation of a specific arrangement of the three technologies of the BSWS. The system consists of multiple stages of physical abrasion, attrition, flotation, and washing of excavated soil in the BSW. The site selected for the evaluation is a wood preserving facility in New Brighton, MN, where creosote and pentachlorophenol were used for several decades.

  8. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  9. Urban Retrofit: A Whole-Watershed Approach to Urban Stormwater Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithander, Becky

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rely  impervious   Derby/Po)er  Creek  Watershed:  Urban  cisterns     Derby/Po)er  Creek  Watershed:  Urban  of  impermeability   Derby/Po)er  Creek  Watershed:  Urban  

  10. The urban coffee shop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadios, Konstantinos

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is an investigation of the role of the coffee shop in the urban environment throughout history. Coffee shops spread from the Arab world to Europe and then to the U.S. at the end of the seventeenth century. ...

  11. Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Marcel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Gregory L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rector, Kirk D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a potentially sustainable source of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. It could satisfy the energy needs for transportation and electricity generation, while contributing substantially to carbon sequestration and limiting the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Potential feedstocks are abundant and include crops, agricultural wastes, forest products, grasses, and algae. Among those feedstocks, wood is mainly constituted of three components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass typically consists of three steps: (1) pretreatment; (2) hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars; and (3) fermentation of the sugars into liquid fuels (ethanol) and other commodity chemicals. The pretreatment step is necessary due to the complex structure of the plant cell wall and the chemical resistance of lignin. Most current pretreatments are energy-intensive and/or polluting. So it is imperative to develop new pretreatments that are economically viable and environmentally friendly. Recently, ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest, due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, native switchgrass, and others. Ionic liquids are also considered green solvents, since they have been successfully recycled at high yields for further use with limited efficiency loss. Also, a few microbial cellulases remain active at high ionic liquid concentration. However, all studies on the dissolution of wood in ionic liquids have been conducted so far at high temperatures, typically above 90 C. Development of alternative pretreatments at room temperature is desirable to eliminate the additional energy cost. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen at room temperature by a 3 h ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate or EMIMAc) pretreatment. The pretreated sample was then exposed to an aqueous suspension of nanoparticles that resulted in the sample contraction and the deposition of nanoparticles onto the surface and embedded into the cell wall. To date, both silver and gold particles ranging in size from 40-100 nm have been incorporated into wood. Penetration of gold nanoparticles of 100 nm diameter in the cell walls was best confirmed by near-infrared confocal Raman microscopy, since the deposition of gold nanoparticles induces a significant enhancement of the Raman signal from the wood in their close proximity, an enhancement attributed to the surface-enhanced Raman effect (SERS). After rinsing with water, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman images of the same areas show that most nanoparticles remained on the pretreated sample. Raman images at different depths reveal that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the wood sample, at depths up to 4 {micro}m, or 40 times the diameter of the nanoparticles. Control experiments on an untreated wood sample resulted in the deposition of nanoparticles only at the surface and most nanoparticles were removed upon rinsing. This particle incorporation process enables the development of new pretreatments, since the nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and could be chemically functionalized. Other potential applications for the incorporated nanoparticles include isotope tracing, catalysis, imaging agents, drug-delivery systems, energy-storage devices, and chemical sensors.

  12. Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood-PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citation & Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood-PVC properties, maleation, thermal analysis, wood veneer, wood-PVC composites ABSTRACT The influence of maleation on thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of wood-PVC composites was investigated in this study

  13. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

  14. Jmtland County Energy Agency Comfortable use of wood pellets in one-family houses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jämtland County Energy Agency Sweden 1 Comfortable use of wood pellets in one-family houses-operation with the Swedish Energy Agency, carried through the project "Comfortable use of wood pellets in one-family houses of one-family houses to start using wood pellets and an increase of the use of wood pellets in one

  15. Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    : Large woody debris LWD Riparian forest Wood recruitment Wood dynamics Stream restoration Debris dam restoration efforts often incorporate large wood. In most cases, however, stream restoration projectsDynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a, *, Clifford E

  16. Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood Gary Jacobi a , Helena contains treated wood including wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Many recycling options of sorting methods for identifying treated wood. Sorting methods evaluated included visual sorting and visual

  17. PROPERTIES OF HDPE/CLAY/WOOD NANOCOMPOSITES , C. M. Clemons 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from wood, kenaf, flax, hemp, cotton, Kraft pulp, coconut husk, areca fruit, pineapple leaf, oil palm

  18. Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility October...

  19. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  20. WASTE TO WATTS Waste is a Resource!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    to Climate protection in light of the· Waste Framework Directive. The "energy package", e.g. the RenewablesWASTE TO WATTS Waste is a Resource! energy forum Case Studies from Estonia, Switzerland, Germany Bossart,· ABB Waste-to-Energy Plants Edmund Fleck,· ESWET Marcel van Berlo,· Afval Energie Bedrijf From

  1. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  2. Economic disposal of solid oilfield wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, M.S.; Qian, H.X.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of solid oilfield wastes, including produced sand, tank bottoms, and crude contaminated soils, are generated during drilling, production, and storage processes. Crude oil and crude-contaminated sands or soils are generally designated as nonhazardous wastes. However, these materials still must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The problems can become most pressing as oil fields in urban areas reach the end of their productive lives and the productive lives and the properties are redeveloped for residential use. An economically and environmentally sound solution is to reinject the solid waste into sand formations through slurry fracture muds and cuttings in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, and the North Sea; naturally occurring radioactive materials in Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico; and large volumes of produced oily sand in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. The technique offers a number of economic and environmental advantages for disposal of solid oilfield wastes. When reinjecting into depleted oil sands, the crude waste is simply being returned to its place of origin. The long-term liability to the operator is eliminated, in marked contrast to surface storage or landfill disposal. Finally, fracture-injection costs are less than typical transport and landfill disposal costs for moderate to large quantities of solid waste

  3. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Urban Settings: A "Smart Parking" Yanfeng Geng and Christos G. Cassandras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cassandras, Christos G.

    ) system is based on the development of autonomous vehicle detection and parking spot monitoring, typically in urban settings. On a daily basis, it is estimated that 30% of vehicles on the road in the downtown area]. This causes not only a waste of time and fuel for drivers looking for parking, but it also contributes

  4. Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the principles and practice of various designs of biomass/wood gasifiers. In general, the basic principle of gasification is reviewed. A look at existing gasifier schemes, including packed bed updraft, downdraft, and fluidized...

  5. Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the principles and practice of various designs of biomass/wood gasifiers. In general, the basic principle of gasification is reviewed. A look at existing gasifier schemes, including packed bed updraft, downdraft, and fluidized...

  6. The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,' ,' .' , Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary has announced a new approach to openness, in the'llepartment' of...

  7. Disentangling Biodiversity and Climatic Determinants of Wood Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an important role in carbon sequestration. Methodology/Principal Findings: We tested whether tree wood incorporating the role of biodiversity in management and policy plans for forest carbon sequestration. Citation

  8. Seismic rehabilitation of wood diaphragms in unreinforced masonary buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Amber Jo

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of existing and rehabilitated wood floor and roof diaphragms in typical pre-1950's, unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings found in the Central and Eastern portions of the United States...

  9. aspen wood chips: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR THE SIMULATION OF BOILERS USING OIL, GAS, PELLETS OR WOOD CHIPS CiteSeer Summary: A detailed model for the simulation of boilers using...

  10. An Overview of the U.S. Wood Preserving Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preservatives · Oilborne Preservatives · Creosote Treatments · Fire Retardants · Additives · Concluding Comments · Waterborne Preservatives · Oilborne Preservatives · Creosote Treatments · Fire Retardants · Additives a baselinewas to develop a baseline profile of the treated woodprofile of the treated wood manufacturing

  11. An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goal of this second study is to profile the primary solid wood products industry. In addition (including pulp and paper) and secondary manufacturing establishments (Jacob et al. 1987). The forest

  12. RFPs Due for Hazardous Fuel Wood to Energy Grant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Forest Service requests proposals for the 2014 Hazardous Fuel Wood to Energy (W2E) Grant.  The outcome anticipated under this funding mechanism will advance the United States Department of...

  13. RFPs Due for Statewide Wood Energy Cooperative Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Forest Service requests proposals for the 2014 Statewide Wood Energy Teams (SWET) Cooperative Agreement. The outcome anticipated under this funding mechanism will advance the United States...

  14. Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment...

  15. Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment...

  16. Photo by Helvetas Moambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Photo by Helvetas Moçambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering #12;IWRM in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without CAS consists of the following units: - Basic knowledge in order to follow the class

  17. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities In Latin America: A Focus on Brazil Richard School of Renewable Natural Resources Louisiana State University Presented at: PANORAMA Curitiba, Brazil

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  19. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathi, Sarika [International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, Earth Institute, Columbia University, 61 Rt. 9W, Monell, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States)]. E-mail: sarika@iri.columbia.edu

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (US$35) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (US$41) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (US$44) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management.

  20. Habitat selection of the Wood Thrush nesting in east Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrie, Neil Ross

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HABITAT SELECTION OF THE WOOD THRUSH NESTING IN EAST TEXAS A Thesis by NEIL ROSS CARRIE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1995 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences HABITAT SELECTION OF THE WOOD THRUSH NESTING IN EAST TEXAS A Thesis by NEIL ROSS CARRIE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  1. Kinetic Modeling and Assessment of Lime Pretreatment of Poplar Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass is one of the most promising feedstocks for producing biofuels through fermentation processes. Among lignocellulose choices, poplar wood is appealing because of high energy potential, above-average carbon mitigation potential, fast growth... KINETIC MODELING AND ASSESSMENT OF LIME PRETREATMENT OF POPLAR WOOD A Dissertation by ROCIO SIERRA RAMIREZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  2. Waste Description Pounds Reduced,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -labeled oligonucleotides Waste minimization 3,144 Radiological waste (396 ft3 ); Mixed waste (35 gallons); Hazardous Waste of radioactivity, thus avoiding radiological waste generation. This process won a 2008 DOE P2 Star Award environmentally friendly manor. BNL pays shipping fees to the recycling facility. Building demolition recycling

  3. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  4. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  5. 1 Copyright 2009 by ASME Proceedings of the 17th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    models. On the other hand, full-scale grate models have not been used for examining solid waste mixing these phenomena, a full-scale physical model of the reverse acting grate was built and used for investigating residence time analysis using clay, wood and ceramic spheres in a small-scale model of the reverse acting

  6. Radioactive Waste Management (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section regulates the transportation and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Minnesota, and establishes a Nuclear Waste Council to monitor the federal high-level radioactive waste...

  7. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  8. Urban nUtrient Urban nUtrient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Soil-Water RelationshipsUrban nUtrient ManageMent Handbook #12;#12;Urban nUtrient ManageMent Handbook Content Coordinators: Michael Goatley Jr., Professor, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Kevin Hensler

  9. Urban Commerce and Security Study Urban Commerce and Security Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urban Commerce and Security Study Urban Commerce and Security Study Contact Information Fred S. Roberts Research Sponsor: Department of Homeland Security Rutgers University/CCICADA Center Professor.S. Department of Homeland Security, under Agreement 2009-ST-061-CCI002-02. Any opinions, findings

  10. UrbanSolutionsCenter Urban Uses for Dairy Manure Compost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Urban Uses for Dairy Manure Compost Background Construction of new homes with time and with heat and drought stress. Dairy manure compost (DMC) is readily available for amending regulatory agencies are developing mechanisms for using composted dairy manure to remedy disturbed soils

  11. Waste Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrate Salt Bearing Waste

  12. Urban food waste generation: challenges and opportunities Bijaya K. Adhikaria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and which, if introduced worldwide, could provide agricultural soils with a good source of organic matter, anaerobic digestion could provide energy as biogas for a few high energy demanding industries within cities (CSBE), American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), Nepalese Society

  13. Excretal architecture : prototypical and productive urban waste forms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Nancy (Nancy Hyun Mi)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excretal Architecture comes equipped with a set of design parameters sufficient to grow a regenerative city, while focusing on biomass accumulation as a key program. These structures are scalable and adaptable to any site, ...

  14. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

  15. Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment ­ expanding urban populations, rapid EDITORS Eric Paulos Intel Research eric@paulos.net Tom Jenkins Royal College of Art thomas

  16. Urban Enterprise Zone Program (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey's Urban Enterprise (UEZ) Program operates under the Department of Community Affairs. The UEZ Program exists to foster an economic climate that revitalizes designated urban communities...

  17. Solid Waste (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Mexico Environment Department's Solid Waste Bureau manages solid waste in the state. The Bureau implements and enforces the rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

  19. Hazardous Wastes Management (Alabama)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation gives regulatory authority to the Department of Environmental Management to monitor commercial sites for hazardous wastes; fees on waste received at such sites; hearings and...

  20. Transuranic Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The guide provides criteria for determining if a waste is to be managed in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter III, Transuranic Waste Requirements.

  1. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives...

  2. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  3. Urban Hopper Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrinceton PlasmaAfternoon4. Uranium purchasedUrban Hopper Program As

  4. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination - Processing Waste in...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Unreviewed Safety Question Determination - Processing Waste in the Waste Characterization Glovebox Unreviewed Safety Question Determination - Processing Waste in the Waste...

  5. Solid Waste and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency establishes the rules and regulations regarding solid waste.

  6. Radioactive and chemotoxic wastes: Only radioactive wastes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eletti, G.F.; Tocci, M. [ENEA DISP, Rome (Italy)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste arising from Italian Nuclear Power Plants and Research Centers, classified as 1st and 2nd Category wastes, are managed only as radioactive wastes following the Technical Guide No. 26 issued by the Italian Regulatory Body: ENEA DISP on 1987. A very important Regulatory Regime revision for Italian Nuclear Activities started at the end of 1991. This paper considers the need to develop a new strategy dedicated to mixed waste in line with current international trends.

  7. Urban Ecosystem Design Bedrich Benes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliaga, Daniel G.

    Urban Ecosystem Design Bedrich Benes Michel Abdul Massih Philip Jarvis Purdue University Daniel G. Aliaga Carlos A. Vanegas a) b) c) Figure 1: This example demonstrates the need for urban ecosystems. The image in a) shows a terrain occupied by a wild ecosystem and b) displays the same ecosystem grown over

  8. Phoenix-UrbanNon-Sacramentorural.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    the ecosystem has yet to be fully constructed. Goals 1. To understand the drivers of carbon dynamics in urban. Vegetation (Trees and Shrubs) Storage and NPP Tree and Shrub Total NPP: 172 Gg C / Year Tree and Shrub Total on a per area basis, but there is more storage in trees and less in shrubs · NPP in urban mesic plots

  9. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  10. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  11. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  12. HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraon, Andrei

    Principal Investigators 7 Laboratory Personnel 8 EH&S Personnel 8 HAZARDOUS WASTE ACCUMULATION AREAS 9 Satellite Accumulation Area 9 Waste Accumulation Facility 10 HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAINER MANAGEMENT LabelingHAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE GUIDE Prepared by Environment, Health and Safety Office

  13. Hazardous Waste Management Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    records. The initial training of Hazardous Waste Management and Waste Minimization is done in a classHazardous Waste Management Training Persons (including faculty, staff and students) working before handling hazardous waste. Departments are re- quired to keep records of training for as long

  14. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  15. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

  16. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  17. Resources for Studying the Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    · Detailed information about a city at the building-by-building level · Building size, construction and type from the 1890s-1960s #12;Sample section of fire insurance plan Material of Construction Pink = brick Yellow = wood Blue = stone Small houses Larger industrial buildings #12;Aerial Photography · An exact

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  20. Properties of concrete containing wood/coal fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boylan, D.M.; Larrimore, C.L.; Fouad, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities are increasingly interested in co-firing wood with coal in existing pulverized coal units. The co-firing technology is a means of developing a relatively low-cost renewable energy resource, as well as of supporting customers and community by making energy with biomass that might otherwise have been land-filled. However, recent changes in the ASTM C618 standard for fly ash as cement replacement restrict the definition of fly ash that includes non-coal sources. As a result, wood co-firing could affect the market for the fly ash, reducing ash sales revenue, increasing ash disposal costs, and overall substantially increasing the cost of the co-firing technology. In order to address concerns about the effect of wood ash/coal ash mixtures on concrete properties, a study was conducted by University of Alabama at Birmingham, Southern Company, EPRI, and the State of Alabama. This study compared the effects on properties of concrete made with fly ash from coal and made with fly ash from co-firing up to 30% wood with coal. Fly ashes from three plants were used, with two of the ashes from actual co-firing experience and the third an artificial blend of wood and coal ash. Concrete test cylinders were made of several cement/fly ash mixes, and enough were made to allow testing periodically over a one year time period. Test measurements included workability, setting time, air content, compressive and flexural strength, rapid chloride permeability and freeze thaw. It was concluded on the basis of these tests that the wood ash content had no detrimental effect on the plastic and hardened properties of the concrete.

  1. Analytical Modeling of Wood Frame Shear Walls Subjected to Vertical Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyendinh, Hai

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    referred to as Analytical Model of wood frame SHEar walls subjected to Vertical load (AMSHEV) is based on the kinematic behavior of wood frame shear walls and captures significant characteristics observed from experimental testing through appropriate...

  2. Metals Concentrations in Soils Below Decks Made of CCA-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Metals Concentrations in Soils Below Decks Made of CCA-Treated Wood This report is an excerpt from the report titled: New Lines of CCA-Treated Wood Research, In-Service and Disposal Issues Which was finalized

  3. Simulating the dynamics of flexible wood pulp fibres in suspension John M. Stockie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    , including wood pulp processing, polymer composites, and formation of fibre-reinforced materials elements to form a surface that re- sists bending and stretching. This is a natural construction for wood

  4. CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS A study prepared@riia.org February 2002 #12;Controlling the international trade in illegally logged timber and wood products Page 2...................................................................................................................... 11 ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES IN THE FOREST SECTOR

  5. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07.

  6. Radium bearing waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Schofield, W.D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach.

  7. Wood residuals find big uses in small pieces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, J.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With a history of finding economic uses for leftovers, the wood industry explores sustainable options for creating higher value products. Years ago, companies saw the use - any use - of residues as a sound, economic business practice. Today, many companies are looking to go beyond low value products such as mulch, animal bedding and fuel, and market to higher value end users. Additionally, with so much material from the primary industries already accounted for, consumers of wood residue are in need of additional supply from sources such as secondary mills (furniture manufacturers, etc.), as wells as the C&D and MSW streams. This paper discusses these products and markets.

  8. Escherichia coli Regrowth and Macroinvertebrate Health in Urban and Rural Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrary, Kathryn Jordan

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Water Treatment plant, College Station TX, for helping me navigate the plant. I would like to thank Nina Stanley for her help with the chemical analyses in the nutrient and water analysis laboratory and Heidi Mjelde for help with E. coli.... Urbanization has been identified as one of the biggest causes of impairment to our water bodies (Paul and Meyer 2001). The water quality in streams and rivers in many urban watersheds is so impaired that it has major consequences for downstream reaches...

  9. Constraining uncertainties about the sources and magnitude of ambient air exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): The state of Minnesota as a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobscheid, Agnes B.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wood, wood waste, and ‘black liquor’ are reported by thee other= wood waste, black liquor, used oil, petroleum coke,

  10. Rational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (0)3 85 59 53 85 E-mail: anna.dupleix@ensam.eu Abstract Heating green wood logs by infrared (IR-line IR heating system installed on the peeling lathe. Keywords: green wood; heating; infrared; modelingRational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments Anna

  11. SECTION 50 Table of Contents 50 Lake Rufus Woods Management Plan .........................................................2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and formation of the Subbasin Work Teams and the process used to develop and adopt the management plan can50-1 SECTION 50 ­ Table of Contents 50 Lake Rufus Woods Management Plan .........................................................................28 #12;50-2 50 Lake Rufus Woods Management Plan The Lake Rufus Woods Subbasin Management Plan

  12. European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    developments A. Wood raw materials (roundwood) B. Sawn softwood C. Wood energy V. Conclusions VI" · In 2007, US housing construction continued its sharp decline, severely impacting world markets. · Green building systems are a market driver, but also a constraint. · UNECE region consumption of wood and paper

  13. EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION Quang V. Cao of sample size on fitting length distribution of wood particles used for manufacturing wood-based composites moments and the ability of the sample distributions to characterize the population represented

  14. Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding.pichelin@b .ch Context: Wood can be welded using linear vibration welding tech- niques similar to the ones in plastic and metal industry[1] . Wood welding allows bonding strength similar to glued joints. However, due

  15. Streamlined LCA of Wood Pellets: Export and Possible Utilization in UBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streamlined LCA of Wood Pellets: Export and Possible Utilization in UBC Boiler House CHBE 573 Ann Pa May 15, 2009 #12;2 | P a g e INTRODUCTION Wood pellets are a type of biofuels and are often made. Like all biofuels, wood pellets are carbon- neutral and renewable and are very popular in Europe

  16. Net carbon fluxes at stand and landscape scales from wood bioenergy harvests in the US Northeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    gas emissions implications of wood biomass (`bioenergy') harvests are highly uncer- tain yet of great') on long-term green- house gas emissions are uncertain (McKechnie et al., 2011), yet demand for wood (C) emitted from wood bioenergy may eventually be re-sequestered through regeneration and increased

  17. Management of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Management of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators Prepared by have been conducting research on treated wood since 1996. During the course of the research, there have been numerous inquiries about the disposal and management options for treated wood products. There has

  18. Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood (FINAL Importation Associated with CCA-Treated Wood Use APPENDIX B: MSDS Sheets for Alternative Chemicals APPENDIX C Members A-1 B-1 C-1 D-1 E-1 F-1 G-1 ATTACHMENT: Treated Wood Resource Book #12;ii This page left

  19. Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya , Thabet copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

  20. Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors Todd F. Shupe Associate extends the life span of lumber, but the Environmental Protection Agency says arsenic treated wood might arsenic-treated wood from Florida's public playgrounds failed to pass. "Wave of opponents kills Crow

  1. Attitudes and Awareness about Treated Wood Products: The U.S. South Homeowner Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    Attitudes and Awareness about Treated Wood Products: The U.S. South Homeowner Perspective is preservative-treated (SFPA 2004). In light of increasing market penetration from non-wood alternatives homeowner attitudes and awareness about using treated wood Strategic decisions can be made to better

  2. U.S. Playground Equipment Manufacturer and Purchaser Perceptions of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Playground Equipment Manufacturer and Purchaser Perceptions of Treated Wood Todd F. Shupe treated wood might cut life short for our children. "EPA chops down potential killer", 24 Hour News 8, Florida, after his bill to ban arsenic-treated wood from Florida's public playgrounds failed to pass

  3. Mechanical characteristics of aged Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood from Japanese historical buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    historical buildings -Comparative analyses with accelerated aging wood- Misao YOKOYAMA*1 , Joseph GRIL*1 Abstract Wood is present in many cultural heritage objects thanks to its capacity to resist odvantage with mechanical characteristics of aged hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood of Japanese historical buildings

  4. Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepcin, Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Global #12;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Subjects;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Main sources

  5. Name: Qinglin Wu Title: Roy O Martin Sr. Professor, Composites and Engineered Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ASTM), Philadelphia, PA · Forest Products Society, Madison, WI · Society of Wood and Science Technology Organizations · International Research Group in Wood Preservation, Stockholm, Sweden · American Chemical Society (ACS) · American Wood Preservation Association (AWPA) · American Society for Testing and Materials

  6. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project Background and Purpose The purpose of the Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Price Wood River LRR and the overall scope of the project, the final panel members were selectedFinal Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Limited

  7. Hazardous Waste Act (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Hazardous waste" means any solid waste or combination of solid wastes that because of their quantity, concentration or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may:  cause or significantly...

  8. Georgia Hazardous Waste Management Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Hazardous Waste Management Act (HWMA) describes a comprehensive, Statewide program to manage hazardous wastes through regulating hazardous waste generation, transportation, storage,...

  9. Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waste Management Group

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Revision 6 Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan Waste6 WM QA Plan Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan LBNL/4 Management Quality Assurance

  10. waste | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AlternativesSupplements to Coal - Feedstock Flexibility Waste Streams Gasification can be applied to a variety of waste streams, of which municipal solid waste (MSW) and...

  11. Urban and peri-urban agriculture and its zoonotic risks in Kampala, Uganda 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makita, Kohei

    2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing countries, cities are rapidly expanding, and urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) has an important role in feeding a growing urban population. However, UPA carries risks of zoonotic disease transmission. ...

  12. URBAN EXTENTS Bosnia-Herzego

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    URBAN EXTENTS Bosnia-Herzego Switzerland Czech Republic Germany Croatia Hungary Poland Slovakia. Adriatic Sea Bosnia- Herzegovina This document is licensed under a Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution License

  13. Urbanization, Agglomeration, and Economic Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigley, John M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    94 (3): 656–90. Quigley, John M. 1998. “Urban Diversity andItaly, July 3. John M. Quigley GCU_04pp115-132.indd 129wasn’t fully legible

  14. Analysis of large urban fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures.

  15. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Urban Energy Balance Models ComparisonT. Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: modelof the international urban energy balance model comparison,

  16. First waste-to-energy power station put into operation in Vietnam has successfully produced electricity from household and industrial waste as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    electricity from household and industrial waste as a newly-generated power supply has come online, its average cost per watt would be about half the price of electricity produced by other plants with the national electricity grid. On Wednesday, August 3, the Ho Chi Minh City Urban Environment Management

  17. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water runoff into the Charles River Basin in one of its most significantly polluted sections and, will provide a green renovation mechanism for the redirected storm water of a public alley way. This activity is designed to improve the quality of water recharging the ground water and protecting the vulnerable wood pilings under many of the historic masonry buildings in Boston's Back Bay. Sustainable design research and system monitoring opportunities will also be incorporated, providing ongoing tools for public outreach and education through innovative signage and "virtual tour" technology. The monitoring will include a "building performance dash board" that reflects real time operating conditions and improvements in environmental and economic performance to be prominently displayed on the face of our 320 Newbury Street building (approximately 1.5 million people walk by annually). The project site and demonstration area is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task II of the project is Geothermal Solution. This task involves the installation of approximately seven Geothermal wells which will tap into the earth's constant underground temperatures to provide air-conditioning and heating for BAC facilities. The environmentally friendly geothermal system uses no fossil fuel, produces no emissions and runs silently, providing a sustainable model for commercial and residential buildings throughout Boston. Ultimately the combination of this project and other projects will assist in making the BAC "carbon-neutral", and could generate enough additional energy to provide free power to the Engine 33 and Ladder 15 Firehouse located at 941 Boylston Street. The project is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task III of the project is the Sustainability Design Curriculum at the BAC. The BAC is the nation’s largest independent, multi-disciplinary college of spatial design, and a leader in

  18. APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS' Qinglin Wu Assistant. It was found that Nelson's model can be used to describe the experimental data from different composite composite materials (Suchsland 1972). These relationships, known as sorption isotherms, greatly affect

  19. Influence of Nanoclay on Properties of HDPE/Wood Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Nanoclay on Properties of HDPE/Wood Composites Yong Lei,1 Qinglin Wu,1 Craig M Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 2 Performance Engineered Composites, USDA Forest ServiceScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: Composites based on high density polyeth- ylene (HDPE), pine

  20. Bryan H. Wood Assistant Deputy Commandant of the Marine Corps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and stations throughout the world and for the operating forces across the U.S. Marine Corps. Mr. Wood advisor to the Commander, Combined Joint Task Force- Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) in Djibouti, Africa. Mr as the Environmental Law Section Head and Senior Associate Counsel (Environment/ Safety), Naval Sea Systems Command

  1. AN EXAMINATION OF WOOD RECYCLING PROVISIONS IN NORTH AMERICAN GREEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American green building standards, with use of such materials awarded or specified. Construction-consumer materials shall be considered as recycled. In addition to reviewing provisions of various green building! ! ! AN EXAMINATION OF WOOD RECYCLING PROVISIONS IN NORTH AMERICAN GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMS DR. JIM

  2. Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Iqbal

    Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III* Department of Animal, and American Fisheries Society (AFS) Fish Culture Section, was held February 26 through March 2, 2007, in San Antonio, Texas. At this meeting, the AFS Fish Culture and Fish Physiol- ogy Sections co

  3. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood...

  4. Measuring Interfacial Stiffness of Adhesively-Bonded Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    , the interfaces will fail, the elements will cease to share load, and the composite will have poor properties property. Nearly all methods for characterizing wood adhesive bonds consider only strength of the bonds. Typically a bond line is loaded until failure and the final load at failure is recorded. Some common

  5. 14 November 2010 Wood SA & Timber Times FOREST HEALTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    14 November 2010 Wood SA & Timber Times FOREST HEALTH Aprogramme that begun based on a very small other disciplines within reach of a dynamic forestry industry. Three South African forestry companies was formally launched in 1990.The research directors of these companies Neville Denison (Mondi),Mike Shaw

  6. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  7. Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Dan

    Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina John W. van de Lindt, M.ASCE1 ; Andrew Graettinger, M.ASCE2 ; Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE3 ; Thomas Skaggs, M.ASCE4 ; Steven Pryor, M.ASCE5 ; and Kenneth J. Fridley, M.ASCE6 Abstract: The costliest natural disaster in U.S. history was Hurricane Katrina

  8. Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE1 ; and Pranueng to evaluate "system effects" in light-frame roof truss assemblies. The goal of this study was to develop an improved and practical design method for 3D roof truss assemblies used in residential construction. A truss

  9. U.S. Homeowner of Perceptions of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Homeowner of Perceptions of Treated Wood Todd F. Shupe Extension Specialist Forest Products% Naturally durable species (cedar, redwood) 19% 56% 25% Treated lumber products 18% 67% 15% Untreated lumber Stating Agree or Strongly Agree Plastic 3.6 55% Steel 3.4 48% Treated Lumber 3.3 38% Concrete 2.8 24

  10. HISTORICAL WOOD COLLECTION AT THE DENDROCHRONOLOGY LABORATORY, VYTAUTAS MAGNUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    investigations. Subfossil oaks from river gravels, pines from peat bogs and wood from archeological excavations.) samples were collected in two peat bogs with pine trunks embedded in oligotrophic peat layers. One more than 300 samples of pine stumps and stems preserved in oligotrophic peat layers were coll

  11. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  12. In-Depth Temperature Profiles in Pyrolyzing Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reszka, Pedro

    of experimental in-depth temperature measurements were done in wood samples exposed to various intensities of radiant heat fluxes, with clearly defined boundary conditions that allow a proper input for pyrolysis models. The imposed heat fluxes range from 10 k...

  13. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

    1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  14. INFLUENCE OF TORREFACTION TREATMENT ON WOOD POWDER PROPERTIES M. Almendrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    INFLUENCE OF TORREFACTION TREATMENT ON WOOD POWDER PROPERTIES M. Almendrosa , O. Bonnefoyb , A de Saint-Etienne (EMSE), 158, Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France ABSTRACT: Torrefaction and makes the grinding easier. Our project deals with the study of the effects of the combined torrefaction

  15. The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Avik P.

    3 Year Old Willow #12;14 14 Woody Biomass Feedstocks Sustainably harvested low value wood from, Sustainable Bioproducts: Fuels, Chemicals, Materials Renewable Resources to "Green" Bio-Products Woody Biomass Feedstock #12;5 5 Spindletop at Beaumont, TX Circa late 1890's Birth of the Petroleum Industry in Texas

  16. Page 2 of 4 TREE Cookies Etc. Got Woods -continued

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    of a forester is to help sell timber, though they can and should be used to write management plans, manage tree plantings, implement intermediate tending treatments to improve the woods, design soil stabilization the tree, the rays (the lateral transporting structures for water and nutrients) are blocked. Finally

  17. Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities July 24, 2014 9:00AM to 3:30PM EDT U.S....

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. The purpose of the Manual is to catalog those procedural requirements and existing practices that ensure that all DOE elements and contractors continue to manage DOE's radioactive waste in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. Does not cancel other directives.

  19. Solid Waste Management Written Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Solid Waste Management Program Written Program Cornell University 8/28/2012 #12;Solid Waste.................................................................... 4 4.2.1 Compost Solid Waste Treatment Facility.................................................................... 4 4.2.2 Pathological Solid Waste Treatment Facility

  20. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2012 I Hudson Consulting I November 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    furnish of 150k odt/yr in 2012. 9. Including wood going for the production of pellets, usage of wood in progress 3.3. Wood fuel usage by fuel category 3.4. Pellet plants 3.5. Greenhouse gas emissions 4 to 1.073 million odt in 2014. 8. Four wood pellet manufacturing plants in Scotland used in total some

  1. U.S. Home Builder Perceptions about Treated Wood:Summary Richard P. Vlosky, Ph.D.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Home Builder Perceptions about Treated Wood:Summary Richard P. Vlosky, Ph.D.1 Professor for wood. In areas subject to a high risk of decay, wood that is preservative treated is often recommended alternatives to treated wood in certain applications, but this may result in higher costs, higher energy

  2. Waste Management and WasteWaste Management and Waste--toto--EnergyEnergy Status in SingaporeStatus in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ;20031970 The Solid Waste Challenge Waste Explosion 1,200 t/d1,200 t/d 6,900 t/d6,900 t/d #12;Waste ManagementWaste Management and WasteWaste Management and Waste--toto--EnergyEnergy Status in Singapore #12;Singapore's Waste Management · In 2003, 6877 tonnes/day (2.51 M tonnes/year) of MSW collected

  3. Hazardous Waste Management (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hazardous Waste Program is carried out by the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality which administers its' program under the Hazardous Waste management Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-7...

  4. Hazardous Waste Management (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The act authorizes the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environment Control (DNREC) to regulate hazardous waste and create a program to manage sources of hazardous waste. The act...

  5. Hazardous Waste Management (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste. It also provides information about permit requirements for the transport, treatment and storage of such waste. It also mentions...

  6. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R. [CRECHE, Centre for Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE, Centre for Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

  7. Parameterization of Urban Characteristics for Global Climate Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Trisha L.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    of varying scales and effects of climate change on urban populations, urbanization must be included in global climate models (GCMs). To properly capture the spatial variability in urban areas, GCMs require global databases of urban extent and characteristics...

  8. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  9. Waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  10. Final Report Waste Incineration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solid waste, the composition and com- bustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and the problems that occur in connection to this. The emphasis

  11. Rethinking the Waste Hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    principles of EU waste policies. The environmental damage caused by waste depends on which type of manage, Environmental Assessment Institute For further information please contact: Environmental Assessment Institute.imv.dk #12;Environmental Assessment Institute Rethinking the Waste Hierarchy March 2005 Recommendations

  12. Essays on rural-urban migration in hinterland China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Lei

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marriage Rates in Rural China . . . . . . . . . . .Urban Migration in Hinterland China . . . . . . . . . .and Rural-Urban Migration in Hinterland China . . . . . 1.

  13. Sustainable Urban Development: A Literature Review and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Stephen

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Towards Sustainable Development and Sustainable Urban Forms,Sustainable Urban Development Sustainable Seattle Indicatorseds. , Making Development Sustainable: From Concepts to

  14. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  15. Cost, time, and benefit measures for personal use fuel-wood collection in Colorado. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betters, D.R.; Markstrom, D.C.; Aukerman, R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average fuel-wood collector is willing to pay, beyond current perceived costs, an additional $21 to $29 per cord in order to continue collecting fuel-wood. The difference between willingness-to-pay estimates for fuel-wood collection and for wood purchased from a commercial vendor is assumed to present recreational value of fuel-wood collection. On that basis, the recreation values for the average collection is estimated to be between $6 and $12 per cord.

  16. Study of Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Gabrielle

    and Cell (MAC) method for the governing equations, transport of passive scalars like the pollutantStudy of Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Environments Razvan Corneliu Carbunescu Center head: Study of pollutant dispersion in urban environments #12;Abstract Computational simulations can

  17. Spatiotemporal Monitoring of Urban Vegetation Christopher Small

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Christopher

    in vegetation abundance influence environmental conditions and energy fluxes by selective reflection and absorbtion of solar radiation, by modulation of evapotranspiration and by sequestration of pollutants of the urban/suburban environment. Vegetation influences urban environmental conditions and energy fluxes

  18. Urban waterfront : problems and potentials of Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Mohammad Iqbal

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The essence of this thesis is based on the fact that downtown waterfronts are special urban areas in a city. These areas offer unique opportunities for providing cultural and recreational public amenities to urban life. ...

  19. High-resolution urban thermal sharpener (HUTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C; Rickman, Douglas L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the urban heat island of Houston, Texas,  Remote Sensing of infrared  remote sensing and GIS to asses the urban heat heat island analysis.  Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote 

  20. Field crossings : hybridizing the urban park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyphers, Scott M

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth and identity of urban open space is a vital issue facing our cities today. The development and revitalization of old industrial centers in the United States has prompted urban transformations in usage, densification ...

  1. URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

  2. Director Position Center for Urban Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    Director Position Center for Urban Transportation The Center for Urban Transportation Research for state policymakers, transportation agencies, transportation professionals and the public. CUTR conducts of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration and Federal Highway Administration, the Florida Department

  3. Water Conservation with Urban Landscape Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hip, B. W.; Giordano, C.; Simpson, B.

    Water shortages are a common problem in much of the southwest. Increasing urbanization and increasing population places greater demands on dwindling water supplies. Over half of the water used in urban areas of the southwest is used...

  4. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    racial- ized poverty. He challenged the conventional wisdom that urban decline was the result of failed the roots of urban poverty in a hidden history of racial violence, discrimination, and deindustri- alization

  5. Urban regeneration : enabled by mobility centric architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Wayne Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop a new urban architectural prototype to reinvigorate the British New Town. New models of adaptable, sustainable, architecture and urban design are explored with the ultimate ...

  6. Towards Militaristic Urban Planning: the Genealogy of the Post-Colonial European Approach to Social and Urban Insecurity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedjazi, Alexandre B; Fekkak, Hatem

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban Planning: the Genealogy of the Post-Colonial Europeanexperience, the British genealogy of city planning and urban

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual further describes the requirements and establishes specific responsibilities for implementing DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, for the management of DOE high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and the radioactive component of mixed waste. Change 1 dated 6/19/01 removes the requirement that Headquarters is to be notified and the Office of Environment, Safety and Health consulted for exemptions for use of non-DOE treatment facilities. Certified 1-9-07. Admin Chg 2, dated 6-8-11, cancels DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1.

  8. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  9. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  10. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  11. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  12. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  13. Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    termites, carpenter bees and carpenter ants. Many other insects live in dying or dead trees, including natural enemies (predators and parasites) of the insect borers, sap or fungi feeders, or species which merely use the spaces provided by the tunnels... segments behind the head capsule. While tunneling, larvae continually pack their tunnels with excrement (frass), which looks like compressed wood fibers, or push frass out of the holes they pro- duce. This excrement, along with the sap exuded by the plant...

  14. Performance of bolted wood connections using supplemental confining devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stromatt, Rebecca Faye

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (1994) currently restricts the use of 2x dimensioned lumber for sill plates (nominal lumber thickness of The style and format of this thesis follow the Journal of Structural Engineering. 38. 1 mm [1. 5 in]) and requires the use of 3x dimensioned... lumber (nominal lumber thickness of 63. 5 mm [2. 5 in]). While a thicker wood member would increase the strength capacity of the connection according to analytical strength models, the ultimate failure mode under extreme loading conditions can still...

  15. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)...

  16. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  17. Generation, storage, collection and transportation of municipal solid waste - A case study in the city of Kathmandu, capital of Nepal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, R. [Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: rakib_env@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.A.I.; Hasan, G.M.J.; Karanjit, B.; Shrestha, L.R. [Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid waste management (SWM) services have consistently failed to keep up with the vast amount of solid waste produced in urban areas. There is not currently an efficient system in place for the management, storage, collection, and transportation of solid waste. Kathmandu City, an important urban center of South Asia, is no exception. In Kathmandu Metropolitan City, solid waste generation is predicted to be 1091 m{sup 3}/d (245 tons/day) and 1155 m{sup 3}/d (260 tons/day) for the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. The majority (89%) of households in Kathmandu Metropolitan City are willing to segregate the organic and non-organic portions of their waste. Overall collection efficiency was 94% in 2003. An increase in waste collection occurred due to private sector involvement, the shutdown of the second transfer station near the airport due to local protest, a lack of funding to maintain trucks/equipment, a huge increase in plastic waste, and the willingness of people to separate their waste into separate bins. Despite a substantial increase in total expenditure, no additional investments were made to the existing development plan to introduce a modern disposal system due to insufficient funding. Due to the lack of a proper lining, raw solid waste from the existing dumping site comes in contact with river water directly, causing severe river contamination and deteriorating the quality of the water.

  18. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  19. EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation EM Waste and Materials Disposition & Transportation DOE's Radioactive Waste Management Priorities: Continue to manage waste...

  20. Transuranic (TRU) Waste | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transuranic (TRU) Waste Defined by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act as "waste containing more than 100 nanocuries of alpha-emitting...

  1. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF.

  2. Waste IncIneratIon and Waste PreventIon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and heat. In 2005/2006, German waste incineration plants provided some 6 terawatt hours (TWh-/Abfallgesetz) continues to hold: Waste prevention has priority over recovery and disposal. Nevertheless, the use of waste for en- ergy recovery is an indispensable element of sus- tainable waste management. Waste incineration

  3. Energy from Waste UK Joint Statement on Energy from Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy from Waste UK Joint Statement on Energy from Waste Read more overleaf Introduction Energy from waste provides us with an opportunity for a waste solution and a local source of energy rolled,itcan onlyaddressaportionofthewastestream andisnotsufficientonitsown. Energy obtained from the combustion of residual waste (Energy from

  4. www.d-waste.com info@d-waste.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    marketplace, about 47 grams of waste is produced-- with worldwide municipal solid waste generation totaling, the International Solid Waste Association, GIZ/SWEEP-Net, the Waste to Energy Research Council (WTERT) and the Solid management data available". According to David Newman, president of the International Solid Waste Association

  5. Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum American Society of Civil Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Solid wastes; Leaching; Aluminum

  6. Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS GENERATED AT DEPAUL UNIVERSITY.4 Hazardous Waste Defined p.5 Chemical Waste Procedure for Generating Departments p.6 o A of Containers p.8 o E. Disposal of Empty Containers p.8 o F. Storage of Waste Chemicals p.8,9 o G

  7. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  8. An urban lake remediation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelli, S.E.; Gardner, K.H.; Jennings, A.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circumstances provided the opportunity to study a small urban lake as the surrounding municipalities attempted to improve its aesthetic quality by dredging. This manuscript focuses primarily on the sediments in the system: accumulation rates, the expected dynamics of the lake bed drying process, and the influence of the sediments on water quality.

  9. Urban/Suburban Landscape & Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    of groundwater 5) Increased production of CO2 #12;3 Ground water pollution due to "storm run-off" - Construction.S. was fairly distinctly split into localized urban- industrial landscapes and widespread rural landscapes to development pressure in terms of housing, infrastructure and industry Impacting habitat cont. 1) Fragmentation

  10. The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -commerce business models; effective communication for women in business; and technology transfer and countertradeThe Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) Business Science Technology business.rutgers.edu Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ­ founded 1766 Business Science Technology

  11. Urban Racial Segregation Measures Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djonie, Jamil

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    . Douglas Wunneburger, from the Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning for his guidance and support through the course of this research. His GIS classes have opened my eyes to a new powerful tool to analyze from a different view. I wish...

  12. Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noel, Claudel, E-mail: claudelnoel@gmail.co [University of the West Indies, Institute for Sustainable Development, Environmental Management Unit, 13 Gibraltar Camp Way, Mona Campus, Kingston (Jamaica)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

  13. Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door Hinges 4 cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door Hinges 4.5"x4.5" Ives 5BB1HW El Hinge 4.5"x4 FS18S OR FS444 #12;Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Aluminum, wood or steel door with panic bar Hinges

  14. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  15. Converting sugarcane waste into charcoal for Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toussaint, Etienne Clement

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Haiti, most families have traditionally relied on wood and wood-derived charcoal as their primary fuel source for indoor cooking. This resource has proven to be unsustainable, however, as over 90% of the Haitian countryside ...

  16. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  17. Issues in the use of wood as an energy source in the northeastern US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, J.S. (ed.)

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes some of the concerns surrounding the use of wood for energy in the Northeast. It reviews the information on resource availability and ownership patterns in the Northeast, then focuses on New England, to assess the affect of potential resource constraints on the supply of wood available for energy and the effects of wood energy use on land use patterns. Finally, the application of specific technologies in settings that may experience significant wood energy use in the future is considered, including an assessment of the regional employment and income benefits of a major woodfuel installation.

  18. A review of "The Life of Anthony Wood In His Own Words" edited by Nicholas Kiessling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paleit, Edward

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    authors exasperating, it is a vital form of exasperation. And whatever the exasperation, Genre and Women?s Life Writing in Early Modern England is much better reading than most blogs. Nicholas Kiessling, ed. #31;e Life of Anthony Wood In His Own Words...;#30;#21;#31; until retrieved by more recent scholarship, especially in the case of women. Anthony Wood, or as he later called himself, ? Wood, the historian of Oxford University and biographer of its alumni, was more fortunate. Wood wrote two manuscript...

  19. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  20. Microsoft Word - CX-RedmondWoodPoles_multiSub_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Celilo SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Darrell Aaby Line Foreman III - TFDF-Redmond Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at selected...

  1. Microsoft Word - CX-FY11PascoDistrictWoodPoleReplacement_WEB...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-PASCO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Toby Cossairt Lineman Foreman III - TFPF-PASCO Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor...

  2. Microsoft Word - CX-AlveyDistrictWoodPoles-FY14_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8, 2014 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Stacey Hensley Project Manager - TEP-TPP-4 Proposed Action: 2014 Alvey District Wood Pole...

  3. Microsoft Word - CX-BigEddy-RedmondWoodPoles_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Celilo SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Darrell Aaby Line Foreman III - TFDF-Redmond Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements at select locations...

  4. Microsoft Word - CX-FY11WenatcheeDistrictWoodPoleReplacement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-PASCO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Terry Kugler Lineman Foreman III - TFWF-SCHULTZ Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor...

  5. Microsoft Word - CX-CowlitzTaptoChehalis-CovingtonWoodPoles_WEB...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Covington SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Clay Grande Line Foreman III - TFCF-Covington Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at...

  6. Microsoft Word - CX-RossDistrictWoodPolesFY13_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Stacie Hensley Realty Specialist - TEP-TPP-4 Proposed Action: 2013 Ross District Wood Pole...

  7. Microsoft Word - CX-PilotButte-LaPine-WoodPoles-FY13_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements on Bonneville Power...

  8. Microsoft Word - CX-Chehalis-CentraliaNo2WoodPolesFY12_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPROlympia SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Ryan Brady Line Foreman III - TFOK-Chehalis Proposed Action: Wood pole structure replacements on...

  9. Microsoft Word - CX-KalispellTLMDistrictFY11WoodPoleReplacement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bell-1 SUBJECT: Environmental Cleareance Memorandum Michael Stolfus Lineman Foreman III - TFKF-Kalispell Kurt Marsh Lineman Foreman I - TFKF-Kalispell Proposed Action: Wood pole...

  10. WOODS FOR LEARNING ACTION PLAN 2010-2013 Objective National Indicators Specific actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOODS FOR LEARNING ACTION PLAN 2010-2013 Objective National Indicators Specific actions Lead positive inspection reports Develop Forest Kindergarten with nurseries in both private and state sectors

  11. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  12. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

  13. Operational waste volume projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  14. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punkkinen, Henna, E-mail: henna.punkkinen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Merta, Elina, E-mail: elina.merta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Teerioja, Nea, E-mail: nea.teerioja@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland); Moliis, Katja, E-mail: katja.moliis@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland); Kuvaja, Eveliina, E-mail: eveliina.kuvaja@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Economics and Management, Latokartanonkaari 9, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 HY (Finland)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare the environmental sustainability of two MSW collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate pneumatic and door-to-door collection systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greenhouse gas emissions of pneumatic collection are around three times higher. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System components are decisive but assumptions on electricity use are also important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic collection could provide other benefits over door-to-door system. - Abstract: Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive.

  15. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States); Shaddoan, W.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Paducah, KY (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  16. Vitrification of waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  17. Vitrification of waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300 C to 800 C to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100 C to 1400 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  18. Solid Waste Management (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solid waste facilities operating in Connecticut must abide by these regulations, which describe requirements and procedures for issuing construction and operating permits; environmental...

  19. Solid Waste Policies (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the support of the state for alternative waste management practices that reduce the reliance upon land disposal and incorporate resource recovery. Cities and counties are...

  20. Solid Waste Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality administers the rules and regulations governing the storage, collection, processing, recovery, and reuse of solid waste protect the air,...

  1. Norcal Waste Systems, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describes the LNG long-haul heavy-duty trucks at Norcal Waste Systems Inc.'s Sanitary Fill Company.

  2. Hazardous Waste Management (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Department of Environmental...

  3. Solid Waste Management (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of...

  4. Solid Waste Management (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act encourages the Department of Environmental Quality and Health Department representatives to develop and encourage methods for disposing solid waste that are environmentally sound, that...

  5. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

  6. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    licensed to safely and permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste, or TRU waste, left over from the production of nuclear weapons. After more than 20 years of...

  8. Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act provides for planning for the processing and disposal of municipal waste; requires counties to submit plans for municipal waste management systems within their boundaries; authorizes...

  9. Solid Waste Act (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The main purpose of the Solid Waste Act is to authorize and direct the establishment of a comprehensive solid waste management program. The act states details about specific waste management...

  10. Virginia Waste Management Act (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solid waste and hazardous waste are regulated under a number of programs at the Department of Environmental Quality. These programs are designed to encourage the reuse and recycling of solid waste...

  11. Hazardous Waste Management (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules identify and list hazardous waste and set standards for the generators and operators of such waste as well as owners or operators of waste facilities. They also stats standards for...

  12. Solid Waste Disposal Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation and management of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. A fee is applied to all solid waste disposed in the...

  13. Georgia Waste Control Law (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Waste Control Law makes it unlawful to dump waste in any lakes, streams or surfaces waters of the State or on any private property without consent of the property owner. Waste is very broadly...

  14. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile 155.5 for K-1015-A Laundry Pit, East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs, Raymer J.E.

    2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) National Priorities List. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (DOE 1992), effective January 1, 1992, now governs environmental restoration activities conducted under CERCLA at the ORR. Following signing of the FFA, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the state of Tennessee signed the Oak Ridge Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement on June 18, 2003. The purpose of this agreement is to define a streamlined decision-making process to facilitate the accelerated implementation of cleanup, to resolve ORR milestone issues, and to establish future actions necessary to complete the accelerated cleanup plan by the end of fiscal year 2008. While the FFA continues to serve as the overall regulatory framework for remediation, the Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement supplements existing requirements to streamline the decision-making process. The disposal of the K-1015 Laundry Pit waste will be executed in accordance with the 'Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone, 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOB/ORAH-2161&D2) and the 'Waste Handling Plan for the Consolidated Soil and Waste Sites with Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2328&D1). This waste lot consists of a total of approximately 50 cubic yards of waste that will be disposed at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) as non-containerized waste. This material will be sent to the EMWMF in dump trucks. This profile is for the K-1015-A Laundry Pit and includes debris (e.g., concrete, metal rebar, pipe), incidental soil, plastic and wood, and secondary waste (such as plastic sheeting, hay bales and other erosion control materials, wooden pallets, contaminated equipment, decontamination materials, etc.).

  15. Implementation plan for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility Restart Operational Readiness Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary technical objective for the WERF Restart Project is to assess, upgrade where necessary, and implement management, documentation, safety, and operation control systems that enable the resumption and continued operation of waste treatment and storage operations in a manner that is compliant with all environment, safety, and quality requirements of the US Department of Energy and Federal and State regulatory agencies. Specific processes that will be resumed at WERF include compaction of low-level compatible waste; size reduction of LLW, metallic and wood waste; incineration of combustible LLW and MLLW; and solidification of low-level and mixed low-level incinerator bottom ash, baghouse fly ash, and compatible sludges and debris. WERF will also provide for the operation of the WWSB which includes storage of MLLW in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  16. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groups <LackawannaLago Vista, Texas:Hills,Woods,

  17. Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED Jump to: navigation,Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation,Open

  18. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy Resources JumpWood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources

  19. Wood County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin: Energy ResourcesWolverine JumpWood

  20. Lake of the Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii9969995°,ILEDSGP/joinHavasuPalmdaleLakeWoods,

  1. Woods County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy ResourcesWoods County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources Jump

  2. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy ResourcesWoods County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources

  3. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads|ofEvents »SSL BasicsKawtarSue CangeWendeWood and Pellet

  4. Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| Open EnergyGuntersvilleHallandaleHamlinHanauOhio:Hancock-Wood

  5. Meadow Woods, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy8429°, -88.864698° ShowMeade County, Kansas:Acres,Woods,

  6. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is abig worldFélicieTeresaConcernswithWood

  7. Solid Waste Paul Woodson, East Central University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of groundwater contamination, air pollution, and odor. Solid wastes may be displeasing to the public either, industrial and medical wastes, food wastes, mineral waste, and nonhazardous wastes. In addition/reservoirs, special wastes, such as medical wastes, low level radioactive wastes, construction/demolition debris

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  9. Hazardous Waste Management (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Mexico Environment Department's Hazardous Waste Bureau is responsible for the management of hazardous waste in the state. The Bureau enforces the rules established by the Environmental...

  10. Solid Waste Management (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute contains provisions for solid waste management systems, groundwater monitoring, liability for pollution, permitting, inspections, and provisions for waste reduction and recycling...

  11. RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE Paul A. WitherspoonRADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE Paul A. Wither spoona repository site in granite are to evaluate the suitability

  12. Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act establishes rules for the permitting, posting of security, construction, operation, closure, maintenance and remediation of solid waste disposal sites; disposal of solid waste in ways that...

  13. Animal Waste Technology Fund (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A bill passed in 2012 transferred responsibility for animal waste management technology projects to the Maryland Department of Agriculture. The Department will maintain the Animal Waste Technology...

  14. Solid Waste Rules (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The solid waste statute applies to construction and demolition debris, appliances, recyclables, and the facilities that collect, process, and dispose of solid waste. DES oversees the management of...

  15. Nebraska Hazardous Waste Regulations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to hazardous waste management, waste standards, permitting requirements, and land disposal...

  16. Solid Waste Management (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Program regulates safe management of solid waste through guidance, technical assistance, regulations, permitting, environmental monitoring, compliance evaluation and enforcement....

  17. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  18. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Darrel D. (1684 Partridge Dr., Aiken, SC 29801); Ebra, Martha A. (129 Hasty Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  19. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  20. Heterogeneous waste processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderberg, Laura A. (Los Alamos, NM); Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Brainard, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Foreman, Trudi M. (Los Alamos, NM); Hanners, John L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of treatment methods are provided for treatment of heterogeneous waste including: (1) treatment for any organic compounds present; (2) removal of metals from the waste; and, (3) bulk volume reduction, with at least two of the three treatment methods employed and all three treatment methods emplyed where suitable.

  1. Planning for municipal solid waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belnay, G.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research identifies those community characteristics and program components that have resulted in early, consistent, high levels of recycling participation in New Jersey. Discriminant analysis of socio-economic, demographic, institutional, and motivational factors is used to classify each of the state's 567 minor civil divisions into groups that describe participation levels. Of the four hypotheses advanced to explain the variation of recycling around the state, leadership emerges as the key factor in local program success. Local political and governmental leaders set the municipal recycling agenda, and through their knowledge, programs that fit the unique characteristics of their town are designed and aggressively implemented. Significant savings in the municipality's solid waste disposal budget and the added bonus of State Tonnage Grant Award Revenues are obtained by the urban, well-established, experienced recyclers identified by the analysis and confirmed by the individual case studies discussed.

  2. High Flux Isotopes Reactor (HFIR) Cooling Towers Demolition Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pudelek, R. E.; Gilbert, W. C.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a joint initiative between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, operated by UT-Battelle, and Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) to characterize, package, transport, treat, and dispose of demolition waste from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Cooling Tower. The demolition and removal of waste from the site was the first critical step in the planned HFIR beryllium reflector replacement outage scheduled. The outage was scheduled to last a maximum of six months. Demolition and removal of the waste was critical because a new tower was to be constructed over the old concrete water basin. A detailed sampling and analysis plan was developed to characterize the hazardous and radiological constituents of the components of the Cooling Tower. Analyses were performed for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) heavy metals and semi-volatile constituents as defined by 40 CFR 261 and radiological parameters including gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, alpha-emitting isotopes and beta-emitting isotopes. Analysis of metals and semi-volatile constituents indicated no exceedances of regulatory limits. Analysis of radionuclides identified uranium and thorium and associated daughters. In addition 60Co, 99Tc, 226Rm, and 228Rm were identified. Most of the tower materials were determined to be low level radioactive waste. A small quantity was determined not to be radioactive, or could be decontaminated. The tower was dismantled October 2000 to January 2001 using a detailed step-by-step process to aid waste segregation and container loading. The volume of waste as packaged for treatment was approximately 1982 cubic meters (70,000 cubic feet). This volume was comprised of plastic ({approx}47%), wood ({approx}38%) and asbestos transite ({approx}14%). The remaining {approx}1% consisted of the fire protection piping (contaminated with lead-based paint) and incidental metal from conduit, nails and braces/supports, and sludge from the basin. The waste, except for the asbestos, was volume reduced via a private contract mechanism established by BJC. After volume reduction, the waste was packaged for rail shipment. This large waste management project successfully met cost and schedule goals.

  3. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables.

  4. Boundaries to membranes : the urban project revisited : an urban strategy for Rio de Janeiro, Zona Norte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Phebe (Phebe Helena Melania)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates urban boundaries in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro. The Zona Norte transitioned in the last hundred years from a rural outskirts area of Rio, into its industrial hinterland, into a fully urbanized ...

  5. Urbanizing Watersheds and Changing River Flood Dynamics: Implications for Urban Wetland Restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Urbanization alters river hydrology, morphology, water quality, and habitat and ecology. Most of these associated changes are due to an increase in impervious surface cover (ISC) throughout the watershed. But the spatial location of urban areas...

  6. Urban Parks: The Value of Small Urban Parks, Plazas and Other Outdoor Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafer, Carl Scott; Jacob, John

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    People need parks. Great urban parks are places where communities come together, people interact, and social capital develops. Learn the characteristics of great urban parks and how they are created....

  7. Urban settlement issues : observations from 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chih-chien, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations and summaries were made on 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries, carried out by members of the Urban Settlement Design Program (U.S.D.P.), at MIT. The focus of this study is in ...

  8. SproutslO Urban Microfarm : interactive indoor farming system for urban use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farah, Jennifer Broutin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SproutslO Urban Microfarm is an interactive farming system that enables people to reliably grow and access healthy produce in urban areas. The introduction of a localized system with the capacity to induce scalar impact ...

  9. An urban weather generator coupling a building simulation program with an urban canopy model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bueno Unzeta, Bruno

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in air temperature observed in urban environments compared to the undeveloped rural surroundings, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, is being intensely studied, due to its adverse environmental and ...

  10. Seismic design of a current woodframe structure and study of innovative products and damping systems in wood construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahjoub, Nina A. (Nina Azadeh)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood structures have seen resurgence in popularity over the past several decades, especially in Western States of America, such as California. The industry keeps creating new structural wood products of exceptional strength, ...

  11. International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007 Photo: NTC+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007 Photo: NTC Photo: Stora Enso Photo: Stora Enso Topics I. Background for bioenergy;International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007 Photo: NTC Photo: Stora

  12. Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix Domingos De Sousa Meneses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix · Domingos De Sousa Meneses and the amount of energy absorbed by green wood under infrared (IR) radiation. This lack of knowledge is a potential barrier to the development of IR heating as an alternative to soaking as a means of warming logs

  13. Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana exporting raw materials such lumber to exporting processed or value-added wood products. In the mid-1990s on increasing value-added exports. These actions are: 1) the imposition of a levy on air-dried lumber exports, 2

  14. Field Document No.50 REGIONAL WOOD ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN ASIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND TOMORROW IN ASIA #12;This publication is printed by the FAO Regional Wood Energy Development Programme wood energy data, leading to best estimates of future consumption. It also tries to estimate development in other relevant sectors like agriculture and energy is also strongly recommended. The document

  15. Forestry building a future in the South Southern Wood Council Forest Products Scholarship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Forestry ­ building a future in the South Southern Wood Council Forest Products Scholarship attached): A written submission (no more than 1 page double sided) on why you are pursuing Forestry APPLICATIONS WILL BE ACCEPTED #12; Forestry ­ building a future in the South SOUTHERN WOOD COUNCIL FOREST

  16. ECOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE SIREX WOOD WASPS AND THEIR By H. S. HANSON.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    27 ECOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE SIREX WOOD WASPS AND THEIR PARASITES. By H. S. HANSON. Farnham House on the ecology of the Sirex wood-wasps and their parasites have been collected during a period of several years. The preliminary investigations were carried out by Dr. J. G. Myers, of Farnham House Laboratory, in collaboration

  17. INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Len

    INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of woodland ecosystems by virtue the ecological impor- tance of red wood ants (Gösswald, 1989) and the conser- vation concern for some species.borkin@clear.net.nz 2 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Etive House, Beechwood Park, Inverness, IV2 3BW, UK; e

  18. Ergonomic Solutions for the Secondary Wood Products Industry On October 17th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazo, Rado

    Ergonomic Solutions for the Secondary Wood Products Industry On October 17th and 18th , 2001, you are invited to a conference entitled: Ergonomic Solutions for the Secondary Wood Products Industry. This seminar will be held at Executive Inn, in Louisville, Kentucky. Hear the latest developments in ergonomics

  19. Opportunities for UPC Product and Service Suppliers: The Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    product and service suppliers. #12;4 UPC Suppliers To The Wood Products Industry Twenty-seven companies.3 percent of all corporate sales for these 27 respondent companies. An additional 15 companies indicated, from the largest timbers to small lengths of wood moulding are complying with customer requirements

  20. Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200702 Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood Energy.hughes@dal.ca 26 March 2007 #12;Hughes and Wood: Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings 1 Summary This report considers the limitations on solar energy in new, multi-storey residential buildings. In a time

  1. Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    overcoming a rise in European and CIS). · Oil prices soared, stimulating wood-based biofuels and policies 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania Oil prices 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2004 2005 2006 2007 with countries in the UNECE region continues to increase. · In Europe, wood products prices generally rose

  2. Historical changes in the distribution and functions of large wood in Puget Lowland rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Historical changes in the distribution and functions of large wood in Puget Lowland rivers Brian D and functions in Puget Lowland rivers from the last ~150 years of land use by comparing field data from an 11-km and with archival data from several Puget Lowland rivers. Current wood abundance is one to two orders of magnitude

  3. Uses and Desirable Properties of Wood in the 21st Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of social, economic, and environmental factors that influence wood-use trends. This article discusses plantations. Advances in biotechnology will enable tailoring wood properties of plantation trees and short are driven by social, economic, and environmental factors generally beyond the control of forest sector

  4. EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post and wax are essential additives in the manufactureof composite panels such as OSB. Resin binds wood elements together while wax acts as a water repellent. The objective of this study was to investigate

  5. Cancer Mortality and Wood Dust Exposure Among Participants in the American Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salzman, Daniel

    Cancer Mortality and Wood Dust Exposure Among Participants in the American Cancer Society Cancer and Paolo Boffetta, MD, MPH3 In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified wood dust as a human carcinogen, based on very strong evidence of a carcinogenic risk of sino-nasal cancer

  6. Biomimetic soy protein nanocomposites with calcium carbonate crystalline arrays for use as wood adhesive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomimetic soy protein nanocomposites with calcium carbonate crystalline arrays for use as wood 2010 Available online 21 March 2010 Keywords: Wood glue Calcium carbonate Gecko adhesion Soy protein crosslinking of calcium, carbonate, hydroxyl ions in the adhesive greatly improving the water- resistance

  7. Research Article Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Ian

    with hydraulic strategies. Denser woods tend to operate at more negative water potentials (Ackerly 2004; Bucci et et al. 2011). Wood density has been studied in relation to hydraulic conductivity but the results.s.zieminska@gmail.com Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. This is an Open Access

  8. New Lines of CCA-Treated Wood Research: In-Service and Disposal Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    New Lines of CCA-Treated Wood Research: In-Service and Disposal Issues Submitted March 19, 2001 Objectives 2 I.3 Background 4 CHAPTER II, METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN SOILS BELOW DECKS MADE OF CCA-TREATED WOOD Results from Soil Core Samples 24 II.7 Summary and Conclusions 28 CHAPTER III, INVENTORY OF CCA-TREATED

  9. A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment S.L. Shalat Arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, widely used in playgrounds and other outdoor associated with children playing on CCA- treated playgrounds. In a Pilot Study, 11 children (13­71 months

  10. A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment S.L. Shalat online 17 February 2006 Abstract Arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, widely used possible health risks associated with children playing on CCA- treated playgrounds. In a Pilot Study, 11

  11. Perception Drivers for Treated Wood by U.S. South Homebuilders and Remodelers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    Perception Drivers for Treated Wood by U.S. South Homebuilders and Remodelers Sanna M. Kallioranta1 for the use of treated wood products in construction is considerable, especially in the U.S. South for termite protection and to mitigate moisture related decay. This research investigates the perception about treated

  12. Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    authorities CHP Planning issues Transport companies District Heating Sustainable communities Utilities Solar the object of interest of municipalities and management of companies, is the issue of how to reconstruct out. Wood exploitation is well developed: many forestry and wood processing companies are represented

  13. DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protocols DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered to the extraction of whole genomic DNA from processed wood samples to explore the possibility of identifying an endangered trop- ical timber species by using DNA sequencing technology. High-yield and high-quality DNA

  14. WPMT (Fall 2009) Page 1 June 8, 2009 Wood Products Manufacturing Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    positions in wood products manufacturing, particularly for the hardwood cabinet and furniture industries to Lean Manufacturing (3) MET 14100 Materials I (4) Physics elective3 (3) STAT 30100 Elementary Sixth Semester (3) ECON 21000 Principles of Economics (3) FNR 31100 Wood Structure, Identification

  15. Determination of VOC emissions from French wood products Christophe YRIEIX *, Franois MAUPETIT **, Olivier RAMALHO **

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    wood manufacturers to determine IAQ performances of their products and to confront them with other quality (IAQ). Indeed, building products are significant sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs. This is particularly important for French wood manufacturers to determine IAQ performances of their products

  16. Illegal loggin and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy issues of the day SEARCH SITEMAP

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    activities). Wood energy: "Biomass is one of the renewable energies with the greatest potential for expansion, and wood is by far the largest component of biomass energy" says Kit Prins, Chief of the UNECE Timber/FAO Timber Section Trade Development and Timber Division United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Palais

  17. A review of "John Lowin and the English Theatre, 1603-1647" by Barbara Wooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunker, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assumed a more active role as a citizen with duties and responsibility over apprentices and financial oversight in the rebuilding of the Globe. Wooding’s commentary on the first decade 213 seventeenth-century news of Lowin’s career advocates for his...

  18. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  19. CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS A study prepared@riia.org February 2002 http://www.illegal-logging.info/uploads/1_ControllingTrade.pdf #12;Controlling the international trade in illegally logged timber and wood products Page 2 Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  20. Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures Preston Baxter, M.ASCE1 ; Thomas H. Miller, M.ASCE2 ; and Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE3 Abstract: Seismic Database subject headings: Seismic analysis; Seismic design; Wood structures; Shear walls; Diaphragms