National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for urban re fuse

  1. Re

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Re s pons e of a CSRM t o V arying M agnit ude s of Sh ort w av e M ont e Carl o Radiat iv e Trans f e r Nois e Jas on Col e 1 H ow ard Bark e r 2 M arat K h airout dinov 3 Dav id Randal l 3 1 Univ e rs it y of Brit is h Col um bia 2 M e t e orol ogical Se rv ice of Canada 3 Col orado St at e Univ e rs it y 1. I nt roduct ion 4. Re s ul t s (TO GA/ COARE) 2. Expe rim e nt Se t up CSRM Sys t e m f or At m os ph e ric M ode l l ing v e rs ion 6.5 (SAM v 6.5) 2D w it h axis orie nt e d w e s t -e

  2. OLED panel with fuses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levermore, Levermore; Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-09-16

    Embodiments may provide a first device that may comprise a substrate, a plurality of conductive bus lines disposed over the substrate, and a plurality of OLED circuit elements disposed on the substrate, where each of the OLED circuit elements comprises one and only one pixel electrically connected in series with a fuse. Each pixel may further comprise a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic electroluminescent (EL) material disposed between the first and the second electrodes. The fuse of each of the plurality of OLED circuit elements may electrically connect each of the OLED circuit elements to at least one of the plurality of bus lines. Each of the plurality of bus lines may be electrically connected to a plurality of OLED circuit elements that are commonly addressable and at least two of the bus lines may be separately addressable.

  3. Method for fusing bone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  4. Integrated fuses for OLED lighting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pschenitzka, Florian

    2007-07-10

    An embodiment of the present invention pertains to an electroluminescent lighting device for area illumination. The lighting device is fault tolerant due, in part, to the patterning of one or both of the electrodes into strips, and each of one or more of these strips has a fuse formed on it. The fuses are integrated on the substrate. By using the integrated fuses, the number of external contacts that are used is minimized. The fuse material is deposited using one of the deposition techniques that is used to deposit the thin layers of the electroluminescent lighting device.

  5. Laser welding of fused quartz

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  6. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y.; James, Ralph B.

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  7. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Armijo, James R.; Frear, Darrel R.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  8. Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

    2009-11-11

    There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

  9. Fusing the Audacity of Imagination with Pathways to Excellence | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fusing the Audacity of Imagination with Pathways to Excellence Fusing the Audacity of Imagination with Pathways to Excellence April 6, 2016 - 1:39pm Addthis Awardees and distinguished guests at PNNL’s Pathway to Excellence Celebration are (left to right) Jud Virden, Associate Laboratory Director, Energy and Environment, Malin Young, Deputy Director for Science and Technology, Jetta Wong, Director for the Office of Technology Transitions, Shari Li, Distinguished Inventor of

  10. Process for manufacturing hollow fused-silica insulator cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Krogh, Michael L.; Davis, Steven C.; Decker, Derek E.; Rosenblum, Ben Z.; Sanders, David M.; Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    A method for building hollow insulator cylinders that can have each end closed off with a high voltage electrode to contain a vacuum. A series of fused-silica round flat plates are fabricated with a large central hole and equal inside and outside diameters. The thickness of each is related to the electron orbit diameter of electrons that escape the material surface, loop, and return back. Electrons in such electron orbits can support avalanche mechanisms that result in surface flashover. For example, the thickness of each of the fused-silica round flat plates is about 0.5 millimeter. In general, the thinner the better. Metal, such as gold, is deposited onto each top and bottom surface of the fused-silica round flat plates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Eutectic metals can also be used with one alloy constituent on the top and the other on the bottom. The CVD, or a separate diffusion step, can be used to defuse the deposited metal deep into each fused-silica round flat plate. The conductive layer may also be applied by ion implantation or gas diffusion into the surface. The resulting structure may then be fused together into an insulator stack. The coated plates are aligned and then stacked, head-to-toe. Such stack is heated and pressed together enough to cause the metal interfaces to fuse, e.g., by welding, brazing or eutectic bonding. Such fusing is preferably complete enough to maintain a vacuum within the inner core of the assembled structure. A hollow cylinder structure results that can be used as a core liner in a dielectric wall accelerator and as a vacuum envelope for a vacuum tube device where the voltage gradients exceed 150 kV/cm.

  11. METHOD OF SEPARATING FISSION PRODUCTS FROM FUSED BISMUTH-CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for removing metal selectively from liquid metal compositions. The method effects separation of flssion product metals selectively from dilute solution in fused bismuth, which contains uraniunn in solution without removal of more than 1% of the uranium. The process comprises contacting the fused bismuth with a fused salt composition consisting of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, adding to fused bismuth and molten salt a quantity of bismuth chloride which is stoichiometrically required to convert the flssion product metals to be removed to their chlorides which are more stable in the fused salt than in the molten metal and are, therefore, preferentially taken up in the fused salt phase.

  12. Comment re DOE's NOI re continuation or modification of Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOI re continuation or modification of Price-Anderson Act Comment re DOE's NOI re continuation or modification of Price-Anderson Act Comments of Kerr-McGee Corporation to the ...

  13. Re: 'BPA Upcoming Schedule'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Re: 'BPA Upcoming Schedule' Larson,Cheryl A - PS-6 From: Kari, Don (Perkins Coie) DKari@perkinscoie.com Sent: Monday, July 14, 2008 9:36 AM To: Larson,Cheryl A - PS-6 Cc:...

  14. Urban hopper.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Feddema, John Todd; Little, Charles Quentin; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John; Weagle, Christian A.; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Marron, Lisa Carol; Malchano, Matthew D.; Giarrantana, John; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2010-03-01

    Hopping robots provide the possibility of breaking the link between the size of a ground vehicle and the largest obstacle that it can overcome. For more than a decade, DARPA and Sandia National Laboratories have been developing small-scale hopping robot technology, first as part of purely hopping platforms and, more recently, as part of platforms that are capable of both wheeled and hopping locomotion. In this paper we introduce the Urban Hopper robot and summarize its capabilities. The advantages of hopping for overcoming certain obstacles are discussed. Several configurations of the Urban Hopper are described, as are intelligent capabilities of the system. Key challenges are discussed.

  15. RE Atlas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RE Atlas Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: RE Atlas AgencyCompany Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable...

  16. V-233: Red Hat update for JBoss Fuse | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Red Hat update for JBoss Fuse V-233: Red Hat update for JBoss Fuse September 3, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Red Hat has issued an update for JBoss Fuse PLATFORM: Red Hat JBoss Fuse 6.x ABSTRACT: This fixes multiple vulnerabilities, which can be exploited by malicious people to bypass certain security restrictions and cause a DoS. REFERENCE LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA54683 Redhat Advisory RHSA-2013:1185-1 CVE-2013-0269 CVE-2013-1768 CVE-2013-1821 CVE-2013-2160 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium

  17. Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

    2012-03-19

    Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

  18. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Voropay, Dmitry; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  19. RE DKW | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DKW Jump to: navigation, search Name: RE-DKW Place: Germany Product: Company created for tax purposes by M. Denker and M. Wulf to manages their shares in RE-Power. They also...

  20. Re Gen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Re Gen Jump to: navigation, search Name: Re-Gen Place: United Kingdom Product: A biogas power generation company acquired by Infinis in January 2007, with 43.5MW current...

  1. mFUSE: Function Sequencer for MATLAB, Version 0.1.00

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Function Sequencer for MATLAB, Version 0.1.00 mFUSE: Function Sequencer for MATLAB is a Java based graphical user interface for use with MATLAB. September 24, 2013 software...

  2. Urban runoff quality management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This new manual of practice, jointly produced by the Water Environment Federation and American Society of Civil Engineers, focuses on the protection and enhancement of urban water resources by controlling the transport of constituents into urban waterways by urban stormwater runoff. The manual emphasizes control of constituent discharges, reflecting the fact that chemical and particulate constituents in urban stormwater runoff play a key role in determining the negative effects of that runoff.

  3. Christopher Urban | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Urban Research Scientist Chris.Urban@nrel.gov | 303-384-7917 Research Interests Chris Urban's experience includes directed organic synthesis for the Liquid Crystal Materials Research Center at University of Colorado - Boulder, as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the pharmaceutical industry. Education B.A., Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Colorado - Boulder, 2007

  4. Biologists Re-Vegetate Historical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Re-Vegetate Historical Disposal Area at the NNSS A large-scale re-vegetation effort is currently underway on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), completing the final stage of closure on a 92-acre disposal area that first began operation in the 1960s. In October 2011, NNSS work crews seeded major portions of the 92- acre disposal area, reintroducing native shrubs (10 species), grasses (3 species), and herbaceous flowering plants (3 species). Then in December, workers completed installation

  5. SUN (re)construction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SUN (re)construction Jump to: navigation, search Logo: SUN (re)construction Name: SUN (re)construction Address: 1351 Harker Avenue Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 94301 Region:...

  6. RE fuel Technology Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fuel Technology Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: RE-fuel Technology Ltd Place: Wiltshire, United Kingdom Sector: Efficiency Product: RE-Fuel is developing high efficiency...

  7. Urban Hopper Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Urban Hopper Program As part of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) project, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a small, shoebox-sized, GPS-guided, unmanned ...

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumada, Takayuki Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2014-03-14

    Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica is examined via time-resolved reflectivity measurements. After optical breakdown was caused by irradiation of a pump pulse with fluence F{sub pump}?=?3.314.9?J/cm{sup 2}, the reflectivity oscillated with a period of 63??2 ps for a wavelength ??=?795?nm. The period was reduced by half for ??=?398?nm. We ascribe the oscillation to the interference between the probe pulses reflected from the front and rear surfaces of the photo-excited molten fused silica layer. The time-resolved reflectivity agrees closely with a model comprising a photo-excited layer which expands due to the formation of voids, and then separates into two parts, one of which is left on the sample surface and the other separated as a molten thin layer from the surface by the spallation mechanism. Such oscillations were not observed in the reflectivity of soda-lime glass. Whether the reflectivity oscillates or not probably depends on the layer viscosity while in a molten state. Since viscosity of the molten fused silica is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the soda-lime glass at the same temperature, fused silica forms a molten thin layer that reflects the probe pulse, whereas the soda-lime glass is fragmented into clusters.

  9. Multi-tube thermal fuse for nozzle protection from a flame holding or flashback event

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Davis, Jr., Lewis Berkley; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David

    2012-07-03

    A protection system for a pre-mixing apparatus for a turbine engine, includes: a main body having an inlet portion, an outlet portion and an exterior wall that collectively establish a fuel delivery plenum; and a plurality of fuel mixing tubes that extend through at least a portion of the fuel delivery plenum, each of the plurality of fuel mixing tubes including at least one fuel feed opening fluidly connected to the fuel delivery plenum; at least one thermal fuse disposed on an exterior surface of at least one tube, the at least one thermal fuse including a material that will melt upon ignition of fuel within the at least one tube and cause a diversion of fuel from the fuel feed opening to at least one bypass opening. A method and a turbine engine in accordance with the protection system are also provided.

  10. Fracture Induced Sub-Band Absorption as a Precursor to Optical Damage on Fused Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Suratwala, T I; Shen, N; Laurence, T A; Steele, W A; Menapace, J; Feit, M D; Wong, L L

    2010-03-05

    The optical damage threshold of indentation induced flaws on fused silica surfaces was explored. Mechanical flaws were characterized by laser damaged testing, SEM, optical, and photoluminescence microscopy. Localized polishing, chemical etching, and the control of indentation morphology were used to isolate the structural features which limit optical damage. A thin defect layer on fracture surfaces, including those smaller than the wavelength of visible light, was found to be the dominant source of laser damage initiation during illumination with 355nm, 3ns laser pulses. Little evidence was found that either displaced or densified material or fluence intensification plays a significant role in optical damage at fluences >35J/cm{sup 2}. Elimination of the defect layer was shown to increase the overall damage performance of fused silica optics.

  11. DURA URBAN HOUSE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    People from many nations arrive in New York City to pursue the American Dream. The New York City College of Technology team embodies this spirit in Solar Decathlon 2015, called DURA—an acronym for Diverse, Urban, Resilient, and Adaptable.

  12. Financing Basics for RE Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financing Basics for RE Projects 1 Agenda: * Overview & Summary Findings * Introduction to Project Finance * The Role of the Players * Structure and Negotiation of Key Documents * Conclusions 2 Overview & Summary Findings 3 Renewable Energy Options: * Wind * PV * Solar * Bio * The evaluative parameters used by financiers is different for each of these technologies - Example: DSC for Wind = 1.4 - 1.5; and DSC for Bio (due to fuel risk) = 1.5 - 1.6 4 Basic Elements #1: * Lots of money now

  13. Social Media and the NRC: What We're Doing, Why We're Doing It...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Social Media and the NRC: What We're Doing, Why We're Doing It, and What Else We Might Do Social Media and the NRC: What We're Doing, Why We're Doing It, and What Else We Might Do ...

  14. Role of suprathermal electrons during nanosecond laser energy deposit in fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grua, P.; Hébert, D.; Lamaignère, L.; Rullier, J.-L.

    2014-08-25

    An accurate description of interaction between a nanosecond laser pulse and a wide band gap dielectric, such as fused silica, requires the understanding of energy deposit induced by temperature changes occurring in the material. In order to identify the fundamental processes involved in laser-matter interaction, we have used a 1D computational model that allows us to describe a wide set of physical mechanisms and intended for comparison with specially designed “1D experiments.” We have pointed out that suprathermal electrons are very likely implicated in heat conduction, and this assumption has allowed the model to reproduce the experiments.

  15. Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation under anomalous dispersion in fused silica. Part 1. Numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smetanina, E O; Kompanets, V O; Chekalin, Sergei V; Kandidov, V P

    2012-10-31

    We report the results of investigation of femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in fused silica by varying the wavelength in the range from 800 to 2300 nm. It is shown that in the case of the anomalous group-velocity dispersion, a sequence of 'light bullets' with a high spatial and temporal localisation of the light field is formed along the filament. The relation of the formation and propagation of light bullets with the formation of an isolated anti-Stokes wing of the supercontinuum spectrum is established. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Formation of conical emission of supercontinuum during filamentation of femtosecond laser radiation in fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandidov, V. P. Smetanina, E. O.; Dormidonov, A. E.; Kompanets, V. O.; Chekalin, S. V.

    2011-09-15

    The formation of conical emission of supercontinuum during filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses with central wavelengths in a wide range is studied experimentally, numerically, and analytically. The frequency-angular intensity distribution of the spectral components of conical emission is determined by the interference of supercontinuum emission in a filament of a femtosecond laser pulse. The interference of supercontinuum emission has a general character, exists at different regimes of group velocity dispersion, gives rise to the fine spectral structure after the pulse splitting into subpulses and the formation of a distributed supercontinuum source in an extended filament, and causes the decomposition of the continuous spectrum of conical emission into many high-contrast maxima after pulse refocusing in the filament. In spectroscopic studies with a tunable femtosecond radiation source based on a TOPAS parametric amplifier, we used an original scheme with a wedge fused silica sample. Numerical simulations have been performed using a system of equations of nonlinear-optical interaction of laser radiation under conditions of diffraction, wave nonstationarity, and material dispersion in fused silica. The analytic study is based on the interference model of formation of conical emission by supercontinuum sources moving in a filament.

  17. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 Glossary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Christopher J.; Harris, James M.

    2016-01-01

    This document contains the glossary of terms used for the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project. This version was created for Iteration E1.

  18. Re: Corrected Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via email) Re: Corrected Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication This memorandum is submitted to revise and correct our earlier memorandum submitted on September 23 rd . ...

  19. Re: Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...artecommunications@hq.doe.gov (sent via email) Re: Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication On March 30, 2015, representatives of the American Gas Association (AGA) met with ...

  20. Re-Energize: Building Energy Smart Communities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Re-Energize: Building Energy Smart Communities Brand Book, as posted on the website of the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

  1. ReEnergy Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity from landfill waste. The company also plans to focus on making existing coal plants more energy efficient and environmentally safe. References: ReEnergy Group1...

  2. Dreen Re Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dreen Re-Energy Place: So Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Sector: Hydro, Wind energy Product: Brazil based operating company, Dreen is active as...

  3. Re: Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory Burden RFI Re: Regulatory Burden RFI Hearth Patio & Barbecue Association comments on Regulatory Burden RFI PDF icon Re: Regulatory Burden RFI More Documents & Publications Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments) .Hearth, Patio & Barbecue Association's Comments on DOE's Regulatory Burden RFI Regulatory Reduction RFI, 76 Fed. Reg. 6123, February 3, 2011

  4. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  5. Content-based fused off-axis object illumination direct-to-digital holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, Jeffery R.

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods are described for content-based fused off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method includes calculating an illumination angle with respect to an optical axis defined by a focusing lens as a function of data representing a Fourier analyzed spatially heterodyne hologram; reflecting a reference beam from a reference mirror at a non-normal angle; reflecting an object beam from an object the object beam incident upon the object at the illumination angle; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to from the content-based off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; and digitally recording the content based off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis.

  6. Thiophene fused azacoronenes: regioselective synthesis, self organization, charge transport, and its incorporation in conjugated polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo

    2015-09-15

    A regioselective synthesis of an azacoronene fused with two peripheral thiophene groups has been realized through a concise synthetic route. The resulting thienoazacoronene (TAC) derivatives show high degree of self-organization in solution, in single crystals, in the bulk, and in spuncast thin films. Spuncast thin film field-effect transistors of the TACs exhibited mobilities up to 0.028 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 S.sup.-1, which is among the top field effect mobilities for solution processed discotic materials. Organic photovoltaic devices using TAC-containing conjugated polymers as the donor material exhibited a high open-circuit voltage of 0.89 V, which was ascribable to TAC's low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital energy level.

  7. Fusing porphyrins with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E.; Diev, Viacheslav; Hanson, Kenneth; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2015-08-18

    A compound that can be used as a donor material in organic photovoltaic devices comprising a non-activated porphyrin fused with one or more non-activated polycyclic aromatic rings or one or more non-activated heterocyclic rings can be obtained by a thermal fusion process. The compounds can include structures of Formula I: ##STR00001## By heating the reaction mixture of non-activated porphyrins with non-activated polycyclic aromatic rings or heterocyclic rings to a fusion temperature and holding for a predetermined time, fusion of one or more polycyclic rings or heterocyclic rings to the non-activated porphyrin core in meso,.beta. fashion is achieved resulting in hybrid structures containing a distorted porphyrin ring with annulated aromatic rings. The porphyrin core can be olygoporphyrins.

  8. Laser induced diffusion of ion-implanted bismuth in fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S.Y.; Weeks, R.A.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The near surface regions of optical grade fused silica discs (Spectrosil A) were modified by implantation with bismuth ions at 160 and 320 keV and at room temperature. The glasses implanted with a nominal dose of 6 {times} l0{sup 16} Bi{sup 2+} ions/cm{sup 2} were subsequently annealed with a 5 eV KrF pulsed excimer laser and by a furnace in oxygen atmosphere. Rutherford backscattering and optical absorption were measured before and after the anneals. Backscattering profiles after laser anneal showed shifts of the profiles toward the surface with decrease in retained dose. We attribute the diffusion of bismuth to Soret effect. Profiles of furnace annealed samples showed that the diffusion was both toward and away from the surface.

  9. Redox shuttles having an aromatic ring fused to a 1,1,4,4-tetrasubstituted cyclohexane ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    An electrolyte includes an alkali metal salt; an aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive including an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring fused with at least one non-aromatic ring, the aromatic ring having two or more oxygen or phosphorus-containing substituents.

  10. Raman and far ir spectroscopic study of quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases for zinc bromine circulating electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larrabee, J.A.; Graf, K.R.; Grimes, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The circulating electrolyte zinc bromine battery is an attractive advanced battery system. The electrolyte is a solution of zinc bromide, quaternary ammonium bromides for bromine complexation and added salts to enhance properties. Laser Raman spectroscopy and far infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the liquid quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases.

  11. Renewable Market Adjusting Tariff (ReMAT)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Program Period 6 for the Re-MAT program began in September 2014. The feed-in tariff program for bioenergy projects was established by SB 1122 but will require action by the CPUC before it is...

  12. Re: Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 13, 2014 To: expartecommunication@hq.doe.gov (sent via email) Re: Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication On October 9, 2014, a workshop was hosted by the American ...

  13. ReEDS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it uniquely suitable for certain types of analyses. While ReEDS can model all types of power generators and fuels-coal, gas, nuclear, renewables-it was designed primarily to...

  14. Re-Building Greensburg | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Re-Building Greensburg Re-Building Greensburg Addthis Description Greensburg, Kansas - A town that was devastated by a tornado in 2007, yet came back to be one of the Nation's most energy-efficient, sustainable communities. Civic leaders and entrepreneurs rallied residents behind the idea of "greening" Greensburg, inspiring the construction of energy-efficient buildings, some of which generate their own renewable power with solar panels and wind turbines. Greensburg has demonstrated

  15. HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Steele, R A; Shen, N; Monticelli, M V; Feit, M D; Laurence, T A; Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Wong, L L

    2010-02-23

    The effect of various HF-based etching processes on the laser damage resistance of scratched fused silica surfaces has been investigated. Conventionally polished and subsequently scratched fused silica plates were treated by submerging in various HF-based etchants (HF or NH{sub 4}F:HF at various ratios and concentrations) under different process conditions (e.g., agitation frequencies, etch times, rinse conditions, and environmental cleanliness). Subsequently, the laser damage resistance (at 351 or 355 nm) of the treated surface was measured. The laser damage resistance was found to be strongly process dependent and scaled inversely with scratch width. The etching process was optimized to remove or prevent the presence of identified precursors (chemical impurities, fracture surfaces, and silica-based redeposit) known to lead to laser damage initiation. The redeposit precursor was reduced (and hence the damage threshold was increased) by: (1) increasing the SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} solubility through reduction in the NH4F concentration and impurity cation impurities, and (2) improving the mass transport of reaction product (SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-}) (using high frequency ultrasonic agitation and excessive spray rinsing) away from the etched surface. A 2D finite element crack-etching and rinsing mass transport model (incorporating diffusion and advection) was used to predict reaction product concentration. The predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed process trends. The laser damage thresholds also increased with etched amount (up to {approx}30 {micro}m), which has been attributed to: (1) etching through lateral cracks where there is poor acid penetration, and (2) increasing the crack opening resulting in increased mass transport rates. With the optimized etch process, laser damage resistance increased dramatically; the average threshold fluence for damage initiation for 30 {micro}m wide scratches increased from 7 to 41 J/cm{sup 2}, and the statistical probability of damage initiation at 12 J/cm{sup 2} of an ensemble of scratches decreased from {approx}100 mm{sup -1} of scratch length to {approx}0.001 mm{sup -1}.

  16. Systemic effects of urban form on air pollution and environmental quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The form and design of cities and towns have a direct impact on the quality of the natural environment, particularly air and water quality. This paper illustrates some of the dynamic relationships between the form of urban environments and air and water pollution. Recent research suggests how urban form affects environmental quality in at least three ways: (a) how suburban development and its dependency on the private motor vehicle increases air pollution, (b) how exterior building materials help to generate urban heat islands and ozone precursors, and (c) how conventional stormwater drainage systems transport polluted urban runoff into waterways. Today`s aging urban infrastructure provides an important and timely opportunity to re-examine the design of cities and towns with a goal of enhancing overall environmental quality. Many miles of roads, freeways, bridges, and stormwater culverts and pipes are in poor condition and need to be repaired or replaced, while many cities are now failing to meet air and water quality standards designed to protect human and environmental health. This paper also explores seven urban planning and design concepts that could reduce the magnitude of air and water pollution in urban environments and help to improve the health of both cities and their residents.

  17. Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban Place: Miami, FL Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

  18. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable ...

  19. EPA Urban Waters Small Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is accepting applications for the Urban Waters Small Grants Program to address urban runoff pollution with a focus on underserved communities.

  20. Comment re DOE's NOI re continuation or modification of Price-Anderson Act

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy re DOE's NOI re continuation or modification of Price-Anderson Act Comment re DOE's NOI re continuation or modification of Price-Anderson Act Comments of Kerr-McGee Corporation to the "Notice of Inquiry" by DOE seeking comments to assist in the preparation of a report to Congress concerning the continuation or modification of the Price-Anderson Act (the "Act"). These comments will focus solely on question 25 of the notice -- namely, whether the

  1. 2015 Procurement Evaluation and Re-engineering Team (PERT) Schedule...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    15 Procurement Evaluation and Re-engineering Team (PERT) Schedule 2015 Procurement Evaluation and Re-engineering Team (PERT) Schedule PDF icon PERT Schedule 2015.pdf More Documents ...

  2. Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) and Establishment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) and Establishment of a 5-year Cycle with Corresponding Schedule Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) and ...

  3. Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle The Senior Procurement ...

  4. 2016 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications 2016 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas ...

  5. Policy Flash 2013-65 Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) and Establishment of a 5-year Cycle with Corresponding Schedule Policy Flash 2013-65 Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering...

  6. Detecting Weak Explosions at Local Distances by Fusing Multiple Geophysical Phenomenologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Nemzek, Robert J.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Sentz, Kari

    2015-03-23

    Comprehensive explosion monitoring requires the technical capability to identify certain signatures at low signal strengths. For particularly small, evasively conducted explosions, conventional monitoring methods that use single geophysical phenomenologies may produce marginal or absent detections. To address this challenge, we recorded coincident acoustic, seismic and radio-frequency emissions during the above-ground detonation of ~ 2-12 kg solid charges and assessed how waveform data could be fused to increase explosion-screening capability. Our data provided identifiable explosion signatures that we implemented as template-events in multichannel correlation detectors to search for similar, matching waveforms. We thereby observed that these highly sensitive correlation detectors missed explosive events when applied separately to data streams that were heavily contaminated with noise and signal clutter. By then adding the p-values of these statistics through Fisher’s combined probability test, we correctly identified the explosion signals at thresholds consistent with the false alarm rates of the correlation detectors. This resulting Fisher test thereby provided high-probability detections, zero false alarms, and higher theoretical detection capability. We conclude that inclusion of these fusion methods in routine monitoring operations will likely lower both detection thresholds for small explosions, while reducing false attribution rates.

  7. Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebugle, M. Sanner, N.; Varkentina, N.; Sentis, M.; Utéza, O.

    2014-08-14

    We investigate the ultrafast absorption dynamics of fused silica irradiated by a single 500 fs laser pulse in the context of micromachining applications. A 60-fs-resolution pump-probe experiment that measures the reflectivity and transmissivity of the target under excitation is developed to reveal the evolution of plasma absorption. Above the ablation threshold, an overcritical plasma with highly non-equilibrium conditions is evidenced in a thin layer at the surface. The maximum electron density is reached at a delay of 0.5 ps after the peak of the pump pulse, which is a strong indication of the occurrence of electronic avalanche. The results are further analyzed to determine the actual feedback of the evolution of the optical properties of the material on the pump pulse. We introduce an important new quantity, namely, the duration of absorption of the laser by the created plasma, corresponding to the actual timespan of laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung. Our results indicate an increasing contribution of plasma absorption to the total material absorption upon raising the excitation fluence above the ablation threshold. The role of transient optical properties during the energy deposition stage is characterized and our results emphasize the necessity to take it into account for better understanding and control of femtosecond laser-dielectrics interaction.

  8. Urban Sustainability Water Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-22

    Most urban areas are experiencing substantial growth rate. In order to support the growth and still maintain the high quality of life currently available in these areas, government planners, and developers and general stakeholders are very interested in a product that will allow them to experiment with different development scenarios to determine the best path forward. One of the biggest concerns is the amount of water that will be available as the growth continues. Thismore » software package will allow them as a group to input their ideas and get a visual view of the results, immediately. They will be able to watch the water resources as they are consumed by the increasing growth in residential, commercial and industrial areas.« less

  9. Final Technical Report, reEnergize Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wamstad-Evans, Kristi; Williams, Eric; Kubicek, Jason

    2013-12-27

    The reEnergize Program helped to build a market for residential and commercial energy evaluations and upgrades. The program provided incentives to encourage participants to save energy, save money, and make their homes and businesses more safe, healthy, and comfortable. As part of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP), the successful investment of this $10 million grant toward market development was the first grant funding collaboration between the cities of Omaha and Lincoln. Through more than three years of work, thousands of participants, contractors, and community members worked together to make the reEnergize Program a demonstration of how to “Build Energy Smart Communities.”

  10. Removal of asphaltene and paraffin deposits using micellar solutions and fused reactions. Final report, 1995--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.L.; Nalwaya, V.; Singh, P.; Fogler, H.S.

    1998-05-01

    Chemical treatments of paraffin and asphaltene deposition by means of cleaning fluids were carried out in this research project. Research focused on the characterization of asphaltene and paraffin materials and dissolution of asphaltene and paraffin deposits using surfactant/micellar fluids developed early in the project. The key parameters controlling the dissolution rate were identified and the process of asphaltene/paraffin dissolution were examined using microscopic apparatus. Numerical modeling was also carried out to understand the dissolution of paraffin deposits. The results show that fused chemical reaction systems are a promising way of removing paraffin deposits in subsea pipelines. The fused system may be in the form of alternate pulses, emulsions systems or encapsulated catalyst systems. Fused reaction systems, in fact, are extremely cost-effective--less than 10% of the cost of replacing entire sections of the blocked pipeline. The results presented in this report can have a real impact on the petroleum industry and the National Oil Program, if it is realized that the remediation technologies developed here can substantially delay abandonment (due to asphaltene/paraffin plugging) of domestic petroleum resources. The report also sheds new light on the nature and properties of asphaltenes and paraffin deposits which will ultimately help the scientific and research community to develop effective methods in eliminating asphaltene/paraffin deposition problems. It must also be realized that asphaltene remediation technologies developed and presented in this report are a real alternative to aromatic cleaning fluids currently used by the petroleum industry.

  11. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDM process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.

  12. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDMmore » process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.« less

  13. Emerging Renewable Technologies Prepared by RE Vision Consulting, LLC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Methodology for the Evaluation of Emerging Renewable Technologies Prepared by RE Vision Consulting, LLC October 2011 Document Prepared for DOE by: RE Vision Consulting, LLC www.re-vision.net Project Manager: Mirko Previsic Email Address: mirko@re-vision.net © Copyright 2011 RE Vision Consulting, LLC, All Rights Reserved DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES This document was prepared by the organizations named below as an account of work sponsored or cosponsored by the

  14. RePower Sustainability Planning Summit Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an overview of the Post‐Grant Program Sustainability Planning Summit conducted by RePower Kitsap. The utility model that was explored and recommended by participants consisted of a hybrid model: a non‐profit agency providing assistance to the regional utilities in a partnership to ensure regional utility conservation and efficiency targets are met.

  15. Re: Corrected Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    September 25, 2014 To: expartecommunication@hq.doe.gov (sent via email) Re: Corrected Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication This memorandum is submitted to revise and correct our earlier memorandum submitted on September 23 rd . On September 12, 2014, representatives of the American Gas Association (AGA) met with staff of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to share and discuss the results of a national survey of builders and contractors designed to identify the likely rates of fuel

  16. Re: Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    October 13, 2014 To: expartecommunication@hq.doe.gov (sent via email) Re: Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication On October 9, 2014, a workshop was hosted by the American Gas Association and Washington Gas Light (WGL) at WGLs Training Facility in Springfield, VA. The purposes of the workshop were to convene representatives from the Department of Energy and stakeholder organizations to examine natural gas heating and water heating equipment and the installation differences between

  17. Re: Ex parte communication | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ex parte communication Re: Ex parte communication On April 20, 2010, Scott Bates, Corporate Vice President and General Counsel, and Karen Meyers, Director of Government Affairs, both of the Rheem Manufacturing Company ("Rheem"), accompanied by their counsel, Bill Anaya of Alston & Bird, LLP, met with Department of Energy ("DOE") officials Scott Harris, General Counsel, Maureen McLaughlin, Special Assistant to the General Counsel, and Stephanie Weiner, Special Assistant,

  18. Urban alternative homestead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of work were in redesigning and correcting the design flaws of the active heating system, the passive solar heating system, and the furnace controls, so that the building would heat and cool itself more efficiently and evenly than it had before. The active system was re-plumbed, fixing leaks, and adding joints and parts needed to work properly. Its tanks were insulated and new pumps installed. The passive system was reworked by adding a shadescreen to the outside of the greenhouse for summer cooling, and by adding ductwork to remove excess heat from the greenhouse and office, and redistribute it to the rest of the building, or to the outside. To help heat the north rooms, this recycled heat was very helpful. Also, insulating the floor under the north rooms was very helpful in providing more even heating. In order for the heating system to operate more efficiently, the electronic controls had to be reworked so the proper messages could be sent to the furnace about when to use each kind of heat. The lowered gas usage of the house told the story about how much better the active and passive systems were when the grant was completed. Moreover, the house was much more comfortable, not only from the overheating in the summer, but from a more even distribution of the heat to the north rooms. The fact that the electrical usage increased reflected the fact that the new pumps took more electricity to run them, and that the active system did not have all of the flaws worked out.

  19. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  20. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  1. Fused off-axis object illumination direct-to-digital holography with a plurality of illumination sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, Jeffery R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2005-11-08

    Systems and methods are described for rapid acquisition of fused off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording a plurality of off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne holograms, each of the off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne holograms including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes digitally recording, with a first illumination source of an interferometer, a first off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; and digitally recording, with a second illumination source of the interferometer, a second off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis.

  2. Ex Parte Communication re Energy Conservation Standards for Single...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Communication re Energy Conservation Standards for Single Package Vertical Air ... Reg. 78,614 (Dec. 30, 2014) (Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0041) Ex Parte Communication re ...

  3. Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy PRIMaRE...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy PRIMaRE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Renewable Energy Product: UK-based...

  4. 2016 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications 2016 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas ...

  5. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (ReFUEL). ReFUEL is a world-class research and testing facility dedicated to future fuels and advanced heavy-duty vehicle research, located in Denver, Colorado.

  6. 2014 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications 2014 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas ...

  7. 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas...

  8. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Export Initiative (RE4I...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Export Initiative (RE4I) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Export Initiative (RE4I) AgencyCompany Organization: US...

  9. reEnergize: Building Energy Smart Communities | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    reEnergize: Building Energy Smart Communities reEnergize: Building Energy Smart Communities Slides presented in the "What's Working in Residential Energy Efficiency Upgrade Programs Conference - Promising Approaches and Lessons Learned" on May 20, 2011 in Washington, D.C. PDF icon reEnergize: Building Energy Smart Communities More Documents & Publications Re-Energize: Building Energy Smart Communities Omaha, Nebraska Summary of Reported Data Mastermind Session: Combining Energy

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: ReVision Energy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy ReVision Energy Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: ReVision Energy Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: ReVision Energy Joined the Challenge: December 2015 Headquarters: Portland, ME Charging Locations: Brentwood, NH; Portland, ME Domestic Employees: 125 ReVision Energy's mission is to reduce fossil fuel consumption and carbon emissions. Since 50% of all carbon emissions in their region come from transportation, the company is embracing workplace charging as a critical path to

  11. Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation notes from meeting on Convention on Supplementary Compensation PDF icon Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation More Documents & Publications Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost

  12. 2015 Procurement Evaluation and Re-engineering Team (PERT) Schedule |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 15 Procurement Evaluation and Re-engineering Team (PERT) Schedule 2015 Procurement Evaluation and Re-engineering Team (PERT) Schedule PDF icon PERT Schedule 2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) and Establishment of a 5-year Cycle with Corresponding Schedule POLICY FLASH 2015-40

  13. Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements National Cable & Telecommunications Association comments on Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications ...

  14. RE: NBP RFI: Communication Requirements | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    RE: NBP RFI: Communication Requirements RE: NBP RFI: Communication Requirements Comments of Southern California Edison on Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy PDF icon RE: NBP RFI: Communication Requirements More Documents & Publications Comments of Utilities Telecom Council Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to

  15. Re: NBP RFI: CommunicationRse quirements | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CommunicationRse quirements Re: NBP RFI: CommunicationRse quirements Pepco Holdings, Inc. (PHI) is pleased to respond to the U.S Department of Energy request for comments regarding the communications requirements of electric utilities deploying the Smart Grid. PDF icon Re: NBP RFI: CommunicationRse quirements More Documents & Publications Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric

  16. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU-style development path would avoid 430 million tonnes coal-equivalent energy use by 2025. More than 60% of these energy savings would come from reduced activity and production levels. In carbon terms, this would amount to more than a billion-tonne reduction of energy-related carbon emissions compared with the BAU scenario in 2025, though the absolute level of emissions rises in both scenarios. Aside from the energy and carbon savings related to CLU scenario development, this study showed impending saturation effects in commercial construction, urban appliance ownership, and fertilizer application. The implication of these findings is that urbanization will have a direct impact on future energy use and emissions - policies to guide urban growth can play a central role in China's efforts to mitigate emissions growth.

  17. Volker Urban | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volker Urban Volker Urban Volker Urban Principal Investigator E-mail: urbanvs@ornl.gov Phone: 865-576-7221 Fax: 865-574-6080 Website: Oak Ridge National Lab Website Principal Investigator and Themes 1 & 2 Member Dr. Urban conducts Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) studies for the characterization or macromolecular assemblies. Research and Development Staff, Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Chemical Sciences Division 3/23/11:: Neutron analysis yields insight into bacteria for

  18. Absorption of a single 500 fs laser pulse at the surface of fused silica: Energy balance and ablation efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varkentina, N.; Sanner, N.; Lebugle, M.; Sentis, M.; Utéza, O.

    2013-11-07

    Ablation of fused silica by a single femtosecond laser pulse of 500 fs pulse duration is investigated from the perspective of efficiency of incident photons to remove matter. We measure the reflected and transmitted fractions of the incident pulse energy as a function of fluence, allowing us to recover the evolution of absorption at the material surface. At the ablation threshold fluence, 25% of incident energy is absorbed. At high fluences, this ratio saturates around 70% due to the appearance of a self-triggered plasma mirror (or shielding) effect. By using the energy balance retrieved experimentally and measurements of the ablated volume, we show that the amount of absorbed energy is far above the bonding energy of fused silica at rest and also above the energy barrier to ablate the material under non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. Our results emphasize the crucial role of transient plasma properties during the laser pulse and suggest that the major part of the absorbed energy has been used to heat the plasma formed at the surface of the material. A fluence range yielding an efficient and high quality ablation is also defined, which makes the results relevant for femtosecond micromachining processes.

  19. Identifying, Visualizing, and Fusing Social Media Data to Support Nonproliferation and Arms Control Treaty Verification: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Henry, Michael J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Whattam, Kevin M.

    2013-07-11

    While international nonproliferation and arms control verification capabilities have their foundations in physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, and on-site inspections, verification experts are beginning to consider the importance of open source data to complement and support traditional means of verification. One of those new, and increasingly expanding, sources of open source information is social media, which can be ingested and understood through social media analytics (SMA). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to further our ability to identify, visualize, and fuse social media data to support nonproliferation and arms control treaty verification efforts. This paper will describe our preliminary research to examine social media signatures of nonproliferation or arms control proxy events. We will describe the development of our preliminary nonproliferation and arms control proxy events, outline our initial findings, and propose ideas for future work.

  20. Comparison of laser-based mitigation of fused silica surface damage using mid- versus far-infrared lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2009-12-16

    Laser induced growth of optical damage can limit component lifetime and therefore operating costs of large-aperture fusion-class laser systems. While far-infrared (IR) lasers have been used previously to treat laser damage on fused silica optics and render it benign, little is known about the effectiveness of less-absorbing mid-IR lasers for this purpose. In this study, they quantitatively compare the effectiveness and efficiency of mid-IR (4.6 {micro}m) versus far-IR (10.6 {micro}m) lasers in mitigating damage growth on fused silica surfaces. The non-linear volumetric heating due to mid-IR laser absorption is analyzed by solving the heat equation numerically, taking into account the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient {alpha}(T) at {lambda} = 4.6 {micro}m, while far-IR laser heating is well-described by a linear analytic approximation to the laser-driven temperature rise. In both cases, the predicted results agree well with surface temperature measurements based on infrared radiometry, as well as sub-surface fictive temperature measurements based on confocal Raman microscopy. Damage mitigation efficiency is assessed using a figure of merit (FOM) relating the crack healing depth to laser power required, under minimally-ablative conditions. Based on their FOM, they show that for cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation with a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation with a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser. This conclusion is corroborated by direct application of each laser system to the mitigation of pulsed laser-induced damage possessing fractures up to 225 {micro}m in depth.

  1. Electrolux to DOE General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity Clothes Washers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Letter from Electrolux to Department of Energy General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity Clothes Washers Electrolux sumitted comments on re-testing, re-certification, and re-rating...

  2. Memorandum to DOE re Battery Chargers | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Memorandum to DOE re Battery Chargers Memorandum to DOE re Battery Chargers We are following up on our meeting with DOE on August 7, 2014. During the meeting, several topics were identified as warranting further investigation as related to battery chargers, including test procedures and standards. This document provides additional information relating to these topics. We request that this document be placed in the record of this proceeding. PDF icon Memorandum to DOE re Battery Chargers More

  3. Memo to DOE re conference call minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Memo to DOE re conference call minutes Memo to DOE re conference call minutes DOE Notice of Inquiry on the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) Contingent Cost Allocation --March 16, 2011 conference call with ConverDyn. Conference call minutes PDF icon Memo to DOE re conference call minutes More Documents & Publications NOPR ConverDyn DOE Notice of Inquiry on the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) Contingent Cost Allocation - March

  4. Re: NBP RFI: Data Access | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pepco Holdings, Inc. (PHI) is pleased to respond to the U.S Department of Energy request for comments regarding the topics of data access, third party usage and privacy as they relate to consumers energy usage information and the Smart Grid. PDF icon Re: NBP RFI: Data Access More Documents & Publications Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by

  5. RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 Bud, The LCC spreadsheets originally submitted to the DFR docket (EERE-2011-BT-STD-0011) were copied to the current Residential Furnaces docket (EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031) and posted on regulations.gov. PDF icon EERE_2014_BT_STD_0031 Ex Parte Email More Documents & Publications AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 DOE Posting Practices Furnaces Data

  6. Small Commercial Building Re-tuning: A Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    To help building owners and managers address issues related to energy-efficient operation of small buildings, DOE has developed a Small Building Re-tuning training curriculum. This "primer" provides additional background information to understand some of the concepts presented in the Small Building Re-tuning training. The intent is that those who are less familiar with the buidling energy concepts will review this material before taking the building re-tuning training class.

  7. Mongolia-GTZ Development of RE Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTZ is working with Mongolia on policy advice as well as technical and commercial management skills of RE enterprises. The objective is to promote the economically...

  8. Re: Comments on NBP RFI: Data Access | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Re: Comments on NBP RFI: Data Access Consumers Union, National Consumer Law Center, and Public ... OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges Comments of ...

  9. reEnergize: Building Energy Smart Communities | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Re-Energize: Building Energy Smart Communities Omaha, Nebraska Summary of Reported Data Mastermind Session: Combining Energy Efficiency and Health Services

  10. RE: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon RE: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements More Documents & Publications Comments of the Lower Colorado River Authority Communications Requirements of Smart Grid ...

  11. Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Implementing the National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: NBP RFI: Communications ...

  12. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Comments by the...

  13. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation DOE published a Notice of Inquiry in the Federal...

  14. Public Comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Public Comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost...

  15. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Federal Smart Grid Policy More Documents & Publications Reply Comments of T-Mobile USA, Inc. Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements NBP RFI: Communications Requirements -...

  16. Public Comment re NOI on Convention on Supplementary Compensation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation -75 FR 43945 PDF icon Public Comment re NOI on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for...

  17. ESPC Intro and ESPC/PPAs for RE (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahle, D.

    2012-03-01

    Presentation given at the 2012 Department of Homeland Security Renewable Energy Roundtable on Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) and Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) for Renewable Energy (RE)

  18. Letter to Congress RE: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Management's Annual Financial Report Letter to Congress RE: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's Annual Financial Report The following document is a ...

  19. Ex Parte Communication Memorandum re Computer and Battery Back...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Department of Energy to discuss coverage of computers and backup batteries. PDF icon Ex Parte Memo re Computers More Documents & Publications NRDC Ex Parte ...

  20. Re: Request for Information on Regulatory Burden of DOE Regulations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Re: Request for Information on Regulatory Burden of DOE Regulations More Documents & Publications Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 77 Fed. ...

  1. RePower Bainbridge "Final Boarding Call" Event Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RePower Bainbridge "Final Boarding Call" Event Results, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program website.

  2. RE: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    National Rural Electric Cooperative Association comments on Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy PDF icon RE: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements More Documents & Publications Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy NBP RFI: Communications

  3. MODELING TRITIUM TRANSPORT, DEPOSITION AND RE-EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, B.

    2012-04-03

    The atmospheric release of tritium oxide (HTO) potentially impacts human health, typically through inhalation or absorption. Due to HTO's similarity to water, vegetation will absorb HTO by solution in the leaf water and then re-emit it, creating a number of secondary sources of HTO. Currently, models used for emergency response at Savannah River Site incorporate the transport and deposition of HTO but do not provide estimates for its potential re-emission from vegetation or soil surface though re-emission could result in prolonged exposure and greater than predicted dose for an individual downwind. A simple model of HTO transport, deposition and re-emission has been developed to examine the potential increase in exposure and dose. The model simulates an initial release of HTO that moves with a mean wind and expands through diffusion as a Gaussian puff. Deposition is modeled using previous estimates of deposition velocity for HTO and re-emission is modeled using a time constant that describes how quickly HTO is transferred between the surface and atmosphere. Additional puffs are created to simulate re-emission of HTO as well as horizontal diffusion across model grid cells. An evaluation of field data indicates that the use of a re-emission module tends to improve model predictions through improved prediction of peak concentration magnitude and location. When considering dose, nearly all of the released material is included in the dose calculation when re-emission is included. Although exposure to HTO through re-emission occurs over a few hours, the incremental increase in dose is relatively small because the atmospheric concentration of re-emitted HTO is much lower than the initial release.

  4. THE LOW-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AS SEEN IN ARCHIVAL LEGACY HST/STIS AND FUSE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, Evan M.; Danforth, Charles W.; Michael Shull, J. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ross, Teresa L., E-mail: evan.tilton@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We present a comprehensive catalog of ultraviolet (HST/STIS and FUSE) absorbers in the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 0.4. The catalog draws from much of the extensive literature on IGM absorption and reconciles discrepancies among several previous catalogs through a critical evaluation of all reported absorption features in light of new HST/COS data. We report on 746 H I absorbers down to a rest-frame equivalent width of 12 mA over a maximum redshift path length {Delta}z = 5.38. We also confirm 111 O VI absorbers, 29 C IV absorbers, and numerous absorption lines due to other metal ions. We characterize the bivariate distribution of absorbers in redshift and column density as a power law, {partial_derivative}{sup 2}N/{partial_derivative}z{partial_derivative}N) {proportional_to} N{sup -{beta}}, where {beta} = 2.08 {+-} 0.12 for O VI and {beta} = 1.68 {+-} 0.03 for H I. Utilizing a more sophisticated accounting technique than past work, our catalog accounts for {approx}43% of the baryons: 24% {+-} 2% in the photoionized Ly{alpha} forest and 19% {+-} 2% in the warm-hot IGM as traced by O VI. We discuss the large systematic effects of various assumed metallicities and ionization states on these calculations, and we implement recent simulation results in our estimates.

  5. Time-Resolved Imaging of Material Response Following Laser-Induced Breakdown in the Bulk and Surface of Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, R N; Negres, R A; DeMange, P; Demos, S G

    2010-02-04

    Optical components within high energy laser systems are susceptible to laser-induced material modification when the breakdown threshold is exceeded or damage is initiated by pre-existing impurities or defects. These modifications are the result of exposure to extreme conditions involving the generation of high temperatures and pressures and occur on a volumetric scale of the order of a few cubic microns. The response of the material following localized energy deposition, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work, we investigate the events taking place during the entire timeline in both bulk and surface damage in fused silica using a set of time-resolved microscopy systems. These microscope systems offer up to 1 micron spatial resolution when imaging static or dynamic effects, allowing for imaging of the entire process with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. These systems incorporate various pump-probe geometries designed to optimize the sensitivity for detecting individual aspects of the process such as the propagation of shock waves, near-surface material motion, the speed of ejecta, and material transformations. The experimental results indicate that the material response can be separated into distinct phases, some terminating within a few tens of nanoseconds but some extending up to about 100 microseconds. Overall the results demonstrate that the final characteristics of the modified region depend on the material response to the energy deposition and not on the laser parameters.

  6. Parametric study of the damage ring pattern in fused silica induced by multiple longitudinal modes laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambonneau, M. Grua, P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Lamaignère, L.; Natoli, J.-Y.

    2015-03-14

    With the use of multiple longitudinal modes nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm, laser damage sites at the exit surface of fused silica clearly and systematically exhibit ring patterns. It has been shown in our previous works that the apparent chronology of rings was closely related to the temporal shape of the laser pulses. This particular correspondence had suggested an explanation of the ring morphology formation based on the displacement of an ionization front in the surrounding air. To provide a former basis for this hypothesis and deeper understanding of ring pattern formation, additional experiments have been performed. First, the impact of fluence has been investigated, revealing that a wide variety of damage sites are produced within a very narrow fluence range; this fact involves the chronology of appearance of a surface plasma during the laser pulse. The sizes of the damage sites are proportional to the fluence of their expansion occurring between the beginning of the plasma and the end of the laser pulse. Second, specific experiments have been carried out at different angles of incidence, resulting in egg-shaped patterns rather than circular ones. This behavior can be explained by our previous hypothesis of creation of a plasma in air, its expansion being tightly conditioned by the illumination angle. This series of experiments, in which the angle of incidence is varied up to 80°, permits us to link quantitatively the working hypothesis of ionization front propagation with theoretical hydrodynamics modeling.

  7. The Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport AgencyCompany Organization: GIZ...

  8. South Africa-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name South Africa-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies in Emerging Economy Countries (URBAN-LEDS) AgencyCompany Organization ICLEI - Local Governments for...

  9. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 5f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change...

  10. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials Citation Details ... and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. ...

  11. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 5h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency AgencyCompany...

  12. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, ... energy usage and urban development patterns affect approximately 70% of that consumption. ...

  13. Reclamation of urban stormwater. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, R.

    1993-01-01

    Rainfall runoff becomes contaminated as it passes over urban land. Billions of gallons of water can be recovered for beneficial uses if urban stormwater is properly controlled and treated. The Storm and Combined Sewer Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development has continuously supported the development and demonstration of stormwater control systems and treatment processes. Water quality of the treated storm runoff can meet the required standards for subpotable usage. Current urban stormwater control and treatment technology are discussed, leading to the feasibility of urban stormwater reuse for various purposes in industry, irrigation and recreation. A hypothetical case study illustrating the cost effectiveness of reclaiming urban stormwater for complete industrial supply is presented.

  14. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document describing a model design for urban development and redevelopment that will reduce urban energy consumption

  15. Re-Energize: Building Energy Smart Communities | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Communities Brand Book, as posted on the website of the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon Re-Energize Brand Book More Documents & ...

  16. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 Architecture Document.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, John F.

    2015-12-01

    This document contains a description of the system architecture for the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project. This is a draft version that primarily provides background information for understanding delivered Use Case Realizations.

  17. Re: NBP RFI: Data Access | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy ("RFI").1 CEA is the principal U.S. trade ... Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy- Request for Information Re Request for ...

  18. RE: NBP RFI: Data Access | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy PDF icon RE: NBP RFI: Data Access More ... Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Department of Energy Data Access and ...

  19. RE: NBP RFI: Data Access | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy PDF icon RE: NBP RFI: Data Access More ... Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Reply comments to DOE Request for ...

  20. CO2ReMoVe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of industrial, research and service organizations with experience in CO2 geological storage. References: CO2ReMoVe1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  1. Microsoft Word - Ex Parte Memo re Walk-in Coolers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 4, 2014 Re Ex Parte Communication On Monday March 3, 2014, a group of energy efficiency advocates had a conference call with representatives of the Department of Energy to ...

  2. To: Mansueti, Lawrence Subject: RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 29, 2007 6:28 PM To: Mansueti, Lawrence Subject: RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair Dec. 1-20, 2006 Larry, Regarding the planned line outage, scheduled for Feb. 20 through Mar...

  3. Emailed Comments of Elizabeth Chimento RE: Pepco Scheduled Line...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emailed Comments of Elizabeth Chimento RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair Dec. 1-20, 2006 Docket No. EO-05-01. Regarding the planned line outage, scheduled for Feb. 20 through Mar. 6, ...

  4. ReEnergy Electric REE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    REE Place: China Sector: Wind energy Product: China-based developer and producer of pitch control systems for wind turbines. References: ReEnergy Electric REE1 This article...

  5. ReSun Energy Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: ReSun Energy Pvt. Ltd. Place: New Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400701 Sector: Solar Product: Mumbai-based solar project...

  6. RE 1-11 rotary expander engine testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, J.D.; Brown, G.A.; Silvestri, G.J.; Tompkins, R.M.

    1983-08-01

    This paper describes the testing and computer simulation of the RE 1-11 Wankel type expander. During 1982-1983 the RE 1-11 was evaluated using high pressure steam as a working fluid (2.76-6.5MPa, 231-410C). Test objectives were to map engine performance, identify hardware weaknesses and to provide a data base for simulation validation. The conical rotary inlet valve proved to be the principal problem area, cracking of the carbon seat and steam leakage being dominant factors in expander performance. A steady state computer simulation was developed that was used to predict RE 1-11 performance and to investigate alternative expander configurations. A detailed study was made of RE 1-11 friction losses. All significant hydrodynamic, coulomb and momentum losses were considered and indicated mechanical efficiencies in the range 60 to 80%.

  7. Microsoft Word - Ex Parte Memo re Manufactured Housing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 6, 2013 Re Ex Parte Communication On Wednesday May 1, 2013, a group of non-profit and state energy efficiency advocates met with representatives of the Department of Energy to ...

  8. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy, Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of each of the two 230 kV circuits serving the downtown area of the District of Columbia. ... Concerning Planned Outages of the 230 kV circuits Re: Potomac River Generating Station ...

  9. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy, Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for transmission outages for the 230 kV circuits Re: Potomac River Generating Station ... Company (PEPCO) evised plan for transmission outages for the 230 kV circuits Docket No. ...

  10. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO-05-01: Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Concerning Planned Outages of the 230 kV circuits Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy, Case No. EO-05-01: ...

  11. Public Comment re Section 934 of the Energy Independence and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Comment by the Uranium Producers of America (UPA) re Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The UPA urges DOE to clarify the definition of ...

  12. FUSED REACTOR FUELS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.W.

    1962-11-13

    This invention relates to a nuciear reactor fuel composition comprising (1) from about 0.01 to about 50 wt.% based on the total weight of said composition of at least one element selected from the class consisting of uranium, thorium, and plutonium, wherein said eiement is present in the form of at least one component selected from the class consisting of oxides, halides, and salts of oxygenated anions, with components comprising (2) at least one member selected from the class consisting of (a) sulfur, wherein the sulfur is in the form of at least one entity selected irom the class consisting of oxides of sulfur, metal sulfates, metal sulfites, metal halosulfonates, and acids of sulfur, (b) halogen, wherein said halogen is in the form of at least one compound selected from the class of metal halides, metal halosulfonates, and metal halophosphates, (c) phosphorus, wherein said phosphorus is in the form of at least one constituent selected from the class consisting of oxides of phosphorus, metal phosphates, metal phosphites, and metal halophosphates, (d) at least one oxide of a member selected from the class consisting of a metal and a metalloid wherein said oxide is free from an oxide of said element in (1); wherein the amount of at least one member selected from the class consisting of halogen and sulfur is at least about one at.% based on the amount of the sum of said sulfur, halogen, and phosphorus atom in said composition; and wherein the amount of said 2(a), 2(b) and 2(c) components in said composition which are free from said elements of uranium, thorium, arid plutonium, is at least about 60 wt.% based on the combined weight of the components of said composition which are free from said elements of uranium, thorium, and plutonium. (AEC)

  13. Method for fusing bone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1996-03-12

    The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  14. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Damage Contingent Cost Allocation | Department of Energy Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Comments by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) on Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation; Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 PDF icon Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on

  15. RE-Powering America's Land Mapper | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mapper RE-Powering America's Land Mapper The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) RE-Powering Mapper, a series of Google Earth files, makes it possible to view EPA's information about renewable energy potential on contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites, alongside other information contained in Google Earth. This tool screens more than 66,000 EPA- and state-tracked sites, comprising over 35 million acres. Using screening criteria developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of

  16. Building Re-tuning Training | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Re-tuning Training Building Re-tuning Training Lead Performer: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Richland, WA Partners: -- Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) -- APPA: Leadership in Educational Facilities -- Pennsylvania State University - Philadelphia, PA FY16 DOE Funding: $25,000 Project Term: October 1, 2011 - September 30, 2016 Funding Type: Direct Lab Funding Project Website: https://www4.eere.energy.gov/workforce/projects/buildings-retuning-training PROJECT

  17. Voyage dans le noir. Trous noirs, matière noire, énergie noire et antimatière

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si nous faisions avec les physiciens un voyage dans le noir ? De l'astrophysique à la physique des particules les trois noirs, la matière noire, l'énergie noire ou l?antimatière intriguent et fascinent. Que sont ces objets qui bousculent nos idées et qui véhiculent parfois des craintes irraisonnées? Luis Alvarez-Gaume, Michael Doser et Christophe Grojean, physiciens du CERN vous invitent à mettre en lumière (!) les constituants de base de la matière et à explorer les mystères de la physique contemporaine. Une soirée lumineuse pour éclairer des concepts et ne plus avoir peur du noir.

  18. Water resources and the urban environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, E.D.

    1998-07-01

    140 abstracts from the conference cover topics such as urban stormwater management; geographic information systems, hydrologic and hydraulic computer modeling; groundwater analysis and management; drinking water supply and quality; and international water resources issues.

  19. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  20. DOE Ex Parte re UEF_Rheem | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    re UEF_Rheem DOE Ex Parte re UEF_Rheem On July 16, 2015, Karen Meyers, Vice President of Government Affairs, Rheem Manufacturing Company ("Rheem"), and Bill Anaya, counsel for Rheem at Alston & Bird, LLP, met with Anne Harkavy, Deputy General Counsel of the Department of Energy ("the Department" or "DOE"), to discuss issues related to the Department's proceeding to develop a mathematical onversion factor with regard to energy efficiency testing for consumer

  1. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-11-18

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  2. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-10-08

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  3. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development The mission of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities ...

  4. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in the atmosphere have a sizeable effect on our climate. September 30, 2015 A new study by a science team led by Los Alamos National Laboratory stresses the importance of understanding mixed black and brown carbon in smoke emissions for climate models. The particulates found in urban smoke are especially prone

  5. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  6. NFWF Five Star & Urban Waters Restoration Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) is accepting applications for up to $2.1 million to develop community capacity to sustain local natural resources for future generations by providing modest financial assistance to diverse local partnership for wetland, riparian, forest and coastal habitat restoration, urban wildlife conservation, stormwater management as well as outreach, education and stewardship.

  7. Hazardous particle binder, coagulant and re-aerosolization inhibitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula; Zalk, David; Hoffman, D. Mark

    2012-07-10

    A copolymer and water/ethanol solvent solution capable of binding with airborne contaminants or potential airborne contaminants, such as biological weapon agents or toxic particulates, coagulating as the solvent evaporates, and adhering the contaminants to a surface so as to inhibit the re-suspension of such contaminants. The solution uses a water or ethanol/water mixture for the solvent, and a copolymer having one of several functional group sets so as to have physical and chemical characteristics of high adhesion, low viscosity, low surface tension, negative electrostatic charge, substantially neutral pH, and a low pKa. Use of the copolymer solution prevents re-aerosolization and transport of unwanted, reactive species thus increasing health and safety for personnel charged with decontamination of contaminated buildings and areas.

  8. Hazardous particle binder, coagulant and re-aerosolization inhibitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula; Zalk, David; Hoffman, D. Mark

    2011-04-12

    A copolymer and water/ethanol solvent solution capable of binding with airborne contaminants or potential airborne contaminants, such as biological weapon agents or toxic particulates, coagulating as the solvent evaporates, and adhering the contaminants to a surface so as to inhibit the re-suspension of such contaminants. The solution uses a water or ethanol/water mixture for the solvent, and a copolymer having one of several functional group sets so as to have physical and chemical characteristics of high adhesion, low viscosity, low surface tension, negative electrostatic charge, substantially neutral pH, and a low pKa. Use of the copolymer solution prevents re-aerosolization and transport of unwanted, reactive species thus increasing health and safety for personnel charged with decontamination of contaminated buildings and areas.

  9. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  10. ReOpt[trademark] V2.0 user guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M K; Bryant, J L

    1992-10-01

    Cleaning up the large number of contaminated waste sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in the US presents a large and complex problem. Each waste site poses a singular set of circumstances (different contaminants, environmental concerns, and regulations) that affect selection of an appropriate response. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed ReOpt to provide information about the remedial action technologies that are currently available. It is an easy-to-use personal computer program and database that contains data about these remedial technologies and auxiliary data about contaminants and regulations. ReOpt will enable engineers and planners involved in environmental restoration efforts to quickly identify potentially applicable environmental restoration technologies and access corresponding information required to select cleanup activities for DOE sites.

  11. NREL: Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model - Documentation of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ReEDS Base Case Data Documentation of ReEDS Base Case Data The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) documentation summarizes the key data inputs to the Base Case of the ReEDS model. The Base Case was developed simply as a point of departure for other analyses to be conducted with the ReEDS model. It does not represent a forecast of the future, but rather is a consensus scenario whose inputs depend strongly on others' results and forecasts. For example, the ReEDS Base Case derives many

  12. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P.; Iwaarden, J. Freek van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ? Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ? Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ? A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ? A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  13. What We're Buying | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What We're Buying In fiscal year 2012, Argonne procured nearly $100 million in goods and services from small businesses in the categories listed below. While we do purchase other supplies and services, these categories generally reflect the current needs of the laboratory. If you represent a small business that provides a service or product within these areas, please fill out our Supplier Information Form or create a one-page capabilities statement and send it to Argonne's Small Business Liaison

  14. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent Cost

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Allocation | Department of Energy Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation DOE published a Notice of Inquiry in the Federal Register (75 Fed. Reg. 43,945) requesting public comment on issues related to the funding obligations under the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) and Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) is a

  15. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy The Edison Electric Institute ("EEI"), on behalf of its member companies, hereby submits the following comments in response to the Request for

  16. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy FPL hereby respectfully submits the following comments in response to the request by the Department of Energy for comments to Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy (Federal Register/Vol.75, No.90/Tuesday May 11, 2010). PDF icon Re: DOE Request for Information -

  17. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy DTE Energy Company appreciates the opportunity to respond to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Request for Information on the subject of Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy, which was published at 75 Federal Register 26206 on May 11, 2010. PDF icon Re: DOE

  18. Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy | Department of Energy Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Exelon Corporation (Exelon) hereby submits the following comments in response to the request by the Department of Energy ("DOE" or "Department") for information on state efforts to

  19. Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Alcatel-Lucent ("ALU") appreciates the opportunity to contribute to the Department of Energy's ("Department") Request for Information

  20. Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Implementing the National

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Comments from Diversified

  1. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy Case No.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO-05-01: PEPCO is providing you with information regarding the planned transmission maintenance outage | Department of Energy PEPCO is providing you with information regarding the planned transmission maintenance outage Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy Case No. EO-05-01: PEPCO is providing you with information regarding the planned transmission maintenance outage Docket No. EO-05-01. Order No. 202-07-02: Per your request, Potomac Electric Power Company

  2. RE: FOIA SWPA-2016-00632-F Dear Mr.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RE: FOIA SWPA-2016-00632-F Dear Mr. Department of Energy Southwestem Power Administration One West Third Street Tulsa, .Oklahoma 74103-3502 April 11, 2016 This letter is in response to your Freedom of lnfonnation Act request received on March 14, 2016. You requested the following: 1) All documentation of any actions, SWPA has taken to protect Its generating capacity, transformers, substations and/or power lines against the effects of an Electromagnetic Pulse event (EMP) whether against natural

  3. CEA memo to DOE re ex parte communication.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    November 7, 2012 Re: Docket No. EERE-2011-BT-NOA-0067 and RIN Number 1904-AC52 Ex parte communication Department of Energy Telephone conference of November 2, 2012 This memorandum for the record provides a summary of a November 2, 2012, telephone call with U.S. Department of Energy staff concerning negotiations on a potential voluntary agreement among stakeholders regarding set-top box energy efficiency. Meeting attendees: Daniel Cohen (DOE Office of General Counsel) John Cymbalsky (DOE Office

  4. Formation enthalpies and heat capacities of rear earth titanates: RE{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} (RE=La, Nd and Gd)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayun, Shmuel; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-03-15

    The formation enthalpies and heat capacities of orthorhombic rare earth titanates, RE{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} (RE=La, Nd and Gd), have been studied by high temperature differential scanning calorimetry (300-1473 K) and oxide-melt solution calorimetry. The RE{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} samples are stable in enthalpy with respect to their oxides and the pyrochlore RE{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase. The general trend that has been demonstrated in other RE-ternary systems; decreasing thermodynamic stability with decreasing R{sub A}/R{sub B} was found to be valid for the RE{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}, and their enthalpies of formation from oxides become more negative with increasing RE{sup 3+} ionic radius. - Graphical abstract: Normalized enthalpy of formation for one RE{sup 3+} cation from the oxides for several RE ternary oxide systems vs. the cation radius ratio R{sub A}/R{sub B} (A=RE, B=Ti, Zr, P). All the RE ternary oxide systems are stable relative to constituent oxides, with increasing stability as R{sub A}/R{sub B} increases. The Roman numerals above the cations represent the coordination number. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation enthalpies and heat capacities of RE{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} (RE=La, Nd and Gd) were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enthalpies of formation of RE{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} from oxides become more negative with increasing RE{sup 3+} ionic radius. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RE{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} phases are stable in enthalpy with respect to their oxides and the pyrochlore RE{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic stability of orthorhombic RE{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} decrease with increasing R{sub B} to R{sub A} ratio.

  5. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  6. High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnatovsky, C.; Taylor, R.S.; Simova, E.; Bhardwaj, V.R.; Rayner, D.M.; Corkum, P.B.

    2005-07-01

    An ultrahigh-resolution (20 nm) technique of selective chemical etching and atomic force microscopy has been used to study the photoinduced modification in fused silica produced at various depths by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation affected by spherical aberration. We demonstrate that shapes of the irradiated zones near the threshold for modification can be predicted by taking proper account of spherical aberration caused by the refractive index mismatched air-silica interface. We establish a depth dependence of the pulse energy required to initiate modification and characterize the relationship between numerical aperture of the writing lens and practically achievable writing depth. We also show that spatial characteristics of the laser-modified zones can be controlled by a specially designed focusing system which allows correction for a variable amount of spherical aberration.

  7. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  8. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as amore » mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.« less

  9. GE to DOE General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to DOE General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity Clothes Washers GE to DOE General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity Clothes Washers GE urges the...

  10. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NRSMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Million Cubic Feet)" ...

  11. A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical Assembly Reaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical Assembly Reaction Rate Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical ...

  12. New stable Re-B phases for ultra-hard materials (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New stable Re-B phases for ultra-hard materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New stable Re-B phases for ultra-hard materials As a distinct class of ultra-hard...

  13. A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical Assembly Reaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical Assembly Reaction Rate Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical...

  14. Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology December ...

  15. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Spain (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Re-Exports to Spain (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NSPMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Spain (Million Cubic Feet)" ...

  16. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Turkey (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Turkey (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NTUMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Turkey (Million Cubic Feet)" ...

  17. RePower Kitsap Helps S.T.A.R. Program Gain Momentum in Washington...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kitsap Helps S.T.A.R. Program Gain Momentum in Washington RePower Kitsap Helps S.T.A.R. Program Gain Momentum in Washington The logo for RePower Kitsap. REALTORS in western ...

  18. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Egypt (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Egypt (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NEGMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Egypt (Million Cubic Feet)" ...

  19. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to China (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Re-Exports to China (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NCHMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to China (Million Cubic Feet)" ...

  20. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to India (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Re-Exports to India (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NINMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to India (Million Cubic Feet)" ...

  1. Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology...

  2. NREL: Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model - Unique Value of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ReEDS Unique Value of ReEDS Spatial Resolution and Variability Consideration The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model has singular capabilities that differentiate it from other models and that make it uniquely suitable for certain types of analyses. While ReEDS can model all types of power generators and fuels-coal, gas, nuclear, renewables-it was designed primarily to address considerations for integrating renewable electric technologies into the power grid. In particular, it was

  3. First Solar AVSR Solar Ranch Technical Eligibility Re-Evaluation Memo |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy First Solar AVSR Solar Ranch Technical Eligibility Re-Evaluation Memo First Solar AVSR Solar Ranch Technical Eligibility Re-Evaluation Memo PDF icon First_Solar_AVSR_Solar_Ranch_One_Technical_Eligibility_Re-Evaluation.pdf More Documents & Publications ANTELOPE VALLEY SOLAR RANCH EA-1826: Final Environmental Assessment REEE Solicitation Public Meeting Presentation

  4. PROP re-refined oil engine test performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linnard, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    Using conventional, commercially-available nonproprietary (to Phillips) additive treatments, engine test programs have successfully demonstrated Phillips Re-refined Oil Process (PROP) oils' compliance with the performance requirements of MIL-L-46152A and API Services SE/CC. This paper reports on the engine testing experience with PROP refined oils as produced in a full-scale 2 MM GPY PROP plant operating with Buyer-collected used oil feedstocks. Comment is also made on the status of the first two PROP plants, one built for the state of North Carolina and the other for Mohawk Oil Company, Ltd., Vancouver B.C., Canada.

  5. NREL: Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webmaster Please enter your name and email address in the boxes provided, then type your message below. When you are finished, click "Send Message." NOTE: If you enter your e-mail address incorrectly, we will be unable to reply. Your name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version ReEDS Home Model Description Unique Value Documentation Publications Did you find what you needed? Yes 1 No 0 Thank you for your feedback. Would you like to take a moment to tell us how

  6. Re: National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data Access |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data Access Re: National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data Access Whirlpool Corporation is honored to have been chosen as a recipient of a U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Smart Grid Investment Grant program grant of $19.3 million over a two year period - which the company will match with its own investments. Whirlpool Corporation recently announced that in 2011 it would deliver one million U.S.

  7. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy Case No.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO-05-01: Advanced Notice of Power Outages. | Department of Energy Advanced Notice of Power Outages. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy Case No. EO-05-01: Advanced Notice of Power Outages. Docket No. EO-05-01. Order No. 202-05-03: Potomac Electric Power Company ("Pepco"), on behalf of itself and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. ("PJM"), is providing you with information regarding the planned transmission outages that are scheduled for the upcoming

  8. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy, Case No.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO-05-01: Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) evised plan for transmission outages for the 230 kV circuits | Department of Energy evised plan for transmission outages for the 230 kV circuits Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy, Case No. EO-05-01: Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) evised plan for transmission outages for the 230 kV circuits Docket No. EO-05-01. Order No. 202-07-02: Potomac Electric Power Company ("Pepco") is providing you with the

  9. In Archive} Re: Number of ships at JBC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Re: Number of ships at JBC Jeffrey Galan to: Maxcine Maxted 07/31/2015 06:02 PM Cc: Michael Dunsmuir History: This message has been forwarded. Archive: This message is being viewed in an archive. Hey Maxine, I spoke to my Joint Base Charleston contact and he told me that JBC gets an average of 8-10 vessels a year at Wharf Alpha and 35-45 vessels base wide. Jeff Galan Program Manager U.S.-Origin Nuclear Material Removal Program Office of Material Management and Minimization National Nuclear

  10. ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.

  11. Microsoft Word - DOE Ex Parte re UEF_Rheem.docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3, 2015 Office of the General Counsel U.S. Department of Energy Via Email: expartecommunications@hq.doe.gov Re: Ex Parte Communication On July 16, 2015, Karen Meyers, Vice President of Government Affairs, Rheem Manufacturing Company ("Rheem"), and Bill Anaya, counsel for Rheem at Alston & Bird, LLP, met with Anne Harkavy, Deputy General Counsel of the Department of Energy ("the Department" or "DOE"), to discuss issues related to the Department's proceeding to

  12. AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-publication Furnace NOPR AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR PDF icon AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR_Email PDF icon Questions for DOE Furnace NOPR - 030615-c (2) PDF icon DOE Reponse to AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR_Email.pdf PDF icon Follow-Up Email from APGA More Documents & Publications AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 Furnaces Data RE: EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031

  13. 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University's Urban

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Harvest Team Submission | Department of Energy Ryerson University's Urban Harvest Team Submission 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University's Urban Harvest Team Submission Ryerson University's Urban Harvest's team submission to the 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition. PDF icon harvest_home_team_submission.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University -- Harvest Home Presentation Indoor airPLUS

  14. Consequences of Urban Stability Conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Urban Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Chan, S T

    2005-11-30

    The validity of omitting stability considerations when simulating transport and dispersion in the urban environment is explored using observations from the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulations of that experiment. Four releases of sulfur hexafluoride, during two daytime and two nighttime intensive observing periods, are simulated using the building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model, FEM3MP to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with two options of turbulence parameterizations. One option omits stability effects but has a superior turbulence parameterization using a non-linear eddy viscosity (NEV) approach, while the other considers buoyancy effects with a simple linear eddy viscosity (LEV) approach for turbulence parameterization. Model performance metrics are calculated by comparison with observed winds and tracer data in the downtown area, and with observed winds and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) profiles at a location immediately downwind of the central business district (CBD) in the area we label as the urban shadow. Model predictions of winds, concentrations, profiles of wind speed, wind direction, and friction velocity are generally consistent with and compare reasonably well with the field observations. Simulations using the NEV turbulence parameterization generally exhibit better agreement with observations. To further explore this assumption of a neutrally-stable atmosphere within the urban area, TKE budget profiles slightly downwind of the urban wake region in the 'urban shadow' are examined. Dissipation and shear production are the largest terms which may be calculated directly. The advection of TKE is calculated as a residual; as would be expected downwind of an urban area, the advection of TKE produced within the urban area is a very large term. Buoyancy effects may be neglected in favor of advection, shear production, and dissipation. For three of the IOPs, buoyancy production may be neglected entirely, and for one IOP, buoyancy production contributes approximately 25% of the total TKE at this location. For both nighttime releases, the contribution of buoyancy to the total TKE budget is always negligible though positive. Results from the simulations provide estimates of the average TKE values in the upwind, downtown, downtown shadow, and urban wake zones of the computational domain. These values suggest that building-induced turbulence can cause the average turbulence intensity in the urban area to increase by as much as much as seven times average 'upwind' values, explaining the minimal role of buoyant forcing in the downtown region. The downtown shadow exhibits an exponential decay in average TKE, while the distant downwind wake region approaches the average upwind values. For long-duration releases in downtown and downtown shadow areas, the assumption of neutral stability is valid because building-induced turbulence dominates the budget. However, further downwind in the urban wake region, which we find to be approximately 1500 m beyond the perimeter of downtown Oklahoma City, the levels of building-induced turbulence greatly subside, and therefore the assumption of neutral stability is less valid.

  15. Clean Urban Transport for Europe CUTE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transport for Europe CUTE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) Place: Ulm, Germany Zip: 89077 Product: Germany-based, European Union project...

  16. Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from utility-scale PV in urban areas of a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy...

  17. Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Presentation of Results Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of Results AgencyCompany...

  18. High Performance Without Increased Cost: Urbane Homes, Louisville...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In this profile, Urbane Homes of Louisville, KY, worked with Building America team National Association of Home Builders Research Center to build its first high performance home at ...

  19. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case study of Urbane Homes who worked with Building America research partner NAHBRC to build HERS-57 homes with rigid foam insulated slabs and foundation walls, advanced framed ...

  20. Indonesia-GTZ Emissions Reductions in Urban Transport | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    policy on sustainable urban transport, as well as general deficiencies regarding personal and financial resources in city administrations. The methodological approach of GTZ...

  1. Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable transport: a sourcebook for policy-makers in developing cities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH...

  2. Urban structure and its influence on vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.; Jones, D.W.; Harrison, G.

    1996-04-01

    This paper examines what is known about the relationship between urban spatial structure (i.e. the arrangement of residential, industrial, commercial, recreational and municipal buildings and land lots) and urban travel. The first section provides an overview of the empirical evidence for relationships between urban spatial structure and travel in the United States. Section two focuses on the barriers to and opportunities for reducing the use of automobiles and light trucks in urban areas. The final section offers a policy-point-of-impact perspective on the sort of instruments governments have at their disposal for reducing vehicular travel.

  3. Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urban Transport Project GIZ Sourcebook Module 4f: Eco Driving Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station ... further results Find Another Tool...

  4. ICLEI Sustainable Urban Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urban Energy Planning AgencyCompany Organization: ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency Topics:...

  5. Urban Electric Power Takes Energy Storage from Startup to Grid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used to store renewable ... In 2012, Urban Electric Power was formed to commercialize the batteries developed by the ...

  6. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality ...

  7. Converting urban tree maintenance residue to energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, W.K.; Massey, J.G.; Sumrall, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three methods of utilizing urban wood waste collected by a tree maintenance firm in Houston, Texas (handling 30,000 ton waste/year) are examined: (a) hauling to a remote landfill; (b) chipping and hauling to a (local) power plant and converting to electricity; and (c) chipping and selling to an outside firm for use as boiler fuel. Breakdown of costs are given for each method in monetary and energy terms. Method (b) was the cheapest, producing a net energy gain (870 million Btu/day), but the firm chose method (c), since it realized a direct monetary return.

  8. Housing and urban development research reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The sixth in a series of documents published by the Department of Housng and Urban Development (HUD) to assist in the formulation of policy decision contains 247 abstracts entered in the HUD USER automated data base during the past six months, bringing the data base total to 3,583 documents. There are 45 subject areas in the main section, with the abstracts in each area arranged alphabetically by title. Each abstract is identified by an order number and is followed by descriptive keywords. Other listings of the documents are alphabetical, numerical, by personal or corporate author, by contract and grant number, and by subject index.

  9. EFFECTS EYALUATION POST-SHOT RE-ENTRY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    9-12 8 (Preliminary) EFFECTS EYALUATION POST-SHOT RE-ENTRY PROJECT RULISON ( u ) November 1 1 , 1969 Contract A~(29-2)-1229 U .S . Atomic Energy Commission Nevada Operations O f f i c e Las Vegas, Nevada Hydrogeology S e c t i o n ISOTOPES, A TELEDYNE C O M P A V Y P a l o A l t o L a b o r a t o r i e s 4062 Fabian S t r e e t P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a 94303 I. INTRODUCTION Post-event d r i l l b a c k a t P r o j e c t RULISON w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e r e l e a s e o f

  10. Deep Trek Re-configurable Processor for Data Acquisition (RPDA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Ohme; Michael Johnson

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop a high-temperature Re-configurable Processor for Data Acquisition (RPDA). The RPDA development has incorporated multiple high-temperature (225C) electronic components within a compact co-fired ceramic Multi-Chip-Module (MCM) package. This assembly is suitable for use in down-hole oil and gas applications. The RPDA module is programmable to support a wide range of functionality. Specifically this project has demonstrated functional integrity of the RPDA package and internal components, as well as functional integrity of the RPDA configured to operate as a Multi-Channel Data Acquisition Controller. This report reviews the design considerations, electrical hardware design, MCM package design, considerations for manufacturing assembly, test and screening, and results from prototype assembly and characterization testing.

  11. A Web Based Geographic Information Platform to Support Urban Adaptation to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, Philip J; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Parish, Esther S; Mei, Rui; Ernst, Kathleen M; Absar, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    The urban climate is changing rapidly. Therefore, climate change and its projected impacts on environmental conditions must be considered in assessing and comparing urban planning alternatives. In this paper, we present an integrated framework for urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT) that will help cities to plan for, rather than react to, possible risks. Urban-CAT will be developed as a scenario planning tool that is locally relevant to existing urban decision-making processes.

  12. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-11-15

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  13. A global map of urban extent from nightlights

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Zhao, Kaiguang; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Zhang, Xuesong; He, Chunyang; Elvidge, Christopher

    2015-05-13

    Urbanization, one of the major human induced land-cover and land-use changes, has a profound impact on the Earth system including biodiversity, the cycling of water and carbon and exchange of energy and water between Earth’s surface and atmosphere, all affecting weather and climate. Accurate information on urban areas and their spatial distribution at the regional and global scales is important for scientific understanding of their contribution to the changing Earth system, and for practical management and policy decisions. We developed a method to map the urban extent from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable-light data atmore » the global level and derived a new global map of 1-km urban extent for year 2000. Based on this map, we found that globally, urban land area is about 0.5% of total land area but ranges widely at regional level from 0.1% in Oceania to 2.3% in Europe. At the country level, urban land area varies from lower than 0.01% to higher than 10%, but is lower than 1% for most (70%) countries. Urbanization follows land mass distribution, as anticipated, with the highest concentration found between 30°N to 45°N latitude and the largest longitudinal peak around 80°W. Based on a sensitivity analysis and comparison with other global urban area products, we found that our global product of urban area provides a reliable estimate of global urban areas and offer the potential of capturing more accurately their spatial and temporal dynamics.« less

  14. A global map of urban extent from nightlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Zhao, Kaiguang; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Zhang, Xuesong; He, Chunyang; Elvidge, Christopher

    2015-05-13

    Urbanization, one of the major human induced land-cover and land-use changes, has a profound impact on the Earth system including biodiversity, the cycling of water and carbon and exchange of energy and water between Earth’s surface and atmosphere, all affecting weather and climate. Accurate information on urban areas and their spatial distribution at the regional and global scales is important for scientific understanding of their contribution to the changing Earth system, and for practical management and policy decisions. We developed a method to map the urban extent from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable-light data at the global level and derived a new global map of 1-km urban extent for year 2000. Based on this map, we found that globally, urban land area is about 0.5% of total land area but ranges widely at regional level from 0.1% in Oceania to 2.3% in Europe. At the country level, urban land area varies from lower than 0.01% to higher than 10%, but is lower than 1% for most (70%) countries. Urbanization follows land mass distribution, as anticipated, with the highest concentration found between 30°N to 45°N latitude and the largest longitudinal peak around 80°W. Based on a sensitivity analysis and comparison with other global urban area products, we found that our global product of urban area provides a reliable estimate of global urban areas and offer the potential of capturing more accurately their spatial and temporal dynamics.

  15. NREL: Energy Analysis - Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model Energy Analysis The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) helps the U.S. Department of Energy, utilities, public utility commissions, state/local regulators and others optimize and visualize the build-out of U.S. electricity generation and transmission systems. Learn more about ReEDS: Model Description Unique Value Documentation Publications Transformation of the Electric Sector (Compare to Baseline Projections) Printable Version Model

  16. Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle The Senior Procurement Executive has issued guidance that revises the PERT Review Cycle requirement from every three years to every five years. PDF icon PF2013-21 Change to Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) Review Cycle PDF icon PF2013-21a.pdf More Documents & Publications Procurement

  17. Re~ Request for Information NBP RFI: Data Access | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Re~ Request for Information NBP RFI: Data Access Re~ Request for Information NBP RFI: Data Access Xcel Energy, a combination electricity and natural gas utility operating in eight Midwestern states, submits these Comments in response to the Department of Energy's May 11, 2010 Request for Information: "Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy." PDF icon Re~ Request for Information NBP RFI: Data Access

  18. Re-analysis of hydraulic tests conducted for Well 4A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides results from a re-analysis of the constant-rate pumping test and slug interference test conducted at wells 4A - 4T on the Hanford Reservation. The re-analysis includes the effects of wellbore storage, partial penetration, and vertical anisotropy. The re-analysis demonstrates that comparable results were obtained from both the pumping and slug interference characterization tests.

  19. Better Buildings -- Concierge Programs for Contractors -- They're Not Just

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Consumers anymore | Department of Energy Buildings -- Concierge Programs for Contractors -- They're Not Just for Consumers anymore Better Buildings -- Concierge Programs for Contractors -- They're Not Just for Consumers anymore Better Buildings: Concierge Programs for Contractors -- They're Not Just for Consumers Anymore, a May 16, 2012 presentation, U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings program. PDF icon Concierge Programs for Contractors More Documents & Publications Programs

  20. Community Partners reEnergize Industry in Nebraska | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partners reEnergize Industry in Nebraska Community Partners reEnergize Industry in Nebraska What if every time you lent your neighbor a cup of flour, he invited you and the rest of your block to share his freshly baked chocolate cake in return? Through your contribution, your neighbor has the ingredients to create his cake, and you share in his resulting success. That's the concept driving Nebraska's reEnergize Program. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program partner reEnergize is a collaboration

  1. RE-SCHEDULED FROM JAN 22 TO JAN 28 - COLLOQUIUM: Addressing Big...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MBG Auditorium RE-SCHEDULED FROM JAN 22 TO JAN 28 - COLLOQUIUM: Addressing Big Data Challenges in Simulation-based Science Professor Manish Parashar Rutgers University ...

  2. Proposed rule: re-opening of public comment period | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Proposed rule: re-opening of public comment period Proposed rule: re-opening of public comment period Proposed rule: re-opening of public comment period. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is re-opening the public comment period for proposed amendments to its regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), made available for public comment on January 3, 2011 (76 FR 214). This is being done in response to a request on behalf of multiple organizations PDF icon

  3. Public Comments on DOE's NOI re Section 934 of the Energy Independence...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) Contingent Cost Allocation. 75 Fed. Reg. 43945 (July 27, 2010). PDF icon Public Comments on DOE's NOI re Section 934 of...

  4. RHO-RE-ST-31 P Distribution Categories UC-25andUC-41

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    given in the Standard Distribution for Unclassified Scientific and Technical Reports, TIC-4500. m ; RHO-RE-ST-31 P ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author extends his thanks and ...

  5. EERE Success Story-Washington: RePower's Energy Dashboard Spurs Change on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bainbridge Island | Department of Energy RePower's Energy Dashboard Spurs Change on Bainbridge Island EERE Success Story-Washington: RePower's Energy Dashboard Spurs Change on Bainbridge Island July 26, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Conservation Services Group (CSG) received $4.9 million in ARRA funding from EERE to develop RePower, a community-wide initiative to increase the energy efficiency of homes in Bainbridge Island and Bremerton, Washington, by 15% over the next three years. RePower has

  6. Microsoft Word - Ex Parte Memo re September 24 2015 meeting on...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Council Date October 7, 2015 Re Ex Parte Communication On Thursday, September 24, 2015, Benjamin Longstreth, NRDC, and Tim Ballo, Earthjustice, met with Dan Cohen of the ...

  7. Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer Re S 2 with lower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer Re S 2 with lower symmetry Authors: Feng, Yanqing ; Zhou, Wei ; Wang, Yaojia ; Zhou, Jian ; Liu, Erfu ; Fu, Yajun ; Ni, ...

  8. Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulvihill, Peter R. . E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris . E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

    2007-05-15

    This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

  9. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Smith, R.I.

    1989-04-01

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept.

  10. Resilient Control System Execution Agent (ReCoSEA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig G. Rieger; Kris Villez

    2012-08-01

    In an increasingly networked world, critical infrastructure systems suffer from two types of vulnerability. The first is the traditionally recognized problem of monitoring the systems for faults and failures, recognizing and analyzing data, and responding with real understanding to the problems of the system. Increasingly complex systems create the opportunity for single points of failure to cascade when inaccurate assessment of system health increases response time or leads to faulty analysis of the problems involved. A second problem involves vulnerability to cyber intrusion, in which bad actors can mask system deterioration or present false data about system status. A resilient system will protect stability, efficiency, and security. To ensure these three states, the system must react to changing conditions within the system with coordination: no one component of the system can be allowed to react to problems without real consideration of the effects of that action on other components within the system. Systems with multi-agent design typically have three layers of action, a management layer, a coordination layer, and an execution layer. A resilient multi-agent system will emphasize functions of the execution layer, which has the responsibility of initiating actions, monitoring, analyzing, and controlling its own processes, while feeding information back to the higher levels of management and coordination. The design concept of a resilient control system execution agent (ReCoSEA) grows out of these underpinnings, and through the use of computational intelligence techniques, this paper suggests an associated design methodology.

  11. Coiled tubing used for slim hole re-entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traonmilin, E. ); Newman, K. )

    1992-02-17

    A coiled tubing unit with slim hole tools successfully re-entered and cored an existing Elf Aquitaine vertical well in the Paris basin in France. This experiment proved that coiled tubing could be used to drill, core, and test a slim hole well. Elf Aquitaine studied the use of coiled tubing for drilling inexpensive exploration wells in the Paris basin. As a result of this study, Elf believed that coiled tubing exploration drilling could significantly reduce exploration costs. This paper reports on a number of questions raised by this study: Can coiled tubing be used effectively to drill slim open hole How would the drilling rate compare with that of a conventional drilling rig If the rate were too slow, coiled tubing might not be economical. Can a straight vertical well be drilled Coiled tubing pipe has a residual curvature from bending over the reel and gooseneck. Will this curvature make it impossible to drill straight Can the coiled tubing also be used to take cores Once the hole is drilled, can it be tested with coiled tubing

  12. BHR equations re-derived with immiscible particle effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarzkopf, John Dennis; Horwitz, Jeremy A.

    2015-05-01

    Compressible and variable density turbulent flows with dispersed phase effects are found in many applications ranging from combustion to cloud formation. These types of flows are among the most challenging to simulate. While the exact equations governing a system of particles and fluid are known, computational resources limit the scale and detail that can be simulated in this type of problem. Therefore, a common method is to simulate averaged versions of the flow equations, which still capture salient physics and is relatively less computationally expensive. Besnard developed such a model for variable density miscible turbulence, where ensemble-averaging was applied to the flow equations to yield a set of filtered equations. Besnard further derived transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, the turbulent mass flux, and the density-specific volume covariance, to help close the filtered momentum and continuity equations. We re-derive the exact BHR closure equations which include integral terms owing to immiscible effects. Physical interpretations of the additional terms are proposed along with simple models. The goal of this work is to extend the BHR model to allow for the simulation of turbulent flows where an immiscible dispersed phase is non-trivially coupled with the carrier phase.

  13. Solar constraints on hidden photons re-visited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redondo, Javier; Raffelt, Georg E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de

    2013-08-01

    We re-examine solar emission of hidden photons ?' (mass m) caused by kinetic ??' mixing. We calculate the emission rate with thermal field theory methods and with a kinetic equation that includes ??' ''flavor oscillations'' and ? absorption and emission by the thermal medium. In the resonant case both methods yield identical emission rates which, in the longitudinal channel, are enhanced by a factor ?{sub P}{sup 2}/m{sup 2} (plasma frequency ?{sub P}) in agreement with An, Pospelov and Pradler (2013). The Sun must not emit more energy in a ''dark channel'' than allowed by solar neutrino measurements, i.e., not more than 10% of its photon luminosity. Together with the revised emission rate, this conservative requirement implies ? < 4 10{sup ?12}(eV/m) for the kinetic mixing parameter. This is the most restrictive stellar limit below m ? 3eV, whereas for larger masses the transverse channel dominates together with limits from other stars. A recent analysis of XENON10 data marginally improves the solar limit, leaving open the opportunity to detect solar hidden photons with future large-scale dark matter experiments. Detecting low-mass hidden photons with the ALPS-II photon-regeneration experiment also remains possible.

  14. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  15. Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVGeneration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quantity Description The estimated potential energy generation from utility-scale PV in urban areas of a particular place. Use this type to express a quantity of energy. The...

  16. USDA National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 5:00PM EST U.S. Department of Agriculture The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting proposals for the National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant...

  17. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide a framework to capture them in climate models." The researchers used state-of-the-art instruments in field studies near London tracking an urban plume as it moved across...

  18. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban planning. LEDSGP green logo.png This tool is included in the Transportation Toolkit from...

  19. National setting for productive conservation in urban transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.R.; LaBelle, S.J.

    1981-04-01

    The need for productive conservation strategies in urban transportation is discussed. Key trends in urban transportation are discussed as a basis for identifying target areas for productive conservation strategies. The need for and expected impacts of such candidate strategies as improvements in conventional automobiles, increases in automobile load factors, changes in highway and transit system operation, price-driven reductions in travel, and shifts to more-efficient modes are briefly outlined.

  20. AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures PDF icon UEVAmerica Specifications PDF icon ETA-UTP001 Implementation of SAE Standard J1263, Feb. 1996 - Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques PDF icon ETA-UTP002 Implementation of SAE Standard J1666, May 1993 - Electric Vehicle Acceleration, Gradeability, and Deceleration Test Procedure PDF icon ETA-UTP003

  1. Outdoor classroom inspires urban students to pursue technical careers |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Outdoor classroom inspires urban students to pursue technical careers Thursday, October 30, 2014 - 4:08pm At a time when middle school students are often apathetic toward science and learning, students in Kansas City are excited to learn about science and technology at the local Blue River. The National Security Campus has partnered with the T.R.U.E. Blue (Teaching Rivers in an Urban Environment) program to help local students make the connection

  2. Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherization Assistance | Department of Energy Pilot Projects » Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for Weatherization Assistance Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for Weatherization Assistance On January 25, 2010, the Department of Energy (DOE) implemented a new rule 71-CFR-3847 for its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). Under the new rule, if a public housing, assisted multi-family or Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC)

  3. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 | Department of Energy A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 This 2004 document is a resource designed to help cities develop sustainable energy plans that will enable communities to meet their present needs without compromising the ability of future

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties of RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=rare-earth metal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suen, Nian-Tzu; Tobash, Paul H.; Bobev, Svilen

    2011-11-15

    A series of rare-earth metal-magnesium-germanides RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) has been synthesized by reactions of the corresponding elements at high temperature. Their structures have been established by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and belong to the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} structure type (space group P4/mbm (No. 127), Z=2; Pearson symbol tP10). Temperature dependent DC magnetization measurements indicate Curie-Weiss paramagnetism in the high-temperature regime for all members of the family, excluding Y{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, Sm{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, and Lu{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}. At cryogenic temperatures (ca. 60 K and below), most RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} phases enter into an antiferromagnetic ground-state, except for Er{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} and Tm{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, which do not undergo magnetic ordering down to 5 K. The structural variations as a function of the decreasing size of the rare-earth metals, following the lanthanide contraction, and the changes in the magnetic properties across the series are discussed as well. - Graphical Abstract: The structure of RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) can be best viewed as 2-dimensional slabs of Mg and Ge atoms (anionic sub-lattice), and layers of rare-earth metal atoms (cationic sub-lattice) between them. Within this description, one should consider the Ge-Ge dumbbells (formally Ge{sup 6-}{sub 2}), interconnected with square-planar Mg atom as forming flat [MgGe{sub 2}] layers (z=0), stacked along the c-axis with the layers at z=1/2, made of rare-earth metal cations (formally RE{sup 3+}). Highlights: > RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) are new ternary germanides. > Their structures can be recognized as a 1:1 intergrowth of CsCl- and AlB{sub 2}-like slabs. > Ge atoms are covalently bound into Ge{sub 2} dumbbells. > Most RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} phases are antiferromagnetically ordered at cryogenic temperatures.

  5. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  6. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water runoff into the Charles River Basin in one of its most significantly polluted sections and, will provide a green renovation mechanism for the redirected storm water of a public alley way. This activity is designed to improve the quality of water recharging the ground water and protecting the vulnerable wood pilings under many of the historic masonry buildings in Boston's Back Bay. Sustainable design research and system monitoring opportunities will also be incorporated, providing ongoing tools for public outreach and education through innovative signage and "virtual tour" technology. The monitoring will include a "building performance dash board" that reflects real time operating conditions and improvements in environmental and economic performance to be prominently displayed on the face of our 320 Newbury Street building (approximately 1.5 million people walk by annually). The project site and demonstration area is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task II of the project is Geothermal Solution. This task involves the installation of approximately seven Geothermal wells which will tap into the earth's constant underground temperatures to provide air-conditioning and heating for BAC facilities. The environmentally friendly geothermal system uses no fossil fuel, produces no emissions and runs silently, providing a sustainable model for commercial and residential buildings throughout Boston. Ultimately the combination of this project and other projects will assist in making the BAC "carbon-neutral", and could generate enough additional energy to provide free power to the Engine 33 and Ladder 15 Firehouse located at 941 Boylston Street. The project is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task III of the project is the Sustainability Design Curriculum at the BAC. The BAC is the nation’s largest independent, multi-disciplinary college of spatial design, and a leader in sustainable design education. The Sustainabiltiy Design program, in particular, focuses on energy efficiency,energy performance, energy modeling, energy and air quality principles, green building, renewable energy alternatives and much more. Additionally, the Urban Sustainability Initiative has an objective of providing courses relative to the BAC's demonstration project with DOE, the project’s period of performance activities, subsequent performance data and anticipated sustainability teaching tools. In keeping with BAC's practice based curriculum, students have been involved in the discussion and planning of this project since its inception and sustainability issues have become a part of other programs throughout the college as well. Students will continue to benefit from this hands-on learning opportunity. The project is located at 320 Newbury Street Boston, MA 02115. Task IV of the project is Program Management and Reporting. This task will involve BAC's oversight and general management of the entire project including subcontract administration, contracts administration, technical and financial reporting, design and renovation assistance, other deliverables in accordance with the Federal Assistance reporting Checklist and other contractual obligations and provisions.

  7. Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Lundquist, J; D.Mirocha, J

    2006-09-06

    As accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow impinging upon the urban complex to the flow, transport and dispersion within it and downwind has received less attention. Building-resolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are commonly employed to investigate interactions between the flow and three-dimensional structures comprising the urban environment, however such models are typically forced with simplified boundary conditions that fail to include important regional-scale phenomena that can strongly influence the flow within the urban complex and downwind. This paper investigates the interaction of an important and frequently occurring regional-scale phenomenon, the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), with urban-scale turbulence and dispersion in Oklahoma City using data from the Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003) field experiment. Two simulations of nocturnal tracer release experiments from JU2003 using Lawrence Livermore National laboratory's FEM3MP CFD model yield differing levels of agreement with the observations in wind speed, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and concentration profiles in the urban wake, approximately 750m downwind of the central business district. Profiles of several observed turbulence parameters at this location indicate characteristics of both bottom-up and top-down boundary layers during each of the experiments. These data are consistent with turbulence production due to at least two sources, the complex flow structures of the urban area and the region of strong vertical wind shear occurring beneath the LLJs present each night. While strong LLJs occurred each night, their structures varied considerably, resulting in significant differences in the magnitudes of the turbulence parameters observed during the two experiments. As FEM3MP was forced only with an upwind velocity profile that did not adequately represent the LLJ, the downward propagation of TKE observed during the experiments was absent from the simulations. As such, the differing levels of agreement between the simulations and observations during the two experiments can, in part, be explained by their exclusion of this important larger-scale influence. We demonstrate the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to simulate accurate velocity fields during each night, and identify the use of regional-scale simulation data as a promising approach for representing the effects of important regional-scale phenomena such as the LLJ, on urban-scale simulations.

  8. You Asked, We're Answering Your Fuel Cell Questions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    You Asked, We're Answering Your Fuel Cell Questions You Asked, We're Answering Your Fuel Cell Questions January 28, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Energy Department posted a blog with answers to some of the fuel cell questions that didn't get covered during the Energy 101 Google+ Hangout on January 16. Read You Asked, We're Answering Your Fuel Cell Questions to see Fuel Cell Technologies Office Director Sunita Satyapal's responses to some of the unanswered questions. Addthis Related Articles Live

  9. RePower Bainbridge's Final Boarding Call Sets Sail for Success

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "All aboard" was RePower Bainbridge's figurative call to action in April 2013 for its "Final Boarding Call" event. The free, one-day event featured trade allies, lenders, utilities, and community organizations in one location to help homeowners complete home energy upgrades. An $800 special rebate offer was extended to those attendees who signed up to work with a RePower trade ally to complete two or more qualifying energy efficiency upgrade measures. Nearly 70% of the 400 attendees took RePower up on its offer.

  10. Innovation 24/7: We're Always Open | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation 24/7: We're Always Open Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Innovation 24/7: We're Always Open At GE Global Research, we work around the clock and across the globe to build, power, move and cure the world. Click the image below to see what we're working on right now. always open You Might Also

  11. Emailed Comments of Elizabeth Chimento RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair Dec.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-20, 2006 | Department of Energy Emailed Comments of Elizabeth Chimento RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair Dec. 1-20, 2006 Emailed Comments of Elizabeth Chimento RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair Dec. 1-20, 2006 Docket No. EO-05-01. Regarding the planned line outage, scheduled for Feb. 20 through Mar. 6, I am requesting that the residents near the plant be moved for the duration of the outage to protect their health. PDF icon Emailed Comments of Elizabeth Chimento RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair

  12. RePower Bainbridge's Final Boarding Call Sets Sail for Success...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    She pre-qualified for RePower Bainbridge's Whole House Energy Upgrade package for each of her six rental properties; connected with trade allies to schedule work; and received loan ...

  13. Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Comments of AT&T Inc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comments of AT&T Inc. Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Comments of AT&T Inc. AT&T Inc., on behalf of itself and its affiliates ("AT&T"), respectfully submits these ...

  14. Re-evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Data for the Three...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Re-evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Data for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 Reactor and Application to Code Validation Gauld, Ian C. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge,...

  15. Re-Delegation of Authority Order No. 00-011.01-01 to the Project...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -01, Re-Delegation of Authority Order No. 00-011.01-01 to the Project Manager of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office by Jim McDonald Functional areas: Real...

  16. Re: U.S. Department of Energy Request for Information Implementing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Re: U.S. Department of Energy Request for ... Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Florida Power & Light Company comments on ...

  17. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Brazil (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11:48:48 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Brazil (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NBRMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S....

  18. We're in the Global Clean Energy Race to Win: Federal Investment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    We're in the Global Clean Energy Race to Win: Federal Investment in California Solar ... has proposed doubling the amount of electricity we generate from clean energy sources ...

  19. Microsoft Word - Letter to DOE re Request for Information.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lamont Jackson Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Mail Code: OE-20 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue SW Washington, D.C. 20585 Re: DOE Request...

  20. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Chile (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2016 11:48:50 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Chile (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NCIMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S....

  1. In re Kent Pond, No MLP-03-10, Findings of Fact, Conclusions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    re Kent Pond, No MLP-03-10, Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law, and Order at 8, 13 (Vt. Water Res. Bd. May, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  2. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2016 11:48:54 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NUKMMCF"...

  3. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 Data Model to IDC Schema Mapping.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamlet, Benjamin R.; Montoya, Mark Sinclair; Sandoval, Rudy Daniel; Vickers, James Wallace

    2016-01-01

    This initial draft document contains formative data model content for select areas of Re-Engineering Phase 2 IDC System. The purpose of this document is to facilitate discussion among the stakeholders. It is not intended as a definitive proposal.

  4. Re-evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Data for the Three...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Search Results Accepted Manuscript: Re-evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Data for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 Reactor and Application to Code Validation This...

  5. Five-Year NRHP Re-Evaluation of Historic Buildings Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullrich, R A; Heidecker, K R

    2011-09-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) 'Draft Programmatic Agreement among the Department of Energy and the California State Historic Preservation Officer Regarding Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory' requires a review and re-evaluation of the eligibility of laboratory properties for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) every five years. The original evaluation was published in 2005; this report serves as the first five-year re-evaluation. This re-evaluation includes consideration of changes within LLNL to management, to mission, and to the built environment. it also determines the status of those buildings, objects, and districts that were recommended as NRHP-eligible in the 2005 report. Buildings that were omitted from the earlier building list, those that have reached 50 years of age since the original assessment, and new buildings are also addressed in the re-evaluation.

  6. NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory: Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems (CTTS) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-09-01

    CTTS fact sheet describing NREL's new Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Research Laboratory, which will be used to facilitate increased renewable diesel use in heavy-duty vehicles.

  7. RRC - Application for Permit to Drill, Recomplete or Re-enter...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application for Permit to Drill, Recomplete or Re-enter Form W-1 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: RRC - Application for Permit to Drill,...

  8. We Energies- Livestock and Dairy Farm Electrical Re-wiring Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any We Energies dairy farm customer can apply for assistance with a re-wiring project. We Energies would pay the first $1,000 of the project and 50 percent of remaining costs up for a total grant...

  9. Public Comment Period Re-Opened for the Uranium Leasing Program PEIS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy is re-opening the public comment period for the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (ULP PEIS, DOE/EIS-0472) until July 1, 2013.

  10. LG to DOE General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity Clothes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Washers | Department of Energy LG to DOE General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity Clothes Washers LG to DOE General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity Clothes Washers LG response to DOE's request for information regarding alternative test procedures for large-capacity clothes washer models, December 7, 2010. After DOE requested the views of interested parties concerning implementation of an alternative test procedure for large-capacity clothes washer models,

  11. Letter from Plumbing Manufacturers Institute to Department of Energy re: Ex

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Parte Communication | Department of Energy Plumbing Manufacturers Institute to Department of Energy re: Ex Parte Communication Letter from Plumbing Manufacturers Institute to Department of Energy re: Ex Parte Communication The Department issued an interpretive rule setting forth the definition of "showerhead" in 10 C.F.R. § 430.2. The letter is a memo to memorialize a meeting in which the Plumbing Manufacturers Institute (PMI) provided DOE with information about the economic

  12. Mirant Reply to Comments re Special Environmental Analysis, DOE/SEA-04

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potomac River Generating Station | Department of Energy Reply to Comments re Special Environmental Analysis, DOE/SEA-04 Potomac River Generating Station Mirant Reply to Comments re Special Environmental Analysis, DOE/SEA-04 Potomac River Generating Station Docket No. EO-05-01: On behalf of Mirant Potomac River LLC ("Mirant"), we respectfully request the opportunity to respond to certain written comments received by the Department of Energy in connection with the Department's

  13. 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Applications | Department of Energy 5 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications Please note: To view the complete docket listing, please click the 'Docket Index' link pertaining to a particular docket. Docket Indexes and Service Lists that are not listed can be obtained by contacting the Docket Room Manager at 202-586-9478 or

  14. A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical Assembly Reaction Rate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurements (Conference) | SciTech Connect A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical Assembly Reaction Rate Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Re-Analysis of Historical Los Alamos Critical Assembly Reaction Rate Measurements Authors: Kahler, Albert C. III [1] ; MacInnes, Michael [1] ; Chadwick, Mark B. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-05-22 OSTI Identifier: 1132541 Report

  15. ACEEE Supplementary Information Re Issues Discussed at June 11, 2013 Ex

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Parte Meeting | Department of Energy ACEEE Supplementary Information Re Issues Discussed at June 11, 2013 Ex Parte Meeting ACEEE Supplementary Information Re Issues Discussed at June 11, 2013 Ex Parte Meeting As supplementary information, to address a few questions raised by DOE in the ex parte meeting, ACEEE wishes to address three issues that were discussed - analysis of appropriate situations for a waiver, technical requirements, and procedures to minimize "leakage". PDF icon

  16. NREL: Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model - Model Description

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Qualitative Model Description The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a long-term capacity-expansion model for the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States. Developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Strategic Energy Analysis Center (SEAC) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, ReEDS is designed to analyze critical issues

  17. Public Comment re Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of 2007 | Department of Energy Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Public Comment re Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Public Comment by the Uranium Producers of America (UPA) re Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The UPA urges DOE to clarify the definition of nuclear supplier to not include uranium production or conversion services as a covered person under EISA. In the alternative, uranium

  18. RE: NBP RFI: Data Access In the Matter of Implementing the National

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid; Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy, 75 Federal Register 33611 (June 14, 2010). | Department of Energy RE: NBP RFI: Data Access In the Matter of Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid; Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy, 75 Federal Register 33611 (June 14, 2010). RE: NBP RFI: Data Access In the Matter of Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the

  19. Re: U.S. Department of Energy Request for Information Implementing the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy | Department of Energy Re: U.S. Department of Energy Request for Information Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Re: U.S. Department of Energy Request for Information Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy

  20. Dynamics of Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switching. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dynamics of Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM Switching. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamics of Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM Switching. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lohn, Andrew ; Mickel, Patrick R. ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1111385 Report Number(s): SAND2013-5134J 456566 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article

  1. Summary of Cameco Meeting with DOE - re: DOE's Request for Information |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cameco Meeting with DOE - re: DOE's Request for Information Summary of Cameco Meeting with DOE - re: DOE's Request for Information On Wednesday, March 18, 2015, Cameco met with the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") to discuss the company's submission to the Department's Request for Information ("RFI")on seven questions regarding "the effects of DOE's planned transfers of its excess uranium to the uranium market and possible consequences for

  2. Science on the Hill: Rapid diagnosis a new weapon against re-emerging TB

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rapid diagnosis a new weapon against re-emerging TB Science on the Hill: Rapid diagnosis a new weapon against re-emerging TB Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed an innovative tool set for the early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis. June 7, 2015 March 1, 2015 Los Alamos biomedical scientist Harshini Mukundan. Los Alamos biomedical scientist Harshini Mukundan Los Alamos biomedical scientist Harshini Mukundan Science on the Hill: Rapid diagnosis a new weapon against

  3. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Morales-Piga, Antonio; Pardo Romaguera, Elena; Tamayo, Ibon; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in Spain, with 638 cases and 13,188 controls. • We found excess risk near industries (especially, production of metals and glass). • We found excess risk near urban areas with more than 10,000 inhabitants. • We found excess risk near industries releasing As, Cd, Cr, Ni, PAHS, and benzene.

  4. The LANL urban consequences project (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The LANL urban consequences project Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The LANL urban consequences project Authors: Bos, Randall J [1] ; Brown, Michael J [1] ; Goorley, John T [1] ; Grinstein, Fernando [1] ; Heger, Arlen S [1] ; Linn, Rodman R [1] ; Zhang, Duan Z [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2010-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1172860 Report Number(s): LA-UR-10-06665; LA-UR-10-6665 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference

  5. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane Homes,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Louisville, Kentucky | Department of Energy Urbane Homes, Louisville, Kentucky Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane Homes, Louisville, Kentucky Case study of Urbane Homes who worked with Building America research partner NAHBRC to build HERS-57 homes with rigid foam insulated slabs and foundation walls, advanced framed walls, high-efficiency heat pumps, and ducts in conditioned space. PDF icon Urbane Homes - Louisville, KY More Documents & Publications High

  6. How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    framework for evading confusion (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical framework for evading confusion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical framework for evading confusion Urbanization has transformed the world's landscapes, resulting in a series of ecological and environmental problems. To assess urbanization impacts and improve

  7. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  8. Radiation re-solution of fission gas in non-oxide nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Christopher; Schwen, Daniel; Klein, Andrew C.

    2015-02-01

    Renewed interest in fast nuclear reactors is creating a need for better understanding of fission gas bubble behavior in non-oxide fuels to support very long fuel lifetimes. Collisions between fission fragments and their subsequent cascades can knock fission gas atoms out of bubbles and back into the fuel lattice. We showed that these collisions can be treated as using the so-called ‘‘homogenous’’ atom-by-atom re-solution theory and calculated using the Binary Collision Approximation code 3DOT. The calculations showed that there is a decrease in the re-solution parameter as bubble radius increases until about 50 nm, at which the re-solution parameter stays nearly constant. Furthermore, our model shows ion cascades created in the fuel result in many more implanted fission gas atoms than collisions directly with fission fragments. This calculated re-solution parameter can be used to find a re-solution rate for future bubble simulations.

  9. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  10. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  11. Safety in urban environment and emergency notice boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confortini, Claudia; Tira, Maurizio

    2008-07-08

    Reliable and safe urban system conditions have to be a crucial goal of ordinary planning activities. Among planning goals, priority must be given to indications relating to the safety levels to be achieved and to the amount of resources to be directed towards reducing the vulnerability of urban systems and therefore of the measures to be taken. Uban vulnerability cannot in fact be reduced to the sum of the vulnerability of single buildings or to the physical vulnerability of its various components. This research work consists of identifying those urban sub-areas that are important for safety in relation to natural risks, ambits that should be highlighted by means of permanent emergency notice boards/billboards. What are the hazard notices relating to all natural hazards and related risks? Where are they located? Are they clear and straightforward so that all residents and visitors are able to understand them, as it is already the case for road signs (or at least it should be)? What urban sub-areas are worth highlighting in relation to natural risks, acting for example as escape routes or meeting points? How is information for the public managed in order that people are immediately, easily and regularly notified? What is the relation of such signals to ordinary traffic signals? Research into the state of the art of permanent notice boards/billboards of this type, currently distinguished only by sporadic and local initiatives, aims at carrying out a census of and recognizing urban elements already considered as important for reducing the vulnerability of the urban system to different natural calamities and at providing new highlights as regards the identification of new ones. The next step is to work out a decision and common-language strategy for planning these elements and for their adequate signposting, so as to be able to live in the urban environment with awareness, safety and confidence, including with respect to more remote and therefore often neglected natural risks. The paper deals with literature in the field and shows the results of the few relevant case studies at work.

  12. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  13. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Sm, Tb) phosphor for white LED application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Jingshan; CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Yin, Xin; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Huang, Fuqiang; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Jiang, Weizhong

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► NaLa{sub 1−x}MgWO{sub 6}:xRE{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction method. ► Compared with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} performed better luminescence properties. ► The results demonstrated NaLaMgWO{sub 6} as a suitable host for RE{sup 3+}-doping. -- Abstract: Single phase of NaLa{sub 1−x}MgWO{sub 6}:xRE{sup 3+} (0 < x ≤1) (RE = Eu, Sm, Tb) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the morphology energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence were used to characterize the samples. Under the light excitation, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+}, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Sm{sup 3+} and NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Tb{sup 3+}, phosphors showed the characteristic emissions of Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 4,3,2,1}), Sm{sup 3+} ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 5/2,7/2,9/2}), and Tb{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6,5,4,3}), respectively. The intensity of the red emission for Na(La{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4})MgWO{sub 6} is 2.5 times higher than that of (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} under blue light irradiation. The quantum efficiencies of the entitled phosphors excited under 394 nm and 464 nm are also investigated and compared with commercial phosphors Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} and Y{sub 3}A{sub 5}G{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}. The results demonstrated NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} phosphors as potential candidates for white light emitting diode pumped by UV or blue chip.

  14. OSTI Launches Re-Designed Home Page | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information OSTI Launches Re-Designed Home Page New Look Reflects Focus on Serving DOE R&D Interests The website of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) has a new look. OSTI has re-designed its home page to reflect a streamlined focus on its core mission: to collect, preserve and disseminate scientific and technical information (STI) emanating from DOE research and development (R&D) activities. The refreshed

  15. We're in the Global Clean Energy Race to Win: Federal Investment in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Solar Energy Plant | Department of Energy We're in the Global Clean Energy Race to Win: Federal Investment in California Solar Energy Plant We're in the Global Clean Energy Race to Win: Federal Investment in California Solar Energy Plant April 18, 2011 - 3:42pm Addthis Secretary Chu Secretary Chu Former Secretary of Energy What does this project do? The two units of the Blythe Solar Power Project will generate 1,000 megawatts of solar power, enough to power 95,000 homes a year and

  16. Evidence of a Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switching. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Evidence of a Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM Switching. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evidence of a Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM Switching. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lohn, Andrew ; Mickel, Patrick R. ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1079815 Report Number(s): SAND2013-4095J 453126 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal

  17. High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    switch. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch. Two different Sandia MEMS devices have been tested in a high-g environment to determine their performance and survivability. The first test was performed using a drop-table to produce a peak acceleration load of 1792 g's

  18. Bradford White Corporation Ex Parte Memo re: 3-24-15 Meeting | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Bradford White Corporation Ex Parte Memo re: 3-24-15 Meeting Bradford White Corporation Ex Parte Memo re: 3-24-15 Meeting Notice of proposed rulemaking establishing a mathematical conversion factor for consumer water heaters and certain commercial water heaters, specifically: PDF icon DOE.BWC.3.24.15 More Documents & Publications Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 Ex Parte Memo on ULE Policy Statement and Conversion

  19. 3 Reasons We're Closer to an Algae Future than You Think | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy We're Closer to an Algae Future than You Think 3 Reasons We're Closer to an Algae Future than You Think July 29, 2015 - 12:35pm Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs KEY FACTS Algae shows great potential as a homegrown and renewable fuel source. The Bioenergy Technologies Office supports important research and development to make an algae future possible. Go to energy.gov/algae for more on the Energy Department's work related to algal

  20. They're Here! Winter, Holidays, and the New Year. How Will You Save Energy?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy They're Here! Winter, Holidays, and the New Year. How Will You Save Energy? They're Here! Winter, Holidays, and the New Year. How Will You Save Energy? December 22, 2009 - 10:11am Addthis Winter officially hit this week, and those of you on the east coast found out in a big way. Many of you are still shoveling out while trying to take care of those last-minute holiday preparations. (I'm actually kind of jealous. I love shoveling snow. I just hate driving in it.)

  1. We're Data Jammin': Building Interactive Educational Materials to Teach

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy | Department of Energy We're Data Jammin': Building Interactive Educational Materials to Teach Energy We're Data Jammin': Building Interactive Educational Materials to Teach Energy April 4, 2014 - 4:07pm Addthis Share-a-thon 1 of 9 Share-a-thon The pitch session/share-a-thon portion of the Energy Education Data Jam gets under way at Johns Hopkins University in Washington on March 27. The data jam brought together energy experts within the software, visualization, and development

  2. You Asked, We're Answering Your Fuel Cell Questions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy You Asked, We're Answering Your Fuel Cell Questions You Asked, We're Answering Your Fuel Cell Questions January 24, 2014 - 2:20pm Addthis Watch a recording of our live discussion on Energy 101: Fuel Cells. | Video by the Energy Department. Sunita Satyapal Director, Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cell Resources: For fuel cell basics, watch a recording of our Google+ Hangout on Energy 101: Fuel Cells and check out our Fuel Cell topic page. Visit the Energy Department's Fuel Cell

  3. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Portugal (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Portugal (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Portugal (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's -- 11.27 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 04/29/2016 Next Release Date: 05/31/2016 Referring Pages: U.S.

  4. AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 AGA/APGA Questions re Furnace NOPR, EERE-2014-BT-STD-0031 PDF icon AGA-APGA Questions_Ex Parte_Email PDF icon AGA_APGA_Shipments_Questions_2015-04-23 More Documents & Publications AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR August 20, 2014 meeting with DOE representatives regarding the remand of the DOE Direct Final Rule as it relates to efficiency standards for non-weatherized gas furnaces 2015-12-30 Energy Conservation Program: Energy

  5. Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Technology | Department of Energy Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology Advancing Small Modular Reactors: How We're Supporting Next-Gen Nuclear Energy Technology December 12, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis The basics of small modular reactor technology explained. | Infographic by <a href="http://energy.gov/contributors/sarah-gerrity">Sarah Gerrity</a>, Energy Department. The basics of small modular reactor technology explained. |

  6. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Portugal (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Portugal (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Portugal (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 2,618 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 04/29/2016 Next Release Date: 05/31/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Country

  7. TWC Committee: Draft Advice re: Double-Shell Tank AY-102, v.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15/2013 TWC Committee: Draft Advice re: Double-Shell Tank AY-102, v.4 Dunning, Panesko, Holland, Cimon, Larsen Page 1 of 2 Draft Advice re: Double-Shell Tank AY-102 and Leaking Single-Shell Tanks Background: The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) announced at the Tank Waste Committee meeting on April 10, 2013 that the cause of the leak in the bottom of double- shell tank AY-102 was due to corrosive materials on the tank floor. This waste has now leaked into the

  8. Re-entrant Lithium Local Environments and Defect Driven Electrochemistry of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li- and Mn-Rich Li-Ion Battery Cathodes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Re-entrant Lithium Local Environments and Defect Driven Electrochemistry of Li- and Mn-Rich Li-Ion Battery Cathodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Re-entrant Lithium Local Environments and Defect Driven Electrochemistry of Li- and Mn-Rich Li-Ion Battery Cathodes Authors: Dogan, Fulya ; Long, Brandon R. ; Croy, Jason R. ; Gallagher, Kevin G. ; Iddir, Hakim ; Russell, John T. ; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam ;

  9. RE-SCHEDULED FROM JAN 22 TO JAN 28 - COLLOQUIUM: Addressing Big Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenges in Simulation-based Science | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 8, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium RE-SCHEDULED FROM JAN 22 TO JAN 28 - COLLOQUIUM: Addressing Big Data Challenges in Simulation-based Science Professor Manish Parashar Rutgers University Presentation: PDF icon Presentation Abstract: PDF icon COLL.01.28.14.pdf COLLOQUIUM RE-SCHEDULED FROM JAN. 22 TO JAN 28 Data-related challenges are quickly dominating computational and data-enabled sciences, and are

  10. Dept. of Energy/NOVA announce re-airing on Oct. 16 of special program:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Einstein's Big Idea | Jefferson Lab Dept. of Energy/NOVA announce re-airing on Oct. 16 of special program: Einstein's Big Idea Dept. of Energy/NOVA announce re-airing on Oct. 16 of special program: Einstein's Big Idea October 13, 2005 For those who missed the NOVA special "Einstein's Big Idea", the two-hour show will air again Sunday, Oct. 16, at 6 p.m. on WHRO. The show is based on David Bodanis' book, E=mc2, and is a biography of the famous equation. The Department of Energy's

  11. The re-evaluation of the AVR melt-wire experiment with specific focus on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    different modeling strategies and simplifications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The re-evaluation of the AVR melt-wire experiment with specific focus on different modeling strategies and simplifications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The re-evaluation of the AVR melt-wire experiment with specific focus on different modeling strategies and simplifications The AVR is a pebble-bed type reactor that operated in Germany for 21 years and was closed down in December 1988. The AVR

  12. A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field August 2, 2011 - 10:40am Addthis Ramamoorthy Ramesh Former Director, SunShot Initiative & Solar Energy Technologies Program What does this mean for me? Investments by major companies like the Redskins show the growing market demand for solar technology, as the SunShot Initiative works to accelerate this growth to make solar energy cheaper. If solar power could score a touchdown, then this week's news would definitely count. On

  13. Protocol for DOE-VPP Star Site Re-certification Reviews

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides the overall policy and the procedural protocols that will be utilized by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health in conducting re-certification reviews of facilities participating in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) at the Star recognition level.

  14. New high pressure rare earth tantalates RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} (RE=La, Eu, Yb)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zibrov, Igor P.; Filonenko, Vladimir P.; Zakharov, Nikolai D.; Nikishina, Elena E.; Lebedeva, Elena N.

    2013-07-15

    Rare earth tantalates La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134} and Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077} have been prepared by solid state reaction at P=7.0 GPa and T=1050–1100 °C and studied by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. Low hydrated amorphous tantalum, lanthanum, europium and ytterbium hydroxides were used as starting materials. Aqueous as well as anhydrous compounds were obtained. Title tantalates are crystallized in the structure type of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} [Zibrov et al. Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 48 (2003) 464–471] [5]. The structure was refined by the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffractometer data: La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, a=10.5099(2), b=7.2679(1), c=6.9765(1) Å, V=532.90(1) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134}, a=10.4182(3), b=7.2685(1), c=6.9832(1) Å, V=528.80(2) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077}, a=10.4557(2), b=7.3853(1), c=6.8923(1) Å, V=532.21(1) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam. RE atoms do not replace the tantalum in its positions but the only water in the channels of the structure. Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell so that its volume becomes less than that of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant decrease of the unit cell volume after water removal from the structure is possible due to the puckering of pentagonal bipyramid layers and change of the corrugation angle in the layer. - Graphical abstract: The structure of RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} and its HRTEM image (“A” arrows show empty channel, “B” arrows show filled channel). - Highlights: • We synthesized new tantalates of RE under high pressure high temperature conditions. • RE atoms replace water molecules in the channels of the structure. • Aqueous as well as anhydrous tantalates were obtained. • Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell decreasing RE–O distances.

  15. Urban stormwater management planning with analytical probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, B.J.

    2000-07-01

    Understanding how to properly manage urban stormwater is a critical concern to civil and environmental engineers the world over. Mismanagement of stormwater and urban runoff results in flooding, erosion, and water quality problems. In an effort to develop better management techniques, engineers have come to rely on computer simulation and advanced mathematical modeling techniques to help plan and predict water system performance. This important book outlines a new method that uses probability tools to model how stormwater behaves and interacts in a combined- or single-system municipal water system. Complete with sample problems and case studies illustrating how concepts really work, the book presents a cost-effective, easy-to-master approach to analytical modeling of stormwater management systems.

  16. Restoring our urban communities: A model for an empowered America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This booklet tells the story of how two very different types of organizations - Bethel New Life and Argonne National Laboratory - have forged a partnership to rebuild West Garfield Park. This unique Partnership blends Bethel`s theological and sociological roots with Argonne`s scientific and technological expertise. Together they hope to offer the community fresh, transferable approaches to solving urban socio-economic and environmental problems. The Partnership hopes to address and solve the inner city`s technological problems through community participation and collaborative demonstrations - without losing sight of the community`s social needs. The key themes throughout this booklet - jobs, sustainable community development, energy efficiency, and environment - highlight challenges the partners face. By bringing people and technologies together, this Partnership will give West Garfield Park residents a better life -- and, perhaps, offer other communities a successful model for urban renewal.

  17. The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation In an effort "to examine the nexus of energy and mobility for future transportation systems," the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched the Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility consortium. By studying mobility as a system researchers can predict future trends, an invaluable asset to policymakers as they prepare for the future of transportation. This

  18. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthik, Rajasekar; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban emergency evacuation framework that can improve traffic mobility and safety under critical infrastructure disruption in today s socially connected world.

  19. Joint Urban 2003: Study Overview And Instrument Locations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-16

    Quality-assured meteorological and tracer data sets are vital for establishing confidence that indoor and outdoor dispersion models used to simulate dispersal of potential toxic agents in urban atmospheres are giving trustworthy results. The U.S. Department of Defense-Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security joined together to conduct the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study to provide this critically-needed high-resolution dispersion data. This major urban study was conducted from June 28 through July 31, 2003, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the participation of over 150 scientists and engineers from over 20 U.S. and foreign institutions. The Joint Urban 2003 lead scientist was Jerry Allwine (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) who oversaw study design, logistical arrangements and field operations with the help of Joe Shinn (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Marty Leach (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Ray Hosker (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division), Leo Stockham (Northrop Grumman Information Technology) and Jim Bowers (Dugway Proving Grounds). This report gives a brief overview of the field campaign, describing the scientific objectives, the dates of the intensive observation periods, and the instruments deployed. The data from this field study is available to the scientific community through an on-line database that is managed by Dugway Proving Ground. This report will be included in the database to provide its users with some general information about the field study, and specific information about the instrument coordinates. Appendix A of this document provides the definitive record of the instrument locations during this field campaign, and Appendix B lists all the study principal investigators and participants.

  20. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  1. A Study of the Effects of Different Urban Wind Models on Dispersion Patterns Using Joint Urban 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowardhan, A A; Brown, M J

    2012-02-21

    The Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) Dispersion Modeling System has been developed to rapidly compute the transport and dispersion of toxic agent releases in the vicinity of buildings. It is composed of a wind solver, an 'urbanized' Lagrangian random-walk model, and a graphical user interface. QUIC has two different wind models: (a) The QUIC-URB wind solver, an empirically-based diagnostic wind model and (b) The QUIC-CFD (RANS) solver, based on the 3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In this paper, we discuss the effect of different wind models on dispersion patterns in dense built-up areas. The model-computed wind from the two urban wind models- QUIC-URB and QUIC-CFD are used to drive the dispersion model. The concentration fields are then compared to measurements from the Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 field experiment. QUIC produces high-resolution 3-D mean wind and concentration fields around buildings, in addition to deposition on the ground and building surfaces. It has options for different release types, including point, moving point, line, area, and volumetric sources, as well as dense gas, explosive buoyant rise, multi-particle size, bioslurry, and two-phase releases. Other features include indoor infiltration, a pressure solver, outer grid simulations, vegetative canopies, and population exposure calculations. It has been used for biological agent sensor siting in cities, vulnerability assessments for heavier-than-air chemical releases at industrial facilities, and clean-up assessments for radiological dispersal device (RDD) releases in cities (e.g., see Linger et al., 2005; Brown, 2006a, b). QUIC has also been used for dust transport studies (Bowker et al., 2007a) and for the impact of highway sound barriers on the transport and dispersion of vehicle emissions (Bowker et al., 2007b).

  2. Draft genome sequence of Paenbacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14, an antagonistic root endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Paenbacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (e.g German chamomile). The draft genome of Paenbacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 revealed promising antagonistic in vitro activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. Putative genes involved in plant pathogen suppression and plant growth-promotion were identified.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain Mc5Re-14, an Antagonistic Root Endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Mc5Re-14 revealed promising in vitro antagonistic activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. The 6.0-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively involved in pathogen suppression and direct and indirect plant growth promotion.

  4. RePower Kitsap Helps S.T.A.R. Program Gain Momentum in Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    REALTORS® in western Washington have been lining up to attend the Sustainability Training for Accredited Real Estate Professionals (S.T.A.R.) offered in Kitsap County by Earth Advantage in through RePower Kitsap. The free, accredited S.T.A.R. course—sponsored in partnership with the RePower program, U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Initiative, Washington State University (WSU) Energy Program, and Conservation Services Group—prepares real estate professionals to market and sell new and remodeled "green" homes. After taking the two-day course, which includes visits to two energy-efficient homes, real estate professionals are able to identify which features and building products provide greater energy and water efficiency and create a healthier living environment for their clients. The success of S.T.A.R. didn't happen overnight; it is the result of determined effort, effective marketing, and word-of-mouth excitement.

  5. Process of Equiaxed Grains of RE-Al Alloy under Slope Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Shikun; Yi Rongxi; Pan Xiaoliang; Zheng Xiaoqiu; Guo Xiuyan [School of Engineering, Jinggangshan University, Ji'an, 343009 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A new technique using slope vibration casting process during heating and isothermal holding period to prepare Al-7Si-2RE alloy has been studied. The small, near-spherical and non-dendritic microstructure with the semi-solid processing requirements has been obtained. Experiments show that the cooling method, pouring process and the convection of melt caused by slope vibration had significant effects on the formation of near-spherical primary gains. The water-cooled copper mold casting with slope vibration at the temperature near liquidus can obtain Al-7Si-2RE alloy with small homogeneous equiaxed grains, the average grain diameter is 48.3 mum, and the average grain roundness is 1.92.

  6. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program...

  7. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Federal aappropriations for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and for sundry independent agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and offices are enumerated and discussed. Recommendations by the House Committee on Appropriations are given along with a detailed description of each program considered. Specific programs discussed include: urban research, urban development, urban planning, solar energy, environmental quality, space stations, space shuttle orbiters, scientific research and education, and selective service. This bill, H.R. 5713, makes appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985.

  8. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area

  9. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  10. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Wind Energy in Urban Environments Webinar (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Wind Energy in Urban Environments," originally presented on September 18, 2012.

  11. MEMORANDUM TO: File FROM: David R. Hill RE: Meeting Concerning Potential Test Procedures and Energy Conservation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    MEMORANDUM TO: File FROM: David R. Hill RE: Meeting Concerning Potential Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment DATE: March 14, 2012 In compliance with the Department of Energy's guidance on ex parte communications (74 Fed. Reg. 52795 (Oct. 14, 2009)), this memorandum provides a summary of a March 7, 2012, meeting with DOE officials concerning potential test procedures and energy conservation standards for set-top boxes and network equipment.

  12. Microsoft Word - APSP Memo re DOE mtg 7.16.15.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    To: John Cymbalsky, Supervisor, Appliance Standards Building Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy From: Jennifer Hatfield, Director, Government Affairs, Association of Pool & Spa Professionals Date: July 23, 2015 CC: Steven Getzoff, outside legal counsel APSP Re: Docket # EERE-2015-BT-STD-0008: Request for Information (RFI) issued by the Department of Energy (DOE) pertaining to the development of potential Energy Conservation

  13. Microsoft Word - Comments on Alexandria Mirant Plant-DOE order to re-open-final.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    P.O. Box 11138 Takoma Park, MD 20912 (301) 891-6726 info@chesapeakeclimate.org March 22, 2006 Mr. Lawrence Mansueti Permitting, Siting, and Analysis Division Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585-0119 Re: Comments on Emergency Order to Resume Limited Operation at the Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, VA. Dear Mr. Mansueti, This letter is in response to the Department of Energy Emergency Order

  14. ReEDS Modeling of the President's 2020 U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation Goal (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinaman, O.; Mai, T.; Lantz, E.; Gelman, R.; Porro, G.

    2014-05-01

    President Obama announced in 2012 an Administration Goal for the United States to double aggregate renewable electricity generation from wind, solar, and geothermal sources by 2020. This analysis, using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, explores a full range of future renewable deployment scenarios out to 2020 to assess progress and outlook toward this goal. Under all modeled conditions, consisting of 21 scenarios, the Administration Goal is met before 2020, and as early as 2015.

  15. Hope for Re-establishing Microbial Populations in the Gulf of Mexico | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Hope for Re-establishing Microbial Populations in the Gulf of Mexico Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  16. ACEEE Supplementary Information Re Issues Discussed at June 11, 2013 Ex Parte

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ACEEE Supplementary Information Re Issues Discussed at June 11, 2013 Ex Parte Meeting As supplementary information, to address a few questions raised by DOE in the ex parte meeting, ACEEE wishes to address three issues that were discussed - analysis of appropriate situations for a waiver, technical requirements, and procedures to minimize "leakage". We discuss each of these in turn. Analysis of Appropriate Situations for a Waiver For a waiver for a "grid-enabled" water heater

  17. To: Mansueti, Lawrence Subject: RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair Dec. 1-20, 2006

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    From: ecchimento@comcast.net [mailto:ecchimento@comcast.net] Sent: Monday, January 29, 2007 6:28 PM To: Mansueti, Lawrence Subject: RE: Pepco Scheduled Line Repair Dec. 1-20, 2006 Larry, Regarding the planned line outage, scheduled for Feb. 20 through Mar. 6, I am requesting that the residents near the plant be moved for the duration of the outage to protect their health. Would you include this comment also in the ongoing recorded discussion? Thank you. Elizabeth -----Original Message-----

  18. Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy | Department of Energy Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy Smart grid provides consumers with unprecedented access and control of their electricity usage, and it provides utilities with the ability to manage the electric grid with

  19. Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is pleased to provide comments on the communications requirements of electric

  20. From: Carol Johnson To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: Re: National Interest Energy Transmission Corridors

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Johnson To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: Re: National Interest Energy Transmission Corridors Date: Sunday, October 19, 2014 8:20:41 AM I am opposed to the establishment of National Interest Energy Transmission Corridors (NIETC's) for the following reasons. First, the easements place an undo burden on landowners on and near the transmission lines. The compensation cannot begin to cover the all of the losses, tangible and intangible that landowners would suffer. I am a landowner in the path

  1. Sandian Re-Elected as President of the Association for Computing Machinery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Special Interest Group on Graphics and Interactive Techniques Re-Elected as President of the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Graphics and Interactive Techniques - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of

  2. Heavy Oil Process Monitor: Automated On-Column Asphaltene Precipitation and Re-Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2007-03-31

    An automated separation technique was developed that provides a new approach to measuring the distribution profiles of the most polar, or asphaltenic components of an oil, using a continuous flow system to precipitate and re-dissolve asphaltenes from the oil. Methods of analysis based on this new technique were explored. One method based on the new technique involves precipitation of a portion of residua sample in heptane on a polytetrafluoroethylene-packed (PTFE) column. The precipitated material is re-dissolved in three steps using solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, toluene, and methylene chloride. The amount of asphaltenes that dissolve in cyclohexane is a useful diagnostic of the thermal history of oil, and its proximity to coke formation. For example, about 40 % (w/w) of the heptane asphaltenes from unpyrolyzed residua dissolves in cyclohexane. As pyrolysis progresses, this number decrease to below 15% as coke and toluene insoluble pre-coke materials appear. Currently, the procedure for the isolation of heptane asphaltenes and the determination of the amount of asphaltenes soluble in cyclohexane spans three days. The automated procedure takes one hour. Another method uses a single solvent, methylene chloride, to re-dissolve the material that precipitates on heptane on the PTFE-packed column. The area of this second peak can be used to calculate a value which correlates with gravimetric asphaltene content. Currently the gravimetric procedure to determine asphaltenes takes about 24 hours. The automated procedure takes 30 minutes. Results for four series of original and pyrolyzed residua were compared with data from the gravimetric methods. Methods based on the new on-column precipitation and re-dissolution technique provide significantly more detail about the polar constituent's oils than the gravimetric determination of asphaltenes.

  3. Microsoft Word - Ex Parte Memo re October 28, 2014 Meeting on Fans

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Council Date November 4, 2014 Re Ex Parte Communication On Tuesday, October 28, 2014, several representatives of fan manufacturers and energy efficiency advocates met with the Department of Energy to discuss potential standards for commercial and industrial fans. The fan manufacturers and energy efficiency advocates presented information concerning the fan market, fan energy-efficiency and the most promising means of designing federal efficiency standards for commercial and industrial fans. The

  4. Microsoft Word - WRFMAIN-#13788450-v4-Memorandum_to_DOE_re_battery_chargers_(Oct__2014)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    October 20, 2014 MEMORANDUM To: Jeremy Dommu From: Jason Friedrich and Jennifer Sanford Re: Department of Energy, Notice of Data Availability for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedure for Battery Chargers, 79 Fed. Reg. 27774 (May 15, 2014), Docket No. EERE-2014-BT-NOA-0012; Additional Information for DOE Consideration Introduction We are following up on our meeting with DOE on August 7, 2014. During the meeting, several topics were identified as warranting further investigation as

  5. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  6. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  7. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS₂ field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching -Hwa; Huang, Ying -Sheng; Cao, Zhengyi; Wang, Laiguo; Li, Aidong; Zeng, Junwen; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xinran; Shi, Yi; Yuan, Hongtao; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu

    2015-05-07

    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS₂) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS₂ field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (~10⁷) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconducting materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS₂ anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications.

  8. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS₂ field-effect transistors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching -Hwa; et al

    2015-05-07

    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS₂) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS₂ field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (~10⁷) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconductingmore » materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS₂ anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications.« less

  9. Structure and magnetic properties of RE{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3} (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyvanchuk, Yuriy B. Szytula, Andrzej; Zarzycki, Arkadiusz; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Kalychak, Yaroslav M.; Poettgen, Rainer

    2008-12-15

    The ternary copper indides RE{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3}{identical_to}RECu{sub 0.5}In{sub 1.5} (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd) were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum tubes in an induction furnace. They crystallize with the CaIn{sub 2}-type structure, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, with a statistical occupancy of copper and indium on the tetrahedral substructure. These indides show homogeneity ranges RECu{sub x}In{sub 2-x}. Single crystal structure refinements were performed for five crystals: CeCu{sub 0.66}In{sub 1.34} (a=479.90(7) pm, c=768.12(15) pm), PrCu{sub 0.52}In{sub 1.48} (a=480.23(7) pm, c=759.23(15) pm), NdCu{sub 0.53}In{sub 1.47} (a=477.51(7) pm, c=756.37(15) pm), SmCu{sub 0.46}In{sub 1.54} (a=475.31(7) pm, c=744.77(15) pm), and GdCu{sub 0.33}In{sub 1.67} (a=474.19(7), c=737.67(15) pm). Temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements show antiferromagnetic ordering at T{sub N}=4.7 K for Pr{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3} and 15 K for Sm{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3}. Fitting of the susceptibility data of the samarium compound revealed an energy gap {delta}E=39.7(7) K between the ground and the first excited levels. - Graphical abstract: The CaIn{sub 2}-type structure of Sm{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3}.

  10. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  11. Acquisition and registration of aerial video imagery of urban traffic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loveland, Rohan C

    2008-01-01

    The amount of information available about urban traffic from aerial video imagery is extremely high. Here we discuss the collection of such video imagery from a helicopter platform with a low-cost sensor, and the post-processing used to correct radial distortion in the data and register it. The radial distortion correction is accomplished using a Harris model. The registration is implemented in a two-step process, using a globally applied polyprojective correction model followed by a fine scale local displacement field adjustment. The resulting cleaned-up data is sufficiently well-registered to allow subsequent straight-forward vehicle tracking.

  12. Analysis of Soluble Re Concentrations in Refractory from Bulk Vitrification Full-Scale Test 38B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2006-06-30

    The capacity of the waste treatment plant (WTP) being built at the Hanford Site is not sufficient to process all of the tank waste accumulated from more than 40 years of nuclear materials production. Bulk vitrification can accelerate tank waste treatment by providing some supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) treatment capacity. Bulk vitrification combines LAW and glass-forming chemicals in a large metal container and melts the contents using electrical resistance heating. A castable refractory block (CRB) is used along with sand to insulate the container from the heat generated while melting the contents into a glass waste form. This report describes engineering-scale (ES) and full-scale (FS) tests that have been conducted. Several ES tests showed that a small fraction of soluble Tc moves in the CRB and results in a groundwater peak different than WTP glass. The total soluble Tc-99 fraction in the FS CRB is expected to be different than that determined in the ES tests, but until FS test results are available, the best-estimate soluble Tc-99 fraction from the ES tests has been used as a conservative estimate. The first FS test results are from cold simulant tests that have been spiked with Re. An estimated scale-up factor extrapolates the Tc-99 data collected at the ES to the FS bulk vitrification waste package. Test FS-38A tested the refractory design and did not have a Re spike. Samples were taken and analyzed to help determine Re CRB background concentrations using a Re-spiked, six-tank composite simulant mixed with soil and glass formers to produce the waste feed. Although this feed is not physically the same as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System feed , the chemical make-up is the same. Extensive sampling of the CRB was planned, but difficulties with the test prevented completion of a full box. An abbreviated plan is described that looks at duplicate samples taken from refractory archive sections, a lower wall sample, and two base samples to gain early information about Re and projected Tc-99 levels in the FS box.

  13. A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Lopes, Myriam

    2013-01-15

    Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decision support system enables incorporating scientific knowledge into planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scale, data availability and stakeholder representativeness limit its application.

  14. Microsoft Word - Agenda for 9-2-10 DOE Mtg re EE of Fed Bldgs.doc |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Agenda for 9-2-10 DOE Mtg re EE of Fed Bldgs.doc Microsoft Word - Agenda for 9-2-10 DOE Mtg re EE of Fed Bldgs.doc meeting on Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design of Federal Buildings PDF icon Microsoft Word - Agenda for 9-2-10 DOE Mtg re EE of Fed Bldgs.doc More Documents & Publications Ex Parte Memo - 09 02 Mtg-09.09.10.doc Microsoft Word - ARRAAttachment12v1.doc Microsoft Word - Fact Sheet Energy Speech 082508 FINAL

  15. Trace metals in urban streams and detention ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licsko, Z.J.; Struger, J.

    1995-12-31

    Trace metal levels were monitored over a nine month period in two urban creeks in the Hamilton Harbour watershed and in two urban stormwater retention ponds in Guelph, Ontario. Samples were collected both during dry or non-event periods and immediately after wet weather events. Both water and surficial sediment samples were collected and tested for cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. In almost all cases during wet weather conditions, Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the protection of freshwater aquatic life were exceeded in water for lead (>7 mg/L), copper (>4 mg/L), and zinc (>30 mg/L) . Both stormwater ponds accumulated trace metals in sediment to levels above the lowest effect level guideline for the protection and management of aquatic sediment in Ontario, and, in the case of zinc (> 820 ug/g), above the severe effect level guideline. These levels of contamination raise serious concerns about the use of these and similar facilities as habitat for biota.

  16. Urban lake sediment chemistry: Lake design, runoff, and watershed impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amalfi, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments of twenty-two urban lakes and stormwater discharge into five of the impoundments were analyzed for the presence of selected metallic priority pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile and extractable organic compounds. The concentration (mg/kg dry weight) ranges of metals in lake sediments were: arsenic 7-29, cadmium < 0.5-0.5, chromium 14-55, lead <1-138, selenium <0.01-1.1, silver 0.2-2.1, copper 25-2760, nickel 5-40, and zinc 33.9-239. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 30 to 4400 mg/kg (wet weight). Organic priority pollutants detected in the urban lake impoundments included tetrachlorethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, trichlorofluoromethane, phthalate esters, chloroform, and dichlorobromomethane. Stormwater runoff contained measurable quantities of arsenic, chromium, lead, selenium, copper, nickel, zinc, and petroleum hydrocarbons; whereas organic priority pollutants were not detected. Stormwater runoff pollutant loads indicated that runoff provides a significant contribution of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons to lake sediments.

  17. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The top ten urban areas across the U.S. accounted for nearly 40% of the total fuel wasted due to traffic congestion in 2011. Highway congestion caused vehicles in the combined urban areas of New...

  19. Alliance Laundry Systems to DOE General Counsel; Re:Request for Comment on Large Capacity Clothes Washers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Letter from Alliance Laundry Systems, LLC to DOE General Counsel, Re: Your (DOE's) request of 11-30-2010 Regarding Clothes Washer Test Procedure Waivers. ALS believes that grandfathering all units...

  20. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schetke, Sophie; Haase, Dagmar; Koetter, Theo

    2012-01-15

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Koetter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test runs with planners identified prominent environmental indicators and assigned individual weights. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans according to sustainable housing development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test runs also show that greenfield development generally exhibits less sustainability than infill development.

  1. Decontamination of Terrorist-Dispersed Radionuclides from Surfaces in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Robert; Sutton, Mark; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Gray, Jeremy; Hu, Qinhong; McNab, Walt; Viani, Brian

    2008-01-15

    Research is currently underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to advance the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment. Investigations have focused on more optimized decontamination agents for cesium (Cs) and americium (Am) specifically for use in mass transit infrastructure and urban environments. This project is designed to enhance the capability of the United States to effectively respond to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) attack. The work addresses recognized data gaps by advancing the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment and provides a solution to a national need. The research is focused in four major areas: (1) a better understanding of urban surface conditions that influence the efficacy of decontamination processes, (2) development of prototype decontamination agents for Am and Cs optimized for use in urban environments, (3) the development of capabilities to realistically contaminate surfaces at both the real world and laboratory scale and (4) a validated model for radionuclide-surface interactions. The decontamination of urban surfaces following the detonation of an RDD presents a number of challenges. The following key points are found to be critical for the efficiency of decontamination agents in an urban environment: - Particle size and surface deposition of radionuclide particles on urban surface materials. - Interactions between radionuclides and urban materials. - The presence of grime and carbonation/alteration layers on the surface of urban surfaces. - Post-detonation penetration of radionuclides strongly affected by the dynamic wetting/drying processes. A laboratory scale contamination system has been developed allowing for samples to be contaminated and radionuclide interactions to be studied. In combination with laboratory scale experiments, a real scale outdoor test is scheduled for the spring of 2007. In conclusion, integrated laboratory, field, and numerical approaches are utilized to better understand the radionuclide behavior and the development/utility of decontamination agents.

  2. Energy Savings Modelling of Re-tuning Energy Conservation Measures in Large Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2014-10-20

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BASs capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This paper investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system re-tuning measures on a typical large office building, using the Department of Energys building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply-air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All the individual measures and combinations were simulated in 16 climate locations representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual total HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy savings for most cities for all measures). Combining many of the re-tuning measures revealed deep savings potential. Some of the more aggressive combinations revealed 35-75% reductions in annual HVAC energy consumption, depending on climate and building vintage.

  3. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site -- Biomass Power Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2015-01-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  4. NRECA Supplementary Information Re Issues Discussed at July 10, 2013 Ex Parte Meeting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NRECA Supplementary Information Re Issues Discussed at July 10, 2013 Ex Parte Meeting ACEEE recently submitted to DOE supplemental information to Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0022 expressing a desire for a quantification of costs and benefits of grid-enabled water heart to consumers. In their submission, ACEEE stated: "For a waiver for a "grid-enabled" water heater to make sense to consumers, the lifetime economic cost of the water heater should be less than a water heater that

  5. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

  6. Electronic and optical properties of layered RE{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (RE = Ce and Pr) from first principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayede, A.; Khenata, R.; Chahed, A.; Benhelal, O.

    2013-05-07

    We have studied the structural and electronic properties of Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (CeTO) and Pr{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (PrTO) by first-principles density functional theory calculations. The computed structural parameters are in fairly good agreement with the available experimental findings. Band structure calculations using the GGA+U approach predict an insulating ground state for the herein studied compounds. The insulating band gaps of 2.00 eV and 2.83 eV are found for CeTO and PrTO, respectively. The analysis of the density of states reveals that the strongly localized RE 4f levels act as charge-trapping sites, predicting a lower photocatalytic activity for CeTO. We have also calculated the optical properties for both CeTO and PrTO. Based on these properties, it is predicted that these titanates are insensitive to ultra-violet radiation, while they are more sensitive to frequencies of the radiation in visible and early UV regions.

  7. Laser damage by ns and sub-ps pulses on hafnia/silica anti-reflection coatings on fused silica double-sided polished using zirconia or ceria and washed with or without an alumina wash step.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellum, John Curtis; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kletecka, Damon; Atherton, Briggs W.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Smith, Ian Craig; Smith, Douglas; Hobbs, Zachary

    2010-10-01

    Sandia's Large Optics Coating Operation has extensive results of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) testing of its anti-reflection (AR) and high reflection coatings on substrates pitch polished using ceria and washed in a process that includes an alumina wash step. The purpose of the alumina wash step is to remove residual polishing compound to minimize its role in laser damage. These LIDT tests are for multi longitudinal mode, ns class pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm (NIF-MEL protocol) and mode locked, sub-ps class pulses at 1054 nm (Sandia measurements), and show reasonably high and adequate laser damage resistance for coatings in the beam trains of Sandia's Z-Backlighter terawatt and petawatt lasers. An AR coating in addition to coatings of our previous reports confirms this with LIDTs of 33.0 J/cm{sup 2} for 3.5 ns pulses and 1.8 J/cm{sup 2} for 350 fs pulses. In this paper, we investigate both ceria and zirconia in doublesided polishing (common for large flat Z-Backlighter laser optics) as they affect LIDTs of an AR coating on fused silica substrates washed with or without the alumina wash step. For these AR coated, double-sided polished surfaces, ceria polishing in general affords better resistance to laser damage than zirconia polishing and laser damage is less likely with the alumina wash step than without it. This is supported by specific results of laser damage tests with 3.5 ns, multi longitudinal mode, single shot pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm, with 7.0 ns, single and multi longitudinal mode, single and multi shot pulses at 532 nm, and with 350 fs, mode-locked, single shot pulses at 1054 nm.

  8. ReSS: A Resource Selection Service for the Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Mhashilkar, Parag; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Open Science Grid offers access to hundreds of computing and storage resources via standard Grid interfaces. Before the deployment of an automated resource selection system, users had to submit jobs directly to these resources. They would manually select a resource and specify all relevant attributes in the job description prior to submitting the job. The necessity of a human intervention in resource selection and attribute specification hinders automated job management components from accessing OSG resources and it is inconvenient for the users. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) project addresses these shortcomings. The system integrates condor technology, for the core match making service, with the gLite CEMon component, for gathering and publishing resource information in the Glue Schema format. Each one of these components communicates over secure protocols via web services interfaces. The system is currently used in production on OSG by the DZero Experiment, the Engagement Virtual Organization, and the Dark Energy. It is also the resource selection service for the Fermilab Campus Grid, FermiGrid. ReSS is considered a lightweight solution to push-based workload management. This paper describes the architecture, performance, and typical usage of the system.

  9. Sensitivity of ultrasonic nonlinearity to irradiated, annealed, and re-irradiated microstructure changes in RPV steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlack, Katie; Kim, J-Y.; Wall, J.J.; Jacobs, L.J.; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-05-01

    The planned life extension of nuclear reactors throughout the US and abroad will cause reactor vessel and internals materials to be exposed to more neutron irradiation than was originally intended. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor radiation damage would enable safe and cost-effective continued operation of nuclear reactors. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes microstructural changes that leave the material in an embrittled state. Nonlinear ultrasound is an NDE technique quantified by the measurable acoustic nonlinearity parameter, which is sensitive to microstructural changes in metallic materials such as dislocations, precipitates and their combinations. Recent research has demonstrated the sensitivity of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing neutron fluence in representative RPV steels. The current work considers nonlinear ultrasonic experiments conducted on similar RPV steel samples that had a combination of irradiation, annealing, re-irradiation, and/or re-annealing to a total neutron fluence of 0.5 5 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 290 C. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter generally increased with increasing neutron fluence, and consistently decreased from the irradiated to the annealed state over different levels of neutron fluence. Results of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter are compared with those from previous measurements on other RPV steel samples. This comprehensive set of results illustrates the dependence of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter on neutron fluence, material composition, irradiation temperature and annealing.

  10. Investigation of Tc Migration Mechanism During Bulk Vitrification Process Using Re Surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Fluegel, Alex; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Martinez, Baudelio; Matyas, Josef; Meyer, Perry A.; Paulsen, Dan; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Stewart, Charles W.; Swoboda, Robert G.; Yeager, John D.

    2006-12-04

    As a part of Bulk vitrification (BV) performance enhancement tasks, Laboratory scoping tests were performed in FY 2004-2005 to explore possible ways to reduce the amount of soluble Tc in the BV waste package. Theses scoping tests helped identify which mechanisms play an important role in the migration of Tc in the BV process (Hrma et al. 2005 and Kim et al. 2005). Based on the results from these scoping tests, additional tests were identified that will improve the understanding of Tc migration and to clearly identify the dominant mechanisms. The additional activities identified from previous studies were evaluated and prioritized for planning for Tasks 29 and 30 conducted in FY2006. Task 29 focused on the improved understanding of Tc migration mechanisms, and Task 30 focused on identifying the potential process changes that might reduce Tc/Re migration into the castable refractory block (CRB). This report summarizes the results from the laboratory- and crucible-scale tests in the lab for improved Tc migration mechanism understanding utilizing Re as a surrogate performed in Task 29.

  11. The effect of stochastic re-acceleration on the energy spectrum of shock-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Vainio, Rami; Kocharov, Leon

    2014-07-20

    The energy spectra of particles in gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events do not always have a power-law form attributed to the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In particular, the observed spectra in major SEP events can take the form of a broken (double) power law. In this paper, we study the effect of a process that can modify the power-law spectral form produced by the diffusive shock acceleration: the stochastic re-acceleration of energetic protons by enhanced Alfvnic turbulence in the downstream region of a shock wave. There are arguments suggesting that this process can be important when the shock propagates in the corona. We consider a coronal magnetic loop traversed by a shock and perform Monte Carlo simulations of interactions of shock-accelerated protons with Alfvn waves in the loop. The wave-particle interactions are treated self-consistently, so the finiteness of the available turbulent energy is taken into account. The initial energy spectrum of particles is taken to be a power law. The simulations reveal that the stochastic re-acceleration leads either to the formation of a spectrum that is described in a wide energy range by a power law (although the resulting power-law index is different from the initial one) or to a broken power-law spectrum. The resulting spectral form is determined by the ratio of the energy density of shock-accelerated protons to the wave energy density in the shock's downstream region.

  12. Can Fish Morphological Characteristics be Used to Re-design Hydroelectric Turbines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, G. F.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2011-07-19

    Safe fish passage affects not only migratory species, but also populations of resident fish by altering biomass, biodiversity, and gene flow. Consequently, it is important to estimate turbine passage survival of a wide range of susceptible fish. Although fish-friendly turbines show promise for reducing turbine passage mortality, experimental data on their beneficial effects are limited to only a few species, mainly salmon and trout. For thousands of untested species and sizes of fish, the particular causes of turbine passage mortality and the benefits of fish-friendly turbine designs remain unknown. It is not feasible to measure the turbine-passage survival of every species of fish in every hydroelectric turbine design. We are attempting to predict fish mortality based on an improved understanding of turbine-passage stresses (pressure, shear stress, turbulence, strike) and information about the morphological, behavioral, and physiological characteristics of different fish taxa that make them susceptible to the stresses. Computational fluid dynamics and blade strike models of the turbine environment are re-examined in light of laboratory and field studies of fish passage effects. Comparisons of model-predicted stresses to measured injuries and mortalities will help identify fish survival thresholds and the aspects of turbines that are most in need of re-design. The coupled model and fish morphology evaluations will enable us to make predictions of turbine-passage survival among untested fish species, for both conventional and advanced turbines, and to guide the design of hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival.

  13. Instrumentation for slope stability -- Experience from an urban area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flentje, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the monitoring of several existing landslides in an urban area near Wollongong in the state of New South Wales, Australia. A brief overview of topography and geology is given and reference is made to the types of slope movement, processes and causal factors. Often the slope movements are extremely slow and imperceptible to the eye, and catastrophic failures are quite infrequent. However, cumulative movements at these slower rates do, over time, cause considerable distress to structures and disrupt residential areas and transport routes. Inclinometers and piezometers have been installed at a number of locations and monitoring of these has been very useful. The performance of instrumentation at different sites is discussed in relation to the monitoring of slope movements and pore pressures. Interval rates of inclinometer shear displacement have been compared with various periods of cumulative rainfall to assess the relationships.

  14. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  15. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    The population growth coupled with increasing urbanization is predicted to exert a huge demand on the growth and retrofit of urban infrastructure, particularly in water and energy systems. The U.S. population is estimated to grow by 23% (UN, 2009) between 2005 and 2030. The corresponding increases in energy and water demand were predicted as 14% (EIA, 2009) and 20% (Elcock, 2008), respectively. The water-energy nexus needs to be better understood to satisfy the increased demand in a sustainable manner without conflicting with environmental and economic constraints. Overall, 4% of U.S. power generation is used for water distribution (80%) and treatment (20%). 3% of U.S. water consumption (100 billion gallons per day, or 100 BGD) and 40% of U.S. water withdrawal (340 BGD) are for thermoelectric power generation (Goldstein and Smith, 2002). The water demand for energy production is predicted to increase most significantly among the water consumption sectors by 2030. On the other hand, due to the dearth of conventional water sources, energy intensive technologies are increasingly in use to treat seawater and brackish groundwater for water supply. Thus comprehending the interrelation and interdependency between water and energy system is imperative to evaluate sustainable water and energy supply alternatives for cities. In addition to the water-energy nexus, decentralized or distributed concept is also beneficial for designing sustainable water and energy infrastructure as these alternatives require lesser distribution lines and space in a compact urban area. Especially, the distributed energy infrastructure is more suited to interconnect various large and small scale renewable energy producers which can be expected to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the case of decentralized water infrastructure, on-site wastewater treatment facility can provide multiple benefits. Firstly, it reduces the potable water demand by reusing the treated water for non-potable uses and secondly, it also reduces the wastewater load to central facility. In addition, lesser dependency on the distribution network contributes to increased reliability and resiliency of the infrastructure. The goal of this research is to develop a framework which seeks an optimal combination of decentralized water and energy alternatives and centralized infrastructures based on physical and socio-economic environments of a region. Centralized and decentralized options related to water, wastewater and stormwater and distributed energy alternatives including photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells and microturbines are investigated. In the context of the water-energy nexus, water recovery from energy alternatives and energy recovery from water alternatives are reflected. Alternatives recapturing nutrients from wastewater are also considered to conserve depleting resources. The alternatives are evaluated in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and economic performance using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and cost benefit analysis, respectively. Meeting the increasing demand of a test bed, an optimal combination of the alternatives is designed to minimize environmental and economic impacts including CO2 emissions, human health risk, natural resource use, and construction and operation cost. The framework determines the optimal combination depending on urban density, transmission or conveyance distance or network, geology, climate, etc. Therefore, it will be also able to evaluate infrastructure resiliency against physical and socio-economic challenges such as population growth, severe weather, energy and water shortage, economic crisis, and so on.

  16. Evaluation of urban storm-water maintenance in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roenigk, D.J.; Paterson, R.G.; Heraty, M.A.; Kaiser, E.J.; Burby, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Spurred by continuing urban growth and new federal mandates for control of nonpoint source pollution, local governments are increasingly concerned about the need to improve stormwater management. Long-term maintenance is a critical aspect of stormwater management if both water quality and water quantity benefits are to be realized in practice. The report examines what is actually being done in North Carolina cities to maintain stormwater systems and what selected stormwater experts feel should be done. Several actions are needed. First, local governments are recommended to pay greater attention to system planning, apply more stringent design standards, and monitor the effectiveness of structures protecting water quality as the most critical basis for successful long-term maintenance. Second, policy makers at all levels of government and researchers need to determine appropriate strategies for the treatment and disposal of accumulated sediments. Finally, further research about the best maintenance practices and financing arrangements may be needed.

  17. Pinch Me - I'm Fusing!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DERZON,MARK S.

    2000-07-19

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, ,is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Honestly - this is true. There does seem to be something going on here; I just don't know what. Apparently some experimenters get energy out of a process many call cold fission but no one seems to know what it is, or how to do it reliably. It is not getting much attention from the mainline physics community. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article 1 will point out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and may one day generate electrical power for mankind.

  18. SU-E-J-52: Dosimetric Benefit of Adaptive Re-Planning in Lung Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, J; Tian, Z; Gu, X; Yan, H; Jiang, S; Jia, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric benefit of adaptive re-planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy(SBRT). Methods: Five lung cancer patients with SBRT treatment were retrospectively investigated. Our in-house supercomputing online re-planning environment (SCORE) was used to realize the re-planning process. First a deformable image registration was carried out to transfer contours from treatment planning CT to each treatment CBCT. Then an automatic re-planning using original plan DVH guided fluence-map optimization is performed to get a new plan for the up-to-date patient geometry. We compared the re-optimized plan to the original plan projected on the up-to-date patient geometry in critical dosimetric parameters, such as PTV coverage, spinal cord maximum and volumetric constraint dose, esophagus maximum and volumetric constraint dose. Results: The average volume of PTV covered by prescription dose for all patients was improved by 7.56% after the adaptive re-planning. The volume of the spinal cord receiving 14.5Gy and 23Gy (V14.5, V23) decreased by 1.48% and 0.68%, respectively. For the esophagus, the volume receiving 19.5Gy (V19.5) reduced by 1.37%. Meanwhile, the maximum dose dropped off by 2.87% for spinal cord and 4.80% for esophagus. Conclusion: Our experimental results demonstrate that adaptive re-planning for lung SBRT has the potential to minimize the dosimetric effect of inter-fraction deformation and thus improve target coverage while reducing the risk of toxicity to nearby normal tissues.

  19. Fossil and Contemporary Fine Carbon Fractions at 12 Rural and Urban Sites in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schichtel, B; Malm, W; Bench, G; Fallon, S; McDade, C; Chow, J

    2007-03-01

    Fine particulate matter collected at two urban, four near-urban, and six remote sites throughout the United States were analyzed for total carbon (TC) and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). Samples were collected at most sites for both a summer and winter season. The radiocarbon was used to partition the TC into fossil and contemporary fractions. On average, contemporary carbon composed about half of the carbon at the urban, {approx}70-97% at near-urban, and 82-100% at remote sites. At Phoenix, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington, one monitor was located within the urban center and one outside to assess the urban excess over background concentrations. During the summer the urban and rural sites had similar contemporary carbon concentrations. However, during the winter the urban sites had more than twice the contemporary carbon measured at the neighboring sites, indicating anthropogenic contributions to the contemporary carbon. The urban fossil carbon was 4-20 times larger than the neighboring rural sites for both seasons. Organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from TOR analysis were available. These and the radiocarbon data were used to estimate characteristic fossil and contemporary EC/TC ratios for the winter and summer seasons. These ratios were applied to carbon data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network to estimate the fraction of contemporary carbon at mostly rural sites throughout the United States. In addition, the ratios were used to develop a semiquantitative, lower bound estimate of secondary organic carbon (SOC) contribution to fossil and contemporary carbon. SOC accounted for more than one-third of the fossil and contemporary carbon.

  20. Design and evaluation of the ReKon : an integrated detection and assessment perimeter system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabling, Jeffrey Glenn; Andersen, Jason Jann; McLaughlin, James O.

    2013-02-01

    Kontek Industries (Kannapolis, NC) and their subsidiary, Stonewater Control Systems (Kannapolis, NC), have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement with Sandia to jointly develop and evaluate an integrated perimeter security system solution, one that couples access delay with detection and assessment. This novel perimeter solution was designed to be configurable for use at facilities ranging from high-security military sites to commercial power plants, to petro/chemical facilities of various kinds. A prototype section of the perimeter has been produced and installed at the Sandia Test and Evaluation Center in Albuquerque, NM. This prototype system integrated fiber optic break sensors, active infrared sensors, fence disturbance sensors, video motion detection, and ground sensors. This report documents the design, testing, and performance evaluation of the developed ReKon system. The ability of the system to properly detect pedestrian or vehicle attempts to bypass, breach, or otherwise defeat the system is characterized, as well as the Nuisance Alarm Rate.

  1. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  2. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriation Act, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The budget appropriations for FY 1983 for the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies are presented.

  3. Energy Department Announces the SUN Project, Empowering Urban Native Youth in STEM Education

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SUN Project is a new collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and the American Indian Science and Engineering Society to engage urban Native American youth in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

  4. Best Practices Case Study: Urbane Homes - Crestwood, KY, Various Locations, Greater Louisville, KY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Urbane Homes, who worked with Building America to build market rate homes with HERS scores of 57 to 62. Despite a down market they’ve sold every home within 3 weeks of listing, without any advertising.

  5. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Nina Bauer, Annette Haase, Dagmar

    2011-03-15

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

  6. GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport (Espaol) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning...

  7. Physics-based statistical model and simulation method of RF propagation in urban environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Dvorak, Steven L.

    2010-09-14

    A physics-based statistical model and simulation/modeling method and system of electromagnetic wave propagation (wireless communication) in urban environments. In particular, the model is a computationally efficient close-formed parametric model of RF propagation in an urban environment which is extracted from a physics-based statistical wireless channel simulation method and system. The simulation divides the complex urban environment into a network of interconnected urban canyon waveguides which can be analyzed individually; calculates spectral coefficients of modal fields in the waveguides excited by the propagation using a database of statistical impedance boundary conditions which incorporates the complexity of building walls in the propagation model; determines statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields; and determines a parametric propagation model based on the statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields from which predictions of communications capability may be made.

  8. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budnik, Thomas A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Samuel J.; Stockdell, William M.

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  9. Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy September 20, 2012 - 1:10pm Addthis The University of Maryland team accepted the award for the best combined heat, hydrogen, and power system design at the World Hydrogen Energy Conference (WHEC) in Toronto. | Photo courtesy of Jennie Moton. The University of Maryland team accepted the award for the best combined heat, hydrogen,

  10. Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel-and CNG-powered Urban Buses

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES [ * ] Patrick COROLLER & Gabriel PLASSAT French Agency of Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) Air & Transport Division [ * ] presented at the DEER 2003 Conference by Dr. Thierry SEGUELONG, Aaqius & Aaqius) ABSTRACT Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has

  11. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  12. A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Shuli Yeh Chiatsung Budd, William W. Chen Liling

    2009-02-15

    Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed.

  13. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  14. Analysis of colloidal phases in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grout, H.; Wiesner, M.R.; Bottero, J.Y.

    1999-03-15

    The composition and morphology of colloidal materials entering an urban waterway (Brays Bayou, Houston, USA) during a storm event was investigated. Analyses of organic carbon, Si, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Ba were performed on the fraction of materials passing through a 0.45 {micro}m filter. This fraction, traditionally defined as dissolved, was further fractionated by ultracentrifugation into colloidal and dissolved fractions. Colloids, operationally defined by this procedure, accounted for 17% of the carbon, 32% of the silica, 79% of the Al, 85% of the Fe, 52% of the Cr, 43% of the Mn, and 29% of the Zn present in filtrates when averaged over the storm event. However, the composition of colloidal material was observed to change over time. For example, colloids were predominantly composed of silica during periods of dry weather flow and at the maximum of the stormwater flow, while carbon dominated the colloidal fraction at the beginning and declining stages of the storm event. These changes in colloidal composition were accompanied by changes in colloidal morphologies, varying from organic aggregates to diffuse gel-like structures rich in Si, Al, and Fe. The colloidal phase largely determined the variability of elements in the 0.45 {micro}m filtrate.

  15. The Airborne Metagenome in an Indoor Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, Susannah; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Xuguo; Yu, Yiting; Lee, Wah Heng; Yap, Jennifer; Yao, Fei; Suan, Sim Tiow; Ing, Seah Keng; Haynes, Matthew; Rohwer, Forest; Wei, Chia Lin; Tan, Patrick; Bristow, James; Rubin, Edward M.; Ruan, Yijun

    2008-02-12

    The indoor atmosphere is an ecological unit that impacts on public health. To investigate the composition of organisms in this space, we applied culture-independent approaches to microbes harvested from the air of two densely populated urban buildings, from which we analyzed 80 megabases genomic DNA sequence and 6000 16S rDNA clones. The air microbiota is primarily bacteria, including potential opportunistic pathogens commonly isolated from human-inhabited environments such as hospitals, but none of the data contain matches to virulent pathogens or bioterror agents. Comparison of air samples with each other and nearby environments suggested that the indoor air microbes are not random transients from surrounding outdoor environments, but rather originate from indoor niches. Sequence annotation by gene function revealed specific adaptive capabilities enriched in the air environment, including genes potentially involved in resistance to desiccation and oxidative damage. This baseline index of air microbiota will be valuable for improving designs of surveillance for natural or man-made release of virulent pathogens.

  16. Combined effect of chemical pressure and valence electron concentration through the electron-deficient Li substitution on the RE{sub 4}LiGe{sub 4} (RE=La, Ce, Pr, and Sm) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Gnu; Jeon, Jieun; Kim, Youngjo; Kwon Kang, Sung; Ahn, Kyunghan; You, Tae-Soo

    2013-09-15

    Four members of the RE{sub 4}LiGe{sub 4} (RE=La, Ce, Pr, and Sm) system have been prepared by high-temperature reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffractions. All compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type structure (space group Pnma, Pearson code oP16) with bonding interactions for interslab Ge{sub 2} dimers. The Li substitution for rare-earth elements in the RE{sub 4}LiGe{sub 4} system leads to a combined effect of the increased chemical pressure and the decreased valance electron concentration (VEC), which eventually results in the structure transformation from the Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type with all broken interslab Ge–Ge bond for the parental RE{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} to the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type structure for the ternary RE{sub 4}LiGe{sub 4} (RE=La, Ce, Pr, and Sm) system. Site-preference between rare-earth metals and Li is proven to generate energetically the most favorable atomic arrangements according to coloring-problem, and the rationale is provided using both the size-factor and the electronic-factor related, respectively, to site-volume and electronegativity as well as QVAL values. Tight-binding, linear-muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) calculations are performed to investigate electronic densities of states (DOS) and crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) curves. The influence of reduced VEC for chemical bonding including the formation of interslab Ge{sub 2} dimers is also discussed. The magnetic property measurements prove that the non-magnetic Li substitution leads to the ferromagnetic (FM)-like ground state for Ce{sub 4}LiGe{sub 4} and the co-existence of antiferromagntic (AFM) and FM ground states for Sm{sub 4}LiGe{sub 4}. - Graphical abstract: Reported is a combined effect of the chemical pressure and the reduced VEC caused by the smaller monovalent non-magnetic Li substitution for the larger trivalent magnetic rare-earth metals in the RE{sub 4}LiGe{sub 4} (RE=La, Ce, Pr, and Sm) system. This results in the structure transformation from the Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type to the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type structure and the changes in magnetic properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Four Li-containing intermetallic compounds RE{sub 4}LiGe{sub 4} (RE=La, Ce, Pr and Sm) were synthesized. • The combined effect of the chemical pressure and the reduced VEC caused by Li substitution for a rare-earth metal results in the structure transformation. • Electronic structures and magnetic properties of title compounds were thoroughly investigated.

  17. Thin, High Lifetime Silicon Wafers with No Sawing; Re-crystallization in a Thin Film Capsule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel Sachs Tonio Buonassisi

    2013-01-16

    The project fits within the area of renewable energy called photovoltaics (PV), or the generation of electricity directly from sunlight using semiconductor devices. PV has the greatest potential of any renewable energy technology. The vast majority of photovoltaic modules are made on crystalline silicon wafers and these wafers accounts for the largest fraction of the cost of a photovoltaic module. Thus, a method of making high quality, low cost wafers would be extremely beneficial to the PV industry The industry standard technology creates wafers by casting an ingot and then sawing wafers from the ingot. Sawing rendered half of the highly refined silicon feedstock as un-reclaimable dust. Being a brittle material, the sawing is actually a type of grinding operation which is costly both in terms of capital equipment and in terms of consumables costs. The consumables costs associated with the wire sawing technology are particularly burdensome and include the cost of the wire itself (continuously fed, one time use), the abrasive particles, and, waste disposal. The goal of this project was to make wafers directly from molten silicon with no sawing required. The fundamental concept was to create a very low cost (but low quality) wafer of the desired shape and size and then to improve the quality of the wafer by a specialized thermal treatment (called re-crystallization). Others have attempted to create silicon sheet by recrystallization with varying degrees of success. Key among the difficulties encountered by others were: a) difficulty in maintaining the physical shape of the sheet during the recrystallization process and b) difficulty in maintaining the cleanliness of the sheet during recrystallization. Our method solved both of these challenges by encapsulating the preform wafer in a protective capsule prior to recrystallization (see below). The recrystallization method developed in this work was extremely effective at maintaining the shape and the cleanliness of the wafer. In addition, it was found to be suitable for growing very large crystals. The equipment used was simple and inexpensive to operate. Reasonable solar cells were fabricated on re-crystallized material.

  18. Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2012-06-01

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS's capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This report investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system retuning measures on a typical large office building prototype model, using the Department of Energy's building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated - each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All of these measures and combinations were simulated in 16 cities representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy savings for most cities for all measures). Combining many of the retuning measures revealed deep savings potential. Some of the more aggressive combinations revealed 35-75% reductions in annual HVAC energy consumption, depending on climate and building vintage.

  19. A Case Study of Urbanization Impact on Summer Precipitation in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area. Urban Heat Island Versus Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Shi; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Xiuqun

    2015-10-23

    Convection-resolving ensemble simulations using the WRF-Chem model coupled with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) are conducted to investigate the individual and combined impacts of land use and anthropogenic pollutant emissions from urbanization on a heavy rainfall event in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA) in China. The simulation with the urbanization effect included generally captures the spatial pattern and temporal variation of the rainfall event. An improvement of precipitation is found in the experiment including aerosol effect on both clouds and radiation. The expanded urban land cover and increased aerosols have an opposite effect on precipitation processes, with the latter playing a more dominant role, leading to suppressed convection and rainfall over the upstream (northwest) area, and enhanced convection and more precipitation in the downstream (southeast) region of the GBMA. In addition, the influence of aerosol indirect effect is found to overwhelm that of direct effect on precipitation in this rainfall event. Increased aerosols induce more cloud droplets with smaller size, which favors evaporative cooling and reduce updrafts and suppress convection over the upstream (northwest) region in the early stage of the rainfall event. As the rainfall system propagates southeastward, more latent heat is released due to the freezing of larger number of smaller cloud drops that are lofted above the freezing level, which is responsible for the increased updraft strength and convective invigoration over the downstream (southeast) area.

  20. Integrated Canada-U.S. Power Sector Modeling with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.; Eurek, K.; Mai, T.; Perry, A.

    2013-02-01

    The electric power system in North America is linked between the United States and Canada. Canada has historically been a net exporter of electricity to the United States. The extent to which this remains true will depend on the future evolution of power markets, technology deployment, and policies. To evaluate these and related questions, we modify the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to include an explicit representation of the grid-connected power system in Canada to the continental United States. ReEDS is unique among long-term capacity expansion models for its high spatial resolution and statistical treatment of the impact of variable renewable generation on capacity planning and dispatch. These unique traits are extended to new Canadian regions. We present example scenario results using the fully integrated Canada-U.S. version of ReEDS to demonstrate model capabilities. The newly developed, integrated Canada-U.S. ReEDS model can be used to analyze the dynamics of electricity transfers and other grid services between the two countries under different scenarios.

  1. Large scale, urban decontamination; developments, historical examples and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, R.L.

    2007-07-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actions have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the prospect for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or 'dirty bomb') residues. In response, the United States Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. The efficiency of RDD cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the 'old reliable' methodologies. While an RDD is primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly 'package and dispose' method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination. (authors)

  2. A Strategic Project Appraisal framework for ecologically sustainable urban infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, John; Iyer-Raniga, Usha; McLaughlin, Patricia; Mills, Anthony

    2012-02-15

    Actors in the built environment are progressively considering environmental and social issues alongside functional and economic aspects of development projects. Infrastructure projects represent major investment and construction initiatives with attendant environmental, economic and societal impacts across multiple scales. To date, while sustainability strategies and frameworks have focused on wider national aspirations and strategic objectives, they are noticeably weak in addressing micro-level integrated decision making in the built environment, particularly for infrastructure projects. The proposed approach of this paper is based on the principal that early intervention is the most cost-effective and efficient means of mitigating the environmental effects of development projects, particularly macro infrastructure developments. A strategic overview of the various project alternatives, taking account for stakeholder and expert input, could effectively reduce project impacts/risks at low cost to the project developers but provide significant benefit to wider communities, including communities of future stakeholders. This paper is the first exploratory step in developing a more systematic framework for evaluating strategic alternatives for major metropolitan infrastructure projects, based on key sustainability principles. The developed Strategic Project Appraisal (SPA) framework, grounded in the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), provides a means of practically appraising project impacts and alternatives in terms of quantified ecological limits; addresses the neglected topic of metropolitan infrastructure as a means of delivering sustainability outcomes in the urban context and more broadly, seeks to open a debate on the potential for SEA methodology to be more extensively applied to address sustainability challenges in the built environment. Practically applied and timed appropriately, the SPA framework can enable better decision-making and more efficient resource allocation ensuring low impact infrastructure development.

  3. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine sensitivity test results. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, J.G.; Geng, S.M.; Lorenz, G.V.

    1986-10-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been testing a 1 kW (1.33 hp) free-piston Stirling engine at the NASA Lewis test facilities. The tests performed over the past several years have been on a single cylinder machine known as the RE-1000. The data recorded were to aid in the investigation of the dynamics and thermodynamics of the free-piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. NASA reports TM-82999, TM-83407, and TM-87126 give initial results of the engine tests. The tests were designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations on the mean pressure of the working space, the working fluid used, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics. These tests have now been completed at NASA Lewis. This report presents some of the detailed data collected in the sensitivity tests. In all, 781 data points were recorded. A complete description of the engine and test facility is given. Many of the data can be found in tabular form, while a microfiche containing all of the data points can be requested from NASA Lewis.

  4. REDUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE AND PROTECTION FROM RE-OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; JOHNSON JM; MOORE WP; HAGERTY KJ; RHODES RN; MOORE RC

    2012-07-11

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-I0S simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period of time (6 weeks). Previous work indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table 1 shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit.

  5. Re-evaluation of a subsurface injection experiment for testing flow and transport models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Lewis, R.E.; Engelman, R.E.; Pearson, A.L.; Murray, C.J.; Smoot, J.L. Lu, A.H.; Randall, P.R.; Wegener, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The current preferred method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Hanford Site is to vitrify the wastes so they can be stored in a near-surface, shallow-land burial facility (Shord 1995). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) managed the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a disposal facility for the vitrified LLW. Vadose zone flow and transport models are recognized as necessary tools for baseline risk assessments of stored waste forms. The objective of the Controlled Field Testing task of the PVTD Project is to perform and analyze field experiments to demonstrate the appropriateness of conceptual models for the performance assessment. The most convincing way to demonstrate appropriateness is to show that the model can reproduce the movement of water and contaminants in the field. Before expensive new experiments are initiated, an injection experiment conducted at the Hanford Site in 1980 (designated the ``Sisson and the Lu experiment``) should be completely analyzed and understood. Briefly, in that test, a solution containing multiple tracers was injected at a single point into the subsurface sediments. The resulting spread of the water and tracers was monitored in wells surrounding the injection point. Given the advances in knowledge, computational capabilities, and models over the last 15 years, it is important to re-analyze the data before proceeding to other experiments and history-matching exercises.

  6. HEAVY OIL PROCESS MONITOR: AUTOMATED ON-COLUMN ASPHALTENE PRECIPITATION AND RE-DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr; Mark Sanderson

    2006-06-01

    About 37-50% (w/w) of the heptane asphaltenes from unpyrolyzed residua dissolve in cyclohexane. As pyrolysis progresses, this number decrease to below 15% as coke and toluene insoluble pre-coke materials appear. This solubility measurement can be used after coke begins to form, unlike the flocculation titration, which cannot be applied to multi-phase systems. Currently, the procedure for the isolation of heptane asphaltenes and the determination of the amount of asphaltenes soluble in cyclohexane spans three days. A more rapid method to measure asphaltene solubility was explored using a novel on-column asphaltene precipitation and re-dissolution technique. This was automated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment with a step gradient sequence using the solvents: heptane, cyclohexane, toluene:methanol (98:2). Results for four series of original and pyrolyzed residua were compared with data from the gravimetric method. The measurement time was reduced from three days to forty minutes. The separation was expanded further with the use of four solvents: heptane, cyclohexane, toluene, and cyclohexanone or methylene chloride. This provides a fourth peak which represents the most polar components, in the oil.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain Mc5Re-14, an Antagonistic Root Endophyte of Matricaria chamomilla

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Paenibacillus polymyxa strain Mc5Re-14 was isolated from the inner root tissue of Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Mc5Re-14 revealed promising in vitro antagonistic activity against plant and opportunistic human pathogens. The 6.0-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively involved in pathogen suppression and direct and indirect plant growth promotion.

  8. Evaluation of an Experimental Re-introduction of Sockeye Salmon into Skaha Lake; Year 1 of 3, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammell, Larry; Machin, Deanna; Long, Karilyn

    2001-06-01

    Historical records indicate that sockeye salmon were once found in most of the lakes in the Okanagan River Basin. Currently, the only sockeye population within the Okanagan River Basin is found in Osoyoos Lake. Abundance of this stock has declined significantly in the last fifty years. The Okanagan Nation and tribes in the U.S. have proposed re-introducing the species into Okanagan Lake, which has a large rearing capacity. However, assessing the potential benefits and risks associated with a reintroduction of sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake is difficult because of uncertainties about factors that determine production of Okanagan sockeye, and potential interactions with other species in Okanagan Lake. Associated with this proposal are the potential risks of re-introduction of sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake. One of these is the effects of sockeye on the resident Okanagan Lake kokanee population, which has declined significantly in the past several years because of habitat loss due to human encroachment, competition with introduced mysid shrimp, and the reduction of biological productivity in the lake as municipalities have moved to more complete effluent treatment. Another concern is the possibility of the transmission of diseases that are currently not found in Okanagan and Skaha lakes from re-introduced sockeye to resident fish. An additional concern is the risk that exotic species (e.g. tench, largemouth bass), that have become established in southern Okanagan Lakes (principally as a result of purposeful introductions in the US Columbia/Okanagan river system), may be able to extend their range to Skaha and Okanagan Lakes, through fish ladders provided at the outlets of Vaseaux (McIntyre Dam) and Skaha Lakes (Okanagan Falls Dam), for natural upstream migration of sockeye. A transboundary multi-agency workshop was hosted in November of 1997 to discuss the potential risks and benefits of reintroducing sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake. These discussions were summarized into a Draft Action Plan that recommended that sockeye be re-introduced to Skaha Lake as an experimental management strategy to resolve some of these uncertainties (Peters et al. 1998). The purpose of this project is to assess the risks and benefits of an experimental reintroduction of sockeye salmon into Skaha Lake. The assessment will be accomplished by completing the following six objectives over three years: (1) Disease Risk Assessment; (2) Exotic species Re-introduction risk Assessment; (3) Inventory of Existing Habitat and Opportunities for Habitat Enhancement; (4) Development of a life-cycle model of Okanagan salmonids, including interaction with resident kokanee; (5) Development of an experimental design and; (6) Finalize a plan for experimental re-introduction of sockeye salmon into Skaha Lake and associated monitoring programs.

  9. SpArcFiRe: Scalable automated detection of spiral galaxy arm segments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Darren R.; Hayes, Wayne B. E-mail: whayes@uci.edu

    2014-08-01

    Given an approximately centered image of a spiral galaxy, we describe an entirely automated method that finds, centers, and sizes the galaxy (possibly masking nearby stars and other objects if necessary in order to isolate the galaxy itself) and then automatically extracts structural information about the spiral arms. For each arm segment found, we list the pixels in that segment, allowing image analysis on a per-arm-segment basis. We also perform a least-squares fit of a logarithmic spiral arc to the pixels in that segment, giving per-arc parameters, such as the pitch angle, arm segment length, location, etc. The algorithm takes about one minute per galaxies, and can easily be scaled using parallelism. We have run it on all ?644,000 Sloan objects that are larger than 40 pixels across and classified as 'galaxies'. We find a very good correlation between our quantitative description of a spiral structure and the qualitative description provided by Galaxy Zoo humans. Our objective, quantitative measures of structure demonstrate the difficulty in defining exactly what constitutes a spiral 'arm', leading us to prefer the term 'arm segment'. We find that pitch angle often varies significantly segment-to-segment in a single spiral galaxy, making it difficult to define the pitch angle for a single galaxy. We demonstrate how our new database of arm segments can be queried to find galaxies satisfying specific quantitative visual criteria. For example, even though our code does not explicitly find rings, a good surrogate is to look for galaxies having one long, low-pitch-angle armwhich is how our code views ring galaxies. SpArcFiRe is available at http://sparcfire.ics.uci.edu.

  10. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the decontamination process(es). In the case of an entire building, the value may be obvious; it's costly to replace the structure. For a smaller item such as a vehicle or painting, the cost versus benefit of decontamination needs to be evaluated. This will be determined on a case by case basis and again is beyond the scope of this report, although some thoughts on decontamination of unique, personal and high value items are given. But, this is clearly an area that starting discussions and negotiations early on will greatly benefit both the economics and timeliness of the clean up. In addition, high value assets might benefit from pre-event protection such as protective coatings or HEPA filtered rooms to prevent contaminated outside air from entering the room (e.g., an art museum).

  11. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  12. Self-reliant cities: energy and the transformation of urban America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, D.

    1982-01-01

    An urban strategist looks at the patterns of urban energy use through history and offers a blueprint for urban survival in a resource-conscious age. Morris follows the evolution of American cities from self-sufficient frontier villages to compact city cores, which vanished when the automobile created suburban towns without centers, separated home from workplace, and removed the production of goods from their consumption. Transmission of electricity at nominal cost brought energy across increasing distances for energy-hungry consumers. Since the 1973 oil embargo, communities have faced the twin problems of rising energy costs and deepening resource shortages. Morris envisions a near-future city where production and consumption are closely linked and where the wastes of one process are the raw materials of another. 87 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  13. A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. J.; Ivey, A.; McPherson, T. N.; Boswell, D.; Pardyjak, E. R.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four primary routes that included legs from the downtown core to four different 'rural' areas. Each route went through residential areas and most often went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2004) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 20 to 40 minutes to complete. Based on seven nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 0.5-6.5 C between the urban core and nearby 'rural' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Oklahoma City, and to test new urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt and Shi, 2004). In addition to the ground measurements, skin temperature measurements were also analyzed from remotely sensed images taken from the Earth Observing System's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A surface kinetic temperature thermal infrared image captured by the ASTER of the Oklahoma City area on July 21, 2001 was analyzed within ESRI's ArcGIS 8.3 to correlate variations in temperature with land use type. Analysis of this imagery suggests distinct variations in temperature across different land use categories. Through the use of remotely sensed imagery we hope to better understand the development of the urban heat island analysis.

  14. Energy spread and time structure of ion beams extracted from the ReA-EBIT rare isotope charge breeder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Thomas M.; Lapierre, Alain; Schwarz, Stefan; Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Bollen, Georg

    2015-01-09

    The ReA re-accelerator of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University utilizes an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) for charge breeding thermalized rare isotope beams. Recent commissioning measurements have been performed to characterize the performance of this EBIT. The energy spread of extracted highly charged ion beams was measured to be about 0.3% of the total beam energy. From this, the temperature of the ion ensemble in the trap is calculated to be kT{sub q}/q?=?31eV for O{sup 7+}, while it is kT{sub q}/q?=?25eV for K{sup 15+}. In addition initial results are presented for two extraction schemes developed to spread highly charged ion pulses in time.

  15. Evidence for particle re-acceleration in the radio relic in the galaxy cluster PLCKG287.0+32.9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonafede, A.; Brggen, M.; Intema, H. T.; Girardi, M.; Nonino, M.; Kantharia, N.; Van Weeren, R. J.; Rttgering, H. J. A.

    2014-04-10

    Radio relics are diffuse radio sources observed in galaxy clusters, probably produced by shock acceleration during cluster-cluster mergers. Their large size, of the order of 1 Mpc, indicates that the emitting electrons need to be (re)accelerated locally. The usually invoked diffusive shock acceleration models have been challenged by recent observations and theory. We report the discovery of complex radio emission in the Galaxy cluster PLCKG287.0+32.9, which hosts two relics, a radio halo, and several radio filamentary emission. Optical observations suggest that the cluster is elongated, likely along an intergalactic filament, and displays a significant amount of substructure. The peculiar features of this radio relic are that (1) it appears to be connected to the lobes of a radio galaxy and (2) the radio spectrum steepens on either side of the radio relic. We discuss the origins of these features in the context of particle re-acceleration.

  16. Table HC1-8a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.8 1.3 1.3 1.4 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.2 Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 7.7 4.5 4.7 3.4 7.4 New England .............................................

  17. Table HC7-8a. Home Office Equipment by Urban/Rural Location,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Home Office Equipment by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.9 1.3 1.2 1.4 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.1 Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 43.9 16.0 20.2 16.1 4.1 Personal Computers 2 ................................. 60.0 25.6 9.3 15.0 10.1 4.7

  18. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pollution around the world (2005-2014) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x pollution around the world (2005-2014) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x pollution around the world (2005-2014) Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are produced during combustion processes and, thus may serve as a proxy for fossil fuel-based energy usage and coemitted

  20. Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

    2011-03-31

    The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is < 35,000 {approx} 45,000 ppm, which is the typical limit for economic water recovery employing reverse osmosis (RO) type membrane desalination processes. The ultimate objective is the production of clean, reclaimed water suitable for re-use in hydrofracturing operations. The team successfully compiled data on flowback composition and other attributes across multiple shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback recovery process relative to conventional disposal for any combination of anticipated flowback TDS and local disposal cost. It is concluded that membrane systems in combination with appropriate pretreatment technologies can provide cost-effective recovery of low-TDS flow-back water for either beneficial reuse or safe surface discharge.

  1. Re-utilization of Industrial CO2 for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Brian

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report of a 36-month Phase II cooperative agreement. Under this project, Touchstone Research Laboratory (Touchstone) investigated the merits of incorporating a Phase Change Material (PCM) into an open-pond algae production system that can capture and re-use the CO2 from a coal-fired flue gas source located in Wooster, OH. The primary objective of the project was to design, construct, and operate a series of open algae ponds that accept a slipstream of flue gas from a coal-fired source and convert a significant portion of the CO2 to liquid biofuels, electricity, and specialty products, while demonstrating the merits of the PCM technology. Construction of the pilot facility and shakedown of the facility in Wooster, OH, was completed during the first two years, and the focus of the last year was on operations and the cultivation of algae. During this Phase II effort a large-scale algae concentration unit from OpenAlgae was installed and utilized to continuously harvest algae from indoor raceways. An Algae Lysing Unit and Oil Recovery Unit were also received and installed. Initial parameters for lysing nanochloropsis were tested. Conditions were established that showed the lysing operation was effective at killing the algae cells. Continuous harvesting activities yielded over 200 kg algae dry weight for Ponds 1, 2 and 4. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source and the resulting lipid productivity of the algae. Lipid content and total fatty acids were unaffected by culture system and nutrient source, indicating that open raceway ponds fed diluted anaerobic digestion effluent can obtain similar lipid productivities to open raceway ponds using commercial nutrients. Data were also collected with respect to the performance of the PCM material on the pilot-scale raceway ponds. Parameters such as evaporative water loss, temperature differences, and growth/productivity were tracked. The pond with the PCM material was consistently 2 to 5°C warmer than the control pond. This difference did not seem to increase significantly over time. During phase transitions for the PCM, the magnitude of the difference between the daily minimum and maximum temperatures decreased, resulting in smaller daily temperature fluctuations. A thin layer of PCM material reduced overall water loss by 74% and consistently provided algae densities that were 80% greater than the control pond.

  2. The Influence of Neutron Irradiation in FFTF on the Microstructural and Microchemical Development of Mo-41Re at 470-730ºC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Danny J.; Garner, Francis A.; Gelles, David S.

    2008-04-30

    Specimens of Mo-41 wt% Re irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) experience significant and non-monotonic changes in density that arise first from radiation-induced segregation, leading to non-equilibrium phase separation, and second by progressive transmutation of Re to Os. As a consequence the density of Mo-41Re initially decreases and then increases thereafter. Beginning as a single-phase solid solution of Re and Mo, irradiation of Mo-41 wt% Re over a range of temperatures (470-730ºC) to 28-96 dpa produces a high density of thin platelets of a hexagonal close-packed phase identified as a solid solution of Re, Os and possibly a small amount of Mo. These hcp precipitates are thought to form in the alloy matrix as a consequence of strong radiation-induced segregation to Frank loops. Grain boundaries also segregate Re to form the hcp phase, but the precipitates are much bigger and more equiaxed in shape. Although not formed at lower dose, continued irradiation at 730º C leads to the co-formation of late-forming Chi–phase, an equilibrium phase that then competes with the preexisting hcp phase for rhenium.

  3. High Performance Without Increased Cost: Urbane Homes, Louisville, KY- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes work with Urbane Homes of Louisville, Kentucky, to build a high-performance home that cost $36 per ft2 (not counting the lot).Between 2005 and 2010, Building America research partners worked with 34 builders to construct nearly 3,000 HERS

  4. USDA National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting proposals for the National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant Program to assist the U.S. Forest Service in establishing the grant categories and recommendations of final proposals for the Forest Service to consider.

  5. Energy in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 22. annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The conference addressed the energy and environmental challenges facing large metropolitan areas. The topics included a comparison of the environmental status of cities twenty years ago with the challenges facing today`s large cities, sustainable economic development, improving the energy and environmental infrastructure, and the changing urban transportation sector. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-06-03

    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  7. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-02-12

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  8. Re-Inversion of Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography Data from the Hanford Site B-Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2013-05-01

    This report documents the three-dimensional (3D) inversion results of surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data collected over the Hanford Site B-Complex. The data were collected in order to image the subsurface distribution of electrically conductive vadose zone contamination resulting from both planned releases of contamination into subsurface infiltration galleries (cribs, trenches, and tile fields), as well as unplanned releases from the B, BX, and BY tank farms and/or associated facilities. Electrically conductive contaminants are those which increase the ionic strength of pore fluids compared to native conditions, which comprise most types of solutes released into the subsurface B-Complex. The ERT data were collected and originally inverted as described in detail in report RPP-34690 Rev 0., 2007, which readers should refer to for a detailed description of data collection and waste disposal history. Although the ERT imaging results presented in that report successfully delineated the footprint of vadose zone contamination in areas outside of the tank farms, imaging resolution was not optimized due to the inability of available inversion codes to optimally process the massive ERT data set collected at the site. Recognizing these limitations and the potential for enhanced ERT characterization and time-lapse imaging at contaminated sites, a joint effort was initiated in 2007 by the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of Science (DOE-SC), with later support by the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), to develop a high-performance distributed memory parallel 3D ERT inversion code capable of optimally processing large ERT data sets. The culmination of this effort was the development of E4D (Johnson et al., 2010,2012) In 2012, under the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), the U.S. Department of Energy – Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) commissioned an effort for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to re-invert the ERT data collected over the B-Complex using E4D, with the objective to improve imaging resolution and better understand the distribution of vadose zone contamination at the B-Complex. The details and results of that effort as documented in this report display a significant improvement in ERT image resolution, revealing the nature and orientation of contaminant plumes originating in former infiltration galleries and extending toward the water table. In particular, large plumes originating in the BY-Cribs area appear to have intercepted, or are close to intercepting the water table after being diverted eastward, possibly by the same low permeability unit causing perched water north of the B-Tank Farm boundary. Contaminant plumes are also evident beneath the BX-Trenches, but do not appear to have intercepted the water table. Imaging results within the tank farms themselves are highly biased by the dense network of electrically conductive tanks and dry wells, and are therefore inconclusive concerning contaminant distributions beneath tanks. However, beneath the diversion boxes, the results do reveal highly conductive anomalies that are not associated with metallic infrastructure, and may be diagnostic of extensive contamination. Overall, the parallel ERT inversion provides additional detail concerning contaminated zones in terms of conductive anomalies. These anomalies are consistent with waste disposal histories, and in several cases reveal lateral contaminant transport caused by heterogeneity within the vadose zone.

  9. ANALYSIS OF 3-D URBAN DATABASES WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION DISPERSION FOR A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN CITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. RATTI; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Models to estimate pollution dispersion and wind flow in cities (both at the city-scale and above) require a parametrical description of the urban canopy. For instance, two key parameters are the aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} and the zero-plane displacement height z{sub d}, which are related, amongst others, to the surface drag coefficient, the scale and intensity of turbulence, the depth of the roughness sub-layer and the wind speed profile. The calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d}, however, is not straightforward. The classical way to estimate them in open terrain is based on the measurement of wind profile data from a tall mast or, less accurately, on the inference from published roughness values for similar terrain elsewhere (Davenport, 1960; Davenport et al., 2000). Both methods, however, are very difficult to apply to cities, due to the considerable height where wind measurements should be taken (well above the urban canopy) and to the irregularities of urban texture. A promising alternative that has become available in recent years, due to increasing computing resources and the availability of high-resolution 3-D databases in urban areas, is based on the calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d} from the analysis and measure of the city geometry (urban morphometry). This method is reviewed for instance in Grimmond and Oke (1999), where values are calculated using different formulas and then compared with the results of field measurements. Urban morphometry opens up a new range of parameters that can easily be calculated in urban areas and used as input for meso-scale and urban dispersion models. This paper reviews a number of them and shows how they could be calculated from urban Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using image-processing techniques. It builds up on the recent work by Ratti et al. 2000, extending the number of case studies cities: London, Toulouse, Berlin, Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

  10. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  11. Re-Analysis of Hydroacoustic Fish-Passage Data from Bonneville Dam after Spill-Discharge Corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Kim, Jina; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2007-06-07

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Portland District asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to re-analyze four years of fixed-aspect hydroacoustic data after the District made adjustments to spill discharge estimates. In this report, we present new estimates of all major fish-passage metrics for study years 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004, as well as estimates for 2005. This study supports the Portland District and its effort to maximize survival of juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes through Bonneville Dam include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines at Powerhouse 2 (B2) and a sluiceway including the B2 Corner Collector. The original reports and all associated results, discussion, and conclusions for non flow-related metrics remain valid and useful, but effectiveness measures for study years 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004 as reported in previous reports by Ploskey et al. should be superseded with the new estimates reported here. The fish-passage metrics that changed the most were related to effectiveness. Re-analysis produced spill effectiveness estimates that ranged from 12% to 21% higher than previous estimates in spring and 16.7% to 27.5% higher in summer, but the mean spill effectiveness over all years was only slightly above 1:1 (1.17 for spring and 1.29 for summer). Conversely surface-passage effectiveness decreased in the years this metric was measured (by 10.1% in spring and 10.7% in summer of 2002 and 9.5% in spring and 10.2% in summer of 2004). The smallest changes in the re-analysis were in project fish passage efficiency (0%-1%) and spill efficiency (0.9%-3.0%).

  12. EPA RE-Powering Americas Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site„Biomass Power Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site-Biomass Power Analysis R. Hunsberger and G. Mosey National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-62097 January 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No.

  13. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Brazil (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Brazil (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Brazil (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  14. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Chile (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Chile (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Chile (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  15. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to China (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    China (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to China (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  16. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Egypt (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Egypt (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Egypt (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  17. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to India (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    India (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to India (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  18. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Japan (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Japan (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Japan (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  19. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Mexico (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Mexico (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  20. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Russia (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  1. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to South Korea (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Korea (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to South Korea (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  2. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Spain (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Spain (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Spain (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  3. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Turkey (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Turkey (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Turkey (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  4. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","04/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","05/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  5. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of (Bi{sub 0.9}RE{sub 0.1})(Fe{sub 0.97}Co{sub 0.03})O{sub 3} (RE = Nd and Gd) thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Xu Tan, Guoqiang Liu, Wenlong; Ren, Huijun

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Nd–Co and Gd–Co codoped BiFeO{sub 3} thin films are synthesized by chemical solution deposition method. • Enhanced magnetic property is observed in BGFC thin film at room temperature. • The onset electric field of FN tunneling of the films is associated with band gaps. • Both ferromagnetism and diamagnetism coexist in the BNFC film. - Abstract: Rhombohedral (Bi{sub 0.9}RE{sub 0.1})(Fe{sub 0.97}Co{sub 0.03})O{sub 3} (RE = Nd and Gd) thin films were deposited on FTO substrates by using a chemical solution deposition method. Raman scattering spectra reveal that the BiFeO{sub 3} lattices are able to incorporate Nd/Gd and Co ions with no effect on the basic rhombohedral structure. The chemical shift of Bi 4f, Fe 2p and O 1s core levels of the films is investigated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The presence of defects in the films has been estimated through XPS study, which has a great effect on the dielectric dispersion and ferroelectric polarization. The intrinsic density of free electrons associated with band gap is the dominating factor which controls the FN tunneling conductance mechanism of the films. Both ferromagnetism and diamagnetism coexist in the BNFC film, while only ferromagnetism is observed in the BGFC film.

  6. Superconducting Resonators Development for the FRIB and ReA Linacs at MSU: Recent Achievements and Future Goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Facco, A; Binkowski, J; Compton, C; Crisp, J L; Dubbs, L J; Elliot, K; Harle, L L; Hodek, M; Johnson, M J; Leitner, D; Leitner, M; Malloch, I M; Miller, S J; Oweiss, R; Popielarski, J; Popielarski, L; Saito, K; Wei, J; Wlodarczak, J; Xu, Y; Zhang, Y; Zheng, Z; Burrill, A; Davis, G K; Macha, K

    2012-07-01

    The superconducting driver and post-accelerator linacs of the FRIB project, the large scale radioactive beam facility under construction at MSU, require the construction of about 400 low-{beta} Quarter-wave (QWR) and Half-wave resonators (HWR) with four different optimum velocities. 1st and 2nd generation prototypes of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 and 0.085 QWRs and {beta}{sub 0} = 0.53 HWRs have been built and tested, and have more than fulfilled the FRIB and ReA design goals. The present cavity surface preparation at MSU allowed production of low-{beta} cavities nearly free from field emission. The first two cryostats of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 QWRs are now in operation in the ReA3 linac. A 3rd generation design of the FRIB resonators allowed to further improve the cavity parameters, reducing the peak magnetic field in operation and increasing the possible operation gradient, with consequent reduction of the number of required resonators. The construction of the cavities for FRIB, which includes three phases for each cavity type (development, pre-production and production runs) has started. Cavity design, construction, treatment and performance will be described and discussed.

  7. Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E.; Gal, Eli

    1995-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

  8. Dosimetric comparison of {sup 90}Y, {sup 32}P, and {sup 186}Re radiocolloids in craniopharyngioma treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Karimi, Elham; Hosseini, S. Hamed

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: In the radionuclide treatment of some forms of brain tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, the selection of the appropriate radionuclide for therapy is a key element in treatment planning. The aim was to study the influence by considering the beta-emitter radionuclide dose rate in an intracranial cyst. Methods: Dosimetry was performed using the MCNP4C radiation transport code. Analytical dosimetry was additionally performed using the Loevinger and the Berger formulas in the MATLAB software. Each result was compared under identical conditions. The advantages and disadvantages of using {sup 90}Y versus {sup 32}P and {sup 186}Re were investigated. Results: The dose rate at the inner surface of the cyst wall was estimated to be 400 mGy/h for a 1 MBq/ml concentration of {sup 90}Y. Under identical conditions of treatment, the corresponding dose rates were 300 mGy/h for {sup 32}P and 160 mGy/h for {sup 186}Re. For a well-defined cyst radius and identical wall thickness, higher dose rates resulted for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: To achieve the same radiological burden, the required amount of physical activity of injectable solution is lower for {sup 32}P. This is found to be a consequence of both the radionuclide physical half-life and the pattern of energy deposition from the emitted radiation. According to the half-life and dose-rate results, {sup 90}Y would be a good substitute for {sup 32}P.

  9. Feeling lucky? Using search engines to assess perceptions of urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keirstead, James

    2009-02-15

    The sustainability of urban environments is an important issue at both local and international scales. Indicators are frequently used by decision-makers seeking to improve urban performance but these metrics can be dependent on sparse quantitative data. This paper explores the potential of an alternative approach, using an internet search engine to quickly gather qualitative data on the key attributes of cities. The method is applied to 21 world cities and the results indicate that, while the technique does shed light on direct and indirect aspects of sustainability, the validity of derived metrics as objective indicators of long-term sustainability is questionable. However the method's ability to provide subjective short-term assessments is more promising and it could therefore play an important role in participatory policy exercises such as public consultations. A number of promising technical improvements to the method's performance are also highlighted.

  10. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  11. Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings Performers: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Project Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Dow Chemical Company - Midland, MI DOE Funding: $500,000 Cost Share: $500,000 Project Term: Jan. 2013 - Dec. 2014 Project Objective The U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) is a pioneering research and development (R&D) consortium bringing together governments, key policymakers,

  12. Development of an Urban Resilience Analysis Framework with Application to Norfolk, VA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2161 Unlimited Release Printed March 2016 Development of an Urban Resilience Analysis Framework with Application to Norfolk, VA Robert Jeffers, William Fogleman, Emma Grazier, Sarah Walsh, Sophie Rothman, Calvin Shaneyfelt, Munaf Aamir, Jessica Gibson, Vanessa Vargas, Eric Vugrin, Stephen Conrad, Howard Passell Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by

  13. URBAN ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (UAO) FIRST PLANNING WORKSHOP, JANUARY 27-28-2003. WORKSHOP SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; LEE,H.N.

    2003-03-27

    The Urban Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) First Planning Workshop was held on 27-28 January 2003 at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in downtown Manhattan, New York City. The meeting was well attended by local, state, and national administrators, as well as scientists and engineers from the national laboratories and academia. The real-time intensive UAO is a necessary step toward the development and validation of new technologies in support of the New York City emergency management and anti-terrorism effort. The real-time intensive UAO will be a dense array of meteorological instrumentation, remote sensing and satellite products and model output, as well as radiation detection, gamma spectrometer and aerosol measurements focused onto a small area in the heart of Manhattan. Such a test-bed, developed in a somewhat homogeneous urban area, and with a well-developed communication and data collection backbone, will be of immense utility for understanding how models of all scales can be improved and how they can best be integrated into the city's emergency program. The goal of the First Planning Workshop was to bring together a small group of experts in the fields of urban meteorology, modeling from mesoscale to fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics, instrumentation, communications and visualization, in order to (1) establish the importance of the observational program, (2) define the most efficient and cost-effective design for the program, (3) define needed intensive observational efforts and establish a schedule, and (4) define the importance of the UAO in emergency operations. The workshop achieved its goals with the enthusiastic participation of over forty persons. There was a synthesis of ideas towards a world-class facility that would benefit both immediate emergency management activities and, over an extended time, the entire field of urban meteorology and contaminant dispersion modeling.

  14. Impacts of urban transportation mode split on CO{sub 2} emissions in Jinan, China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, D.; Meng, F.; Wang, M.; He, K.

    2011-04-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation - in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China's Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU) case), then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions - approximately 50% of the BAU scenario emissions.

  15. Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

    2006-03-09

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in toxicity in a marsh receiving urban runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katznelson, R.; Jewell, W.T.; Anderson, S.L.

    1993-06-01

    This project is composed of two sections. The first section describes dry weather toxicity surveys to evaluate the distribution of toxicity in the waters of San Francisco Bay and adjacent wetland habitat, and the second is a series of wet weather toxicity studies with emphasis on a marsh receiving urban runoff. The dry weather studies are reported in the appendices, while the wet weather work comprises the main report.

  17. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  18. Dynamic analysis of the urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics: Focused on housing and green space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Jimin Jeong, Kwangbok; Koo, Choongwan

    2015-02-09

    To systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings, the government has to enforce greenhouse gas reduction policies. However, most of the policies are not properly executed because they do not consider various factors from the urban level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a dynamic analysis of an urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics, with a specific focus on housing and green space. This study was conducted in the following steps: (i) establishing the variables of urban-based greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions; (ii) creating a stock/flow diagram of urban-based GHGs emissions; (iii) conducting an information analysis using the system dynamics; and (iv) proposing the urban-based low-carbon policy. If a combined energy policy that uses the housing sector (30%) and the green space sector (30%) at the same time is implemented, 2020 CO{sub 2} emissions will be 7.23 million tons (i.e., 30.48% below 2020 business-as-usual), achieving the national carbon emissions reduction target (26.9%). The results of this study could contribute to managing and improving the fundamentals of the urban-based low-carbon policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  20. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  1. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In addition to prospective analysis for standards and certification, urban form modeling can also be useful in calculating or verifying ex post facto, bottom-up carbon emissions inventories. Emissions inventories provide a benchmark for evaluating future outcomes and scenarios as well as an empirical basis for valuing low-carbon technologies. By highlighting the embodied energy and emissions of building materials, the LCA approach can also be used to identify the most intensive aspects of industrial production and the supply chain. The agent based modeling aspect of the model can be useful for understanding how policy incentives can impact individual behavior and the aggregate effects thereof. The most useful elaboration of the urban form assessment model would be to further generalize it for comparative analysis. Scenario analysis could be used for benchmarking and identification of policy priorities. If the model is to be used for inventories, it is important to disaggregate the energy use data for more accurate emissions modeling. Depending on the policy integration of the model, it may be useful to incorporate occupancy data for per-capita results. On the question of density and efficiency, it may also be useful to integrate a more explicit spatial scaling mechanism for modeling neighborhood and city-level energy use and emissions, i.e. to account for scaling effects in public infrastructure and transportation.

  2. Self-calibration of a W/Re thermocouple using a miniature Ru-C (1954 C) eutectic cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ongrai, O. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom) [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); National Institute of Metrology, Klong 5, Klong Luang, Pathumthani (Thailand); Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Sweeney, S. J. [University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-11

    Previous successful investigations of miniature cobalt-carbon (Co-C, 1324 C) and palladium-carbon (Pd-C, 1492 C) high temperature fixed-point cells for thermocouple self-calibration have been reported [1-2]. In the present work, we describe a series of measurements of a miniature ruthenium-carbon (Ru-C) eutectic cell (melting point 1954 C) to evaluate the repeatability and stability of a W/Re thermocouple (type C) by means of in-situ calibration. A miniature Ru-C eutectic fixed-point cell with outside diameter 14 mm and length 30 mm was fabricated to be used as a self-calibrating device. The performance of the miniature Ru-C cell and the type C thermocouple is presented, including characterization of the stability, repeatability, thermal environment influence, ITS-90 temperature realization and measurement uncertainty.

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Childs, Phillip W; Kosny, Jan; Kriner, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to minimize thermal stresses due to the PV laminates on sunny days. In PV laminates sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneous. In case of building integrated applications, a relatively high solar absorption of amorphous silicon laminates can be utilized during the winter for solar heating purposes with PCM providing necessary heat storage capacity. However, PV laminates may also generate increased building cooling loads during the summer months. Therefore, in this project, the PCM heat sink was to minimize summer heat gains as well. The PCM-fibreglass-PV assembly and the IRR metal panels are capable of being installed directly on top of existing shingle roofs during re-roofing, precluding the need for recycling or disposal of waste materials. The PV laminates installed on the PCM attic are PVL-144 models from Uni-Solar. Each laminate contains 22 triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells connected in series. The silicon cells are of dimensions 356 mm x 239 mm (14-in. x 9.4-in.). The PVL-144 laminate is encapsulated in durable ETFE (poly-ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) high light-transmissive polymer. Table 1 lists the power, voltage and current ratings of the PVL-144 panel.

  4. Evaluation of an Experimental Re-introduction of Sockeye Salmon into Skaha Lake; Year 2 of 3, 2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Christopher; Machin, Deanna; Wright, Howie

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from YEAR 2 of a three-year disease risk assessment. The Okanagan Nation Fisheries Commission (ONFC) and the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT) are investigating the risks involved in re-introducing sockeye salmon into Skaha Lake, part of their historical range (Ernst and Vedan 2000). The disease risk assessment compares the disease and infection status of fish above and below McIntyre Dam (the present limit of sockeye migration). The disease agents identified that are of a particular concern are: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus type 2 (IHNV type2), erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome virus (EIBSV), the whirling disease agent (Myxobolus cerebralis), and the ceratomyxosis agent (Ceratomyxa shasta).

  5. Comprehensive Energy Assessment: EE and RE Project Optimization Modeling for United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Papatyi, Anthony F.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes a study and corresponding model development conducted in support of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) as part of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This research was aimed at developing a mathematical programming framework and accompanying optimization methodology in order to simultaneously evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) opportunities. Once developed, this research then demonstrated this methodology at a USPACOM installation - Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. We believe this is the first time such an integrated, joint EE and RE optimization methodology has been constructed and demonstrated.

  6. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  7. Legacy Site Decontamination Experience as Applied to the Urban Radiological Dispersal Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, J.L.; MacKinney, J.A.

    2007-07-01

    Pursuant to the National Response Plan, Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex [1], the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is assigned lead agency responsibility for decontamination and clean-up efforts following a domestic terrorist event involving a radiological dispersal device (RDD). An RDD incident in a modern city environment poses many of the same issues and problems traditionally faced at 'legacy' clean up projects being performed across our country. However there are also many aspects associated with an urban RDD clean-up that have never been faced in legacy site remediation. For example, the demolition and destructive technologies widely used in legacy remediation would be unacceptable in the case of historically or architecturally significant properties or those with prohibitively high replacement cost; contaminated properties will likely belong to numerous small private entities whose business interests are at stake; reducing the time required to decontaminate and return a city to normal use cannot be overemphasized due to its tremendous economic and political impact. The mission of the EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) includes developing the best technology and tools needed for field personnel to achieve their goals should that event occur. To that end, NHSRC has been exploring how the vast experience within the legacy site remediation community could be tapped to help meet this need, and to identify gaps in decontamination technology. This paper articulates much of what has been learned over the past year as a result of efforts to identify these technology and procedural needs to address the urban RDD. This includes comparing and contrasting remediation techniques and methodologies currently used in nuclear facility and site cleanup with those that would be needed following an urban RDD event. Finally, this presentation includes an appeal to the radiological decontamination community to come forward with ideas and technologies for consideration to help meet this nationally significant need. (authors)

  8. Chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments and implications for environmental management, Maricopa County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, J.T.C.; Fossum, K.D.; Ingersoll, T.L.

    2000-07-01

    Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds--chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene--may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addresses in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.

  9. Coping with urban water shortages during drought: the effects of legal and administrative factors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziegielewski, B.; Ferrell-Dillard, R.; Beck, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    The study describes the results of a survey of 547 local water supply systems serving some 31 million residents of urban areas in the states of Alabama, California, Florida, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Wyoming. While examining the legal and administrative aspects of drought management, the survey also included the assessment of the current status of drought preparedness and long-term drought protection among the responding water supply systems. The rate of legal or administrative problems encountered during drought response was surprisingly low, affecting only twenty percent of all implementing systems. The low incidence of difficulties counters a widespread assumption that the legal environment frequently restrains or constricts drought response efforts.

  10. Maintenance of solar systems--Housing and urban development demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeborne, W.E.

    1983-06-01

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) residential solar heating and cooling demonstration program provided funding support for over 600 solar projects. These projects provide the largest single data base of solar heating and cooling experience now available. These data suggest that maintenance and system operation have been mixed even though system configurations are similar throughout the program. HUD has been involved in the upgrading of one-third of the 600 solar projects and now can report that projects can be maintained with a more uniform level of effort.

  11. SU-E-T-489: Plan Comparisons of Re-Irradiation Treatment of Three Intensity Modulated Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, J; Tang, X; Liu, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There have been controversial reports on the comparison of dosimetric quality of TomoTherapy (Tomo), VMAT and IMRT. One of the main reasons is the sampled cases are often not dosimetrically challenging enough to test the limit of optimization/delivery modalities. We chose difficult re-irradiation cases when certain organ at risk (OAR) requires extremely low dose to examine the ability of OAR sparing of three main intensity modulated techniques. Methods: Three previous treated patients with disease site on head and neck (HN), brain and lung are planned for reirradiation treatment. The Tomo planning used jaw 2.5cm and pitch 0.3. VMAT and IMRT were planned on Pinnacle for a Varian 21iX Linac with MLC leaf width 5mm. VMAT plan used 2 Arcs and IMRT plan had beams 11–13. The dosimetric endpoints and treatment time were compared for each technique of each patient. Results: Plans of three techniques cover PTV similarly. The HN case requires PTV dose 60Gy but to limit dose of cord which is 8mm away <12Gy. The cord dose of Tomo, VMAT and IMRT plan is 11.6Gy, 11.3Gy and 11.0Gy, respectively. The brain case has PTV prescription 50.4 Gy while requiring the dose of brainstem < 28Gy. Tomo, VMAT and IMRT plan generate brainstem dose 27.6Gy, 27.6Gy and 27.1Gy respectively. For the lung case, PTV was prescribed 42.5Gy but cord dose constraint was 22.5Gy. The cord dose is optimized to 22.3Gy, 20.8Gy and 21.4Gy by Tomo, VMAT and IMRT, respectively. The delivery time if normalized to Tomo is 47.0%/145.6% (VMAT/IMRT), 33.3%/106.3% and 74.1%/245.4% for HN, brain and lung case, respectively. Conclusion: Difficult re-irradiation cases were used to test the limit of three intensity modulated techniques. Tomo, VMAT and IMRT show similar dosimetry while VMAT is the most efficient one and IMRT is the least.

  12. Modeling the Integrated Expansion of the Canadian and U.S. Power Sectors with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinaman, Owen; Ibanez, Eduardo; Heimiller, Donna; Eurek, Kelly; Mai, Trieu

    2015-07-02

    This document describes the development effort for creating a robust representation of the combined capacity expansion of the U.S. and Canadian electric sectors within the NREL ReEDS model. Thereafter, it demonstrates the newly established capability through an illustrative sensitivity analysis. In conducting the sensitivity analysis, we describe the value of an integrated modeling approach.

  13. SU-E-J-229: Quantitative Assessment for Timely Adaptive Re-Planning Using Weekly Dose Monitoring for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Q; Liu, H; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P; Li, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with head and neck (HN) cancer, mid-course adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is a common practice in our institution to accommodate anatomic changes. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether dose re-calculation on weekly verification images can provide quantitative assessment for timely adaptive re-planning with daily image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: We retrospectively selected sixty daily verification images acquired on CT-on-rail/CBCT from ten HN patients. These image sets were typically a week apart. Among these patients, six patients received a mid-course ART. Contours of the tumors and organ-at-risks (OARs) were manually delineated by a physician on each verification CT. After placing the treatment iso-center on the verification CTs according to the recorded clinical shifts, daily dose was re-calculated with the same beam configuration as the original plan. For the purpose of this study, electron densities for both verification CTs and planning CTs were set to 1.0 g/cm3. Results: Two patients had D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose for more than three fractions due to remarkable tumor volume shrinkages. D-max of the spinal cord exceeded a tolerance of 45 Gy for four fractions in additional two patients. D-mean of the parotid increased within 25% of the planned value. D-max of the brainstem and D-mean of the oral cavity did not show significant variation. If the re-planning criteria included D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose and D-max of the spinal cord > 45 Gy, two out ten patients required ART at week 2 and two patients required ART at week 3, respectively. Conclusion: Weekly dose monitoring with re-calculation on verification images can provide quantitative dose guidance for timely adaptive re-planning. Future work will include accumulative dose analysis for the decision of adaptive re-planning. The study is supported in part by Siemens Medical Solutions.

  14. Image Based Characterization of Formal and Informal Neighborhoods in an Urban Landscape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graesser, Jordan B; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Vatsavai, Raju; Chandola, Varun; Bright, Eddie A

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of global urbanization has resulted in a rapid increase in informal settlements, which can be de ned as unplanned, unauthorized, and/or unstructured housing. Techniques for ef ciently mapping these settlement boundaries can bene t various decision making bodies. From a remote sensing perspective, informal settlements share unique spatial characteristics that distinguish them from other types of structures (e.g., industrial, commercial, and formal residential). These spatial characteristics are often captured in high spatial resolution satellite imagery. We analyzed the role of spatial, structural, and contextual features (e.g., GLCM, Histogram of Oriented Gradients, Line Support Regions, Lacunarity) for urban neighborhood mapping, and computed several low-level image features at multiple scales to characterize local neighborhoods. The decision parameters to classify formal-, informal-, and non-settlement classes were learned under Decision Trees and a supervised classi cation framework. Experiments were conducted on high-resolution satellite imagery from the CitySphere collection, and four different cities (i.e., Caracas, Kabul, Kandahar, and La Paz) with varying spatial characteristics were represented. Overall accuracy ranged from 85% in La Paz, Bolivia, to 92% in Kandahar, Afghanistan. While the disparities between formal and informal neighborhoods varied greatly, many of the image statistics tested proved robust.

  15. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, William S.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Wilcox, Trevor; Bos, Randall J.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Goorley, John T.; Costigan, Keeley R.

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  16. LCA for household waste management when planning a new urban settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebo, Helge

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household waste management of a new carbon neutral settlement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EASEWASTE as a LCA tool to compare different centralised and decentralised solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental benefit or close to zero impact in most of the categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper and metal recycling important for the outcome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the challenges of waste prevention planning. - Abstract: When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new greenfield settlement with carbon-neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralised waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention and reuse issues.

  17. Pb Isotopes as an Indicator of the Asian Contribution to Particulate Air Pollution in Urban California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Stephanie A.; Christensen, John N.; Brown, Shaun T.; Vancuren, Richard A.; Cliff, Steven S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-25

    During the last two decades, expanding industrial activity in east Asia has led to increased production of airborne pollutants that can be transported to North America. Previous efforts to detect this trans-Pacific pollution have relied upon remote sensing and remote sample locations. We tested whether Pb isotope ratios in airborne particles can be used to directly evaluate the Asian contribution to airborne particles of anthropogenic origin in western North America, using a time series of samples from a pair of sites upwind and downwind of the San Francisco Bay Area. Our results for airborne Pb at these sites indicate a median value of 29 Asian origin, based on mixing relations between distinct regional sample groups. This trans-Pacific Pb is present in small quantities but serves as a tracer for airborne particles within the growing Asian industrial plume. We then applied this analysis to archived samples from urban sites in central California. Taken together, our results suggest that the analysis of Pb isotopes can reveal the distribution of airborne particles affected by Asian industrial pollution at urban sites in northern California. Under suitable circumstances, this analysis can improve understanding of the global transport of pollution, independent of transport models.

  18. Pollutant transfer through air and water pathways in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.; Burian, S.; McPherson, T.; Streit, G.; Costigan, K.; Greene, B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors are attempting to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants through air and water pathways in an urban environment. This cross-disciplinary study involves linking together models of mesoscale meteorology, air pollution chemistry and deposition, urban runoff and stormwater transport, water quality, and wetland chemistry and biology. The authors are focusing on the transport and fate of nitrogen species because (1) they track through both air and water pathways, (2) the physics, chemistry, and biology of the complete cycle is not well understood, and (3) they have important health, local ecosystem, and global climate implications. The authors will apply their linked modeling system to the Los Angeles basin, following the fate of nitrates from their beginning as nitrate-precursors produced by auto emissions and industrial processes, tracking their dispersion and chemistry as they are transported by regional winds and eventually wet or dry deposit on the ground, tracing their path as they are entrained into surface water runoff during rain events and carried into the stormwater system, and then evaluating their impact on receiving water bodies such as wetlands where biologically-mediated chemical reactions take place. In this paper, the authors wish to give an overview of the project and at the conference show preliminary results.

  19. Freshwater wetlands, urban stormwater, and nonpoint pollution control: A literature review and annotated bibliography (revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockdale, E.C.

    1991-02-01

    The literature review and annotated bibliography contained in the document were first printed as two separate documents in 1986 at the beginning of a long-term research program titled the Puget Sound Wetlands and Stormwater Management Research Program. The review was conducted to determine the extent of information available on the long-term ecological impacts of stormwater on wetlands and, conversely, the ability of wetlands to improve the water quality of urban stormwater. The two reports have now been combined, and updated with the most recent literature. The revised report also briefly discusses the status of the Wetlands Research Program currently underway. The subject of the report is complex and diverse. For that reason the annotated bibliography in Part II contains references from the entire spectrum of wetland literature, including: urban runoff control technology, cumulative impacts, stormwater and wastewater treatment, functions and values, wetland creation, best management practices, and general wetland ecology. Most of the entrees contain abstracts. Where possible, the original author abstract or introduction was included.

  20. Use of SPMDs to determine average water concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) were deployed for 30 day periods to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream which receives much of its flow from urban runoff. SPMDs are capable of effectively sampling several liters of water per day for some PAHs. Unlike conventional methods, SPMDs sample only those non-polar organic contaminants which are truly dissolved and available for bioconcentration. Also, SPMDs may concentrate contaminants from episodic events such as stormwater discharge. The State of Wisconsin has established surface water quality criteria based upon human lifetime cancer risk of 23 ppt for benzo(a)pyrene and 23 ppt as the sum of nine other potentially carcinogenic PAHs. Bulk water samples analyzed by conventional methodology were routinely well above this criteria, but contained particulate bound PAHs as well as PAHs bound by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which are not available for bioconcentration. Average water concentrations of dissolved PAHs determined using SPMDs were also above this criteria. Variables used for determining water concentration included sampling rate at the exposure temperature, length of exposure and estimation of biofouling of SPMD surface.