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Sample records for urban pomona loop

  1. Pomona, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pomona, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.18985, -74.053709 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  2. Secretary Steven Chu's Remarks as Prepared for Delivery at the Pomona

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    College Commencement | Department of Energy Pomona College Commencement Secretary Steven Chu's Remarks as Prepared for Delivery at the Pomona College Commencement May 15, 2011 - 1:04pm Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Delivery Sunday, May 15, 2011 Secretary Steven Chu President Oxtoby, trustees, faculty, family, friends and most importantly, the class of 2011, thank you for letting me share this wonderful day with you. To the new graduates: Congratulations on your achievements. I feel

  3. EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington | Department of Energy 5: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington SUMMARY The Bureau of Land Management is preparing, with DOE's Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as a cooperating agency, an EIS that evaluates the potential

  4. Evaluation of five waste-minimization technologies at the General Dynamics Pomona Division Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, M.L.; Brown, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Five technology areas encompassing eight waste reduction technologies at the General Dynamics Pomona Division (Southern California) were technically and economically evaluated under the California/EPA Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program. Evaluations were made through site visits and follow-up discussions with General Dynamics staff and equipment suppliers. The technologies and the type of waste reduction represented included (1) computerized printed circuit board plating process (process substitution), (2) sulfuric acid anodizing system (process substitution), (3) robotic paint facility operations - (a) proportional paint mixing (process substitution), (b) water-based solvent replacement (process substitution), (c) electrostatic paint sprays (process substitution), (d) solvent stills (recycling), (4) bead-blast paint stripper (process substitution), and (5) Freon recovery stills (recycling). Overall, there was a decrease in hazardous waste generation and an increase in productivity or reuse of recycled materials. In most cases, the technologies could be easily transferred to other industries except for the computerized circuit board and some processes within the robotic paint operation due to prohibitive costs.

  5. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  6. Dehumidification -- Closed loop systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyatt, C.H.; Crowe, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    Dehumidification is the removal of water from the air. Dehumidification equipment treats the ambient air before it is introduced to the enclosure. A closed loop system is one that theoretically routes all the air exiting an enclosure through the appropriate filter media and treatment equipment and then returns it to the enclosure. By establishing a closed loop system, the ``treated`` air is continuously processed, which improves the efficiency of this operation. The generic types of dehumidification equipment and their application in a closed loop system will be presented. This article will deal solely with the use of dehumidification and other related equipment used to control the environment within the work enclosure.

  7. Livermore Compiler Analysis Loop Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    LCALS is designed to evaluate compiler optimizations and performance of a variety of loop kernels and loop traversal software constructs. Some of the loop kernels are pulled directly from "Livermore Loops Coded in C", developed at LLNL (see item 11 below for details of earlier code versions). The older suites were used to evaluate floating-point performances of hardware platforms prior to porting larger application codes. The LCALS suite is geared toward assissing C++ compiler optimizationsmore » and platform performance related to SIMD vectorization, OpenMP threading, and advanced C++ language features. LCALS contains 20 of 24 loop kernels from the older Livermore Loop suites, plus various others representative of loops found in current production appkication codes at LLNL. The latter loops emphasize more diverse loop constructs and data access patterns than the others, such as multi-dimensional difference stencils. The loops are included in a configurable framework, which allows control of compilation, loop sampling for execution timing, which loops are run and their lengths. It generates timing statistics for analysis and comparing variants of individual loops. Also, it is easy to add loops to the suite as desired.« less

  8. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  9. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  10. Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarkisian, Paul H. (Watertown, MA); Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

  11. Chemical Looping | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to convert fossil fuels to electricity and provide carbon capture without significant efficiency or cost penalties. Chemical looping combustion is very similar to oxy-fuel...

  12. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Slagle, Frank D. (Kingwood, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  13. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency ...

  14. Sandia Energy - Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Energy News EC News & Events Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning Previous Next Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning The Molten Salt...

  15. Vantage Pomona Heights | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lands, and federal lands managed by the BLM, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the U.S. Army - Joint Base Lewis McChord-Yakima Training Center (JBLM-YTC), as well as State of...

  16. Study of the Open Loop and Closed Loop Oscillator Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imel, George R.; Baker, Benjamin; Riley, Tony; Langbehn, Adam; Aryal, Harishchandra; Benzerga, M. Lamine

    2015-04-11

    This report presents the progress and completion of a five-year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques.The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this report we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems.

  17. Chemical Looping Combustion | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Looping Combustion chemical-looping-combustion.jpg An economical option for using our abundant, domestic coal resources while eliminating CO2 emissions may sound like science fiction, but NETL researchers are working to bring this technology of the future into the present. Chemical looping is the solution. This cost-effective indirect combustion technology has CO2 capture "built in," effectively eradicating greenhouse gas emissions from coal. Although still a few years away

  18. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spiridon, Alex (Palo Alto, CA); Benzel, Dave (Livermore, CA); Dowla, Farid U. (Castro Valley, CA); Nekoogar, Faranak (San Ramon, CA); Rosenbury, Erwin T. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  19. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  20. Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Poster presented at...

  1. Widget:RAPID-Loop11 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Pages that call this widget will include javascript for usability testing, used with Loop11. Parameters none Usage Widget:RAPID-Loop1...

  2. Sandia Energy - Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Energy Storage Systems Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed Previous Next Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed The pump was...

  3. Sandia Energy - Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salt Home Renewable Energy Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt Previous Next Molten Salt Test Loop Melted Salt The Molten Salt Test...

  4. Zero point energy of renormalized Wilson loops (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Zero point energy of renormalized Wilson loops Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Zero point energy of renormalized Wilson loops The quark-antiquark potential, and its ...

  5. Multiple Flow Loop SCADA System Implemented on the Production Prototype Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baily, Scott A.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Wheat, Robert Mitchell; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.

    2015-11-16

    The following report covers FY 15 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production prototype gas flow loop. The goal of this effort is to expand the existing system to include a second flow loop with a larger production-sized blower. Besides testing the larger blower, this system will demonstrate the scalability of our solution to multiple flow loops.

  6. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  7. Bootstrapping the Three-Loop Hexagon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2011-11-08

    We consider the hexagonal Wilson loop dual to the six-point MHV amplitude in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. We apply constraints from the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit to the symbol of the remainder function at three loops. Using these constraints, and assuming a natural ansatz for the symbol's entries, we determine the symbol up to just two undetermined constants. In the multi-Regge limit, both constants drop out from the symbol, enabling us to make a non-trivial confirmation of the BFKL prediction for the leading-log approximation. This result provides a strong consistency check of both our ansatz for the symbol and the duality between Wilson loops and MHV amplitudes. Furthermore, we predict the form of the full three-loop remainder function in the multi-Regge limit, beyond the leading-log approximation, up to a few constants representing terms not detected by the symbol. Our results confirm an all-loop prediction for the real part of the remainder function in multi-Regge 3 {yields} 3 scattering. In the multi-Regge limit, our result for the remainder function can be expressed entirely in terms of classical polylogarithms. For generic six-point kinematics other functions are required.

  8. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  9. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  10. hardware-in-the-loop system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hardware-in-the-loop system - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  11. Bootstrapping One-Loop QCD Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Carola F.; /SLAC

    2006-09-08

    We review the recently developed bootstrap method for the computation of high-multiplicity QCD amplitudes at one loop. We illustrate the general algorithm step by step with a six-point example. The method combines (generalized) unitarity with on-shell recursion relations to determine the not cut-constructible, rational terms of these amplitudes. Our bootstrap approach works for arbitrary configurations of gluon helicities and arbitrary numbers of external legs.

  12. MAGNETIC LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiegelmann, T.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Schmidt, W.; Pillet, V. MartInez; Bonet, J. A.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    We investigate the fine structure of magnetic fields in the atmosphere of the quiet Sun. We use photospheric magnetic field measurements from SUNRISE/IMaX with unprecedented spatial resolution to extrapolate the photospheric magnetic field into higher layers of the solar atmosphere with the help of potential and force-free extrapolation techniques. We find that most magnetic loops that reach into the chromosphere or higher have one footpoint in relatively strong magnetic field regions in the photosphere. Ninety-one percent of the magnetic energy in the mid-chromosphere (at a height of 1 Mm) is in field lines, whose stronger footpoint has a strength of more than 300 G, i.e., above the equipartition field strength with convection. The loops reaching into the chromosphere and corona are also found to be asymmetric in the sense that the weaker footpoint has a strength B < 300 G and is located in the internetwork (IN). Such loops are expected to be strongly dynamic and have short lifetimes, as dictated by the properties of the IN fields.

  13. Volker Urban | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volker Urban Volker Urban Volker Urban Principal Investigator E-mail: urbanvs@ornl.gov Phone: 865-576-7221 Fax: 865-574-6080 Website: Oak Ridge National Lab Website Principal...

  14. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  15. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  16. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bel,; Lon E.; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2009-10-27

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  17. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable ...

  18. EPA Urban Waters Small Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is accepting applications for the Urban Waters Small Grants Program to address urban runoff pollution with a focus on underserved communities.

  19. Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban Place: Miami, FL Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

  20. Urban Sustainability Water Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-22

    Most urban areas are experiencing substantial growth rate. In order to support the growth and still maintain the high quality of life currently available in these areas, government planners, and developers and general stakeholders are very interested in a product that will allow them to experiment with different development scenarios to determine the best path forward. One of the biggest concerns is the amount of water that will be available as the growth continues. Thismore » software package will allow them as a group to input their ideas and get a visual view of the results, immediately. They will be able to watch the water resources as they are consumed by the increasing growth in residential, commercial and industrial areas.« less

  1. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  2. Virtual Vehicle - Component-in-the-Loop | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Virtual Vehicle - Component-in-the-Loop Preparing a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery for testing on Argonne's Battery-in-the-Loop system Preparing a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery for testing on Argonne's Battery-in-the-Loop system How do you evaluate unique vehicle configurations without building each vehicle from the ground up? Argonne researchers have developed sophisticated tools that enable creation of "virtual" vehicles using a technique called

  3. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    models using iterative concept analysis are being used on a closed loop controlled, waste heat recovery system running automatically over various drive cycles. PDF icon...

  4. Entropy mode loops and cosmological correlations during perturbative reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaya, Ali; Kutluk, Emine Seyma E-mail: seymakutluk@gmail.com

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that during preheating the entropy modes circulating in the loops, which correspond to the inflaton decay products, meaningfully modify the cosmological correlation functions at superhorizon scales. In this paper, we determine the significance of the same effect when reheating occurs in the perturbative regime. In a typical two scalar field model, the magnitude of the loop corrections are shown to depend on several parameters like the background inflaton amplitude in the beginning of reheating, the inflaton decay rate and the inflaton mass. Although the loop contributions turn out to be small as compared to the preheating case, they still come out larger than the loop effects during inflation.

  5. Static properties of nuclear matter within the Boson Loop Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alberico, W.M.; Cenni, R. Garbarino, G.; Quaglia, M.R.

    2008-08-15

    The use of the Boson Loop Expansion is proposed for investigating the static properties of nuclear matter. We explicitly consider a schematic dynamical model in which nucleons interact with the scalar-isoscalar {sigma} meson. The suggested approximation scheme is examined in detail at the mean field level and at the one- and two-loop orders. The relevant formulas are provided to derive the binding energy per nucleon, the pressure and the compressibility of nuclear matter. Numerical results of the binding energy at the one-loop order are presented for Walecka's {sigma}-{omega} model in order to discuss the degree of convergence of the Boson Loop Expansion.

  6. chemical-looping-combustion | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant applications. Oxy-combustion power generation provides oxygen to the combustion process by separating oxygen from air. However, chemical looping systems produce oxygen...

  7. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  8. Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Research at the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility was successfully concluded in September 1979. In 13,000 hours of operation over a three and one half year period, the nominal 10 megawatt electrical equivalent GLEF provided the opportunity to identify problems in working with highly saline geothermal fluids and to develop solutions that could be applied to a commercial geothermal power plant producing electricity. A seven and one half year period beginning in April 1972, with early well flow testing and ending in September 1979, with the completion of extensive facility and reservoir operations is covered. During this period, the facility was designed, constructed and operated in several configurations. A comprehensive reference document, addressing or referencing documentation of all the key areas investigated is presented.

  9. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  10. RECURRENT TWO-SIDED LOOP-TYPE JETS DUE TO A BIPOLE EMERGING BELOW TRANSEQUATORIAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yunchun; Bi, Yi; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Ruisheng

    2013-10-01

    We report four successive two-sided loop-type jets centered around a small bipole emerging below transequatorial interconnecting loops (TILs). They occurred at the very first emerging stage of the bipole in a short recurrent period of only 12 minutes. During this term, the emerging flux consisted of a main bipole, but showed a mixed-polarity field morphology with the appearance and then disappearance of a small magnetic feature in its interior. However, no associated cancellation of the bipole with the nearby flux was observed in this process. In multi-wavelength EUV images, the jets started nearly simultaneously and were similar in appearance. Each jet consisted of a pair of components that connected to two bright footpoints around the bipole and were ejected from the emergence location to opposite directions. While the two bright footpoints were separated by a gap and had consistent evolution with that of the bipole, the jet base region covering them accordingly showed four episodes of emission enhancement that peaked approximately at the jet start times. Compatible with the magnetic-reconnection jet mechanism, the recurrent two-sided loop-type jets are explained as a result of reconnection between the emerging bipole and the overlying TILs.

  11. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

    2014-06-24

    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  12. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

    2015-02-17

    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  13. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-03-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore, they performed a sensitivity analysis for velocity, height and polydispersity and compared results against literature data for experimental studies of CLC beds with no reaction. Finally, they present an optimization space using simple non-reactive configurations. In Subtask 5.3, through a series of experimental studies, behavior of a variety of oxygen carriers with different loadings and manufacturing techniques was evaluated under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The influences of temperature, degree of carrier conversion and thermodynamic driving force resulting from the difference between equilibrium and system O{sub 2} partial pressures were evaluated through several experimental campaigns, and generalized models accounting for these influences were developed to describe oxidation and oxygen release. Conversion of three solid fuels with widely ranging reactivities was studied in a small fluidized bed system, and all but the least reactive fuel (petcoke) were rapidly converted by oxygen liberated from the CLOU carrier. Attrition propensity of a variety of carriers was also studied, and the carriers produced by freeze granulation or impregnation of preformed substrates displayed the lowest rates of attrition. Subtask 5.4 focused on gathering kinetic data for a copper-based oxygen carrier to assist with modeling of a functioning chemical looping reactor. The kinetics team was also responsible for the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material.

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2011-07-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  15. TS LOOP NON-POTABLE PUMP EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Goodin

    1999-05-14

    This analysis evaluates the existing subsurface non-potable water system from the portal pump to the end of the water line in the South Ramp and determines if the pump size and spacing meets the system pressure and flow requirements for construction operations and incipient fire fighting capability as established in the Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1998b). This analysis does not address the non potable water system in the Cross Drift which is covered under a previous design analysis (CRWMS-M&O 1998a). The Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis references sections of OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart L for requirements applicable to the incipient fire fighting hose stations used underground. This analysis does not address mechanical system valves, fittings, risers and other components of the system piping. This system is not designed or intended to meet all National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes for a fire fighting system but is only considered a backup system to fire extinguishers that are installed throughout the Topopah Springs (TS) Loop and may be used to fight small incipient stage fires.

  16. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of decision windows can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. The concept of decision windows was further elaborated. Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  17. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A high temperature heat exchanger is disclosed which has a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  18. Fiber-bragg grating-loop ringdown method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Chuji (Starkville, MS)

    2008-01-29

    A device comprising a fiber grating loop ringdown (FGLRD) system of analysis is disclosed. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) or Long-Period grating (LPG) written in a section of single mode fused silica fiber is incorporated into a fiber loop. By utilizing the wing areas of the gratings' bandwidth as a wavelength dependent attenuator of the light transmission, a fiber grating loop ringdown concept is formed. One aspect of the present invention is temperature sensing, which has been demonstrated using the disclosed device. Temperature measurements in the areas of accuracy, stability, high temperature, and dynamic range are also described.

  19. Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy New control strategies are ...

  20. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  1. Mechanisms Engineering Test Loop - Phase I Status Report - FY2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hvasta, M.; Grandy, C.; Lisowski, D.; Borowski, A.

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the current status of the Mechanisms Engineering Test Loop (METL) as of the end of FY2015. METL is currently in Phase I of its design and construction.

  2. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 13159553.pdf (405 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen

  3. Contributions of the interdomain loop, amino terminus, and subunit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interface to the ligand-facilitated dimerization of neurophysin: Crystal structures and mutation studies of bovine neurophysin-I (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Contributions of the interdomain loop, amino terminus, and subunit interface to the ligand-facilitated dimerization of neurophysin: Crystal structures and mutation studies of bovine neurophysin-I Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Contributions of the interdomain loop, amino

  4. Characterizing Loop Dynamics and Ligand Recognition in Human- and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Avian-Type Influenza Neuraminidases via Generalized Born Molecular Dynamics and End-Point Free Energy Calculations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Characterizing Loop Dynamics and Ligand Recognition in Human- and Avian-Type Influenza Neuraminidases via Generalized Born Molecular Dynamics and End-Point Free Energy Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterizing Loop Dynamics and Ligand Recognition in Human- and Avian-Type Influenza Neuraminidases

  5. Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-11_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile and Stationary Engine SCR/DPF

  6. Project Profile: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control Project Profile: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control Thermata Logo Thermata, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), is demonstrating a collector system with enhanced optical tracking capability. The unit includes a control system that provides real-time information to adjust the location of the reflected sunlight. It demonstrates a prototype

  7. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles | Department of Energy Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles This project discusses preliminary experimental results to find how thermoelectrics can be applied ot future hybrid vehicles and the optimum design of such equipment using heat pipes PDF icon deer09_kim.pdf More Documents & Publications Low and

  8. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heating Applications Only | Department of Energy Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the base model and other assumptions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement What is the deliverable

  9. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  10. Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

    2009-05-01

    The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510C to 650C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

  11. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron, Adam M.; Cunningham, Richard Burns; Fugate, David L.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Kisner, Roger A.; Peretz, Fred J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Wilson, Dane F.; Yoder, Jr, Graydon L.

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels with 3 cm diameter graphite-based fuel pebbles slowly circulating up through the core. Molten salt coolant (FLiBe) at 700°C flows concurrently (at significantly higher velocity) with the pebbles and is used to remove heat generated in the reactor core (approximately 1280 W/pebble), and supply it to a power conversion system. Refueling equipment continuously sorts spent fuel pebbles and replaces spent or damaged pebbles with fresh fuel. By combining greater or fewer numbers of pebble channel assemblies, multiple reactor designs with varying power levels can be offered. The PB-AHTR design is discussed in detail in Reference [1] and is shown schematically in Fig. 1. Fig. 1. PB-AHTR concept (drawing taken from Peterson et al., Design and Development of the Modular PB-AHTR Proceedings of ICApp 08). Pebble behavior within the core is a key issue in proving the viability of this concept. This includes understanding the behavior of the pebbles thermally, hydraulically, and mechanically (quantifying pebble wear characteristics, flow channel wear, etc). The experiment being developed is an initial step in characterizing the pebble behavior under realistic PB-AHTR operating conditions. It focuses on thermal and hydraulic behavior of a static pebble bed using a convective salt loop to provide prototypic fluid conditions to the bed, and a unique inductive heating technique to provide prototypic heating in the pebbles. The facility design is sufficiently versatile to allow a variety of other experimentation to be performed in the future. The facility can accommodate testing of scaled reactor components or sub-components such as flow diodes, salt-to-salt heat exchangers, and improved pump designs as well as testing of refueling equipment, high temperature instrumentation, and other reactor core designs.

  12. Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hooft loop (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't Hooft loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't Hooft loop We compute the simplest hard thermal loops for a spatial 't Hooft loop in the deconfined phase of a SU(N) gauge theory. We expand to quadratic order about a constant background field A{sub 0}=Q/g, where Q is a diagonal, color matrix and

  13. Visualizations of coherent center domains in local Polyakov loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokes, Finn M. Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2014-09-15

    Quantum Chromodynamics exhibits a hadronic confined phase at low to moderate temperatures and, at a critical temperature T{sub C}, undergoes a transition to a deconfined phase known as the quarkgluon plasma. The nature of this deconfinement phase transition is probed through visualizations of the Polyakov loop, a gauge independent order parameter. We produce visualizations that provide novel insights into the structure and evolution of center clusters. Using the HMC algorithm the percolation during the deconfinement transition is observed. Using 3D rendering of the phase and magnitude of the Polyakov loop, the fractal structure and correlations are examined. The evolution of the center clusters as the gauge fields thermalize from below the critical temperature to above it are also exposed. We observe deconfinement proceeding through a competition for the dominance of a particular center phase. We use stout-link smearing to remove small-scale noise in order to observe the large-scale evolution of the center clusters. A correlation between the magnitude of the Polyakov loop and the proximity of its phase to one of the center phases of SU(3) is evident in the visualizations. - Highlights: We produce visualizations of center clusters in Polyakov loops. The evolution of center clusters with HMC simulation time is examined. Visualizations provide novel insights into the percolation of center clusters. The magnitude and phase of the Polyakov loop are studied. A correlation between the magnitude and center phase proximity is evident.

  14. Automated event generation for loop-induced processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hirschi, Valentin; Mattelaer, Olivier

    2015-10-22

    We present the first fully automated implementation of cross-section computation and event generation for loop-induced processes. This work is integrated in the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework. We describe the optimisations implemented at the level of the matrix element evaluation, phase space integration and event generation allowing for the simulation of large multiplicity loop-induced processes. Along with some selected differential observables, we illustrate our results with a table showing inclusive cross-sections for all loop-induced hadronic scattering processes with up to three final states in the SM as well as for some relevant 2 → 4 processes. Furthermore, many of these are computed heremore » for the first time.« less

  15. VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP SOLAR TRACKER CONTROLLER*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss

    2008-01-01

    A versatile single-board controller for two-axis solar tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating solar tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis solar tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop control methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this controller hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.

  16. Expansion-loop enclosure resolves subsea line problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, S.K.; Alleyne, A.G.

    1998-08-03

    Recent design and construction of a Gulf of Mexico subsea pipeline illustrate the use of buried, enclosed expansion loops to resolve problems from expansion and upheaval buckling. Buried, subsea pipelines operating at high temperatures and pressures experience extreme compressive loads caused by the axial restraint of the soil. The high axial forces combined with imperfections in the seabed may overstress the pipeline or result in upheaval buckling. Typically, expansion loops, or doglegs, are installed to protect the pipeline risers from expansion and to alleviate axial forces. Buried expansion loops, however, are rendered virtually ineffective by the lateral restraint of the soil. Alternative methods to reduce expansion may increase the potential of upheaval buckling or overstressing the pipeline. Therefore, system design must consider expansion and upheaval buckling together. Discussed here are methods of prevention and control of expansion and upheaval buckling, evaluating the impact on the overall system.

  17. Automated event generation for loop-induced processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschi, Valentin; Mattelaer, Olivier

    2015-10-22

    We present the first fully automated implementation of cross-section computation and event generation for loop-induced processes. This work is integrated in the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework. We describe the optimisations implemented at the level of the matrix element evaluation, phase space integration and event generation allowing for the simulation of large multiplicity loop-induced processes. Along with some selected differential observables, we illustrate our results with a table showing inclusive cross-sections for all loop-induced hadronic scattering processes with up to three final states in the SM as well as for some relevant 2 → 4 processes. Furthermore, many of these are computed here for the first time.

  18. Closed-form decomposition of one-loop massive amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-15

    We present formulas for the coefficients of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-point master integrals for one-loop massive amplitudes. The coefficients are derived from unitarity cuts in D dimensions. The input parameters can be read off from any unitarity-cut integrand, as assembled from tree-level expressions, after simple algebraic manipulations. The formulas presented here are suitable for analytical as well as numerical evaluation. Their validity is confirmed in two known cases of helicity amplitudes contributing to gg{yields}gg and gg{yields}gH, where the masses of the Higgs and the fermion circulating in the loop are kept as free parameters.

  19. Urban Electric Vehicle (UEV) Technical Specifications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    URBAN ELECTRIC VEHICLE (UEV) TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Effective January 1, 2003 Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications UEV AMERICA January 1, 2003 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS MINIMUM UEV REQUIREMENTS The UEVAmerica Program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technology to provide for an independent assessment of urban electric vehicles (UEV), designed specifically for use in an urban (surface street) environment with speeds no greater than 45 mph.

  20. EIS-0417: South Mountain Freeway (Loop 202); Phoenix, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal Highway Administration and Arizona Department of Transportation, with Western Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, prepared an EIS that analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed South Mountain Freeway (Loop 202) project in the Greater Metropolitan Phoenix Area.

  1. AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures PDF icon UEVAmerica Specifications PDF icon ETA-UTP001 ...

  2. Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis ...

  3. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 5h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency AgencyCompany...

  4. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane Homes, Louisville, Kentucky Case study of Urbane Homes who worked with Building America research partner NAHBRC to ...

  5. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 5f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change...

  6. The Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport AgencyCompany Organization: GIZ...

  7. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy usage and urban development patterns affect approximately 70% of that consumption. This document describes a model design for urban development and redevelopment ...

  8. South Africa-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name South Africa-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies in Emerging Economy Countries (URBAN-LEDS) AgencyCompany Organization ICLEI - Local Governments for...

  9. PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE OF ... Title: PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE ...

  10. V-212: Samba smbd CPU Processing Loop Lets Remote Users Deny...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Samba smbd CPU Processing Loop Lets Remote Users Deny Service V-212: Samba smbd CPU Processing Loop Lets Remote Users Deny Service August 6, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: A...

  11. RELAP-7: Demonstrating the integration of two-phase flow components for an ideal BWR loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; David Andrs; John Peterson; Ray Berry; Richard Martineua

    2013-06-01

    This is DOE Level 3 milestone report documenting RELAP-7's capability to simulate an ideal BWR loop.

  12. Particle sorter comprising a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2012-04-24

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices utilizing a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit.

  13. Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (Poster) Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HARDWARE; LOOP; POSTER; Buildings; Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems; Solar Energy - Thermal ELECTRICITY; GRID; ICS; INTERCONNECTION; SYSTEM; EVALUATOR;...

  14. Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes In the context of constructing one-loop amplitudes using a unitarity bootstrap approach we discuss a general systematic procedure for obtaining the coefficients of the scalar bubble and triangle integral functions of one-loop amplitudes. Coefficients are extracted after examining the behavior of the cut integrand as the unconstrained parameters of a specifically chosen

  15. Operator in-the-loop control of rotary cranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, G.G.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    An open-loop control method is presented for reducing the oscillatory motion of rotary crane payloads during operator commanded maneuvers. A typical rotary crane consists of a multiple degree-of-freedom platform for positioning a spherical pendulum with an attached payload. The crane operator positions the Payload by issuing a combination of translational and rotational commands to the platform as well as load-line length changes. Frequently, these pendulum modes are time-varying and exhibit low natural frequencies. Maneuvers are therefore performed at rates sufficiently slow so as not to excite oscillation. The strategy presented here generates crane commands which suppress vibration of the payload without a priori knowledge of the desired maneuver. Results are presented for operator in-the-loop positioning using a real-time dynamics simulation of a three-axis rotary crane where the residual sway magnitude is reduced in excess of 4OdB.

  16. Longitudinal magnetohydrodynamics oscillations in dissipative, cooling coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Ghafri, K. S.; Ruderman, M. S.; Williamson, A.; Erdlyi, R., E-mail: app08ksa@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: m.s.ruderman@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: app09aw@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of cooling on standing slow magnetosonic waves in coronal magnetic loops. The damping mechanism taken into account is thermal conduction that is a viable candidate for dissipation of slow magnetosonic waves in coronal loops. In contrast to earlier studies, here we assume that the characteristic damping time due to thermal conduction is not small, but arbitrary, and can be of the order of the oscillation period, i.e., a temporally varying plasma is considered. The approximation of low-beta plasma enables us to neglect the magnetic field perturbation when studying longitudinal waves and consider, instead, a one-dimensional motion that allows a reliable first insight into the problem. The background plasma temperature is assumed to be decaying exponentially with time, with the characteristic cooling timescale much larger than the oscillation period. This assumption enables us to use the WKB method to study the evolution of the oscillation amplitude analytically. Using this method we obtain the equation governing the oscillation amplitude. The analytical expressions determining the wave properties are evaluated numerically to investigate the evolution of the oscillation frequency and amplitude with time. The results show that the oscillation period increases with time due to the effect of plasma cooling. The plasma cooling also amplifies the amplitude of oscillations in relatively cool coronal loops, whereas, for very hot coronal loop oscillations the damping rate is enhanced by the cooling. We find that the critical point for which the amplification becomes dominant over the damping is in the region of 4 MK. These theoretical results may serve as impetus for developing the tools of solar magneto-seismology in dynamic plasmas.

  17. Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet summarizes a SunShot Initiative project led by Thermata to develop and demonstrate the first practical heliostat to use closed-loop tracking that can optically sense and control the reflected sunlight beam at the target. The expected benefits of this system include the reduction in the total installed cost of the heliostat field in a power tower concentrating solar power project.

  18. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  19. Onset of electron acceleration in a flare loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharykin, Ivan; Liu, Siming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-20

    We carried out a detailed analysis of X-ray and radio observations of a simple flare loop that occurred on 2002 August 12, with the impulsive hard X-ray (HXR) light curves dominated by a single pulse. The emission spectra of the early impulsive phase are consistent with an isothermal model in the coronal loop with a temperature reaching several keV. A power-law high-energy spectral tail is evident near the HXR peak time, in accordance with the appearance of footpoints at high energies, and is well correlated with the radio emission. The energy content of the thermal component keeps increasing gradually after the disappearance of this nonthermal component. These results suggest that electron acceleration only covers the central period of a longer and more gradual energy dissipation process and that the electron transport within the loop plays a crucial role in the formation of the inferred power-law electron distribution. The spectral index of power-law photons shows a very gradual evolution, indicating that the electron accelerator is in a quasi-steady state, which is confirmed by radio observations. These results are consistent with the theory of stochastic electron acceleration from a thermal background. Advanced modeling with coupled electron acceleration and spatial transport processes is needed to explain these observations more quantitatively, which may reveal the dependence of the electron acceleration on the spatial structure of the acceleration region.

  20. DURA URBAN HOUSE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DURA URBAN HOUSE Solar Decathlon DURA URBAN HOUSE People from many nations arrive in New York City to pursue the American Dream. The New York City College of Technology team embodies this spirit in Solar Decathlon 2015, called DURA-an acronym for Diverse, Urban, Resilient, and Adaptable. The group is assembled DURA in the Brooklyn Navy Yard in preparation for the competition in Irvine, California. The slender, 24-ft. by 50-ft. house is suitable for single family living on a small city lot.

  1. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Voropay, Dmitry; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  2. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  3. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  4. FINGERPRINTS OF GALACTIC LOOP I ON THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hao; Mertsch, Philipp

    2014-07-10

    We investigate possible imprints of galactic foreground structures such as the ''radio loops'' in the derived maps of the cosmic microwave background. Surprisingly, there is evidence for these not only at radio frequencies through their synchrotron radiation, but also at microwave frequencies where emission by dust dominates. This suggests the mechanism is magnetic dipole radiation from dust grains enriched by metallic iron or ferrimagnetic molecules. This new foreground we have identified is present at high galactic latitudes, and potentially dominates over the expected B-mode polarization signal due to primordial gravitational waves from inflation.

  5. Development of Hardware-in-the-loop Microgrid Testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Bailu; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Starke, Michael R; Liu, Guodong; Dowling, Kevin; Ollis, T Ben; Irminger, Philip; Xu, Yan; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D

    2015-01-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) microgrid testbed for the evaluation and assessment of microgrid operation and control system has been presented in this paper. The HIL testbed is composed of a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) for modeling of the microgrid, multiple NI CompactRIOs for device level control, a prototype microgrid energy management system (MicroEMS), and a relay protection system. The applied communication-assisted hybrid control system has been also discussed. Results of function testing of HIL controller, communication, and the relay protection system are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed HIL microgrid testbed.

  6. Sinc function representation and three-loop master diagrams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easther, Richard; Guralnik, Gerald; Hahn, Stephen

    2001-04-15

    We test the Sinc function representation, a novel method for numerically evaluating Feynman diagrams, by using it to evaluate the three-loop master diagrams. Analytical results have been obtained for all these diagrams, and we find excellent agreement between our calculations and the exact values. The Sinc function representation converges rapidly, and it is straightforward to obtain accuracies of 1 part in 10{sup 6} for these diagrams and with longer runs we found results better than 1 part in 10{sup 12}. Finally, this paper extends the Sinc function representation to diagrams containing massless propagators.

  7. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  8. System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Blue Springs, MO)

    2006-08-15

    A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

  9. How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchica...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (US) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Urbanization Global urban land Urban area Built-up area Impervious surface Hierarchy of ...

  10. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  11. The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; McLeod, Andrew J.

    2016-01-11

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q¯ differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result againstmore » multi-Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. As a result, we also provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.« less

  12. The Four-loop Six-gluon NMHV Ratio Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; McLeod, Andrew J.

    2015-09-29

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q- differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.

  13. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked

  14. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  15. Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategy | Department of Energy Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy New control strategies are enabler for new combustion concepts for further reduction of engine out emission PDF icon deer09_tatur.pdf More Documents & Publications Future Directions in Engines and Fuels An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine Closed-loop Control Partially Premixed

  16. Statistical evidence for the existence of Alfvnic turbulence in solar coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jiajia; McIntosh, Scott W.; Bethge, Christian; De Moortel, Ineke; Threlfall, James

    2014-12-10

    Recent observations have demonstrated that waves capable of carrying large amounts of energy are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. However, the question of how this wave energy is dissipated (on which timescales and length scales) and released into the plasma remains largely unanswered. Both analytic and numerical models have previously shown that Alfvnic turbulence may play a key role not only in the generation of the fast solar wind, but in the heating of coronal loops. In an effort to bridge the gap between theory and observations, we expand on a recent study by analyzing 37 clearly isolated coronal loops using data from the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter instrument. We observe Alfvnic perturbations with phase speeds which range from 250 to 750 km s{sup 1} and periods from 140 to 270 s for the chosen loops. While excesses of high-frequency wave power are observed near the apex of some loops (tentatively supporting the onset of Alfvnic turbulence), we show that this excess depends on loop length and the wavelength of the observed oscillations. In deriving a proportional relationship between the loop length/wavelength ratio and the enhanced wave power at the loop apex, and from the analysis of the line widths associated with these loops, our findings are supportive of the existence of Alfvnic turbulence in coronal loops.

  17. Triviality and vacuum stability bounds in the three-loop neutrino...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the three-loop neutrino mass model We study theoretical constraints on the parameter ... The requirement of a strongly first order phase transition for successful electroweak ...

  18. On Loops in Inflation II: IR Effects in Single Clock Inflation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On Loops in Inflation II: IR Effects in Single Clock Inflation Authors: Senatore, Leonardo ; Stanford U., ITP KIPAC, Menlo Park ; Zaldarriaga, Matias ; Princeton, Inst....

  19. Involvement of the [beta]3-[alpha]3 Loop of the Proline Dehydrogenase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Involvement of the beta3-alpha3 Loop of the Proline Dehydrogenase Domain in Allosteric Regulation of Membrane Association of Proline Utilization A Citation Details In-Document ...

  20. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    System-level models using iterative concept analysis are being used on a closed loop controlled, waste heat recovery system running automatically over various drive cycles.

  1. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-11-18

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  2. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-10-08

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  3. NLO evolution of 3-quark Wilson loop operator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balitsky, I.; Grabovsky, A. V.

    2015-01-07

    It is well known that high-energy scattering of a meson from some hadronic target can be described by the interaction of that target with a color dipole formed by two Wilson lines corresponding to fast quark-antiquark pair. Moreover, the energy dependence of the scattering amplitude is governed by the evolution equation of this color dipole with respect to rapidity. Similarly, the energy dependence of scattering of a baryon can be described in terms of evolution of a three-Wilson-lines operator with respect to the rapidity of the Wilson lines. We calculate the evolution of the 3-quark Wilson loop operator in themore » next-to-leading order (NLO) and present a quasi-conformal evolution equation for a composite 3-Wilson-lines operator. Thus we also obtain the linearized version of that evolution equation describing the amplitude of the odderon exchange at high energies.« less

  4. Higgs-Higgsino-gaugino induced two loop electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Yingchuan; Profumo, Stefano; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

    2008-10-01

    We compute the complete set of Higgs-mediated chargino-neutralino two-loop contributions to the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We study the dependence of these contributions on the parameters that govern CP-violation in the MSSM gauge-gaugino-Higgs-Higgsino sector. We find that contributions mediated by the exchange of WH{sup {+-}} and ZA{sup 0} pairs, where H{sup {+-}} and A{sup 0} are the charged and CP-odd Higgs scalars, respectively, are comparable to or dominate over those mediated by the exchange of neutral gauge bosons and CP-even Higgs scalars. We also emphasize that the result of this complete set of diagrams is essential for the full quantitative study of a number of phenomenological issues, such as electric dipole moment searches and their implications for electroweak baryogenesis.

  5. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  6. Laser Safety Method For Duplex Open Loop Parallel Optical Link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumgartner, Steven John (Zumbro Falls, MN); Hedin, Daniel Scott (Rochester, MN); Paschal, Matthew James (Rochester, MN)

    2003-12-02

    A method and apparatus are provided to ensure that laser optical power does not exceed a "safe" level in an open loop parallel optical link in the event that a fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or otherwise severed. A duplex parallel optical link includes a transmitter and receiver pair and a fiber optic ribbon that includes a designated number of channels that cannot be split. The duplex transceiver includes a corresponding transmitter and receiver that are physically attached to each other and cannot be detached therefrom, so as to ensure safe, laser optical power in the event that the fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or severed. Safe optical power is ensured by redundant current and voltage safety checks.

  7. LORENTZ SELF-FORCE OF AN ELLIPSE CURRENT LOOP MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie; Kunkel, Valbona

    2013-07-10

    In this work, the Lorentz self-force of an ellipse current loop model is derived. We are motivated by the fact that it has been reported in the literature that coronal mass ejection morphology can resemble an ellipse in the field of view of coronagraph images. Deriving the Lorentz self-force using an ellipse geometry has the advantage of being able to be solved analytically, as opposed to other more complex geometries. The derived ellipse model is compared with the local curvature approximation, where the Lorentz self-force at the ellipse major/minor axis is compared with the Lorentz self-force of a torus with curvature equal to the local curvature at the ellipses major/minor axis. It is found that the local curvature approximation is valid for moderate values of eccentricity.

  8. Closed loop computer control for an automatic transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determined from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  9. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in the atmosphere have a sizeable effect on our climate. September 30, 2015 A new study by a science team led by Los Alamos National Laboratory stresses the importance of understanding mixed black and brown carbon in smoke emissions for climate models. The particulates found in urban smoke are especially prone

  10. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Resources, February 2004 | Department of Energy Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004 Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004 U.S. cities and towns now account for over 80% of our national energy usage and urban development patterns affect approximately 70% of that consumption. This document describes a model design for urban development and redevelopment

  11. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  12. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Shea Rose, Leanna

    2007-06-14

    Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30 km{sup 2} to 52 km{sup 2}. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, educational, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29-41% of the area, roofs 19-25%, and paved surfaces 29-39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20-37% of the area, roofs 20-25%, and paved surfaces 29-36%.

  13. NFWF Five Star & Urban Waters Restoration Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) is accepting applications for up to $2.1 million to develop community capacity to sustain local natural resources for future generations by providing modest financial assistance to diverse local partnership for wetland, riparian, forest and coastal habitat restoration, urban wildlife conservation, stormwater management as well as outreach, education and stewardship.

  14. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  15. The impact of a filament eruption on nearby high-lying cool loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harra, L. K.; Matthews, S. A.; Long, D. M.; Doschek, G. A.; De Pontieu, B.

    2014-09-10

    The first spectroscopic observations of cool Mg II loops above the solar limb observed by NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) are presented. During the observation period, IRIS is pointed off-limb, allowing the observation of high-lying loops, which reach over 70 Mm in height. Low-lying cool loops were observed by the IRIS slit-jaw camera for the entire four-hour observing window. There is no evidence of a central reversal in the line profiles, and the Mg II h/k ratio is approximately two. The Mg II spectral lines show evidence of complex dynamics in the loops with Doppler velocities reaching 40 km s{sup 1}. The complex motions seen indicate the presence of multiple threads in the loops and separate blobs. Toward the end of the observing period, a filament eruption occurs that forms the core of a coronal mass ejection. As the filament erupts, it impacts these high-lying loops, temporarily impeding these complex flows, most likely due to compression. This causes the plasma motions in the loops to become blueshifted and then redshifted. The plasma motions are seen before the loops themselves start to oscillate as they reach equilibrium following the impact. The ratio of the Mg h/k lines also increases following the impact of the filament.

  16. EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 5, 2010 EIS-0505: Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement Click the image to view the EIS. Contact Katey Grange kcgrange@bpa.gov (503) 323-4047 More ...

  17. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, Nick; Poerschke, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  18. POTENTIAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ONSET OF ALFVNIC TURBULENCE IN TRANS-EQUATORIAL CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Moortel, I.; Threlfall, J.; McIntosh, S. W.; Bethge, C.; Liu, J. E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu

    2014-02-20

    This study investigates Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter Doppler-shift observations of a large, off-limb, trans-equatorial loop system observed on 2012 April 10-11. Doppler-shift oscillations with a broad range of frequencies are found to propagate along the loop with a speed of about 500kms{sup 1}. The power spectrum of perturbations travelling up from both loop footpoints is remarkably symmetric, probably due to the almost perfect north-south alignment of the loop system. Compared to the power spectrum at the footpoints of the loop, the Fourier power at the apex appears to be higher in the high-frequency part of the spectrum than expected from theoretical models. We suggest this excess high-frequency power could be tentative evidence for the onset of a cascade of the low-to-mid frequency waves into (Alfvnic) turbulence.

  19. DEEPER BY THE DOZEN: UNDERSTANDING THE CROSS-FIELD TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Jenkins, B. S.; Worley, B. T., E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Spectroscopic analysis of coronal loops has revealed a variety of cross-field temperature distributions. Some loops appear to be isothermal while others require multithermal plasma. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode has the spatial resolution and temperature coverage required for differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of coronal loops. Our results also use data from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode as a high-temperature constraint. Of our 12 loops, two were post-flare loops with broad temperature distributions, two were narrow but not quite isothermal, and the remaining eight were in the mid range. We consider our DEM methods to be a significant advance over previous work, and it is also reassuring to learn that our findings are consistent with results available in the literature. For the quiescent loops analyzed here, 10 MK plasma, a signature of nanoflares, appears to be absent at a level of approximately two orders of magnitude down from the DEM peak. We find some evidence that warmer loops require broader DEMs. The cross-field temperatures obtained here cannot be modeled as single flux tubes. Rather, the observed loop must be composed of several or many unresolved strands. The plasma contained in each of these strands could be cooling at different rates, contributing to the multithermal nature of the observed loop pixels. An important implication of our DEM results involves observations from future instruments. Once solar telescopes can truly resolve X-ray and EUV coronal structures, these images would have to reveal the loop substructure implied by our multithermal results.

  20. Unresolved fine-scale structure in solar coronal loop-tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scullion, E.; Van der Voort, L. Rouppe; Wedemeyer, S.; Antolin, P.

    2014-12-10

    New and advanced space-based observing facilities continue to lower the resolution limit and detect solar coronal loops in greater detail. We continue to discover even finer substructures within coronal loop cross-sections, in order to understand the nature of the solar corona. Here, we push this lower limit further to search for the finest coronal loop substructures, through taking advantage of the resolving power of the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope/CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter (CRISP), together with co-observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA). High-resolution imaging of the chromospheric H? 656.28 nm spectral line core and wings can, under certain circumstances, allow one to deduce the topology of the local magnetic environment of the solar atmosphere where its observed. Here, we study post-flare coronal loops, which become filled with evaporated chromosphere that rapidly condenses into chromospheric clumps of plasma (detectable in H?) known as a coronal rain, to investigate their fine-scale structure. We identify, through analysis of three data sets, large-scale catastrophic cooling in coronal loop-tops and the existence of multi-thermal, multi-stranded substructures. Many cool strands even extend fully intact from loop-top to footpoint. We discover that coronal loop fine-scale strands can appear bunched with as many as eight parallel strands within an AIA coronal loop cross-section. The strand number density versus cross-sectional width distribution, as detected by CRISP within AIA-defined coronal loops, most likely peaks at well below 100 km, and currently, 69% of the substructure strands are statistically unresolved in AIA coronal loops.

  1. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  2. Future singularities and teleparallelism in loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Haro, Jaume de; Odintsov, Sergei D. E-mail: jaime.haro@upc.edu

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate how holonomy corrections in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) prevent the Big Rip singularity by introducing a quadratic modification in terms of the energy density ? in the Friedmann equation in the Friedmann-Lematre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) space-time in a consistent and useful way. In addition, we investigate whether other kind of singularities like Type II,III and IV singularities survive or are avoided in LQC when the universe is filled by a barotropic fluid with the state equation P = ???f(?), where P is the pressure and f(?) a function of ?. It is shown that the Little Rip cosmology does not happen in LQC. Nevertheless, the occurrence of the Pseudo-Rip cosmology, in which the phantom universe approaches the de Sitter one asymptotically, is established, and the corresponding example is presented. It is interesting that the disintegration of bound structures in the Pseudo-Rip cosmology in LQC always takes more time than that in Einstein cosmology. Our investigation on future singularities is generalized to that in modified teleparallel gravity, where LQC and Brane Cosmology in the Randall-Sundrum scenario are the best examples. It is remarkable that F(T) gravity may lead to all the kinds of future singularities including Little Rip.

  3. More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katirci, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve E-mail: ali.kaya@boun.edu.tr

    2014-06-01

    We consider the single field chaotic m{sup 2}?{sup 2} inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field ? in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the ? modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the (??) correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ? modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how ? loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two ? fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more ? fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.

  4. DETECTING NANOFLARE HEATING EVENTS IN SUBARCSECOND INTER-MOSS LOOPS USING Hi-C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Moore, Ronald; Cirtain, Jonathan; Walsh, Robert W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; Kobayashi, Ken; DeForest, Craig; Kuzin, Sergey

    2013-07-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high-spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 A channel. In this paper, we analyze a set of rapidly evolving loops that appear in an inter-moss region. We select six loops that both appear in and fade out of the Hi-C images during the short flight. From the Hi-C data, we determine the size and lifetimes of the loops and characterize whether these loops appear simultaneously along their length or first appear at one footpoint before appearing at the other. Using co-aligned, co-temporal data from multiple channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we determine the temperature and density of the loops. We find the loops consist of cool ({approx}10{sup 5} K), dense ({approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) plasma. Their required thermal energy and their observed evolution suggest they result from impulsive heating similar in magnitude to nanoflares. Comparisons with advanced numerical simulations indicate that such dense, cold and short-lived loops are a natural consequence of impulsive magnetic energy release by reconnection of braided magnetic field at low heights in the solar atmosphere.

  5. Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2013-02-01

    ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

  6. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Hardware-in-the-Loop at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Megawatt-Scale Power Hardware-in-the-Loop at Megawatt-Scale Power Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is not new, but the Energy System Integration Facility's megawatt-scale power takes this research to another level. It allows researchers and manufacturers to conduct integration tests at full power and actual load levels in real-time simulations to evaluate component and system performance before going to market. For more information, read the power hardware-in-the-loop factsheet. Photo of two

  7. Triviality and vacuum stability bounds in the three-loop neutrino mass

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Triviality and vacuum stability bounds in the three-loop neutrino mass model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Triviality and vacuum stability bounds in the three-loop neutrino mass model We study theoretical constraints on the parameter space under the conditions from vacuum stability and triviality in the three-loop radiative seesaw model with TeV-scale right-handed neutrinos which are odd under the Z{sub 2} parity. In this model, some of

  8. Two-loop ultrasoft running of the O(v{sup 2}) QCD quark potentials (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Two-loop ultrasoft running of the O(v{sup 2}) QCD quark potentials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-loop ultrasoft running of the O(v{sup 2}) QCD quark potentials The two-loop ultrasoft contributions to the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) running of the QCD potentials at order v{sup 2} are determined. The results represent an important step towards the next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) description of heavy quark pair production and

  9. Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2013-09-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  10. An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Zeman; Marco Castaldi

    2008-04-15

    Producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels with a reduced greenhouse gas emissions profile would ease the transition to a carbon-neutral energy sector with the transportation industry being the immediate beneficiary followed by the power industry. Revolutionary solutions in transportation, such as electricity and hydrogen, depend on the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies and/or renewable energy systems. Additionally, high oil prices may increase the development of unconventional sources, such as tar sands, that have a higher emissions profile. One process that is gaining interest is a system for producing reduced carbon fuels though chemical looping technologies. An investigation of the implications of such a process using methane and carbon dioxide that is reformed to yield methanol has been done. An important aspect of the investigation is the use of off-the-shelf technologies to achieve the results. The ability of the process to yield reduced emissions fuels depends on the source for the feed and process heat. For the range of conditions considered, the emissions profile of methanol produced in this method varies from 0.475 to 1.645 moles carbon dioxide per mole methanol. The thermal load can be provided by methane, coal or carbon neutral (biogas). The upper bound can be lowered to 0.750 by applying CCS and/or using nonfossil heat sources for the reforming. The process provides an initial pathway to incorporate CO{sub 2} into fuels independent of electrolytic hydrogen or developments in other sectors of the economy. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 2: primary coolant loop model. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, A.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the Zion Station reactor coolant loop model developed by Sargent and Lundy Engineers for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of its Load Combination Program. This model was developed for use in performing seismic time history analyses of an actual pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. It includes all major items affecting the seismic response of a 4-loop Westinghouse nuclear steam supply system: the components, supports, and interconnecting piping. The model was further expanded to permit static analysis of dead weight, thermal, and internal pressure load conditions.

  12. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR Plant. Volume 2. Primary Coolant Loop Model. Load Combination Program, Project I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, A.C.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes the Zion Station reactor coolant loop model developed by Sargent and Lundy Engineers for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of its Load Combination Program. This model was developed for use in performing seismic time history analyses of an actual pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. It includes all major items affecting the seismic response of a 4-loop Westinghouse nuclear steam supply system: the components, supports, and interconnecting piping. The model was further expanded to permit static analysis of dead weight, thermal, and internal pressure load conditions. 7 refs., 42 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph

    2012-07-31

    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  14. Study of the fast photoswitching of spin crossover nanoparticles outside and inside their thermal hysteresis loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galle, G.; Degert, J.; Freysz, E.; Etrillard, C.; Letard, J.-F.; Guillaume, F.

    2013-02-11

    We have studied the low spin to high spin phase transition induced by nanosecond laser pulses outside and within the thermal hysteresis loop of the [Fe(Htrz){sub 2} trz](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}-H{sub 2}O spin crossover nanoparticles. We demonstrate that, whatever the temperature of the compound, the photo-switching is achieved in less than 12.5 ns. Outside the hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains up to 100 {mu}s and then relaxes. Within the thermal hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains as long as the temperature of the sample is kept within the thermal loop. A Raman study indicates that the photo-switching can be completed using single laser pulse excitation.

  15. ICFT- An Initial Closed-Loop Flow Test of the Fenton Hill Phase...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ICFT- An Initial Closed-Loop Flow Test of the Fenton Hill Phase II HDR Reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: ICFT- An Initial...

  16. An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods for One-Loop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods for One-Loop Amplitudes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods...

  17. Optical interconnect loop-back switch for in-situ diagnostics. (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect interconnect loop-back switch for in-situ diagnostics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical interconnect loop-back switch for in-situ diagnostics. No abstract prepared. Authors: Spahn, Olga Blum ; Iannotti, Joe [1] ; Lewek, Daniel [2] ; Kornrumpf, Bill [3] ; Forman, Glenn [4] ; Kryzak, Chuck [5] ; Thorson, Kevin [6] ; Cowan, Bill ; Dagel, Daryl James ; Grossetete, Grant David + Show Author Affiliations (General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY)

  18. PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EVIDENCE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PLASMOID EJECTIONS AND LOOP CONTRACTIONS IN AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE: EVIDENCE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS Where particle acceleration

  19. Involvement of the [beta]3-[alpha]3 Loop of the Proline Dehydrogenase

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Domain in Allosteric Regulation of Membrane Association of Proline Utilization A (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Involvement of the [beta]3-[alpha]3 Loop of the Proline Dehydrogenase Domain in Allosteric Regulation of Membrane Association of Proline Utilization A Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Involvement of the [beta]3-[alpha]3 Loop of the Proline Dehydrogenase Domain in Allosteric Regulation of Membrane Association of Proline Utilization A Authors: Zhu, Weidong ; Haile,

  20. All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    scattering (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  1. Crossreactivity of a human autoimmune TCR is dominated by a single TCR loop

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Crossreactivity of a human autoimmune TCR is dominated by a single TCR loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crossreactivity of a human autoimmune TCR is dominated by a single TCR loop Authors: Sethi, Dhruv K. ; Gordo, Susana ; Schubert, David A. ; Wucherpfennig, Kai W. [1] ; DFCI) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (Harvard-Med) [Harvard-Med ( Publication Date: 2013-11-06 OSTI Identifier: 1097300

  2. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine | Department of Energy Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_baumgard.pdf More Documents & Publications Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-Duty Engine in

  3. ADR Lunchtime Program: WHERE DO YOU STAND IN THE FEEDBACK LOOP? MAKE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FEEDBACK WORK FOR YOU | Department of Energy WHERE DO YOU STAND IN THE FEEDBACK LOOP? MAKE FEEDBACK WORK FOR YOU ADR Lunchtime Program: WHERE DO YOU STAND IN THE FEEDBACK LOOP? MAKE FEEDBACK WORK FOR YOU This interactive session during Conflict Resolution Month will delve into the complex topic of giving and receiving feedback. The presenter - a preeminent trainer and coach - will discuss how to use our skills and knowledge to help people in organizations work together effectively on

  4. 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University's Urban

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Harvest Team Submission | Department of Energy Ryerson University's Urban Harvest Team Submission 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University's Urban Harvest Team Submission Ryerson University's Urban Harvest's team submission to the 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition. PDF icon harvest_home_team_submission.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University -- Harvest Home Presentation Indoor airPLUS

  5. Consequences of Urban Stability Conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Urban Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Chan, S T

    2005-11-30

    The validity of omitting stability considerations when simulating transport and dispersion in the urban environment is explored using observations from the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulations of that experiment. Four releases of sulfur hexafluoride, during two daytime and two nighttime intensive observing periods, are simulated using the building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model, FEM3MP to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with two options of turbulence parameterizations. One option omits stability effects but has a superior turbulence parameterization using a non-linear eddy viscosity (NEV) approach, while the other considers buoyancy effects with a simple linear eddy viscosity (LEV) approach for turbulence parameterization. Model performance metrics are calculated by comparison with observed winds and tracer data in the downtown area, and with observed winds and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) profiles at a location immediately downwind of the central business district (CBD) in the area we label as the urban shadow. Model predictions of winds, concentrations, profiles of wind speed, wind direction, and friction velocity are generally consistent with and compare reasonably well with the field observations. Simulations using the NEV turbulence parameterization generally exhibit better agreement with observations. To further explore this assumption of a neutrally-stable atmosphere within the urban area, TKE budget profiles slightly downwind of the urban wake region in the 'urban shadow' are examined. Dissipation and shear production are the largest terms which may be calculated directly. The advection of TKE is calculated as a residual; as would be expected downwind of an urban area, the advection of TKE produced within the urban area is a very large term. Buoyancy effects may be neglected in favor of advection, shear production, and dissipation. For three of the IOPs, buoyancy production may be neglected entirely, and for one IOP, buoyancy production contributes approximately 25% of the total TKE at this location. For both nighttime releases, the contribution of buoyancy to the total TKE budget is always negligible though positive. Results from the simulations provide estimates of the average TKE values in the upwind, downtown, downtown shadow, and urban wake zones of the computational domain. These values suggest that building-induced turbulence can cause the average turbulence intensity in the urban area to increase by as much as much as seven times average 'upwind' values, explaining the minimal role of buoyant forcing in the downtown region. The downtown shadow exhibits an exponential decay in average TKE, while the distant downwind wake region approaches the average upwind values. For long-duration releases in downtown and downtown shadow areas, the assumption of neutral stability is valid because building-induced turbulence dominates the budget. However, further downwind in the urban wake region, which we find to be approximately 1500 m beyond the perimeter of downtown Oklahoma City, the levels of building-induced turbulence greatly subside, and therefore the assumption of neutral stability is less valid.

  6. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  7. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon thermal fluids showing thermally stability to 600 C have been tested for solar thermal-power applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C indicated that the fluid isomerized and degraded at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components in trough solar electric generating systems, such as the waste heat rejection exchanger, may become coated or clogged affecting loop performance. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene, without addition of stabilizers, does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the temperatures greater than 500 C. The performance of a concentrating solar loop using high temperature fluids was modeled based on the National Renewable Laboratory Solar Advisory Model. It was determined that a solar-to-electricity efficiency of up to 30% and a capacity factor of near 60% could be achieved using a high efficiency collector and 12 h thermal energy storage.

  8. Indonesia-GTZ Emissions Reductions in Urban Transport | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    policy on sustainable urban transport, as well as general deficiencies regarding personal and financial resources in city administrations. The methodological approach of GTZ...

  9. Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Presentation of Results Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of Results AgencyCompany...

  10. Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urban Transport Project GIZ Sourcebook Module 4f: Eco Driving Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station ... further results Find Another Tool...

  11. ICLEI Sustainable Urban Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urban Energy Planning AgencyCompany Organization: ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency Topics:...

  12. Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable transport: a sourcebook for policy-makers in developing cities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH...

  13. Clean Urban Transport for Europe CUTE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transport for Europe CUTE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) Place: Ulm, Germany Zip: 89077 Product: Germany-based, European Union project...

  14. Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from utility-scale PV in urban areas of a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy...

  15. Urban structure and its influence on vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.; Jones, D.W.; Harrison, G.

    1996-04-01

    This paper examines what is known about the relationship between urban spatial structure (i.e. the arrangement of residential, industrial, commercial, recreational and municipal buildings and land lots) and urban travel. The first section provides an overview of the empirical evidence for relationships between urban spatial structure and travel in the United States. Section two focuses on the barriers to and opportunities for reducing the use of automobiles and light trucks in urban areas. The final section offers a policy-point-of-impact perspective on the sort of instruments governments have at their disposal for reducing vehicular travel.

  16. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Community Partnerships *5 US Dept of Housing and Urban Development Energy Efficiency Project Finance *5 * Some Restrictions Depending On Funding "Modest" "Total ...

  17. Housing and urban development research reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The sixth in a series of documents published by the Department of Housng and Urban Development (HUD) to assist in the formulation of policy decision contains 247 abstracts entered in the HUD USER automated data base during the past six months, bringing the data base total to 3,583 documents. There are 45 subject areas in the main section, with the abstracts in each area arranged alphabetically by title. Each abstract is identified by an order number and is followed by descriptive keywords. Other listings of the documents are alphabetical, numerical, by personal or corporate author, by contract and grant number, and by subject index.

  18. Converting urban tree maintenance residue to energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, W.K.; Massey, J.G.; Sumrall, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three methods of utilizing urban wood waste collected by a tree maintenance firm in Houston, Texas (handling 30,000 ton waste/year) are examined: (a) hauling to a remote landfill; (b) chipping and hauling to a (local) power plant and converting to electricity; and (c) chipping and selling to an outside firm for use as boiler fuel. Breakdown of costs are given for each method in monetary and energy terms. Method (b) was the cheapest, producing a net energy gain (870 million Btu/day), but the firm chose method (c), since it realized a direct monetary return.

  19. A Web Based Geographic Information Platform to Support Urban Adaptation to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, Philip J; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Parish, Esther S; Mei, Rui; Ernst, Kathleen M; Absar, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    The urban climate is changing rapidly. Therefore, climate change and its projected impacts on environmental conditions must be considered in assessing and comparing urban planning alternatives. In this paper, we present an integrated framework for urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT) that will help cities to plan for, rather than react to, possible risks. Urban-CAT will be developed as a scenario planning tool that is locally relevant to existing urban decision-making processes.

  20. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-11-15

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  1. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    More important, our method shows its potential to map global urban extents and ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: DMSPOLS; Nightlights; Urban ...

  2. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. Fabricate the Test Loop. Perform the Tests. Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will be performed to develop probability of confidence in what is measured in the test loop. Overall, the testing loop will allow development of needed heat transfer related thermophysical parameters for all the salts, validate existing correlations, validate measuring instruments under harsh environment, and have extensive corrosion testing of materials of construction.

  3. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  4. Plasma dynamics above solar flare soft x-ray loop tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; McKenzie, D. E.

    2014-06-10

    We measure non-thermal motions in flare loop tops and above the loop tops using profiles of highly ionized spectral lines of Fe XXIV and Fe XXIII formed at multimillion-degree temperatures. Non-thermal motions that may be due to turbulence or multiple flow regions along the line of sight are extracted from the line profiles. The non-thermal motions are measured for four flares seen at or close to the solar limb. The profile data are obtained using the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on the Hinode spacecraft. The multimillion-degree non-thermal motions are between 20 and 60 km s{sup 1} and appear to increase with height above the loop tops. Motions determined from coronal lines (i.e., lines formed at about 1.5 MK) tend to be smaller. The multimillion-degree temperatures in the loop tops and above range from about 11 MK to 15 MK and also tend to increase with height above the bright X-ray-emitting loop tops. The non-thermal motions measured along the line of sight, as well as their apparent increase with height, are supported by Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements of turbulent velocities in the plane of the sky.

  5. COMBINING PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND CORONAL HEATING VIA DATA-CONSTRAINED CALCULATIONS OF NANOFLARES IN CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gontikakis, C.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Patsourakos, S.; Anastasiadis, A.

    2013-07-10

    We model nanoflare heating of extrapolated active-region coronal loops via the acceleration of electrons and protons in Harris-type current sheets. The kinetic energy of the accelerated particles is estimated using semi-analytical and test-particle-tracing approaches. Vector magnetograms and photospheric Doppler velocity maps of NOAA active region 09114, recorded by the Imaging Vector Magnetograph, were used for this analysis. A current-free field extrapolation of the active-region corona was first constructed. The corresponding Poynting fluxes at the footpoints of 5000 extrapolated coronal loops were then calculated. Assuming that reconnecting current sheets develop along these loops, we utilized previous results to estimate the kinetic energy gain of the accelerated particles. We related this energy to nanoflare heating and macroscopic loop characteristics. Kinetic energies of 0.1-8 keV (for electrons) and 0.3-470 keV (for protons) were found to cause heating rates ranging from 10{sup -6} to 1 erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -3}. Hydrodynamic simulations show that such heating rates can sustain plasma in coronal conditions inside the loops and generate plasma thermal distributions that are consistent with active-region observations. We concluded the analysis by computing the form of X-ray spectra generated by the accelerated electrons using the thick-target approach. These spectra were found to be in agreement with observed X-ray spectra, thus supporting the plausibility of our nanoflare-heating scenario.

  6. ENTHALPY-BASED THERMAL EVOLUTION OF LOOPS. II. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cargill, P. J.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2012-06-20

    This paper develops the zero-dimensional (0D) hydrodynamic coronal loop model 'Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops' (EBTEL) proposed by Klimchuk et al., which studies the plasma response to evolving coronal heating, especially impulsive heating events. The basis of EBTEL is the modeling of mass exchange between the corona and transition region (TR) and chromosphere in response to heating variations, with the key parameter being the ratio of the TR to coronal radiation. We develop new models for this parameter that now include gravitational stratification and a physically motivated approach to radiative cooling. A number of examples are presented, including nanoflares in short and long loops, and a small flare. The new features in EBTEL are important for accurate tracking of, in particular, the density. The 0D results are compared to a 1D hydro code (Hydrad) with generally good agreement. EBTEL is suitable for general use as a tool for (1) quick-look results of loop evolution in response to a given heating function, (2) extensive parameter surveys, and (3) situations where the modeling of hundreds or thousands of elemental loops is needed. A single run takes a few seconds on a contemporary laptop.

  7. A global map of urban extent from nightlights

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Zhao, Kaiguang; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Zhang, Xuesong; He, Chunyang; Elvidge, Christopher

    2015-05-13

    Urbanization, one of the major human induced land-cover and land-use changes, has a profound impact on the Earth system including biodiversity, the cycling of water and carbon and exchange of energy and water between Earth’s surface and atmosphere, all affecting weather and climate. Accurate information on urban areas and their spatial distribution at the regional and global scales is important for scientific understanding of their contribution to the changing Earth system, and for practical management and policy decisions. We developed a method to map the urban extent from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable-light data atmore » the global level and derived a new global map of 1-km urban extent for year 2000. Based on this map, we found that globally, urban land area is about 0.5% of total land area but ranges widely at regional level from 0.1% in Oceania to 2.3% in Europe. At the country level, urban land area varies from lower than 0.01% to higher than 10%, but is lower than 1% for most (70%) countries. Urbanization follows land mass distribution, as anticipated, with the highest concentration found between 30°N to 45°N latitude and the largest longitudinal peak around 80°W. Based on a sensitivity analysis and comparison with other global urban area products, we found that our global product of urban area provides a reliable estimate of global urban areas and offer the potential of capturing more accurately their spatial and temporal dynamics.« less

  8. Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulvihill, Peter R. . E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris . E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

    2007-05-15

    This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

  9. One-loop calculations in quantum field theory: from Feynman diagrams to unitarity cuts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, R. Keith; Kunszt, Zoltan; Melnikov, Kirill; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2012-09-01

    The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods.

  10. Development of Water Radiolysis Code for the JMTR IASCC Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoshi Hanawa; Tomonori Sato; Yuichiro Mori; Jin Oogiyanagi; Yoshiyuki Kaji; Shunsuke Uchida

    2006-07-01

    In order to evaluate the water chemistry in the irradiation field during IASCC irradiation test, a water radiolysis code for IASCC irradiation loop system was developed. In the water radiolysis code, a multiple node model was introduced since the irradiation loop system has a wide rage temperature distribution as well as the dose distribution. To investigate the applicability of developed water radiolysis code, water chemistry at the water sampling point of the irradiation loop system was measured and compared with analytical results under several water chemistry conditions. Further, water chemistry distribution in the in-pile region as well as in the out-pile region was calculated by the developed water radiolysis code. (authors)

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2015-07-14

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  12. Sensitivity of the blue loops of intermediate-mass stars to nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halabi, Ghina M.; El Eid, Mounib

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the effects of a modification of the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction rate, as suggested by recent evaluations, on the formation and extension of the blue loops encountered during the evolution of the stars in the mass range 5M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} to 12M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }. We show that the blue loops of stars in the mass range 5M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} to 8M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }, that is the range of super ABG stars, are severely affected by a modification of the important {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction rate. We also show that the blue loops can be restored if envelope overshooting is included, which is necessary to explain the observations of the Cepheid stars.

  13. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhouxiang; Zhang Xian; Huang Kaikai; Lu Xuanhui

    2012-09-15

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad{sup 2} and transition time of 100 {mu}s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  14. A Proposal for a Standard Interface Between Monte Carlo Tools And One-Loop Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binoth, T.; Boudjema, F.; Dissertori, G.; Lazopoulos, A.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Frederix, R.; Greiner, N.; Hoeche, Stefan; Giele, W.; Skands, P.; Winter, J.; Gleisberg, T.; Archibald, J.; Heinrich, G.; Krauss, F.; Maitre, D.; Huber, M.; Huston, J.; Kauer, N.; Maltoni, F.; /Louvain U., CP3 /Milan Bicocca U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Granada U., Theor. Phys. Astrophys. /CERN /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Heidelberg U. /Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2011-11-11

    Many highly developed Monte Carlo tools for the evaluation of cross sections based on tree matrix elements exist and are used by experimental collaborations in high energy physics. As the evaluation of one-loop matrix elements has recently been undergoing enormous progress, the combination of one-loop matrix elements with existing Monte Carlo tools is on the horizon. This would lead to phenomenological predictions at the next-to-leading order level. This note summarises the discussion of the next-to-leading order multi-leg (NLM) working group on this issue which has been taking place during the workshop on Physics at TeV Colliders at Les Houches, France, in June 2009. The result is a proposal for a standard interface between Monte Carlo tools and one-loop matrix element programs.

  15. Heating mechanisms for intermittent loops in active region cores from AIA/SDO EUV observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Nigro, G.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate intensity variations and energy deposition in five coronal loops in active region cores. These were selected for their strong variability in the AIA/SDO 94 Å intensity channel. We isolate the hot Fe XVIII and Fe XXI components of the 94 Å and 131 Å by modeling and subtracting the 'warm' contributions to the emission. HMI/SDO data allow us to focus on 'inter-moss' regions in the loops. The detailed evolution of the inter-moss intensity time series reveals loops that are impulsively heated in a mode compatible with a nanoflare storm, with a spike in the hot 131 Å signals leading and the other five EUV emission channels following in progressive cooling order. A sharp increase in electron temperature tends to follow closely after the hot 131 Å signal confirming the impulsive nature of the process. A cooler process of growing emission measure follows more slowly. The Fourier power spectra of the hot 131 Å signals, when averaged over the five loops, present three scaling regimes with break frequencies near 0.1 min{sup –1} and 0.7 min{sup –1}. The low frequency regime corresponds to 1/f noise; the intermediate indicates a persistent scaling process and the high frequencies show white noise. Very similar results are found for the energy dissipation in a 2D 'hybrid' shell model of loop magneto-turbulence, based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics, that is compatible with nanoflare statistics. We suggest that such turbulent dissipation is the energy source for our loops.

  16. String loops in the field of braneworld spherically symmetric black holes and naked singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuchlk, Z.; Kolo, M. E-mail: martin.kolos@fpf.slu.cz

    2012-10-01

    We study motion of current-carrying string loops in the field of braneworld spherically symmetric black holes and naked singularities. The spacetime is described by the Reissner-Nordstrm geometry with tidal charge b reflecting the non-local tidal effects coming from the external dimension; both positive and negative values of the spacetime parameter b are considered. We restrict attention to the axisymmetric motion of string loops when the motion can be fully governed by an appropriately defined effective potential related to the energy and angular momentum of the string loops. In dependence on these two constants of the motion, the string loops can be captured, trapped, or can escape to infinity. In close vicinity of stable equilibrium points at the centre of trapped states the motion is regular. We describe how it is transformed to chaotic motion with growing energy of the string loop. In the field of naked singularities the trapped states located off the equatorial plane of the system exist and trajectories unable to cross the equatorial plane occur, contrary to the trajectories in the field of black holes where crossing the equatorial plane is always admitted. We concentrate our attention to the so called transmutation effect when the string loops are accelerated in the deep gravitational field near the black hole or naked singularity by transforming the oscillatory energy to the energy of the transitional motion. We demonstrate that the influence of the tidal charge can be substantial especially in the naked singularity spacetimes with b > 1 where the acceleration to ultrarelativistic velocities with Lorentz factor ? ? 100 can be reached, being more than one order higher in comparison with those obtained in the black hole spacetimes.

  17. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  18. N 3 LO Higgs boson and Drell-Yan production at threshold: The one-loop

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two-emission contribution (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect N 3 LO Higgs boson and Drell-Yan production at threshold: The one-loop two-emission contribution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: N 3 LO Higgs boson and Drell-Yan production at threshold: The one-loop two-emission contribution Authors: Li, Ye ; von Manteuffel, Andreas ; Schabinger, Robert M. ; Zhu, Hua Xing Publication Date: 2014-09-08 OSTI Identifier: 1180352 Grant/Contract Number: DEAC0276SF00515 Type: Publisher's

  19. All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    scattering (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering Authors: Dixon, Lance J. ; /SLAC /Caltech ; Esterlis, Ilya ; /SLAC Publication Date: 2016-02-05 OSTI Identifier: 1237021 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-16467 arXiv:1602.02107 DOE Contract

  20. An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods for One-Loop Amplitudes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods for One-Loop Amplitudes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods for One-Loop Amplitudes Authors: Berger, C.F. ; Bern, Z. ; Dixon, L.J. ; Febres Cordero, F. ; Forde, D. ; Ita, H. ; Kosower, D.A. ; Maitre, D. ; /MIT, LNS /Santa Barbara, KITP /SLAC /UCLA /Saclay Publication Date: 2008-04-11 OSTI Identifier: 927069 Report Number(s):

  1. Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop Study for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. H. Oh; C. Davis; S. Sherman

    2008-08-01

    A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic and cycleefficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. This paper also includes a portion of stress analyses performed on pipe configurations.

  2. Geek-Up[08.27.10] -- Geothermal Stores, Graphene Loops, Nozzle Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and the 1918 El Niño | Department of Energy 7.10] -- Geothermal Stores, Graphene Loops, Nozzle Technology and the 1918 El Niño Geek-Up[08.27.10] -- Geothermal Stores, Graphene Loops, Nozzle Technology and the 1918 El Niño August 27, 2010 - 5:21pm Addthis Blue flame generated by natural gas. Blue flame generated by natural gas. Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs With the opening of a new IKEA in suburban Denver

  3. Control Strategy for a Dual Loop EGR System to Meet Euro 6 and Beyond |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Control Strategy for a Dual Loop EGR System to Meet Euro 6 and Beyond Control Strategy for a Dual Loop EGR System to Meet Euro 6 and Beyond Presentation given at the 2009 DEER Conference. This presentation focues on EGR and Boost systems for reducing the cost and lowering emissions of diesel engines. PDF icon deer09_czarnowski.pdf More Documents & Publications Can Future Emissions Limits be Met with a Hybrid EGR System Alone? Strategies for In-Cylinder Reductions to

  4. Dual Loop Parallel/Series Waste Heat Recovery System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual Loop Parallel/Series Waste Heat Recovery System Dual Loop Parallel/Series Waste Heat Recovery System This system captures all the jacket water, intercooler, and exhaust heat from the engine by utilizing a single condenser to reject leftover heat to the atmosphere. PDF icon p-04_cook.pdf More Documents & Publications Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer CNG-Hybrid: A Practical Path to "Net Zero

  5. Large mass expansion in two-loop QCD corrections of paracharmonium decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, K.; Pak, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop QCD corrections to paracharmonium decays {eta}{sub c}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta}{sub c}{yields}gg involving light-by-light scattering diagrams with light quark loops. Artificial large mass expansion and convergence improvement techniques are used to evaluate these corrections. The obtained corrections to the decays {eta}{sub c}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta}{sub c}{yields}gg account for -1.25% and -0.73% of the leading order contribution, respectively.

  6. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  7. The One and Two Loops Renormalization Group Equations in the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juarez W, S. Rebeca; Solis R, H. Gabriel; Kielanowski, P.

    2006-01-06

    In the context of the Standard Model (SM), we compare the analytical and the numerical solutions of the Renormalization Group Equations (RGE) for the relevant couplings to one and two loops. This information will be an important ingredient for the precise evaluation of boundary values on the physical Higgs Mass.

  8. Hardware-in-the-loop testing of wireless systems in realistic environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory); Schniter, P. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    This document describes an approach for testing of wireless systems in realistic environments that include intentional as well as unintentional radio frequency interference. In the approach, signal generators along with radio channel simulators are used to carry out hardware-in-the-loop testing. The channel parameters are obtained independently via channel sounding measurements and/or EM simulations.

  9. Structural properties of the histidine-containing loop in HIV-1RNase H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, G.; Pelton, J.; Marqusee, S.; Kern, D.

    2001-01-02

    The isolated HIV-1 RNase H domain is inactive. This inactivity has been linked to the lack of structure in the C-terminus of the isolated domain. His539 residing in a loop preceding the C-terminal Helix was studies by NMR to determine the stability and conformational properties of this region.

  10. Hydrogen-bond driven loop-closure kinetics in unfolded polypeptide chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Neuweiler, H [University of Heidelberg; Doose, S [University of Heidelberg; Sauer, M [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of the length dependence of end-to-end loop-closure kinetics in unfolded polypeptide chains provides an understanding of early steps in protein folding. Here, loop-closure in poly-glycine-serine peptides is investigated by combining single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy with molecular dynamics simulation. For chains containing more than 10 peptide bonds loop-closing rate constants on the 20-100 nanosecond time range exhibit a power-law length dependence. However, this scaling breaks down for shorter peptides, which exhibit slower kinetics arising from a perturbation induced by the dye reporter system used in the experimental setup. The loop-closure kinetics in the longer peptides is found to be determined by the formation of intra-peptide hydrogen bonds and transient beta-sheet structure, that accelerate the search for contacts among residues distant in sequence relative to the case of a polypeptide chain in which hydrogen bonds cannot form. Hydrogen-bond-driven polypeptide-chain collapse in unfolded peptides under physiological conditions found here is not only consistent with hierarchical models of protein folding, that highlights the importance of secondary structure formation early in the folding process, but is also shown to speed up the search for productive folding events.

  11. On One Master Integral for Three-loop On-shell HQET Propagator Diagrams with Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozin, A.G.; Huber, T.; Maitre, D.; /SLAC

    2007-06-26

    An exact expression for the master integral I{sub 2} [1] arising in three-loop on-shell HQET propagator diagrams with mass is derived and its analytical expansion in the dimensional regularization parameter {var_epsilon} is given.

  12. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban planning. LEDSGP green logo.png This tool is included in the Transportation Toolkit from...

  13. USDA National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 5:00PM EST U.S. Department of Agriculture The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting proposals for the National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant...

  14. Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVGeneration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quantity Description The estimated potential energy generation from utility-scale PV in urban areas of a particular place. Use this type to express a quantity of energy. The...

  15. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide a framework to capture them in climate models." The researchers used state-of-the-art instruments in field studies near London tracking an urban plume as it moved across...

  16. AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures PDF icon UEVAmerica Specifications PDF icon ETA-UTP001 Implementation of SAE Standard J1263, Feb. 1996 - Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques PDF icon ETA-UTP002 Implementation of SAE Standard J1666, May 1993 - Electric Vehicle Acceleration, Gradeability, and Deceleration Test Procedure PDF icon ETA-UTP003

  17. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 | Department of Energy A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 This 2004 document is a resource designed to help cities develop sustainable energy plans that will enable communities to meet their present needs without compromising the ability of future

  18. National setting for productive conservation in urban transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.R.; LaBelle, S.J.

    1981-04-01

    The need for productive conservation strategies in urban transportation is discussed. Key trends in urban transportation are discussed as a basis for identifying target areas for productive conservation strategies. The need for and expected impacts of such candidate strategies as improvements in conventional automobiles, increases in automobile load factors, changes in highway and transit system operation, price-driven reductions in travel, and shifts to more-efficient modes are briefly outlined.

  19. Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer | Department of Energy Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland PDF icon 2004_deer_erkkila.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK

  20. The LANL urban consequences project (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The LANL urban consequences project Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The LANL urban consequences project × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the

  1. Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Weatherization Assistance | Department of Energy Pilot Projects » Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for Weatherization Assistance Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for Weatherization Assistance On January 25, 2010, the Department of Energy (DOE) implemented a new rule 71-CFR-3847 for its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). Under the new rule, if a public housing, assisted multi-family or Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC)

  2. Strategic Need for Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; Su-Jong Yoon; Gregory K. Housley

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation needs. The experimental database will guide development of appropriate predictive methods and be available for code verification and validation (V&V) related to these systems.

  3. Frequency multiplexed flux locked loop architecture providing an array of DC SQUIDS having both shared and unshared components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

    2002-01-01

    Architecture for frequency multiplexing multiple flux locked loops in a system comprising an array of DC SQUID sensors. The architecture involves dividing the traditional flux locked loop into multiple unshared components and a single shared component which, in operation, form a complete flux locked loop relative to each DC SQUID sensor. Each unshared flux locked loop component operates on a different flux modulation frequency. The architecture of the present invention allows a reduction from 2N to N+1 in the number of connections between the cryogenic DC SQUID sensors and their associated room temperature flux locked loops. Furthermore, the 1.times.N architecture of the present invention can be paralleled to form an M.times.N array architecture without increasing the required number of flux modulation frequencies.

  4. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water runoff into the Charles River Basin in one of its most significantly polluted sections and, will provide a green renovation mechanism for the redirected storm water of a public alley way. This activity is designed to improve the quality of water recharging the ground water and protecting the vulnerable wood pilings under many of the historic masonry buildings in Boston's Back Bay. Sustainable design research and system monitoring opportunities will also be incorporated, providing ongoing tools for public outreach and education through innovative signage and "virtual tour" technology. The monitoring will include a "building performance dash board" that reflects real time operating conditions and improvements in environmental and economic performance to be prominently displayed on the face of our 320 Newbury Street building (approximately 1.5 million people walk by annually). The project site and demonstration area is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task II of the project is Geothermal Solution. This task involves the installation of approximately seven Geothermal wells which will tap into the earth's constant underground temperatures to provide air-conditioning and heating for BAC facilities. The environmentally friendly geothermal system uses no fossil fuel, produces no emissions and runs silently, providing a sustainable model for commercial and residential buildings throughout Boston. Ultimately the combination of this project and other projects will assist in making the BAC "carbon-neutral", and could generate enough additional energy to provide free power to the Engine 33 and Ladder 15 Firehouse located at 941 Boylston Street. The project is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task III of the project is the Sustainability Design Curriculum at the BAC. The BAC is the nation’s largest independent, multi-disciplinary college of spatial design, and a leader in sustainable design education. The Sustainabiltiy Design program, in particular, focuses on energy efficiency,energy performance, energy modeling, energy and air quality principles, green building, renewable energy alternatives and much more. Additionally, the Urban Sustainability Initiative has an objective of providing courses relative to the BAC's demonstration project with DOE, the project’s period of performance activities, subsequent performance data and anticipated sustainability teaching tools. In keeping with BAC's practice based curriculum, students have been involved in the discussion and planning of this project since its inception and sustainability issues have become a part of other programs throughout the college as well. Students will continue to benefit from this hands-on learning opportunity. The project is located at 320 Newbury Street Boston, MA 02115. Task IV of the project is Program Management and Reporting. This task will involve BAC's oversight and general management of the entire project including subcontract administration, contracts administration, technical and financial reporting, design and renovation assistance, other deliverables in accordance with the Federal Assistance reporting Checklist and other contractual obligations and provisions.

  5. Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Lundquist, J; D.Mirocha, J

    2006-09-06

    As accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow impinging upon the urban complex to the flow, transport and dispersion within it and downwind has received less attention. Building-resolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are commonly employed to investigate interactions between the flow and three-dimensional structures comprising the urban environment, however such models are typically forced with simplified boundary conditions that fail to include important regional-scale phenomena that can strongly influence the flow within the urban complex and downwind. This paper investigates the interaction of an important and frequently occurring regional-scale phenomenon, the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), with urban-scale turbulence and dispersion in Oklahoma City using data from the Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003) field experiment. Two simulations of nocturnal tracer release experiments from JU2003 using Lawrence Livermore National laboratory's FEM3MP CFD model yield differing levels of agreement with the observations in wind speed, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and concentration profiles in the urban wake, approximately 750m downwind of the central business district. Profiles of several observed turbulence parameters at this location indicate characteristics of both bottom-up and top-down boundary layers during each of the experiments. These data are consistent with turbulence production due to at least two sources, the complex flow structures of the urban area and the region of strong vertical wind shear occurring beneath the LLJs present each night. While strong LLJs occurred each night, their structures varied considerably, resulting in significant differences in the magnitudes of the turbulence parameters observed during the two experiments. As FEM3MP was forced only with an upwind velocity profile that did not adequately represent the LLJ, the downward propagation of TKE observed during the experiments was absent from the simulations. As such, the differing levels of agreement between the simulations and observations during the two experiments can, in part, be explained by their exclusion of this important larger-scale influence. We demonstrate the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to simulate accurate velocity fields during each night, and identify the use of regional-scale simulation data as a promising approach for representing the effects of important regional-scale phenomena such as the LLJ, on urban-scale simulations.

  6. Dismantling of Loop-Type Channel Equipment of MR Reactor in NRC 'Kurchatov Institute' - 13040

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, Victor; Danilovich, Alexey; Zverkov, Yuri; Ivanov, Oleg; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Lemus, Alexey; Pavlenko, Vitaly; Semenov, Sergey; Fadin, Sergey; Shisha, Anatoly; Chesnokov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    In 2009 the project of decommissioning of MR and RTF reactors was developed and approved by the Expert Authority of the Russian Federation (Gosexpertiza). The main objective of the decommissioning works identified in this project: - complete dismantling of reactor equipment and systems; - decontamination of reactor premises and site in accordance with the established sanitary and hygienic standards. At the preparatory stage (2008-2010) of the project the following works were executed: loop-type channels' dismantling in the storage pool; experimental fuel assemblies' removal from spent fuel repositories in the central hall; spent fuel assembly removal from the liquid-metal-cooled loop-type channel of the reactor core and its placement into the SNF repository; and reconstruction of engineering support systems to the extent necessary for reactor decommissioning. The project assumes three main phases of dismantling and decontamination: - dismantling of equipment/pipelines of cooling circuits and loop-type channels, and auxiliary reactor equipment (2011-2012); - dismantling of equipment in underground reactor premises and of both MR and RTF in-vessel devices (2013-2014); - decontamination of reactor premises; rehabilitation of the reactor site; final radiation survey of reactor premises, loop-type channels and site; and issuance of the regulatory authorities' de-registration statement (2015). In 2011 the decommissioning license for the two reactors was received and direct MR decommissioning activities started. MR primary pipelines and loop-type facilities situated in the underground reactor hall were dismantled. Works were also launched to dismantle the loop-type channels' equipment in underground reactor premises; reactor buildings were reconstructed to allow removal of dismantled equipment; and the MR/RTF decommissioning sequence was identified. In autumn 2011 - spring 2012 results of dismantling activities performed are: - equipment from underground rooms (No. 66, 66A, 66B, 72, 64, 63) - as well as from water and gas loop corridors - was dismantled, with the total radwaste weight of 53 tons and the total removed activity of 5,0 x 10{sup 10} Bq; - loop-type channel equipment from underground reactor hall premises was dismantled; - 93 loop-type channels were characterized, chopped and removed, with radwaste of 2.6 x 10{sup 13} Bq ({sup 60}Co) and 1.5 x 10{sup 13} Bq ({sup 137}Cs) total activity removed from the reactor pool, fragmented and packaged. Some of this waste was placed into the high-level waste (HLW) repository of the Center. Dismantling works were executed with application of remotely operated mechanisms, which promoted decrease of radiation impact on the personnel. The average individual dose for the personnel was 1.9 mSv/year in 2011, and the collective dose is estimated as 0.0605 man x Sv/year. (authors)

  7. THE CONTRACTION OF OVERLYING CORONAL LOOP AND THE ROTATING MOTION OF A SIGMOID FILAMENT DURING ITS ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Xue, Z. K.; Deng, L. H.; Ma, L.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, J. H.

    2013-06-15

    We present an observation of overlying coronal loop contraction and rotating motion of the sigmoid filament during its eruption on 2012 May 22 observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Our results show that the twist can be transported into the filament from the lower atmosphere to the higher atmosphere. The successive contraction of the coronal loops was due to a suddenly reduced magnetic pressure underneath the filament, which was caused by the rising of the filament. Before the sigmoid filament eruption, there was a counterclockwise flow in the photosphere at the right feet of the filament and the contraction loops and a convergence flow at the left foot of the filament. The hot and cool materials have inverse motion along the filament before the filament eruption. Moreover, two coronal loops overlying the filament first experienced brightening, expansion, and contraction successively. At the beginning of the rising and rotation of the left part of the filament, the second coronal loop exhibited rapid contraction. The top of the second coronal loop also showed counterclockwise rotation during the contraction process. After the contraction of the second loop, the left part of the filament rotated counterclockwise and expanded toward the right of NOAA AR 11485. During the filament expansion, the right part of the filament also exhibited counterclockwise rotation like a tornado.

  8. Well-observed dynamics of flaring and peripheral coronal magnetic loops during an M-class limb flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jinhua; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng; Feng, Li; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we present a variety of well-observed dynamic behaviors for the flaring and peripheral magnetic loops of the M6.6 class extreme limb flare that occurred on 2011 February 24 (SOL2011-02-24T07:20) from EUV observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory and X-ray observations by RHESSI. The flaring loop motion confirms the earlier contraction-expansion picture. We find that the U-shaped trajectory delineated by the X-ray corona source of the flare roughly follows the direction of a filament eruption associated with the flare. Different temperature structures of the coronal source during the contraction and expansion phases strongly suggest different kinds of magnetic reconnection processes. For some peripheral loops, we discover that their dynamics are closely correlated with the filament eruption. During the slow rising to abrupt, fast rising of the filament, overlying peripheral magnetic loops display different responses. Two magnetic loops on the elbow of the active region had a slow descending motion followed by an abrupt successive fast contraction, while magnetic loops on the top of the filament were pushed outward, slowly being inflated for a while and then erupting as a moving front. We show that the filament activation and eruption play a dominant role in determining the dynamics of the overlying peripheral coronal magnetic loops.

  9. Analytic Result for the Two-loop Six-point NMHV Amplitude in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-02-15

    We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behavior, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. This information reduces the ansatz to a small number of relatively simple functions. In order to fix these parameters uniquely, we utilize an explicit representation of the amplitude in terms of loop integrals that can be evaluated analytically in various kinematic limits. The final compact analytic result is expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms, whose arguments are rational functions of the dual conformal cross-ratios, plus precisely two functions that are not of this type. One of the functions, the loop integral {Omega}{sup (2)}, also plays a key role in a new representation of the remainder function R{sub 6}{sup (2)} in the maximally helicity violating sector. Another interesting feature at two loops is the appearance of a new (parity odd) x (parity odd) sector of the amplitude, which is absent at one loop, and which is uniquely determined in a natural way in terms of the more familiar (parity even) x (parity even) part. The second non-polylogarithmic function, the loop integral {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)}, characterizes this sector. Both {Omega}{sup (2)} and {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)} can be expressed as one-dimensional integrals over classical polylogarithms with rational arguments.

  10. TRUEX Radiolysis Testing Using the INL Radiolysis Test Loop: FY-2012 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean R. Peterman; Lonnie G. Olson; Richard D. Tillotson; Rocklan G. McDowell; Jack D. Law

    2012-09-01

    The INL radiolysis test loop has been used to evaluate the affect of radiolytic degradation upon the efficacy of the strip section of the TRUEX flowsheet for the recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from acidic solution. The nominal composition of the TRUEX solvent used in this study is 0.2 M CMPO and 1.4 M TBP dissolved in n-dodecane and the nominal composition of the TRUEX strip solution is 1.5 M lactic acid and 0.050 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Gamma irradiation of a mixture of TRUEX process solvent and stripping solution in the test loop does not adversely impact flowsheet performance as measured by stripping americium ratios. The observed increase in americium stripping distribution ratios with increasing absorbed dose indicates the radiolytic production of organic soluble degradation compounds.

  11. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  12. Probing deconfinement in a chiral effective model with Polyakov loop at imaginary chemical potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, Kenji [GSI, Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Skokov, Vladimir; Friman, Bengt [GSI, Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Redlich, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, PL-50204 Wroclaw (Poland); Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    The phase structure of the two-flavor Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lashinio model is explored at finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential with a particular emphasis on the confinement-deconfinement transition. We point out that the confined phase is characterized by a cos3{mu}{sub I}/T dependence of the chiral condensate on the imaginary chemical potential while in the deconfined phase this dependence is given by cos{mu}{sub I}/T and accompanied by a cusp structure induced by the Z(3) transition. We demonstrate that the phase structure of the model strongly depends on the choice of the Polyakov loop potential U. Furthermore, we find that by changing the four fermion coupling constant G{sub s}, the location of the critical end point of the deconfinement transition can be moved into the real chemical potential region. We propose a new parameter characterizing the confinement-deconfinement transition.

  13. Non-Gaussianity at tree and one-loop levels from vector field perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A.; Rodriguez, Yeinzon; Lyth, David H.

    2009-11-15

    We study the spectrum P{sub {zeta}} and bispectrum B{sub {zeta}} of the primordial curvature perturbation {zeta} when the latter is generated by scalar and vector field perturbations. The tree-level and one-loop contributions from vector field perturbations are worked out considering the possibility that the one-loop contributions may be dominant over the tree-level terms [both (either) in P{sub {zeta}} and (or) in B{sub {zeta}}] and vice versa. The level of non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum, f{sub NL}, is calculated and related to the level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, g{sub {zeta}}. For very small amounts of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, the level of non-Gaussianity may be very high, in some cases exceeding the current observational limit.

  14. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SEISMOLOGY OF A CORONAL LOOP SYSTEM BY THE FIRST TWO MODES OF STANDING KINK WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Hao, Q.; Cheng, X.; Chen, P. F.; Ding, M. D.; Erdélyi, R.; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.

    2015-02-01

    We report the observation of the first two harmonics of the horizontally polarized kink waves excited in a coronal loop system lying southeast of AR 11719 on 2013 April 11. The detected periods of the fundamental mode (P {sub 1}), its first overtone (P {sub 2}) in the northern half, and that in the southern one are 530.2 ± 13.3, 300.4 ± 27.7, and 334.7 ± 22.1 s, respectively. The periods of the first overtone in the two halves are the same considering uncertainties in the measurement. We estimate the average electron density, temperature, and length of the loop system as (5.1 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}, 0.65 ± 0.06 MK, and 203.8 ± 13.8 Mm, respectively. As a zeroth-order estimation, the magnetic field strength, B = 8.2 ± 1.0 G, derived by the coronal seismology using the fundamental kink mode matches with that derived by a potential field model. The extrapolation model also shows the asymmetric and nonuniform distribution of the magnetic field along the coronal loop. Using the amplitude profile distributions of both the fundamental mode and its first overtone, we observe that the antinode positions of both the fundamental mode and its first overtone shift toward the weak field region along the coronal loop. The results indicate that the density stratification and the temperature difference effects are larger than the magnetic field variation effect on the period ratio. On the other hand, the magnetic field variation has a greater effect on the eigenfunction of the first overtone than the density stratification does for this case.

  15. Structural Basis of Transcription: Role of the Trigger Loop in Substrate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specificity and Catalysis of Transcription: Role of the Trigger Loop in Substrate Specificity and Catalysis Transcription is the first step and the key control point in the pathway of gene expression. Transcriptional regulation underlies development, oncogenesis, and other fundamental processes. The central enzyme in transcription is RNA polymerase, in eukaryotic cells there are three forms of RNA polymerase, designated I, II, and III (or A, B, and C), made up of 10-15 polypeptides. The

  16. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop-Based Anti-Islanding Evaluation and Demonstration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Hardware-in-the-Loop- Based Anti-Islanding Evaluation and Demonstration Karl Schoder, James Langston, John Hauer, Ferenc Bogdan, and Michael Steurer Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) Florida State University Barry Mather National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-64241 October 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report

  17. Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Generators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Generators Ryan Schkoda, Curtiss Fox, and Ramtin Hadidi Clemson University Vahan Gevorgian, Robb Wallen, and Scott Lambert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5000-64787 January 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable

  18. Customer Interface Document for the Molten Salt Test Loop at the NSTTF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interface Document for the Molten Salt Test Loop at the NSTTF - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  19. Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets

  20. ON THE POLARIMETRIC SIGNATURE OF EMERGING MAGNETIC LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viticchie, B.

    2012-03-10

    The abundance of Stokes V profiles dominated by one lobe at the locations of emergence of {Omega}-shaped magnetic loops is evaluated. The emergence events were found in Hinode Solar Optical Telescope/spectro-polarimeter time sequences of quiet-Sun regions. Such a study has the aim of confirming a prediction based on the basic geometrical and physical properties of emerging magnetic loops: Stokes V profiles dominated by one lobe are possibly the main polarimetric signature of these structures. In agreement with this prediction, 47% of the Stokes V profiles analyzed have an amplitude asymmetry |{delta}a| > 0.3, while in the quiet Sun the abundance is of about 30%. This excess with respect to the quiet Sun is found consistently for any value of the threshold on the amplitude asymmetry. Such a result proves the goodness of the physical scenarios so far proposed for the interpretation of loop emergence events and may prompt the use of Stokes V profiles dominated by one lobe as a new proxy for their identification in observations with a good spectral sampling.

  1. Simplifying Multi-loop Integrands of Gauge Theory and Gravity Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; Dixon, L.J.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.

    2012-02-15

    We use the duality between color and kinematics to simplify the construction of the complete four-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including the nonplanar contributions. The duality completely determines the amplitude's integrand in terms of just two planar graphs. The existence of a manifestly dual gauge-theory amplitude trivializes the construction of the corresponding N = 8 supergravity integrand, whose graph numerators are double copies (squares) of the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills numerators. The success of this procedure provides further nontrivial evidence that the duality and double-copy properties hold at loop level. The new form of the four-loop four-point supergravity amplitude makes manifest the same ultraviolet power counting as the corresponding N = 4 super-Yang-Mills amplitude. We determine the amplitude's ultraviolet pole in the critical dimension of D = 11/2, the same dimension as for N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Strikingly, exactly the same combination of vacuum integrals (after simplification) describes the ultraviolet divergence of N = 8 supergravity as the subleading-in-1/N{sub c}{sup 2} single-trace divergence in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  2. Escape behavior of a quantum particle in a loop coupled to a lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquet, Ph. A. [Department of Physics, Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda 669-1337 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We consider a one-dimensional loop of circumference L crossed by a constant magnetic flux {Phi} and connected to an infinite lead with coupling parameter {epsilon}. Assuming that the initial state {psi}{sub 0} of the particle is confined inside the loop and evolves freely, we analyze the time evolution of the nonescape probability P({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon},t), which is the probability that the particle will still be inside the loop at some later time t. In appropriate units, we found that P({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon},t)=P{sub {infinity}}({psi}{sub 0},{Phi})+{Sigma}{sub k=1}{sup {infinity}}C{sub k}({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon})/t{sup k}. The constant P{sub {infinity}}({psi}{sub 0},{Phi}) is independent of L and {epsilon}, and vanishes if {psi}{sub 0} has no bound state components or if |cos({Phi})|{ne}1. The coefficients C{sub 1}({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon}) and C{sub 3}({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon}) depend on the initial state {psi}{sub 0} of the particle, but only the momentum k={Phi}/L is involved. There are initial states {psi}{sub 0} for which P({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon},t){approx}C{sub {delta}}({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon})/t{sup {delta}}, as t{yields}{infinity}, where {delta}=1 if cos({Phi})=1 and {delta}=3 if cos({Phi}){ne}1. Thus, by submitting the loop to an external magnetic flux, one may induce a radical change in the asymptotic decay rate of P({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon},t). Interestingly, if cos({Phi})=1, then C{sub 1}({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon}) decreases with {epsilon} (i.e., the particle escapes faster in the long run) while in the case cos({Phi}){ne}1, the coefficient C{sub 3}({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon}) increases with {epsilon} (i.e., the particle escapes slower in the long run). Assuming the particle to be initially in a bound state of the loop with {Phi}=0, we compute explicit relations and present some numerical results showing a global picture in time of P({psi}{sub 0},L,{Phi},{epsilon},t). Finally, by using the pseudospectral method, we consider the interacting case with soft-core Coulomb potentials.

  3. COLLOQUIUM: The Promise of Urban Science | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 16, 2013, 3:15pm to 4:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: The Promise of Urban Science Professor Steven E. Koonin New York University Presentation: File TC16APR2013_SEKooninWO31_34.pptx For the first time in history, more than half of the world's population lives in urban areas; by mid-century, 70 percent of the world's more than 9 billion people will live in cities. Enabling those cities to deliver services effectively, efficiently, and sustainably while keeping citizens safe,

  4. Fact #759: December 24, 2012 Rural vs. Urban Driving Differences |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: December 24, 2012 Rural vs. Urban Driving Differences Fact #759: December 24, 2012 Rural vs. Urban Driving Differences According to the National Household Travel Survey, those living in rural areas drive ten more miles in a day than those who live in cities. People living in the suburbs drive only about three to four more miles per day than those within the city. From 2001 to 2009, the total number of daily miles driven decreased by 12%, much of it due to decreases by

  5. The LANL urban consequences project (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The LANL urban consequences project Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The LANL urban consequences project Authors: Bos, Randall J [1] ; Brown, Michael J [1] ; Goorley, John T [1] ; Grinstein, Fernando [1] ; Heger, Arlen S [1] ; Linn, Rodman R [1] ; Zhang, Duan Z [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2010-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1172860 Report Number(s): LA-UR-10-06665; LA-UR-10-6665 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference

  6. Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle: Status after One Year Experience Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle: Status...

  7. EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management is preparing, with DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as a cooperating agency, an EIS that evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to construct a 230-kV transmission line in Washington State. BPA’s proposed action is to interconnect the proposed transmission line to an existing BPA substation.

  8. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane Homes,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Louisville, Kentucky | Department of Energy Urbane Homes, Louisville, Kentucky Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane Homes, Louisville, Kentucky Case study of Urbane Homes who worked with Building America research partner NAHBRC to build HERS-57 homes with rigid foam insulated slabs and foundation walls, advanced framed walls, high-efficiency heat pumps, and ducts in conditioned space. PDF icon Urbane Homes - Louisville, KY More Documents & Publications High

  9. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Housing and Urban Development U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development The mission of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality affordable homes for all. HUD is working to strengthen the housing market to bolster the economy and protect consumers; meet the need for quality affordable rental homes; utilize housing as a platform for improving quality of

  10. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  11. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  12. Outdoor classroom inspires urban students to pursue technical careers |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Outdoor classroom inspires urban students to pursue technical careers | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact

  13. Safety in urban environment and emergency notice boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confortini, Claudia; Tira, Maurizio

    2008-07-08

    Reliable and safe urban system conditions have to be a crucial goal of ordinary planning activities. Among planning goals, priority must be given to indications relating to the safety levels to be achieved and to the amount of resources to be directed towards reducing the vulnerability of urban systems and therefore of the measures to be taken. Uban vulnerability cannot in fact be reduced to the sum of the vulnerability of single buildings or to the physical vulnerability of its various components. This research work consists of identifying those urban sub-areas that are important for safety in relation to natural risks, ambits that should be highlighted by means of permanent emergency notice boards/billboards. What are the hazard notices relating to all natural hazards and related risks? Where are they located? Are they clear and straightforward so that all residents and visitors are able to understand them, as it is already the case for road signs (or at least it should be)? What urban sub-areas are worth highlighting in relation to natural risks, acting for example as escape routes or meeting points? How is information for the public managed in order that people are immediately, easily and regularly notified? What is the relation of such signals to ordinary traffic signals? Research into the state of the art of permanent notice boards/billboards of this type, currently distinguished only by sporadic and local initiatives, aims at carrying out a census of and recognizing urban elements already considered as important for reducing the vulnerability of the urban system to different natural calamities and at providing new highlights as regards the identification of new ones. The next step is to work out a decision and common-language strategy for planning these elements and for their adequate signposting, so as to be able to live in the urban environment with awareness, safety and confidence, including with respect to more remote and therefore often neglected natural risks. The paper deals with literature in the field and shows the results of the few relevant case studies at work.

  14. Two loop neutrino model and dark matter particles with global B?L symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Seungwon; Okada, Hiroshi; Toma, Takashi E-mail: hokada@kias.re.kr

    2014-06-01

    We study a two loop induced seesaw model with global U(1){sub B?L} symmetry, in which we consider two component dark matter particles. The dark matter properties are investigated together with some phenomenological constraints such as electroweak precision test, neutrino masses and mixing and lepton flavor violation. In particular, the mixing angle between the Standard Model like Higgs and an extra Higgs is extremely restricted by the direct detection experiment of dark matter. We also discuss the contribution of Goldstone boson to the effective number of neutrino species ?N{sub eff} ? 0.39 which has been reported by several experiments.

  15. Kinks, loops, and protein folding, with protein A as an example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krokhotin, Andrey, E-mail: Andrei.Krokhotine@cern.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Liwo, Adam, E-mail: adam@chem.univ.gda.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Maisuradze, Gia G., E-mail: gm56@cornell.edu; Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.edu [Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fdration Denis Poisson, Universit de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours, France and Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-01-14

    The dynamics and energetics of formation of loops in the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using coarse-grained molecular dynamics with the united-residue (UNRES) force field. The results have been analyzed in terms of a kink (heteroclinic standing wave solution) of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrdinger (DNLS) equation. In the case of proteins, the DNLS equation arises from a C{sup ?}-trace-based energy function. Three individual kink profiles were identified in the experimental three-?-helix structure of protein A, in the range of the Glu16-Asn29, Leu20-Asn29, and Gln33-Asn44 residues, respectively; these correspond to two loops in the native structure. UNRES simulations were started from the full right-handed ?-helix to obtain a clear picture of kink formation, which would otherwise be blurred by helix formation. All three kinks emerged during coarse-grained simulations. It was found that the formation of each is accompanied by a local free energy increase; this is expressed as the change of UNRES energy which has the physical sense of the potential of mean force of a polypeptide chain. The increase is about 7 kcal/mol. This value can thus be considered as the free energy barrier to kink formation in full ?-helical segments of polypeptide chains. During the simulations, the kinks emerge, disappear, propagate, and annihilate each other many times. It was found that the formation of a kink is initiated by an abrupt change in the orientation of a pair of consecutive side chains in the loop region. This resembles the formation of a Bloch wall along a spin chain, where the C{sup ?} backbone corresponds to the chain, and the amino acid side chains are interpreted as the spin variables. This observation suggests that nearest-neighbor side chainside chain interactions are responsible for initiation of loop formation. It was also found that the individual kinks are reflected as clear peaks in the principal modes of the analyzed trajectory of protein A, the shapes of which resemble the directional derivatives of the kinks along the chain. These observations suggest that the kinks of the DNLS equation determine the functionally important motions of proteins.

  16. Measurement of Hydrogen Absorption in Ternary Alloys with Volumetric (Sieverts Loop) Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.

    2015-10-26

    The Sieverts loop is an inexpensive, robust and reliable methodology for calculating hydrogen absorption in materials [1]. In this approach, we start by storing a sample of the material being tested in the volume Vcell (Figure 1) and initiate the process by producing a high vacuum in the system while the material sample is heated to eliminate (most of) the hydrogen and other impurities previously absorbed. The system typically operates isothermally, with the volume Vref at ambient temperature and the sample at a temperature of interest high enough to liquefy the alloy for the current application to nuclear fusion.

  17. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) Testing Facility for Distributed Energy Storage (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer.J.; Lundstrom, B.; Simpson, M.; Pratt, A.

    2014-06-01

    The growing deployment of distributed, variable generation and evolving end-user load profiles presents a unique set of challenges to grid operators responsible for providing reliable and high quality electrical service. Mass deployment of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) has the potential to solve many of the associated integration issues while offering reliability and energy security benefits other solutions cannot. However, tools to develop, optimize, and validate DESS control strategies and hardware are in short supply. To fill this gap, NREL has constructed a power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test facility that connects DESS, grid simulator, and load bank hardware to a distribution feeder simulation.

  18. Displacement Fields and Self-Energies of Circular and Polygonal Dislocation Loops in Homogeneous and Layered Anisotropic Solids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanfei; Larson, Ben C.

    2015-06-19

    There are large classes of materials problems that involve the solutions of stress, displacement, and strain energy of dislocation loops in elastically anisotropic solids, including increasingly detailed investigations of the generation and evolution of irradiation induced defect clusters ranging in sizes from the micro- to meso-scopic length scales. Based on a two-dimensional Fourier transform and Stroh formalism that are ideal for homogeneous and layered anisotropic solids, we have developed robust and computationally efficient methods to calculate the displacement fields for circular and polygonal dislocation loops. Using the homogeneous nature of the Green tensor of order -1, we have shown thatmore » the displacement and stress fields of dislocation loops can be obtained by numerical quadrature of a line integral. In addition, it is shown that the sextuple integrals associated with the strain energy of loops can be represented by the product of a pre-factor containing elastic anisotropy effects and a universal term that is singular and equal to that for elastic isotropic case. Furthermore, we have found that the self-energy pre-factor of prismatic loops is identical to the effective modulus of normal contact, and the pre-factor of shear loops differs from the effective indentation modulus in shear by only a few percent. These results provide a convenient method for examining dislocation reaction energetic and efficient procedures for numerical computation of local displacements and stresses of dislocation loops, both of which play integral roles in quantitative defect analyses within combined experimental–theoretical investigations.« less

  19. ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL LOOPS: CROSS-FIELD TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Jenkins, B. S.; Pathak, S., E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We construct revised response functions for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) using the new atomic data, ionization equilibria, and coronal abundances available in CHIANTI 7.1. We then use these response functions in multithermal analysis of coronal loops, which allows us to determine a specific cross-field temperature distribution without ad hoc assumptions. Our method uses data from the six coronal filters and the Monte Carlo solutions available from our differential emission measure (DEM) analysis. The resulting temperature distributions are not consistent with isothermal plasma. Therefore, the observed loops cannot be modeled as single flux tubes and must be composed of a collection of magnetic strands. This result is now supported by observations from the High-resolution Coronal Imager, which show fine-scale braiding of coronal strands that are reconnecting and releasing energy. Multithermal analysis is one of the major scientific goals of AIA, and these results represent an important step toward the successful achievement of that goal. As AIA DEM analysis becomes more straightforward, the solar community will be able to take full advantage of the state-of-the-art spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution of the instrument.

  20. Non-singular bounce scenarios in loop quantum cosmology and the effective field description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Wilson-Ewing, Edward E-mail: wilson-ewing@phys.lsu.edu

    2014-03-01

    A non-singular bouncing cosmology is generically obtained in loop quantum cosmology due to non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. A similar picture can be achieved in standard general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with a non-standard kinetic term such that at high energy densities the field evolves into a ghost condensate and causes a non-singular bounce. During the bouncing phase, the perturbations can be stabilized by introducing a Horndeski operator. Taking the matter content to be a dust field and an ekpyrotic scalar field, we compare the dynamics in loop quantum cosmology and in a non-singular bouncing effective field model with a non-standard kinetic term at both the background and perturbative levels. We find that these two settings share many important properties, including the result that they both generate scale-invariant scalar perturbations. This shows that some quantum gravity effects of the very early universe may be mimicked by effective field models.

  1. Keeping Energy Savings in the LOOP: Mesa Lane Partners Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    Mesa Lane Partners (MLP) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to a build a new, low-energy mixed-use building that consumes at least 50% less energy than requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA), as part of DOEs Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program. The privately developed 46,000-square-foot LOOP project, which is intended to provide affordable off-campus student housing in an underserved community next to University of California at Santa Barbara, will contain more than 7,000 square feet of retail space, a roof deck, an event space, a gym, and 48 apartments. The project developer, MLP, is aiming to exceed CBP requirement, targeting energy consumption that is at least 65% less than that required by the standard. If the LOOP meets this goal, it is expected to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification.

  2. Non-local order in Mott insulators, duality and Wilson loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, Steffen Patrick; Simeth, Wolfgang; Endres, Manuel; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2013-07-15

    It is shown that the Mott insulating and superfluid phases of bosons in an optical lattice may be distinguished by a non-local parity order parameter which is directly accessible via single site resolution imaging. In one dimension, the lattice Bose model is dual to a classical interface roughening problem. We use known exact results from the latter to prove that the parity order parameter exhibits long range order in the Mott insulating phase, consistent with recent experiments by Endres et al. [M. Endres, M. Cheneau, T. Fukuhara, C. Weitenberg, P. Schau, C. Gross, L. Mazza, M.C. Bauls, L. Pollet, I. Bloch, et al., Science 334 (2011) 200]. In two spatial dimensions, the parity order parameter can be expressed in terms of an equal time Wilson loop of a non-trivial U(1) gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions which exhibits a transition between a Coulomb and a confining phase. The negative logarithm of the parity order parameter obeys a perimeter law in the Mott insulator and is enhanced by a logarithmic factor in the superfluid. -- Highlights: Number statistics of cold atoms in optical lattices show non-local correlations. These correlations are measurable via single site resolution imaging. Incompressible phases exhibit an area law in particle number fluctuations. This leads to long-range parity order of Mott-insulators in one dimension. Parity order in 2d is connected with a Wilson-loop in a lattice gauge theory.

  3. BUOYANT MAGNETIC LOOPS IN A GLOBAL DYNAMO SIMULATION OF A YOUNG SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Nicholas J.; Toomre, Juri; Brown, Benjamin P.; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2011-10-01

    The current dynamo paradigm for the Sun and Sun-like stars places the generation site for strong toroidal magnetic structures deep in the solar interior. Sunspots and starspots on Sun-like stars are believed to arise when sections of these magnetic structures become buoyantly unstable and rise from the deep interior to the photosphere. Here, we present the first three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation in which turbulent convection, stratification, and rotation combine to yield a dynamo that self-consistently generates buoyant magnetic loops. We simulate stellar convection and dynamo action in a spherical shell with solar stratification, but rotating three times faster than the current solar rate. Strong wreaths of toroidal magnetic field are realized by dynamo action in the convection zone. By turning to a dynamic Smagorinsky model for subgrid-scale turbulence, we here attain considerably reduced diffusion in our simulation. This permits the regions of strongest magnetic field in these wreaths to rise toward the top of the convection zone via a combination of magnetic buoyancy instabilities and advection by convective giant cells. Such a global simulation yielding buoyant loops represents a significant step forward in combining numerical models of dynamo action and flux emergence.

  4. Wide tracking range, auto ranging, low jitter phase lock loop for swept and fixed frequency systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerner, Thomas M. (Manorville, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a wide tracking range phase locked loop (PLL) circuit that achieves minimal jitter in a recovered clock signal, regardless of the source of the jitter (i.e. whether it is in the source or the transmission media). The present invention PLL has automatic harmonic lockout detection circuitry via a novel lock and seek control logic in electrical communication with a programmable frequency discriminator and a code balance detector. (The frequency discriminator enables preset of a frequency window of upper and lower frequency limits to derive a programmable range within which signal acquisition is effected. The discriminator works in combination with the code balance detector circuit to minimize the sensitivity of the PLL circuit to random data in the data stream). In addition, the combination of a differential loop integrator with the lock and seek control logic obviates a code preamble and guarantees signal acquisition without harmonic lockup. An adaptive cable equalizer is desirably used in combination with the present invention PLL to recover encoded transmissions containing a clock and/or data. The equalizer automatically adapts to equalize short haul cable lengths of coaxial and twisted pair cables or wires and provides superior jitter performance itself. The combination of the equalizer with the present invention PLL is desirable in that such combination permits the use of short haul wires without significant jitter.

  5. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  6. Verification of coronal loop diagnostics using realistic three-dimensional hydrodynamic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran; Mok, Yung E-mail: lionel@predsci.com E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com

    2014-11-10

    Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure distributions. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the background. We then determine the density, temperature, and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare these with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to a limitation of the analysis methods, but also to inadequate background subtraction.

  7. SDO/AIA AND HINODE/EIS OBSERVATIONS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN AN EUV WAVE AND ACTIVE REGION LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Liheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Liu, Wei; Shen, Yuandeng E-mail: zjun@bao.ac.cn

    2013-09-20

    We present detailed analysis of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave and its interaction with active region (AR) loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). This wave was initiated from AR 11261 on 2011 August 4 and propagated at velocities of 430-910 km s{sup 1}. It was observed to traverse another AR and cross over a filament channel on its path. The EUV wave perturbed neighboring AR loops and excited a disturbance that propagated toward the footpoints of these loops. EIS observations of AR loops revealed that at the time of the wave transit, the original redshift increased by about 3 km s{sup 1}, while the original blueshift decreased slightly. After the wave transit, these changes were reversed. When the EUV wave arrived at the boundary of a polar coronal hole, two reflected waves were successively produced and part of them propagated above the solar limb. The first reflected wave above the solar limb encountered a large-scale loop system on its path, and a secondary wave rapidly emerged 144 Mm ahead of it at a higher speed. These findings can be explained in the framework of a fast-mode magnetosonic wave interpretation for EUV waves, in which observed EUV waves are generated by expanding coronal mass ejections.

  8. Restoring our urban communities: A model for an empowered America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This booklet tells the story of how two very different types of organizations - Bethel New Life and Argonne National Laboratory - have forged a partnership to rebuild West Garfield Park. This unique Partnership blends Bethel`s theological and sociological roots with Argonne`s scientific and technological expertise. Together they hope to offer the community fresh, transferable approaches to solving urban socio-economic and environmental problems. The Partnership hopes to address and solve the inner city`s technological problems through community participation and collaborative demonstrations - without losing sight of the community`s social needs. The key themes throughout this booklet - jobs, sustainable community development, energy efficiency, and environment - highlight challenges the partners face. By bringing people and technologies together, this Partnership will give West Garfield Park residents a better life -- and, perhaps, offer other communities a successful model for urban renewal.

  9. NYU's Center for Urban Science and Progress announces partnerships with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    four national laboratories NYU announces partnerships NYU's Center for Urban Science and Progress announces partnerships with four national laboratories The four labs are Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos and Sandia. April 5, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  10. Joint Urban 2003: Study Overview And Instrument Locations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-16

    Quality-assured meteorological and tracer data sets are vital for establishing confidence that indoor and outdoor dispersion models used to simulate dispersal of potential toxic agents in urban atmospheres are giving trustworthy results. The U.S. Department of Defense-Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security joined together to conduct the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study to provide this critically-needed high-resolution dispersion data. This major urban study was conducted from June 28 through July 31, 2003, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the participation of over 150 scientists and engineers from over 20 U.S. and foreign institutions. The Joint Urban 2003 lead scientist was Jerry Allwine (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) who oversaw study design, logistical arrangements and field operations with the help of Joe Shinn (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Marty Leach (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Ray Hosker (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division), Leo Stockham (Northrop Grumman Information Technology) and Jim Bowers (Dugway Proving Grounds). This report gives a brief overview of the field campaign, describing the scientific objectives, the dates of the intensive observation periods, and the instruments deployed. The data from this field study is available to the scientific community through an on-line database that is managed by Dugway Proving Ground. This report will be included in the database to provide its users with some general information about the field study, and specific information about the instrument coordinates. Appendix A of this document provides the definitive record of the instrument locations during this field campaign, and Appendix B lists all the study principal investigators and participants.

  11. The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation In an effort "to examine the nexus of energy and mobility for future transportation systems," the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched the Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility consortium. By studying mobility as a system researchers can predict future trends, an invaluable asset to policymakers as they prepare for the future of transportation. This

  12. Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roof Infrastructure Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center Project Partners: -- Guangdong Provincial Academy of Building Research - Guangdong, China -- Chongqing University - Chongqing, China -- Research Institute of Standards and Norms - China -- Chinese Academy of Sciences - Beijing, China DOE Funding: $795,000 Project Term: Jan. 2011 - Dec. 2015 Project Objective The U.S.-China Clean

  13. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthik, Rajasekar; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban emergency evacuation framework that can improve traffic mobility and safety under critical infrastructure disruption in today s socially connected world.

  14. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  15. One-loop gluon amplitude for heavy-quark production at next-to-next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Aybat, S. Mert

    2008-12-01

    We compute the one-loop QCD amplitude for the process gg{yields}QQ in dimensional regularization through order {epsilon}{sup 2} in the dimensional regulator and for arbitrary quark mass values. This result is an ingredient of the next-to-next-to-leading order cross section for heavy-quark production at hadron colliders. The calculation is performed in conventional dimensional regularization using well-known reduction techniques as well as a method based on recent ideas for the functional form of one-loop integrands in four dimensions.

  16. Resonant loop mirror with narrow-band reflections and its application in single-frequency fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschotta, R.; Brinck, D.J.; Farwell, S.G.; Hanna, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new form of loop mirror (to be realized with all-fiber or integrated optics technology) that can produce narrow-band reflections and could find an application in single-frequency fiber lasers, allowing for a standing-wave design with a long doped section and eliminating the need for a Faraday isolator or a fiber grating. We discuss the main features of such a loop mirror and present experimental results that agree well with the theory. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  17. Article surveillance magnetic marker having an hysteresis loop with large Barkhausen discontinuities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphrey, Floyd B. (Bradfordwoods, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A marker for an electronic article surveillance system is disclosed comprising a body of magnetic material with retained stress and having a magnetic hysteresis loop with a large Barkhausen discontinuity such that, upon exposure of the marker to an external magnetic field whose field strength in the direction opposing the instantaneous magnetic polarization of the marker exceeds a predetermined threshold value, there results a regenerative reversal of the magnetic polarization of the marker. An electronic article surveillance system and a method utilizing the marker are also disclosed. Exciting the marker with a low frequency and low field strength, so long as the field strength exceeds the low threshold level for the marker, causes a regenerative reversal of magnetic polarity generating a harmonically rich pulse that is readily detected and easily distinguished.

  18. Adhesion energy of single wall carbon nanotube loops on various substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tianjun; Ayari, Anthony; Bellon, Ludovic

    2015-04-28

    The physics of adhesion of one-dimensional nano structures such as nanotubes, nano wires, and biopolymers on different substrates is of great interest for the study of biological adhesion and the development of nano electronics and nano mechanics. In this paper, we present force spectroscopy experiments of individual single wall carbon nanotube loops using a home-made interferometric atomic force microscope. Characteristic force plateaus during the peeling process allow the quantitative measurement of the adhesion energy per unit length on various substrates: graphite, mica, platinum, gold, and silicon. Moreover, using a time-frequency analysis of the deflection of the cantilever, we estimate the dynamic stiffness of the contact, providing more information on the nanotube configurations and its intrinsic mechanical properties.

  19. Summary of TRUEX Radiolysis Testing Using the INL Radiolysis Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean R. Peterman; Lonnie G. Olson; Rocklan G. McDowell; Gracy Elias; Jack D. Law

    2012-03-01

    The INL radiolysis and hydrolysis test loop has been used to evaluate the effects of hydrolytic and radiolytic degradation upon the efficacy of the TRUEX flowsheet for the recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from acidic solution. Repeated irradiation and subsequent re-conditioning cycles did result in a significant decrease in the concentration of the TBP and CMPO extractants in the TRUEX solvent and a corresponding decrease in americium and europium extraction distributions. However, the build-up of solvent degradation products upon {gamma}-irradiation, had little impact upon the efficiency of the stripping section of the TRUEX flowsheet. Operation of the TRUEX flowsheet would require careful monitoring to ensure extraction distributions are maintained at acceptable levels.

  20. SOLAR MOSS PATTERNS: HEATING OF CORONAL LOOPS BY TURBULENCE AND MAGNETIC CONNECTION TO THE FOOTPOINTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kittinaradorn, R.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: scdjr@mahidol.ac.th

    2009-09-10

    We address the origin of the patchy dark and bright emission structure, known as 'moss', observed by TRACE extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar disk. Here we propose an explanation based on turbulent, patchy heat conduction from the corona into the transition region. Computer simulations demonstrate that magnetic turbulence in coronal loops develops a flux rope structure with current sheets near the flux rope boundaries. Localized heating due to current sheet activity such as magnetic reconnection is followed by heat conduction along turbulent magnetic field lines. The field line trajectories tend to remain near the flux rope boundaries, resulting in selective heating of the plasma in the transition region. This can explain the network of bright regions in the observed moss morphology.

  1. Open loop pneumatic control of a Lysholm engine or turbine exhaust pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plonski, B.A.

    1981-07-17

    A Lysholm engine, or helical screw expander, is currently being evaluated at the University of California, Berkeley for staging with a conventional turbine in geothermal energy conversion. A pneumatic closed loop, proportional-integral control system was implemented to control the Lysholm engine's exhaust pressure for performance testing of the engine at constant inlet/outlet pressure ratios. The control system will also be used to control the exhaust pressure of the conventional turbine during future testing of the staged Lysholm-turbine system. Analytical modeling of the control system was performed and successful tuning was achieved by applying Ziegler-Nichol's tuning method. Stable control and quick response, of approximately 1 minute, was demonstrated for load and set point changes in desired exhaust pressures.

  2. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  3. The NosHoover looped chain thermostat for low temperature thawed Gaussian wave-packet dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughtrie, David J.; Tew, David P.

    2014-05-21

    We have used a generalised coherent state resolution of the identity to map the quantum canonical statistical average for a general system onto a phase-space average over the centre and width parameters of a thawed Gaussian wave packet. We also propose an artificial phase-space density that has the same behaviour as the canonical phase-space density in the low-temperature limit, and have constructed a novel NosHoover looped chain thermostat that generates this density in conjunction with variational thawed Gaussian wave-packet dynamics. This forms a new platform for evaluating statistical properties of quantum condensed-phase systems that has an explicit connection to the time-dependent Schrdinger equation, whilst retaining many of the appealing features of path-integral molecular dynamics.

  4. Simulation of magnetic hysteresis loops and magnetic Barkhausen noise of α-iron containing nonmagnetic particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Ben; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Yulan; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic hysteresis loops and Barkhausen noise of a single α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated to investigate into the magnetic hardening due to Cu-rich precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Phase field method basing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used for this simulation. The results show that the presence of the nonmagnetic particle could result in magnetic hardening by making the nucleation of reversed domains difficult. The coercive field is found to increase, while the intensity of Barkhausen noise voltage is decreased when the nonmagnetic particle is introduced. Simulations demonstrate the impact of nucleation field of reversed domainsmore » on the magnetization reversal behavior and the magnetic properties.« less

  5. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N.

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis.

  6. Dynamic structural analysis of a head assembly for a large loop-type LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is presented on the dynamic structural response of the primary vessel's head closure to slug impact loadings generated from a 1000 MJ source term. The reference reactor considered was designed in a loop configuration. The head structure consisted of a deck and a triple rotatable plug assembly. Two designs were considered for the deck structure: a reference design and an alternate design. The reference deck was designed as a single flat annular plate. For the alternate design, the deck plate was reinforced by adding an extender cylinder with a flange and flanged webs between the deck-plate and cylinder. The investigation showed that the reference design cannot maintain containment integrity when subjected to slug loading generated by a 1000 MJ source term. It was determined that the head deformed excessively.

  7. Effect of coolant chemistry on PWR radiation transport processes. Progress report on reactor loop studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.J.; Flynn, G.; Haynes, J.W.; Kitt, G.P.; Large, N.R.; Lawson, D.; Mead, A.P.; Nichols, J.L.; Woodwark, D.R.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of various PWR-type coolant chemistry regimes on the behavior of corrosion products has been studied in the DIDO Water Loop at Harwell. There are strong indications that the in-core deposition behavior of corrosion product species is not fully accounted for by the solubility model based on nickel ferrite; boric acid plays a role apart from its influence on pH, and corrosion products are adsorbed to some extent in the zirconium oxide film on the fuel cladding. In DWL, soluble species appear to be dominant in deposition processes. A most important factor governing deposition behavior is surface condition; the influence of weld regions and the effect of varying pretreatment conditions have both been demonstrated. 13 figs.

  8. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  9. The one-loop six-dimensional hexagon integral with three massive corners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Duca, Vittorio; Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; Duhr, Claude; Henn, Johannes M.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; /Moscow State U.

    2011-11-04

    We compute the six-dimensional hexagon integral with three non-adjacent external masses analytically. After a simple rescaling, it is given by a function of six dual conformally invariant cross-ratios. The result can be expressed as a sum of 24 terms involving only one basic function, which is a simple linear combination of logarithms, dilogarithms, and trilogarithms of uniform degree three transcendentality. Our method uses differential equations to determine the symbol of the function, and an algorithm to reconstruct the latter from its symbol. It is known that six-dimensional hexagon integrals are closely related to scattering amplitudes in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, and we therefore expect our result to be helpful for understanding the structure of scattering amplitudes in this theory, in particular at two loops.

  10. A Study of the Effects of Different Urban Wind Models on Dispersion Patterns Using Joint Urban 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowardhan, A A; Brown, M J

    2012-02-21

    The Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) Dispersion Modeling System has been developed to rapidly compute the transport and dispersion of toxic agent releases in the vicinity of buildings. It is composed of a wind solver, an 'urbanized' Lagrangian random-walk model, and a graphical user interface. QUIC has two different wind models: (a) The QUIC-URB wind solver, an empirically-based diagnostic wind model and (b) The QUIC-CFD (RANS) solver, based on the 3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In this paper, we discuss the effect of different wind models on dispersion patterns in dense built-up areas. The model-computed wind from the two urban wind models- QUIC-URB and QUIC-CFD are used to drive the dispersion model. The concentration fields are then compared to measurements from the Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 field experiment. QUIC produces high-resolution 3-D mean wind and concentration fields around buildings, in addition to deposition on the ground and building surfaces. It has options for different release types, including point, moving point, line, area, and volumetric sources, as well as dense gas, explosive buoyant rise, multi-particle size, bioslurry, and two-phase releases. Other features include indoor infiltration, a pressure solver, outer grid simulations, vegetative canopies, and population exposure calculations. It has been used for biological agent sensor siting in cities, vulnerability assessments for heavier-than-air chemical releases at industrial facilities, and clean-up assessments for radiological dispersal device (RDD) releases in cities (e.g., see Linger et al., 2005; Brown, 2006a, b). QUIC has also been used for dust transport studies (Bowker et al., 2007a) and for the impact of highway sound barriers on the transport and dispersion of vehicle emissions (Bowker et al., 2007b).

  11. Analysis of the Interaction of the Eg5 Loop5 with the Nucleotide Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Naber, Nariman; Larson, Adam G.; Cooke, Roger; Rice, Sarah E.; Pate, Edward F.

    2011-11-21

    Loop 5 (L5) is a conserved loop that projects from the ?2-helix adjacent to the nucleotide site of all kinesin-family motors. L5 is critical to the function of the mito tickinesin-5 family motors and is the binding site for several kinesin-5 inhibitors that are currently in clinical trials. Its conformational dynamics and its role in motor function are not fully understood. Our previous work using EPR spectroscopy suggested that L5 alters the nucleotide pocket conformation of the kinesin-5 motor Eg5 (Larsonetal.,2010). EPR spectra of a spin-labeled nucleotide analog bound at the nucleotide site of Eg5 display a highly immobilized component that is absent if L5 is shortened or if the inhibitor STLC is added (Larson etal.,2010), which X-ray structures suggest stabilizes an L5 conformation pointing away from the nucleotide site. These data, coupled with the proximity of L5 to the nucleotide site suggest L5 could interact with a bound nucleotide, modulating function. Here we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Eg5 to explore the interaction of L5 with the nucleotide site in greater detail. We performed MD simulations in which the L5-domain of the Eg5ADP X-ray structure was manually deformed via backbone bond rotations. The L5-domain of Eg5 was sufficiently lengthy that portions of L5 could belocated in proximity to bound ADP. The MD simulations evolved to thermodynamically stable structures at 300K showing that L5 can interact directly with bound nucleotide with significant impingement on the ribosehydroxyls, consistent with the EPR spectroscopy results. Taken together, these data provide support for the hypothes is that L5 modulates Eg5 function via interaction with the nucleotide-binding site.

  12. Irradiation Test of Advanced PWR Fuel in Fuel Test Loop at HANARO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Song, Kun Woo; Park, Su Ki; Seo, Chul Gyo

    2007-07-01

    A new fuel test loop has been constructed in the research reactor HANARO at KAERI. The main objective of the FTL (Fuel Test Loop) is an irradiation test of a newly developed LWR fuel under PWR or Candu simulated conditions. The first test rod will be loaded within 2007 and its irradiation test will be continued until a rod average their of 62 MWd/kgU. A total of five test rods can be loaded into the IPS (In-Pile Section) and fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure and fuel stack elongation can be measured by an on-line real time system. A newly developed advanced PWR fuel which consists of a HANA{sup TM} alloy cladding and a large grain UO{sub 2} pellet was selected as the first test fuel in the FTL. The fuel cladding, the HANA{sup TM} alloy, is an Nb containing Zirconium alloy that has shown better corrosion and creep resistance properties than the current Zircaloy-4 cladding. A total of six types of HANA{sup TM} alloy were developed and two or three of these candidate alloys will be used as test rod cladding, which have shown a superior performance to the others. A large-grain UO{sub 2} pellet has a 14{approx}16 micron 2D diameter grain size for a reduction of a fission gas release at a high burnup. In this paper, characteristics of the FTL and IPS are introduced and the expected operation and irradiation conditions are summarized for the test periods. Also the preliminary fuel performance analysis results, such as the cladding oxide thickness, fission gas release and rod internal pressure, are evaluated from the test rod safety analysis aspects. (authors)

  13. How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    framework for evading confusion (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical framework for evading confusion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical framework for evading confusion Urbanization has transformed the world's landscapes, resulting in a series of ecological and environmental problems. To assess

  14. Accounting for a feature of the configuration of the loops in the primary circuit of VVER-440 reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khazanov, A. L. [FBU 'Scientific and Engineering Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety' (FBU 'NTTs YaRB') (Russian Federation)] [FBU 'Scientific and Engineering Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety' (FBU 'NTTs YaRB') (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    A feature of the configuration of the loops of the primary circuit of VVER-440 reactors and its influence on the characteristics of the main circulation pumps are analyzed. It is proposed that differences in the characteristics of the main reactor circulation pumps be taken account during the design and operation of nuclear power plants.

  15. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of chemical looping combustion process with calcium sulphate oxygen carrier - article no. A19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhongyi Deng; Qilei Song

    2009-07-01

    To concentrate CO{sub 2} in combustion processes by efficient and energy-saving ways is a first and very important step for its sequestration. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) could easily achieve this goal. A chemical-looping combustion system consists of a fuel reactor and an air reactor. Two reactors in the form of interconnected fluidized beds are used in the process: (1) a fuel reactor where the oxygen carrier is reduced by reaction with the fuel, and (2) an air reactor where the reduced oxygen carrier from the fuel reactor is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, while the outlet gas stream from the air reactor contains only N{sub 2} and some unused O{sub 2}. The water in combustion products can be easily removed by condensation and pure carbon dioxide is obtained without any loss of energy for separation. Until now, there is little literature about mathematical modeling of chemical-looping combustion using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. In this work, the reaction kinetic model of the fuel reactor (CaSO{sub 4}+ H{sub 2}) is developed by means of the commercial code FLUENT and the effects of partial pressure of H{sub 2} (concentration of H{sub 2}) on chemical looping combustion performance are also studied. The results show that the concentration of H{sub 2} could enhance the CLC performance.

  17. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Federal aappropriations for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and for sundry independent agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and offices are enumerated and discussed. Recommendations by the House Committee on Appropriations are given along with a detailed description of each program considered. Specific programs discussed include: urban research, urban development, urban planning, solar energy, environmental quality, space stations, space shuttle orbiters, scientific research and education, and selective service. This bill, H.R. 5713, makes appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985.

  18. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  19. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area

  20. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Wind Energy in Urban Environments Webinar (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Wind Energy in Urban Environments," originally presented on September 18, 2012.

  1. Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Traffic Congestion, 2011 | Department of Energy 5: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011 Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011 The top ten urban areas across the U.S. accounted for nearly 40% of the total fuel wasted due to traffic congestion in 2011. Highway congestion caused vehicles in the combined urban areas of New York, Los Angeles and Chicago to waste about 600 million gallons of fuel

  2. Fact #902: December 7, 2015 Rural versus Urban Vehicle Miles of Travel by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State | Department of Energy 2: December 7, 2015 Rural versus Urban Vehicle Miles of Travel by State Fact #902: December 7, 2015 Rural versus Urban Vehicle Miles of Travel by State SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week In the United States, the U.S. Department of Transportation classifies 3.9 million miles of roadway as rural and 1.2 million miles of roadway as urban. Each state has a different travel pattern affecting the proportion of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) on rural versus urban roads.

  3. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  4. Alteration of the mode of antibacterial action of a defensin by the amino-terminal loop substitution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M is an engineered fungal defensin with the n-loop of an insect defensin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M adopts a native defensin-like structure with high antibacterial potency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M kills bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work sheds light on the functional evolution of CS{alpha}{beta}-type defensins. -- Abstract: Ancient invertebrate-type and classical insect-type defensins (AITDs and CITDs) are two groups of evolutionarily related antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that adopt a conserved cysteine-stabilized {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet (CS{alpha}{beta}) fold with a different amino-terminal loop (n-loop) size and diverse modes of antibacterial action. Although they both are identified as inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis, only CITDs evolved membrane disruptive ability by peptide oligomerization to form pores. To understand how this occurred, we modified micasin, a fungus-derived AITDs with a non-membrane disruptive mechanism, by substituting its n-loop with that of an insect-derived CITDs. After air oxidization, the synthetic hybrid defensin (termed Al-M) was structurally identified by circular dichroism (CD) and functionally evaluated by antibacterial and membrane permeability assays and electronic microscopic observation. Results showed that Al-M folded into a native-like defensin structure, as determined by its CD spectrum that is similar to that of micasin. Al-M was highly efficacious against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium with a lethal concentration of 1.76 {mu}M. As expected, in contrast to micasin, Al-M killed the bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism of action. The alteration in modes of action supports a key role of the n-loop extension in assembling functional surface of CITDs for membrane disruption. Our work provides mechanical evidence for evolutionary relationship between AITDs and CITDs.

  5. Turbulent pitch-angle scattering and diffusive transport of hard X-ray-producing electrons in flaring coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Vilmer, Nicole E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu

    2014-01-10

    Recent observations from RHESSI have revealed that the number of non-thermal electrons in the coronal part of a flaring loop can exceed the number of electrons required to explain the hard X-ray-emitting footpoints of the same flaring loop. Such sources cannot, therefore, be interpreted on the basis of the standard collisional transport model, in which electrons stream along the loop while losing their energy through collisions with the ambient plasma; additional physical processes, to either trap or scatter the energetic electrons, are required. Motivated by this and other observations that suggest that high-energy electrons are confined to the coronal region of the source, we consider turbulent pitch-angle scattering of fast electrons off low-frequency magnetic fluctuations as a confinement mechanism, modeled as a spatial diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field. In general, turbulent scattering leads to a reduction of the collisional stopping distance of non-thermal electrons along the loop, and hence to an enhancement of the coronal hard X-ray source relative to the footpoints. The variation of source size L with electron energy E becomes weaker than the quadratic behavior pertinent to collisional transport, with the slope of L(E) depending directly on the mean free path ? associated with the non-collisional scattering mechanism. Comparing the predictions of the model with observations, we find that ? ? (10{sup 8}-10{sup 9}) cm for ?30 keV, less than the length of a typical flaring loop and smaller than, or comparable to, the size of the electron acceleration region.

  6. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  7. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  8. Acquisition and registration of aerial video imagery of urban traffic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loveland, Rohan C

    2008-01-01

    The amount of information available about urban traffic from aerial video imagery is extremely high. Here we discuss the collection of such video imagery from a helicopter platform with a low-cost sensor, and the post-processing used to correct radial distortion in the data and register it. The radial distortion correction is accomplished using a Harris model. The registration is implemented in a two-step process, using a globally applied polyprojective correction model followed by a fine scale local displacement field adjustment. The resulting cleaned-up data is sufficiently well-registered to allow subsequent straight-forward vehicle tracking.

  9. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized CuFe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  10. A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Lopes, Myriam

    2013-01-15

    Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decision support system enables incorporating scientific knowledge into planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scale, data availability and stakeholder representativeness limit its application.

  11. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  12. Customer interface document for the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, Kathleen; Kolb, William J.; Gill, David Dennis; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2012-03-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate 'solar salt' and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 600psi, temperature to 585 C, and flow rate of 400-600GPM depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  13. MODELING OF GYROSYNCHROTRON RADIO EMISSION PULSATIONS PRODUCED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC LOOP OSCILLATIONS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mossessian, George; Fleishman, Gregory D. [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A quantitative study of the observable radio signatures of the sausage, kink, and torsional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation modes in flaring coronal loops is performed. Considering first non-zero order effect of these various MHD oscillation modes on the radio source parameters such as magnetic field, line of sight, plasma density and temperature, electron distribution function, and the source dimensions, we compute time-dependent radio emission (spectra and light curves). The radio light curves (of both flux density and degree of polarization) at all considered radio frequencies are then quantified in both time domain (via computation of the full modulation amplitude as a function of frequency) and in Fourier domain (oscillation spectra, phases, and partial modulation amplitude) to form the signatures specific to a particular oscillation mode and/or source parameter regime. We found that the parameter regime and the involved MHD mode can indeed be distinguished using the quantitative measures derived in the modeling. We apply the developed approach to analyze radio burst recorded by Owens Valley Solar Array and report possible detection of the sausage mode oscillation in one (partly occulted) flare and kink or torsional oscillations in another flare.

  14. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop-Based Anti-Islanding Evaluation and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoder, Karl; Langston, James; Hauer, John; Bogdan, Ferenc; Steurer, Michael; Mather, Barry

    2015-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) teamed with Southern California Edison (SCE), Clean Power Research (CPR), Quanta Technology (QT), and Electrical Distribution Design (EDD) to conduct a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) California Solar Initiative (CSI)-funded research project investigating the impacts of integrating high-penetration levels of photovoltaics (PV) onto the California distribution grid. One topic researched in the context of high-penetration PV integration onto the distribution system is the ability of PV inverters to (1) detect islanding conditions (i.e., when the distribution system to which the PV inverter is connected becomes disconnected from the utility power connection) and (2) disconnect from the islanded system within the time specified in the performance specifications outlined in IEEE Standard 1547. This condition may cause damage to other connected equipment due to insufficient power quality (e.g., over-and under-voltages) and may also be a safety hazard to personnel that may be working on feeder sections to restore service. NREL teamed with the Florida State University (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) to investigate a new way of testing PV inverters for IEEE Standard 1547 unintentional islanding performance specifications using power hardware-in-loop (PHIL) laboratory testing techniques.

  15. Free-energy calculations for semi-flexible macromolecules: Applications to DNA knotting and looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovan, Stefan M.; Scharein, Robert G.; Hanke, Andreas; Levene, Stephen D.

    2014-11-07

    We present a method to obtain numerically accurate values of configurational free energies of semiflexible macromolecular systems, based on the technique of thermodynamic integration combined with normal-mode analysis of a reference system subject to harmonic constraints. Compared with previous free-energy calculations that depend on a reference state, our approach introduces two innovations, namely, the use of internal coordinates to constrain the reference states and the ability to freely select these reference states. As a consequence, it is possible to explore systems that undergo substantially larger fluctuations than those considered in previous calculations, including semiflexible biopolymers having arbitrary ratios of contour length L to persistence length P. To validate the method, high accuracy is demonstrated for free energies of prime DNA knots with L/P = 20 and L/P = 40, corresponding to DNA lengths of 3000 and 6000 base pairs, respectively. We then apply the method to study the free-energy landscape for a model of a synaptic nucleoprotein complex containing a pair of looped domains, revealing a bifurcation in the location of optimal synapse (crossover) sites. This transition is relevant to target-site selection by DNA-binding proteins that occupy multiple DNA sites separated by large linear distances along the genome, a problem that arises naturally in gene regulation, DNA recombination, and the action of type-II topoisomerases.

  16. Meson properties at finite temperature in a three flavor nonlocal chiral quark model with Polyakov loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contrera, G. A.; Dumm, D. Gomez; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2010-03-01

    We study the finite temperature behavior of light scalar and pseudoscalar meson properties in the context of a three-flavor nonlocal chiral quark model. The model includes mixing with active strangeness degrees of freedom, and takes care of the effect of gauge interactions by coupling the quarks with the Polyakov loop. We analyze the chiral restoration and deconfinement transitions, as well as the temperature dependence of meson masses, mixing angles and decay constants. The critical temperature is found to be T{sub c{approx_equal}}202 MeV, in better agreement with lattice results than the value recently obtained in the local SU(3) PNJL model. It is seen that above T{sub c} pseudoscalar meson masses get increased, becoming degenerate with the masses of their chiral partners. The temperatures at which this matching occurs depend on the strange quark composition of the corresponding mesons. The topological susceptibility shows a sharp decrease after the chiral transition, signalling the vanishing of the U(1){sub A} anomaly for large temperatures.

  17. Linear motor drive system for continuous-path closed-loop position control of an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkman, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A precision numerical controlled servo-positioning system is provided for continuous closed-loop position control of a machine slide or platform driven by a linear-induction motor. The system utilizes filtered velocity feedback to provide system stability required to operate with a system gain of 100 inches/minute/0.001 inch of following error. The filtered velocity feedback signal is derived from the position output signals of a laser interferometer utilized to monitor the movement of the slide. Air-bearing slides mounted to a stable support are utilized to minimize friction and small irregularities in the slideway which would tend to introduce positioning errors. A microprocessor is programmed to read command and feedback information and converts this information into the system following error signal. This error signal is summed with the negative filtered velocity feedback signal at the input of a servo amplifier whose output serves as the drive power signal to the linear motor position control coil.

  18. Repetitive formation and decay of current sheets in magnetic loops: An origin of diverse magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2015-01-15

    In this work, evolution of an incompressible, thermally homogeneous, infinitely conducting, viscous magnetofluid is numerically explored as the fluid undergoes repeated events of magnetic reconnection. The initial magnetic field is constructed by a superposition of two linear force-free fields and has similar morphology as the magnetic loops observed in the solar corona. The results are presented for computations with three distinct sets of footpoint geometries. To onset reconnection, we rely on numerical model magnetic diffusivity, in the spirit of implicit large eddy simulation. It is generally expected that in a high Lundquist number fluid, repeated magnetic reconnections are ubiquitous and hence can lead to a host of magnetic structures with considerable observational importance. In particular, the simulations presented here illustrate formations of magnetic islands, rotating magnetic helices and rising flux ropes—depending on the initial footpoint geometry but through the common process of repeated magnetic reconnections. Further, we observe the development of extended current sheets in two case studies, where the footpoint reconnections generate favorable dynamics.

  19. Evolution of plasma loops in a semi-toroidal pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackel, F. Ridder, S.; Tenfelde, J.; Tacke, T.; Soltwisch, H.

    2015-04-15

    The FlareLab experiment is a pulsed-power discharge generating magnetized plasma loops similar to a pinch experiment in a semi-toroidal configuration. After gas breakdown along a circular magnetic guide field, the structure expands in its major radius as the plasma becomes highly conductive and the discharge current rises. Photographs, current and electron density measurements reveal a significant broadening in the lateral direction leading to an increasing departure from radial symmetry of plasma parameters in the cross section. It is shown that the luminosity is related to both high electron density and high current density. Simultaneous measurements of current density and electric field reveal a high parallel resistivity of the plasma leading to fast diffusion across the magnetic field. Indications for anomalous resistivity are found by comparison with the Spitzer formula. As the experiment differs from a z-pinch experiment only by the semi-circular shape of the current path, the observed evolution is unexpected and might be of more fundamental significance.

  20. Trigger loop folding determines transcription rate of Escherichia colis RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mejia, Yara X.; Nudler, Evgeny; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-12-31

    Two components of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) catalytic center, the bridge helix and the trigger loop (TL), have been linked with changes in elongation rate and pausing. Here, single molecule experiments with the WT and two TL-tip mutants of the Escherichia coli enzyme reveal that tip mutations modulate RNAPs pause-free velocity, identifying TL conformational changes as one of two rate-determining steps in elongation. Consistent with this observation, we find a direct correlation between helix propensity of the modified amino acid and pause-free velocity. Moreover, nucleotide analogs affect transcription rate, suggesting that their binding energy also influences TL folding. A kinetic model in which elongation occurs in two steps, TL folding on nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding followed by NTP incorporation/pyrophosphate release, quantitatively accounts for these results. The TL plays no role in pause recovery remaining unfolded during a pause. The model suggests a finely tuned mechanism that balances transcription speed and fidelity.

  1. Apparatus and method for closed-loop control of reactor power in minimum time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Jr., John A.

    1988-11-01

    Closed-loop control law for altering the power level of nuclear reactors in a safe manner and without overshoot and in minimum time. Apparatus is provided for moving a fast-acting control element such as a control rod or a control drum for altering the nuclear reactor power level. A computer computes at short time intervals either the function: .rho.=(.beta.-.rho.).omega.-.lambda..sub.e '.rho.-.SIGMA..beta..sub.i (.lambda..sub.i -.lambda..sub.e ')+l* .omega.+l* [.omega..sup.2 +.lambda..sub.e '.omega.] or the function: .rho.=(.beta.-.rho.).omega.-.lambda..sub.e .rho.-(.lambda..sub.e /.lambda..sub.e)(.beta.-.rho.)+l* .omega.+l* [.omega..sup.2 +.lambda..sub.e .omega.-(.lambda..sub.e /.lambda..sub.e).omega.] These functions each specify the rate of change of reactivity that is necessary to achieve a specified rate of change of reactor power. The direction and speed of motion of the control element is altered so as to provide the rate of reactivity change calculated using either or both of these functions thereby resulting in the attainment of a new power level without overshoot and in minimum time. These functions are computed at intervals of approximately 0.01-1.0 seconds depending on the specific application.

  2. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  3. Trigger loop folding determines transcription rate of Escherichia coli’s RNA polymerase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mejia, Yara X.; Nudler, Evgeny; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-12-31

    Two components of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) catalytic center, the bridge helix and the trigger loop (TL), have been linked with changes in elongation rate and pausing. Here, single molecule experiments with the WT and two TL-tip mutants of the Escherichia coli enzyme reveal that tip mutations modulate RNAP’s pause-free velocity, identifying TL conformational changes as one of two rate-determining steps in elongation. Consistent with this observation, we find a direct correlation between helix propensity of the modified amino acid and pause-free velocity. Moreover, nucleotide analogs affect transcription rate, suggesting that their binding energy also influences TL folding. A kineticmore » model in which elongation occurs in two steps, TL folding on nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding followed by NTP incorporation/pyrophosphate release, quantitatively accounts for these results. The TL plays no role in pause recovery remaining unfolded during a pause. The model suggests a finely tuned mechanism that balances transcription speed and fidelity.« less

  4. MEMS closed-loop control incorporating a memristor as feedback sensing element

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Almeida, Sergio F.; Mireles, Jr., Jose; Zubia, David

    2015-12-01

    In this work the integration of a memristor with a MEMS parallel plate capacitor coupled by an amplification stage is simulated. It is shown that the MEMS upper plate position can be controlled up to 95% of the total gap. Due to its common operation principle, the change in the MEMS plate position can be interpreted by the change in the memristor resistance, or memristance. A memristance modulation of ~1 KΩ was observed. A polynomial expression representing the MEMS upper plate displacement as a function of the memristance is presented. Thereafter a simple design for a voltage closed-loop control ismore » presented showing that the MEMS upper plate can be stabilized up to 95% of the total gap using the memristor as a feedback sensing element. As a result, the memristor can play important dual roles in overcoming the limited operation range of MEMS parallel plate capacitors and in simplifying read-out circuits of those devices by representing the motion of the upper plate in the form of resistance change instead of capacitance change.« less

  5. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  6. Biodegradation of paint stripper solvents in a modified gas lift loop bioreactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Steenhoudt, K.; Travis, B.J.; Hanners, J.L.; Foreman, T.M.; Brainard, J.R.

    1997-07-05

    Paint stripping wastes generated during the decontamination and decommissioning of former nuclear facilities contain paint stripping organics (dichloromethane, 2-propanol, and methanol) and bulk materials containing paint pigments. It is desirable to degrade the organic residues as part of an integrated chemical-biological treatment system. The authors have developed a modified gas lift loop bioreactor employing a defined consortium of Thodococcus rhodochrous strain OFS and Hyphomicrobium sp. DM-2 that degrades paint stripper organics. Mass transfer coefficients and kinetic constants for biodegradation in the system were determined. It was found that transfer of organic substrates from surrogate waste into the air and further into the liquid medium in the bioreactor were rapid processes, occurring within minutes. Monod kinetics was employed to model the biodegradation of paint stripping organics. Analysis of the bioreactor process was accomplished with BIOLAB, a mathematical code that simulates coupled mass transfer and biodegradation processes. This code was used to fit experimental data to monod kinetics and to determine kinetic parameters. The BIOLAB code was also employed to compare activities in the bioreactor of individual microbial cultures to the activities of combined cultures in the bioreactor. This code is of benefit for further optimization and scale-up of the bioreactor for treatment of paint stripping and other volatile organic wastes in bulk materials.

  7. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF THE EMERGING EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN AS SEEN WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, L. P.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Kariyappa, R.; Hasan, S. S.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2013-05-01

    We used data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study coronal loops at small scales, emerging in the quiet Sun. With HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, we derive the integrated and unsigned photospheric magnetic flux at the loop footpoints in the photosphere. These loops are bright in the EUV channels of AIA. Using the six AIA EUV filters, we construct the differential emission measure (DEM) in the temperature range 5.7-6.5 in log T (K) for several hours of observations. The observed DEMs have a peak distribution around log T Almost-Equal-To 6.3, falling rapidly at higher temperatures. For log T < 6.3, DEMs are comparable to their peak values within an order of magnitude. The emission-weighted temperature is calculated, and its time variations are compared with those of magnetic flux. We present two possibilities for explaining the observed DEMs and temperatures variations. (1) Assuming that the observed loops are composed of a hundred thin strands with certain radius and length, we tested three time-dependent heating models and compared the resulting DEMs and temperatures with the observed quantities. This modeling used enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), a zero-dimensional (0D) hydrodynamic code. The comparisons suggest that a medium-frequency heating model with a population of different heating amplitudes can roughly reproduce the observations. (2) We also consider a loop model with steady heating and non-uniform cross-section of the loop along its length, and find that this model can also reproduce the observed DEMs, provided the loop expansion factor {gamma} {approx} 5-10. More observational constraints are required to better understand the nature of coronal heating in the short emerging loops on the quiet Sun.

  9. Decontamination of Terrorist-Dispersed Radionuclides from Surfaces in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Robert; Sutton, Mark; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Gray, Jeremy; Hu, Qinhong; McNab, Walt; Viani, Brian

    2008-01-15

    Research is currently underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to advance the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment. Investigations have focused on more optimized decontamination agents for cesium (Cs) and americium (Am) specifically for use in mass transit infrastructure and urban environments. This project is designed to enhance the capability of the United States to effectively respond to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) attack. The work addresses recognized data gaps by advancing the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment and provides a solution to a national need. The research is focused in four major areas: (1) a better understanding of urban surface conditions that influence the efficacy of decontamination processes, (2) development of prototype decontamination agents for Am and Cs optimized for use in urban environments, (3) the development of capabilities to realistically contaminate surfaces at both the real world and laboratory scale and (4) a validated model for radionuclide-surface interactions. The decontamination of urban surfaces following the detonation of an RDD presents a number of challenges. The following key points are found to be critical for the efficiency of decontamination agents in an urban environment: - Particle size and surface deposition of radionuclide particles on urban surface materials. - Interactions between radionuclides and urban materials. - The presence of grime and carbonation/alteration layers on the surface of urban surfaces. - Post-detonation penetration of radionuclides strongly affected by the dynamic wetting/drying processes. A laboratory scale contamination system has been developed allowing for samples to be contaminated and radionuclide interactions to be studied. In combination with laboratory scale experiments, a real scale outdoor test is scheduled for the spring of 2007. In conclusion, integrated laboratory, field, and numerical approaches are utilized to better understand the radionuclide behavior and the development/utility of decontamination agents.

  10. Current status and perspective of advanced loop type fast reactor in fast reactor cycle technology development project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niwa, Hajime; Aoto, Kazumi; Morishita, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    After selecting the combination of the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication as the most promising concept of FR cycle system, 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems' was finalized in 2006. Instead, a new project, Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT Project) was launched in Japan focusing on development of the selected concepts. This paper describes the current status and perspective of the advanced loop type SFR system in the FaCT Project, especially on the design requirements, current design as well as the related innovative technologies together with the development road-map. Some considerations on advantages of the advanced loop type design are also described. (authors)

  11. Whistler wave radiation from a pulsed loop antenna located in a cylindrical duct with enhanced plasma density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudrin, Alexander V.; Shkokova, Natalya M.; Ferencz, Orsolya E.; Zaboronkova, Tatyana M.

    2014-11-15

    Pulsed radiation from a loop antenna located in a cylindrical duct with enhanced plasma density is studied. The radiated energy and its distribution over the spatial and frequency spectra of the excited waves are derived and analyzed as functions of the antenna and duct parameters. Numerical results referring to the case where the frequency spectrum of the antenna current is concentrated in the whistler range are reported. It is shown that under ionospheric conditions, the presence of an artificial duct with enhanced density can lead to a significant increase in the energy radiated from a pulsed loop antenna compared with the case where the same source is immersed in the surrounding uniform magnetoplasma. The results obtained can be useful in planning active ionospheric experiments with pulsed electromagnetic sources operated in the presence of artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities that are capable of guiding whistler waves.

  12. Double row loop-coil configuration for high-speed electrodynamic maglev suspension, guidance, propulsion and guideway directional switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Jianliang (Naperville, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A stabilization and propulsion system comprising a series of loop-coils arranged in parallel rows wherein two rows combine to form one of two magnetic rails. Levitation and lateral stability are provided when the induced field in the magnetic rails interacts with the superconducting magnets mounted on the magnetic levitation vehicle. The loop-coils forming the magnetic rails have specified dimensions and a specified number of turns and by constructing differently these specifications, for one rail with respect to the other, the angle of tilt of the vehicle can be controlled during directional switching. Propulsion is provided by the interaction of a traveling magnetic wave associated with the coils forming the rails and the super conducting magnets on the vehicle.

  13. Double row loop-coil configuration for high-speed electrodynamic maglev suspension, guidance, propulsion and guideway directional switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, J.; Rote, D.M.

    1996-05-21

    A stabilization and propulsion system are disclosed comprising a series of loop-coils arranged in parallel rows wherein two rows combine to form one of two magnetic rails. Levitation and lateral stability are provided when the induced field in the magnetic rails interacts with the superconducting magnets mounted on the magnetic levitation vehicle. The loop-coils forming the magnetic rails have specified dimensions and a specified number of turns and by constructing differently these specifications, for one rail with respect to the other, the angle of tilt of the vehicle can be controlled during directional switching. Propulsion is provided by the interaction of a traveling magnetic wave associated with the coils forming the rails and the superconducting magnets on the vehicle. 12 figs.

  14. The One-Loop Six-Dimensional Hexagon Integral and its Relation to MHV Amplitudes in N=4 SYM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin

    2011-08-19

    We provide an analytic formula for the (rescaled) one-loop scalar hexagon integral {tilde {Phi}}{sub 6} with all external legs massless, in terms of classical polylogarithms. We show that this integral is closely connected to two integrals appearing in one- and two-loop amplitudes in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, {Omega}{sup (1)} and {Omega}{sup (2)}. The derivative of {Omega}{sup (2)} with respect to one of the conformal invariants yields {tilde {Phi}}{sub 6}, while another first-order differential operator applied to {tilde {Phi}}{sub 6} yields {Omega}{sup (1)}. We also introduce some kinematic variables that rationalize the arguments of the polylogarithms, making it easy to verify the latter differential equation. We also give a further example of a six-dimensional integral relevant for amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills.

  15. Interleukin 6 promotes endometrial cancer growth through an autocrine feedback loop involving ERKNF-?B signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Qi; Liu, Bin-Ya; Wang, Fang-Yuan; He, Yin-Yan; Lu, Wen; Liao, Yun; Gu, Wei; Wan, Xiao-Ping

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: IL-6 could promote endometrial cancer cells proliferation. IL-6 promotes its own production through an autocrine feedback loop. ERK and NF-?B pathway inhibitors inhibit IL-6 production and tumor growth. IL-6 secretion relies on the activation of ERKNF-?B pathway axis. An orthotopic nude endometrial carcinoma model confirms the effect of IL-6. - Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-6 as an inflammation factor, has been proved to promote cancer proliferation in several human cancers. However, its role in endometrial cancer has not been studied clearly. Previously, we demonstrated that IL-6 promoted endometrial cancer progression through local estrogen biosynthesis. In this study, we proved that IL-6 could directly stimulate endometrial cancer cells proliferation and an autocrine feedback loop increased its production even after the withdrawal of IL-6 from the medium. Next, we analyzed the mechanism underlying IL-6 production in the feedback loop and found that its production and IL-6-stimulated cell proliferation were effectively blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Importantly, activation of ERK was upstream of the NF-?B pathways, revealing the hierarchy of this event. Finally, we used an orthotopic nude endometrial carcinoma model to confirm the effects of IL-6 on the tumor progression. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-6 promotes endometrial carcinoma growth through an expanded autocrine regulatory loop and implicate the ERKNF-?B pathway as a critical mediator of IL-6 production, implying IL-6 to be an important therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma.

  16. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  17. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

  18. Dirac dark matter with a charged mediator: a comprehensive one-loop analysis of the direct detection phenomenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian

    2015-05-26

    We analyze the direct detection signals of a toy model consisting of a Dirac dark matter particle which couples to one Standard Model fermion via a scalar mediator. For all scenarios, the dark matter particle scatters off nucleons via one loop-induced electromagnetic and electroweak moments, as well as via the one-loop exchange of a Higgs boson. Besides, and depending on the details of the model, the scattering can also be mediated at tree level via the exchange of the scalar mediator or at one loop via gluon-gluon interactions. We show that, for thermally produced dark matter particles, the current limits from the LUX experiment on these scenarios are remarkably strong, even for dark matter coupling only to leptons. We also discuss future prospects for XENON1T and DARWIN and we argue that multi-ton xenon detectors will be able to probe practically the whole parameter space of the model consistent with thermal production and perturbativity. We also discuss briefly the implications of our results for the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic GeV excess.

  19. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathe, Mandar; Xu, Dikai; Hsieh, Tien-Lin; Simpson, James; Statnick, Robert; Tong, Andrew; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  20. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 3: nonseismic stress analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, A.L.; Curtis, D.J.; Rybicki, E.F.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    This volume describes the analyses used to evaluate stresses due to loads other than seismic excitations in the primary coolant loop piping of a selected four-loop pressurized water reactor nuclear power station. The results of the analyses are used as input to a simulation procedure for predicting the probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant system. Sources of stresses considered in the analyses are pressure, dead weight, thermal expansion, thermal gradients through the pipe wall, residual welding, and mechanical vibrations. Pressure and thermal transients arising from plant operations are best estimates and are based on actual plant operation records supplemented by specified plant design conditions. Stresses due to dead weight and thermal expansion are computed from a three-dimensional finite element model that uses a combination of pipe, truss, and beam elements to represent the reactor coolant loop piping, reactor pressure vessel, reactor coolant pumps, steam generators, and the pressurizer. Stresses due to pressure and thermal gradients are obtained by closed-form solutions. Calculations of residual stresses account for the actual heat impact, welding speed, weld preparation geometry, and pre- and post-heat treatments. Vibrational stresses due to pump operation are estimated by a dynamic analysis using existing measurements of pump vibrations.

  1. BuD, a helixloophelix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; Lpez-Mndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrHDNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific proteinDNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing toolkits for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helixloophelix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  2. A Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform with Remote Distribution Circuit Cosimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Williams, Tess L.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of a novel cosimulation architecture that integrates hardware testing using Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) with larger-scale electric grid models using off-the-shelf, non-PHIL software tools. This architecture enables utilities to study the impacts of emerging energy technologies on their system and manufacturers to explore the interactions of new devices with existing and emerging devices on the power system, both without the need to convert existing grid models to a new platform or to conduct in-field trials. The paper describes an implementation of this architecture for testing two residential-scale advanced solar inverters at separate points of common coupling. The same hardware setup is tested with two different distribution feeders (IEEE 123 and 8500 node test systems) modeled using GridLAB-D. In addition to simplifying testing with multiple feeders, the architecture demonstrates additional flexibility with hardware testing in one location linked via the Internet to software modeling in a remote location. In testing, inverter current, real and reactive power, and PCC voltage are well captured by the co-simulation platform. Testing of the inverter advanced control features is currently somewhat limited by the software model time step (1 sec) and tested communication latency (24 msec). Overshoot induced oscillations are observed with volt/VAR control delays of 0 and 1.5 sec, while 3.4 sec and 5.5 sec delays produced little or no oscillation. These limitations could be overcome using faster modeling and communication within the same co-simulation architecture.

  3. Instrumentation for slope stability -- Experience from an urban area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flentje, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the monitoring of several existing landslides in an urban area near Wollongong in the state of New South Wales, Australia. A brief overview of topography and geology is given and reference is made to the types of slope movement, processes and causal factors. Often the slope movements are extremely slow and imperceptible to the eye, and catastrophic failures are quite infrequent. However, cumulative movements at these slower rates do, over time, cause considerable distress to structures and disrupt residential areas and transport routes. Inclinometers and piezometers have been installed at a number of locations and monitoring of these has been very useful. The performance of instrumentation at different sites is discussed in relation to the monitoring of slope movements and pore pressures. Interval rates of inclinometer shear displacement have been compared with various periods of cumulative rainfall to assess the relationships.

  4. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  5. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    The population growth coupled with increasing urbanization is predicted to exert a huge demand on the growth and retrofit of urban infrastructure, particularly in water and energy systems. The U.S. population is estimated to grow by 23% (UN, 2009) between 2005 and 2030. The corresponding increases in energy and water demand were predicted as 14% (EIA, 2009) and 20% (Elcock, 2008), respectively. The water-energy nexus needs to be better understood to satisfy the increased demand in a sustainable manner without conflicting with environmental and economic constraints. Overall, 4% of U.S. power generation is used for water distribution (80%) and treatment (20%). 3% of U.S. water consumption (100 billion gallons per day, or 100 BGD) and 40% of U.S. water withdrawal (340 BGD) are for thermoelectric power generation (Goldstein and Smith, 2002). The water demand for energy production is predicted to increase most significantly among the water consumption sectors by 2030. On the other hand, due to the dearth of conventional water sources, energy intensive technologies are increasingly in use to treat seawater and brackish groundwater for water supply. Thus comprehending the interrelation and interdependency between water and energy system is imperative to evaluate sustainable water and energy supply alternatives for cities. In addition to the water-energy nexus, decentralized or distributed concept is also beneficial for designing sustainable water and energy infrastructure as these alternatives require lesser distribution lines and space in a compact urban area. Especially, the distributed energy infrastructure is more suited to interconnect various large and small scale renewable energy producers which can be expected to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the case of decentralized water infrastructure, on-site wastewater treatment facility can provide multiple benefits. Firstly, it reduces the potable water demand by reusing the treated water for non-potable uses and secondly, it also reduces the wastewater load to central facility. In addition, lesser dependency on the distribution network contributes to increased reliability and resiliency of the infrastructure. The goal of this research is to develop a framework which seeks an optimal combination of decentralized water and energy alternatives and centralized infrastructures based on physical and socio-economic environments of a region. Centralized and decentralized options related to water, wastewater and stormwater and distributed energy alternatives including photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells and microturbines are investigated. In the context of the water-energy nexus, water recovery from energy alternatives and energy recovery from water alternatives are reflected. Alternatives recapturing nutrients from wastewater are also considered to conserve depleting resources. The alternatives are evaluated in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and economic performance using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and cost benefit analysis, respectively. Meeting the increasing demand of a test bed, an optimal combination of the alternatives is designed to minimize environmental and economic impacts including CO2 emissions, human health risk, natural resource use, and construction and operation cost. The framework determines the optimal combination depending on urban density, transmission or conveyance distance or network, geology, climate, etc. Therefore, it will be also able to evaluate infrastructure resiliency against physical and socio-economic challenges such as population growth, severe weather, energy and water shortage, economic crisis, and so on.

  6. Fossil and Contemporary Fine Carbon Fractions at 12 Rural and Urban Sites in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schichtel, B; Malm, W; Bench, G; Fallon, S; McDade, C; Chow, J

    2007-03-01

    Fine particulate matter collected at two urban, four near-urban, and six remote sites throughout the United States were analyzed for total carbon (TC) and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). Samples were collected at most sites for both a summer and winter season. The radiocarbon was used to partition the TC into fossil and contemporary fractions. On average, contemporary carbon composed about half of the carbon at the urban, {approx}70-97% at near-urban, and 82-100% at remote sites. At Phoenix, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington, one monitor was located within the urban center and one outside to assess the urban excess over background concentrations. During the summer the urban and rural sites had similar contemporary carbon concentrations. However, during the winter the urban sites had more than twice the contemporary carbon measured at the neighboring sites, indicating anthropogenic contributions to the contemporary carbon. The urban fossil carbon was 4-20 times larger than the neighboring rural sites for both seasons. Organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from TOR analysis were available. These and the radiocarbon data were used to estimate characteristic fossil and contemporary EC/TC ratios for the winter and summer seasons. These ratios were applied to carbon data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network to estimate the fraction of contemporary carbon at mostly rural sites throughout the United States. In addition, the ratios were used to develop a semiquantitative, lower bound estimate of secondary organic carbon (SOC) contribution to fossil and contemporary carbon. SOC accounted for more than one-third of the fossil and contemporary carbon.

  7. Summary Report on Gamma Radiolysis of TBP/n-dodecane in the Presence of Nitric Acid Using the Radiolysis/Hydrolysis Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean R. Peterman; Bruce J. Mincher; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2010-08-01

    Design and installation has been completed for a state-of-the-art radiolysis/hydrolysis test loop system. The system is used to evaluate the effects of gamma radiolysis and acid hydrolysis on the stability and performance of solvent extraction process solvents. The test loop is comprised of two main sections; the solvent irradiation and hydrolysis loop and the solvent reconditioning loop. In the solvent irradiation and hydrolysis loop, aqueous and organic phases are mixed and circulated through a gamma irradiator until the desired absorbed dose is achieved. Irradiation of the mixed phases is more representative of actual conditions in a solvent extraction process. Additionally, the contact of the organic phase with the aqueous phase will subject the solvent components to hydrolysis. This hydrolysis can be accelerated by controlling the system at an elevated temperature. At defined intervals, the organic from the irradiation/hydrolysis loop will be transferred to the solvent reconditioning loop where the solvent is contacted with scrub, strip, and solvent wash solutions which simulate process flowsheet conditions. These two processes are repeated until the total desired dose is achieved. Since all viable solvent extraction components in an advanced fuel cycle must exhibit high radiolytic and hydrolytic stability, this test loop is not limited to any one solvent system but is applicable to all systems of interest. Also, the test loop is not limited to testing of process flowsheets. It is also a valuable tool in support of fundamental research on newly identified extractants/modifiers and the impact of gamma radiation on their stability in a dynamic environment. The investigation of the radiolysis of a TBP/n-dodecane process solvent in contact with aqueous nitric acid has been performed. These studies were intended to confirm/optimize the operability of the test loop system. Additionally, these data are directly applicable to numerous other solvent extraction processes containing TBP that are being developed to support advanced aqueous separations processes. Initial experimental results are consistent with existing literature reports regarding TBP/n-dodecane radiolysis. Additionally, the gamma dose rate has been characterized within the test loop and analytical methods have been developed for the characterization and quantification of radiolytic degradation products.

  8. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 flux traps (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loops temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  9. Mechanism of Methane Chemical Looping Combustion with Hematite Promoted with CeO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Duane D.; Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion that produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream, reducing the energy penalty of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gases. An effective oxygen carrier for CLC will readily react with the fuel gas and will be reoxidized upon contact with oxygen. This study investigated the development of a CeO{sub 2}-promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?hematite oxygen carrier suitable for the methane CLC process. Composition of CeO{sub 2} is between 5 and 25 wt % and is lower than what is generally used for supports in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} carrier preparations. The incorporation of CeO{sub 2} to the natural ore hematite strongly modifies the reduction behavior in comparison to that of CeO{sub 2} and hematite alone. Temperature-programmed reaction studies revealed that the addition of even 5 wt % CeO{sub 2} enhances the reaction capacity of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier by promoting the decomposition and partial oxidation of methane. Fixed-bed reactor data showed that the 5 wt % cerium oxides with 95 wt % iron oxide produce 2 times as much carbon dioxide in comparison to the sum of carbon dioxide produced when the oxides were tested separately. This effect is likely due to the reaction of CeO{sub 2} with methane forming intermediates, which are reactive for extracting oxygen from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a considerably faster rate than the rate of the direct reaction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. These studies reveal that 5 wt % CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives stable conversions over 15 reduction/oxidation cycles. Lab-scale reactor studies (pulsed mode) suggest the methane reacts initially with CeO{sub 2} lattice oxygen to form partial oxidation products (CO + H{sub 2}), which continue to react with oxygen from neighboring Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, leading to its complete oxidation to form CO{sub 2}. The reduced cerium oxide promotes the methane decomposition reaction to form C + H{sub 2}, which continue to react with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to form CO/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. This mechanism is supported by the characterization studies, which also suggest that the formation of carbonaceous intermediates may affect the reaction rate and selectivity of the oxygen carrier.

  10. GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport (Espaol) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning...

  11. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriation Act, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The budget appropriations for FY 1983 for the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies are presented.

  12. Best Practices Case Study: Urbane Homes - Crestwood, KY, Various Locations, Greater Louisville, KY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Urbane Homes, who worked with Building America to build market rate homes with HERS scores of 57 to 62. Despite a down market theyve sold every home within 3 weeks of listing, without any advertising.

  13. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Nina Bauer, Annette Haase, Dagmar

    2011-03-15

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

  14. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  15. Physics-based statistical model and simulation method of RF propagation in urban environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Dvorak, Steven L.

    2010-09-14

    A physics-based statistical model and simulation/modeling method and system of electromagnetic wave propagation (wireless communication) in urban environments. In particular, the model is a computationally efficient close-formed parametric model of RF propagation in an urban environment which is extracted from a physics-based statistical wireless channel simulation method and system. The simulation divides the complex urban environment into a network of interconnected urban canyon waveguides which can be analyzed individually; calculates spectral coefficients of modal fields in the waveguides excited by the propagation using a database of statistical impedance boundary conditions which incorporates the complexity of building walls in the propagation model; determines statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields; and determines a parametric propagation model based on the statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields from which predictions of communications capability may be made.

  16. Energy Department Announces the SUN Project, Empowering Urban Native Youth in STEM Education

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SUN Project is a new collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and the American Indian Science and Engineering Society to engage urban Native American youth in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

  17. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development PROGRAMS OF HUD

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Housing and Urban Development PROGRAMS OF HUD Major Mortgage, Grant, Assistance, and Regulatory Programs 2013 ii Table of Contents Table of Contents ................................................................................................................ ii Community Planning and Development ............................................................................ 1 Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) ........................................................ 1 Capacity

  18. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU-style development path would avoid 430 million tonnes coal-equivalent energy use by 2025. More than 60% of these energy savings would come from reduced activity and production levels. In carbon terms, this would amount to more than a billion-tonne reduction of energy-related carbon emissions compared with the BAU scenario in 2025, though the absolute level of emissions rises in both scenarios. Aside from the energy and carbon savings related to CLU scenario development, this study showed impending saturation effects in commercial construction, urban appliance ownership, and fertilizer application. The implication of these findings is that urbanization will have a direct impact on future energy use and emissions - policies to guide urban growth can play a central role in China's efforts to mitigate emissions growth.

  19. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  20. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Housing and Urban Development The mission of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality affordable homes for all. HUD is working to strengthen the housing market to bolster the economy and protect consumers; meet the need for quality affordable rental homes; utilize housing as a platform for improving quality of life; build inclusive and sustainable communities free from discrimination, and transform the way HUD

  1. Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel-and CNG-powered Urban Buses

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES [ * ] Patrick COROLLER & Gabriel PLASSAT French Agency of Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) Air & Transport Division [ * ] presented at the DEER 2003 Conference by Dr. Thierry SEGUELONG, Aaqius & Aaqius) ABSTRACT Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has

  2. Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status after One Year Experience | Department of Energy Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle: Status after One Year Experience Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle: Status after One Year Experience 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Rhodia Electronics and Catalysis PDF icon 2004_deer_rocher.pdf More Documents & Publications Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System

  3. Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy September 20, 2012 - 1:10pm Addthis The University of Maryland team accepted the award for the best combined heat, hydrogen, and power system design at the World Hydrogen Energy Conference (WHEC) in Toronto. | Photo courtesy of Jennie Moton. The University of Maryland team accepted the award for the best combined heat, hydrogen,

  4. Two-Loop QCD Amplitude for gg{yields}h, H in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Beerli, Stefan; Daleo, Alejandro

    2008-06-20

    We present the two-loop QCD amplitude for the interaction of two gluons and a CP-even Higgs boson in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We apply a novel numerical method for the evaluation of Feynman diagrams with infrared, ultraviolet, and threshold singularities. We discuss subtleties in the ultraviolet renormalization of the amplitude with conventional dimensional regularization, dimensional reduction, and the four dimensional helicity scheme. Finally, we show numerical results for scenarios of supersymmetry breaking with a rather challenging phenomenology in which the Higgs signal in the MSSM is suppressed in comparison to the standard model.

  5. A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Shuli Yeh Chiatsung Budd, William W. Chen Liling

    2009-02-15

    Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed.

  6. Process/Engineering Co-Simulation of Oxy-Combustion and Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, David

    2012-12-31

    Over the past several years, the DOE has sponsored various funded programs, collectively referred to as Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) programs, which have targeted the development of a steady-state simulator for advanced power plants. The simulator allows the DOE and its contractors to systematically evaluate various power plant concepts, either for preliminary conceptual design or detailed final design. One of the novel and powerful characteristics of the simulator is that it is designed to couple a hierarchy of plant-level and equipment-level models that have varying levels of fidelity and computational speed suitable. For example, the simulator may be used to couple the cycle analysis software Aspen Plus (marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc.) with an equipment item on the process flowsheet modeled with the FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (marketed by ANSYS Inc.). An important enhancement to the APECS toolkit has been the creation of computationally efficient reduced-order models (ROMs) based on information generated from high-fidelity CFD models. The overarching goal of the present DOE program has been to advance and apply APECS to an overlapping advanced carbon capture technology applications area and a dense-phase, chemical looping (CL) applications area. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) develop ROMs for dense-phase computations using the ROM Builder (based on the regression ROM methodology plus principal component analysis (PCA) for contour plots), and (2) demonstrate commercial-scale, oxyfired (OF), circulating fluidized bed (CFB) co-simulations, as well as CL combustion cosimulations, using the ROM and APECS tool kit. The overall intent of the program is to enhance the APECS toolkit so that it is capable of providing dense-phase riser co-simulations using a CAPEOPEN (CO)-compliant ROM, constructed using the ROM Builder, for CL and oxy-fired CFB systems. As the prime contractor, Alstom Power has the responsibility to demonstrate the capabilities of the enhanced APECS tool to simulate commercial-scale OF CFB and CL combustion co-simulations, both of which involve the time-dependent, dense-phase submodels in the FLUENT code. ANSYS Inc., as a subcontractor, bears the responsibility to enhance the APECS tool kit for the dense-phase submodel applications, and to assist in the development of specific User-Defined Functions (UDFs) necessary for the particle-phase reactions. In April of 2012, Alstom was notified that the workscope would be curtailed after the end of the budget period. Alstom and the DOE agreed to a revised workscope. The technical work was originally encompassed by Tasks 3 and 4. Task 3, associated with the OF CFB applications area, was curtailed, and Task 4, associated with the CL applications area, was eliminated. Only a portion of Task 3 has been completed. Consequently, this report constitutes a final report for that body of work that was accomplished through May of 2012, in accordance with the workscope revisions.

  7. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  8. Evidence for small-molecule-mediated loop stabilization in the structure of the isolated Pin1 WW domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortenson, David E.; Kreitler, Dale F.; Yun, Hyun Gi; Gellman, Samuel H., E-mail: gellman@chem.wisc.edu; Forest, Katrina T., E-mail: gellman@chem.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Two structures of a small protein with a defined tertiary fold, the isolated Pin1 WW domain, have been determined via racemic crystallization with small-molecule additives. These additives, which are either racemic or achiral, appear to stabilize a dynamic loop region of the structure. The human Pin1 WW domain is a small autonomously folding protein that has been useful as a model system for biophysical studies of ?-sheet folding. This domain has resisted previous attempts at crystallization for X-ray diffraction studies, perhaps because of intrinsic conformational flexibility that interferes with the formation of a crystal lattice. Here, the crystal structure of the human Pin1 WW domain has been obtained via racemic crystallization in the presence of small-molecule additives. Both enantiomers of a 36-residue variant of the Pin1 WW domain were synthesized chemically, and the l- and d-polypeptides were combined to afford diffracting crystals. The structural data revealed packing interactions of small carboxylic acids, either achiral citrate or a d,l mixture of malic acid, with a mobile loop region of the WW-domain fold. These interactions with solution additives may explain our success in crystallization of this protein racemate. Molecular-dynamics simulations starting from the structure of the Pin1 WW domain suggest that the crystal structure closely resembles the conformation of this domain in solution. The structural data presented here should provide a basis for further studies of this important model system.

  9. A Case Study of Urbanization Impact on Summer Precipitation in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area. Urban Heat Island Versus Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Shi; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Xiuqun

    2015-10-23

    Convection-resolving ensemble simulations using the WRF-Chem model coupled with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) are conducted to investigate the individual and combined impacts of land use and anthropogenic pollutant emissions from urbanization on a heavy rainfall event in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA) in China. The simulation with the urbanization effect included generally captures the spatial pattern and temporal variation of the rainfall event. An improvement of precipitation is found in the experiment including aerosol effect on both clouds and radiation. The expanded urban land cover and increased aerosols have an opposite effect on precipitation processes, with the latter playing a more dominant role, leading to suppressed convection and rainfall over the upstream (northwest) area, and enhanced convection and more precipitation in the downstream (southeast) region of the GBMA. In addition, the influence of aerosol indirect effect is found to overwhelm that of direct effect on precipitation in this rainfall event. Increased aerosols induce more cloud droplets with smaller size, which favors evaporative cooling and reduce updrafts and suppress convection over the upstream (northwest) region in the early stage of the rainfall event. As the rainfall system propagates southeastward, more latent heat is released due to the freezing of larger number of smaller cloud drops that are lofted above the freezing level, which is responsible for the increased updraft strength and convective invigoration over the downstream (southeast) area.

  10. A Strategic Project Appraisal framework for ecologically sustainable urban infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, John; Iyer-Raniga, Usha; McLaughlin, Patricia; Mills, Anthony

    2012-02-15

    Actors in the built environment are progressively considering environmental and social issues alongside functional and economic aspects of development projects. Infrastructure projects represent major investment and construction initiatives with attendant environmental, economic and societal impacts across multiple scales. To date, while sustainability strategies and frameworks have focused on wider national aspirations and strategic objectives, they are noticeably weak in addressing micro-level integrated decision making in the built environment, particularly for infrastructure projects. The proposed approach of this paper is based on the principal that early intervention is the most cost-effective and efficient means of mitigating the environmental effects of development projects, particularly macro infrastructure developments. A strategic overview of the various project alternatives, taking account for stakeholder and expert input, could effectively reduce project impacts/risks at low cost to the project developers but provide significant benefit to wider communities, including communities of future stakeholders. This paper is the first exploratory step in developing a more systematic framework for evaluating strategic alternatives for major metropolitan infrastructure projects, based on key sustainability principles. The developed Strategic Project Appraisal (SPA) framework, grounded in the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), provides a means of practically appraising project impacts and alternatives in terms of quantified ecological limits; addresses the neglected topic of metropolitan infrastructure as a means of delivering sustainability outcomes in the urban context and more broadly, seeks to open a debate on the potential for SEA methodology to be more extensively applied to address sustainability challenges in the built environment. Practically applied and timed appropriately, the SPA framework can enable better decision-making and more efficient resource allocation ensuring low impact infrastructure development.

  11. Large scale, urban decontamination; developments, historical examples and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, R.L.

    2007-07-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actions have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the prospect for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or 'dirty bomb') residues. In response, the United States Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. The efficiency of RDD cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the 'old reliable' methodologies. While an RDD is primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly 'package and dispose' method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination. (authors)

  12. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

  13. Novel Magnetically Fluidized Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Renwei; Hahn, David; Klausner, James; Petrasch, Jorg; Mehdizadeh, Ayyoub; Allen, Kyle; Rahmatian, Nima; Stehle, Richard; Bobek, Mike; Al-Raqom, Fotouh; Greek, Ben; Li, Like; Chen, Chen; Singh, Abhishek; Takagi, Midori; Barde, Amey; Nili, Saman

    2013-09-30

    The coal to hydrogen project utilizes the iron/iron oxide looping process to produce high purity hydrogen. The input energy for the process is provided by syngas coming from gasification process of coal. The reaction pathways for this process have been studied and favorable conditions for energy efficient operation have been identified. The Magnetically Stabilized Porous Structure (MSPS) is invented. It is fabricated from iron and silica particles and its repeatable high performance has been demonstrated through many experiments under various conditions in thermogravimetric analyzer, a lab-scale reactor, and a large scale reactor. The chemical reaction kinetics for both oxidation and reduction steps has been investigated thoroughly inside MSPS as well as on the surface of very smooth iron rod. Hydrogen, CO, and syngas have been tested individually as the reducing agent in reduction step and their performance is compared. Syngas is found to be the most pragmatic reducing agent for the two-step water splitting process. The transport properties of MSPS including porosity, permeability, and effective thermal conductivity are determined based on high resolution 3D CT x-ray images obtained at Argonne National Laboratory and pore-level simulations using a lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE)-based mesoscopic model developed during this investigation. The results of those measurements and simulations provide necessary inputs to the development of a reliable volume-averaging-based continuum model that is used to simulate the dynamics of the redox process in MSPS. Extensive efforts have been devoted to simulate the redox process in MSPS by developing a continuum model consist of various modules for conductive and radiative heat transfer, fluid flow, species transport, and reaction kinetics. Both the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches for species transport of chemically reacting flow in porous media have been investigated and verified numerically. Both approaches lead to correct prediction of hydrogen production rates over a large range of experimental conditions in the laboratory scale reactor and the bench-scale reactor. In the economic analysis, a comparison of the hydrogen production plants using iron/iron oxide looping cycle and the conventional process has been presented. Plant configurations are developed for the iron/iron oxide looping cycle. The study suggests a higher electric power generation but a lower hydrogen production efficiency comparing with the conventional process. Additionally, it was shown that the price of H{sub 2} obtained from our reactor can be as low as $1.7/kg, which is 22% lower than the current price of the H{sub 2} obtained from reforming plants.

  14. Dismantling Structures and Equipment of the MR Reactor and its Loop Facilities at the National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' - 12051

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, V.G.; Danilovich, A.S.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Muzrukova, V.D.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Fadin, S.Yu.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V.

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 a design of decommissioning of research reactors MR and RFT has been developed in the National research Center 'Kurchatov institute'. The design has been approved by Russian State Authority in July 2009 year and has received the positive conclusion of ecological expertise. In 2009-2010 a preparation for decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT was spent. Within the frames of a preparation a characterization, sorting and removal of radioactive objects, including the irradiated fuel, from reactor storage facilities and pool have been executed. During carrying out of a preparation on removal of radioactive objects from reactor sluice pool water treating has been spent. For these purposes modular installation for clearing and processing of a liquid radioactive waste 'Aqua - Express' was used. As a result of works it was possible to lower volume activity of water on three orders in magnitude that has allowed improving essentially of radiating conditions in a reactor hall. Auxiliary systems of ventilation, energy and heat supplies, monitoring systems of radiating conditions of premises of the reactor and its loop-back installations are reconstructed. In 2011 the license for a decommissioning of the specified reactors has been received and there are begun dismantling works. Within the frames of works under the design the armature and pipelines are dismantled in a under floor space of a reactor hall where a moving and taking away pipelines of loop facilities and the first contour of the MR reactor were replaced. A dismantle of the main equipment of loop facility with the gas coolant has been spent. Technologies which were used on dismantle of the radioactive contaminated equipment are presented, the basic works on reconstruction of systems of maintenance of on the decommissioning works are described, the sequence of works on the decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT is shown. Dismantling works were carried out with application of means of a dust suppression that, in aggregate with standard means at such works of individual protection of the personnel and devices of radiating control, has allowed to lower risk of action of radiation on the personnel, the population and environment at the expense of reduction of volume activity of radioactive aerosols in air. (authors)

  15. THE EFFECT OF THE {sup 14}N(p, {gamma}){sup 15}O REACTION ON THE BLUE LOOPS IN INTERMEDIATE-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halabi, Ghina M.; El Eid, Mounib F.; Champagne, Arthur

    2012-12-10

    We present stellar evolutionary sequences of stars in the mass range 5-12 M{sub Sun }, having solar-like initial composition. The stellar models are obtained using updated input physics, including recent rates of thermonuclear reactions. We investigate the effects of a modification of the {sup 14}N(p, {gamma}){sup 15}O reaction rate, as suggested by recent evaluations, on the formation and extension of the blue loops encountered during the evolution of the stars in the above mass range. We find that a reduced {sup 14}N(p, {gamma}){sup 15}O rate, as described in the text, has a striking impact on the physical conditions of burning and mixing during shell hydrogen burning when the blue loops are formed. In particular, we find that the efficiency of shell hydrogen burning is crucial for the formation of an extended blue loop. We show that a significantly reduced {sup 14}N(p, {gamma}){sup 15}O rate affects severely the extension of the blue loops and the time spent by the star in the blue part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in the mass range 5-7 M{sub Sun} if the treatment of convection is based on the Schwarzschild criterion only. In this case, envelope overshooting helps to restore well-extended blue loops as supported by the observations of the Cepheid stars. If core overshooting is included during the core hydrogen and core helium burning phases, the loop formation and its properties depend on how this overshooting is treated for a given stellar mass range, as well as on its efficiency.

  16. EFFECTS OF ALFVEN WAVES ON ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER EMISSION IN CORONAL LOOPS AND SOLAR TYPE I RADIO STORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, Y. H.

    2013-06-10

    Solar type I radio storms are long-lived radio emissions from the solar atmosphere. It is believed that these type I storms are produced by energetic electrons trapped within a closed magnetic structure and are characterized by a high ordinary (O) mode polarization. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open problem. Recently, Wu et al. found that Alfven waves (AWs) can significantly influence the basic physics of wave-particle interactions by modifying the resonant condition. Taking the effects of AWs into account, this work investigates electron cyclotron maser emission driven by power-law energetic electrons with a low-energy cutoff distribution, which are trapped in coronal loops by closed solar magnetic fields. The results show that the emission is dominated by the O mode. It is proposed that this O mode emission may possibly be responsible for solar type I radio storms.

  17. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  18. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 4: seismic response analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, S.C.; Ma, S.M.; Larder, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    This volume of the report gives a detailed account of the seismic response analysis of the primary coolant loop piping of Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Station. Because the purpose of this work was to perform a realistic simulation, best estimate loads and material properties were used for the calculation whenever possible. When such data were unavailable, conservative values were used. The calculation procedure included the generation of seismic input, the determination of dynamic soil properties, a three-part soil-structure-piping interaction analysis, and the post-response data procession. A large number of variables considered in the analysis can affect the seismic response stresses. This volume therefore describes a sensitivity study, as well as the method of analysis. The sensitivity study is included to establish confidence in the computed response stresses.

  19. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 6: failure mode analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, R.D.

    1981-09-01

    Material properties and failure criteria were evaluated to assess the requirements for double-ended guillotine break in the primary coolant loop of the Zion Unit 1 pressurized water reactor. The properties of the 316 stainless steel piping materials were obtained from the literature. Statistical distributions of both the tensile and fracture properties at room and operating temperatures were developed. Yield and ultimate strength tensile properties were combined to estimate the material flow strength. The flow strength and fracture properties were used in the various failure models analyzed. Linear-elastic, elastic-plastic, and fully plastic fracture models were compared, and the governing fracture criterion was determined. For the particular case studied, the fully plastic flow requirement was found to be the controlling fracture criterion leading to a double-ended guillotine pipe break.

  20. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  1. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  2. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the decontamination process(es). In the case of an entire building, the value may be obvious; it's costly to replace the structure. For a smaller item such as a vehicle or painting, the cost versus benefit of decontamination needs to be evaluated. This will be determined on a case by case basis and again is beyond the scope of this report, although some thoughts on decontamination of unique, personal and high value items are given. But, this is clearly an area that starting discussions and negotiations early on will greatly benefit both the economics and timeliness of the clean up. In addition, high value assets might benefit from pre-event protection such as protective coatings or HEPA filtered rooms to prevent contaminated outside air from entering the room (e.g., an art museum).

  3. Experimental investigation on the flow instability behavior of a multi-channel boiling natural circulation loop at low-pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2010-09-15

    Natural circulation as a mode of heat removal is being considered as a prominent passive feature in the innovative nuclear reactor designs, particularly in boiling-water-reactors, due to its simplicity and economy. However, boiling natural circulation system poses many challenges to designer due to occurrence of various kinds of instabilities such as excursive instability, density wave oscillations, flow pattern transition instability, geysering and metastable states in parallel channels. This problem assumes greater significance particularly at low-pressures i.e. during startup, where there is great difference in the properties of two phases. In light of this, a parallel channel loop has been designed and installed that has a geometrical resemblance to the pressure-tube-type boiling-water-reactor, to investigate into the behavior of boiling natural circulation. The loop comprises of four identical parallel channels connected between two common plenums i.e. steam drum and header. The recirculation path is provided by a single downcomer connected between steam drum and header. Experiments have been conducted over a wide range of power and pressures (1-10 bar). Two distinct unstable zones are observed with respect to power i.e. corresponding to low power (Type-I) and high power (Type-II) with a stable zone at intermediate powers. The nature of oscillations in terms of their amplitude and frequency and their evolution for Type-I and Type-II instabilities are studied with respect to the effect of heater power and pressure. This paper discusses the evolution of unstable and stable behavior along with the nature of flow oscillation in the channels and the effect of pressure on it. (author)

  4. Examining System-Wide Impacts of Solar PV Control Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2014-10-11

    High penetration levels of distributed solar PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter control schemes have been proposed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, closed-loop control may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. In order to enable the study of the performance of advanced control schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) platform has been developed. In the HIL system, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling to hardware located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Hardware inverters interact with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system and power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of controls applied to inverters that are integrated into a simulation of the IEEE 8500-node test feeder, with inverters in either constant power factor control or active volt/VAR control. We demonstrate that this HIL platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter controls and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, the results from HIL are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter controls. ?

  5. Scale Setting Using the Extended Renormalization Group and the Principle of Maximal Conformality: the QCD Coupling at Four Loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Wu, Xing-Gang; /SLAC /Chongqing U.

    2012-02-16

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is to set the proper renormalization scale of the running coupling. The extended renormalization group equations, which express the invariance of physical observables under both the renormalization scale- and scheme-parameter transformations, provide a convenient way for estimating the scale- and scheme-dependence of the physical process. In this paper, we present a solution for the scale-equation of the extended renormalization group equations at the four-loop level. Using the principle of maximum conformality (PMC)/Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) scale-setting method, all non-conformal {beta}{sub i} terms in the perturbative expansion series can be summed into the running coupling, and the resulting scale-fixed predictions are independent of the renormalization scheme. Different schemes lead to different effective PMC/BLM scales, but the final results are scheme independent. Conversely, from the requirement of scheme independence, one not only can obtain scheme-independent commensurate scale relations among different observables, but also determine the scale displacements among the PMC/BLM scales which are derived under different schemes. In principle, the PMC/BLM scales can be fixed order-by-order, and as a useful reference, we present a systematic and scheme-independent procedure for setting PMC/BLM scales up to NNLO. An explicit application for determining the scale setting of R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}(Q) up to four loops is presented. By using the world average {alpha}{sub s}{sup {ovr MS}}(MZ) = 0.1184 {+-} 0.0007, we obtain the asymptotic scale for the 't Hooft associated with the {ovr MS} scheme, {Lambda}{sub {ovr MS}}{sup 'tH} = 245{sub -10}{sup +9} MeV, and the asymptotic scale for the conventional {ovr MS} scheme, {Lambda}{sub {ovr MS}} = 213{sub -8}{sup +19} MeV.

  6. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  7. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  8. A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. J.; Ivey, A.; McPherson, T. N.; Boswell, D.; Pardyjak, E. R.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four primary routes that included legs from the downtown core to four different 'rural' areas. Each route went through residential areas and most often went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2004) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 20 to 40 minutes to complete. Based on seven nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 0.5-6.5 C between the urban core and nearby 'rural' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Oklahoma City, and to test new urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt and Shi, 2004). In addition to the ground measurements, skin temperature measurements were also analyzed from remotely sensed images taken from the Earth Observing System's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A surface kinetic temperature thermal infrared image captured by the ASTER of the Oklahoma City area on July 21, 2001 was analyzed within ESRI's ArcGIS 8.3 to correlate variations in temperature with land use type. Analysis of this imagery suggests distinct variations in temperature across different land use categories. Through the use of remotely sensed imagery we hope to better understand the development of the urban heat island analysis.

  9. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Table HC1-8a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.8 1.3 1.3 1.4 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.2 Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 7.7 4.5 4.7 3.4 7.4 New England .............................................

  11. Table HC7-8a. Home Office Equipment by Urban/Rural Location,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8a. Home Office Equipment by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.9 1.3 1.2 1.4 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.1 Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 43.9 16.0 20.2 16.1 4.1 Personal Computers 2 ................................. 60.0 25.6 9.3 15.0 10.1 4.7

  12. Urban Electric Power Takes Energy Storage from Startup to Grid-Scale |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Urban Electric Power Takes Energy Storage from Startup to Grid-Scale Urban Electric Power Takes Energy Storage from Startup to Grid-Scale June 25, 2013 - 12:42pm Addthis Learn how the CUNY Energy Institute is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used to store renewable energy. | Video courtesy of the Energy Department. Alexa McClanahan Communications Support Contractor to ARPA-E What are the key facts? The CUNY Energy Institute

  13. Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel- and CNG-Powered Urban

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buses | Department of Energy Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel- and CNG-Powered Urban Buses Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel- and CNG-Powered Urban Buses 2003 DEER Conference Presentations: French Agency of Environment and Energy Management PDF icon deer_2003_seguelong.pdf More Documents & Publications Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus Performance and durability of PSA Peugeot Citroen's DPF System on a Taxi Fleet in the

  14. Measuring temperature-dependent propagating disturbances in coronal fan loops using multiple SDO/AIA channels and the surfing transform technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon [Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    A set of co-aligned high-resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling a quantitative description of subvisual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1%. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional 'surfing' signals extracted from position-time plots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency-velocity space that exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square-root dependence predicted for slow mode magneto-acoustic waves which seem to be the dominating wave mode in the loop structures studied. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. to a more general class of fan loop system not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  15. Energy in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 22. annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The conference addressed the energy and environmental challenges facing large metropolitan areas. The topics included a comparison of the environmental status of cities twenty years ago with the challenges facing today`s large cities, sustainable economic development, improving the energy and environmental infrastructure, and the changing urban transportation sector. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-06-03

    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  17. High Performance Without Increased Cost: Urbane Homes, Louisville, KY- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes work with Urbane Homes of Louisville, Kentucky, to build a high-performance home that cost $36 per ft2 (not counting the lot).Between 2005 and 2010, Building America research partners worked with 34 builders to construct nearly 3,000 HERS

  18. USDA National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting proposals for the National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant Program to assist the U.S. Forest Service in establishing the grant categories and recommendations of final proposals for the Forest Service to consider.

  19. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Nam R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer adoption of PV (from -14% to -61%, depending on the design). Moving towards time-varying rates, on the other hand, may accelerate near- and medium-term deployment (through 2030), but is found to slow adoption in the longer term (-22% in 2050).

  20. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-02-12

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  1. A segmented multi-loop antenna for selective excitation of azimuthal mode number in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinohara, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Motomura, T.

    2014-09-15

    A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, 1, and 2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density n{sub e} were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n{sub e} up to ?5 10{sup 12} cm{sup ?3} was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and 1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.

  2. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Modified Hematite by Methane (CH{sub 4}) for Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Global Kinetics Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monazam, Esmail R.; Breault, Ronald W.; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Miller, Duane D.

    2013-10-01

    Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or in its natural form (hematite) is a potential material to capture CO{sub 2} through the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process. It is known that magnesium (Mg) is an effective methyl cleaving catalyst and as such it has been combined with hematite to assess any possible enhancement to the kinetic rate for the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. Therefore, in order to evaluate its effectiveness as a hematite additive, the behaviors of Mg-modified hematite samples (hematite 5% Mg(OH){sub 2}) have been analyzed with regard to assessing any enhancement to the kinetic rate process. The Mg-modified hematite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The reactivity experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) using continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (5, 10, and 20%) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825 {degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2} and CO in the gaseous product. The kinetic data at reduction step obtained by isothermal experiments could be well fitted by two parallel rate equations. The modified hematite samples showed higher reactivity as compared to unmodified hematite samples during reduction at all investigated temperatures.

  3. Evidence of extra-telomeric effects of hTERT and its regulation involving a feedback loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Serene R.; Cunningham, Amanda P.; Huynh, Vu Q.; Andrews, Lucy G.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O. . E-mail: trygve@uab.edu

    2007-01-15

    The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme telomerase which is responsible for telomeric maintenance and extension. Using RNA interference to knock down hTERT mRNA expression, we provide evidence that hTERT exerts extra-telomeric effects on the cell cycle and on its own regulatory proteins, specifically: p53 and p21. We tested our hypothesis that hTERT regulates its own expression through effects on upstream regulatory genes using transformed human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells, p53 and p16 {sup INK4a} null human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells, and p53-null MDA-MB-157 human mammary cancer cells. In HEK 293 cells, hTERT knockdown resulted in elevated p53 and p21 transcription and a decrease in cellular proliferation. Similar results were observed in the MDA-MB-157 cell line where p21 was upregulated, correlating with cell growth inhibition. In contrast, we observed a decrease in expression of p21 in SKOV-3 cells with hTERT knockdown and cell growth appeared to be unaffected. These findings suggest that hTERT may be involved in a feedback loop system, thereby playing a role in its own regulation.

  4. ANALYSIS OF 3-D URBAN DATABASES WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION DISPERSION FOR A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN CITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. RATTI; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Models to estimate pollution dispersion and wind flow in cities (both at the city-scale and above) require a parametrical description of the urban canopy. For instance, two key parameters are the aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} and the zero-plane displacement height z{sub d}, which are related, amongst others, to the surface drag coefficient, the scale and intensity of turbulence, the depth of the roughness sub-layer and the wind speed profile. The calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d}, however, is not straightforward. The classical way to estimate them in open terrain is based on the measurement of wind profile data from a tall mast or, less accurately, on the inference from published roughness values for similar terrain elsewhere (Davenport, 1960; Davenport et al., 2000). Both methods, however, are very difficult to apply to cities, due to the considerable height where wind measurements should be taken (well above the urban canopy) and to the irregularities of urban texture. A promising alternative that has become available in recent years, due to increasing computing resources and the availability of high-resolution 3-D databases in urban areas, is based on the calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d} from the analysis and measure of the city geometry (urban morphometry). This method is reviewed for instance in Grimmond and Oke (1999), where values are calculated using different formulas and then compared with the results of field measurements. Urban morphometry opens up a new range of parameters that can easily be calculated in urban areas and used as input for meso-scale and urban dispersion models. This paper reviews a number of them and shows how they could be calculated from urban Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using image-processing techniques. It builds up on the recent work by Ratti et al. 2000, extending the number of case studies cities: London, Toulouse, Berlin, Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

  5. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  6. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR Plant. Volume 3. Nonseismic stress analysis. Load Combination Program, Project I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, A.L.; Lu, S.C.; Rybicki, E.F.; Curtis, D.J.

    1981-06-01

    This volume describes the analyses used to evaluate stresses due to loads other than seismic excitations in the primary coolant loop piping of a selected four-loop pressurized water reactor nuclear power station. The results of the analyses are used as input to a simulation procedure for predicting the probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant system. Sources of stresses considered in the analyses are pressure, dead weight, thermal expansion, thermal gradients through the pipe wall, residual welding, and mechanical vibrations. Stresses due to dead weight and thermal expansion are computed from a three-dimensional finite element model that uses a combination of pipe, truss, and beam elements to represent the reactor coolant loop piping, reactor pressure vessel, reactor coolant pumps, steam generators, and the pressurizer. Stresses due to pressure and thermal gradients are obtained by closed-form solutions. Calculations of residual stresses account for the actual heat impact, welding speed, weld preparation geometry, and pre- and post-heat treatments. Vibrational stresses due to pump operation are estimated by a dynamic analysis using existing measurements of pump vibrations. 13 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

    2005-09-01

    The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

  8. Viability of the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology for general potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haro, Jaume; Amors, Jaume E-mail: jaume.amoros@upc.edu

    2014-12-01

    We consider the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) for phenomenological potentials that at early times provide a nearly matter dominated Universe in the contracting phase, having a reheating mechanism in the expanding or contracting phase, i.e., being able to release the energy of the scalar field creating particles that thermalize in order to match with the hot Friedmann Universe, and finally at late times leading to the current cosmic acceleration. For these potentials, numerically solving the dynamical perturbation equations we have seen that, for the particular F(T) model that we will name teleparallel version of LQC, and whose modified Friedmann equation coincides with the corresponding one in holonomy corrected LQC when one deals with the flat Friedmann-Lematre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry, the corresponding equations obtained from the well-know perturbed equations in F(T) gravity lead to theoretical results that fit well with current observational data. More precisely, in this teleparallel version of LQC there is a set of solutions which leads to theoretical results that match correctly with last BICEP2 data, and there is another set whose theoretical results fit well with Planck's experimental data. On the other hand, in the standard holonomy corrected LQC, using the perturbed equations obtained replacing the Ashtekar connection by a suitable sinus function and inserting some counter-terms in order to preserve the algebra of constrains, the theoretical value of the tensor/scalar ratio is smaller than in the teleparallel version, which means that there is always a set of solutions that matches with Planck's data, but for some potentials BICEP2 experimental results disfavours holonomy corrected LQC.

  9. Surveillance for Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viruses using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meagher, Robert J.; Ball, Cameron Scott; Langevin, Stanley A.; Fang, Ying; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Coffey, Lark L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, collection of mosquitoes and testing for vector-borne viruses is a key surveillance activity that directly influences the vector control efforts of public health agencies, including determining when and where to apply insecticides. Vector control districts in California routinely monitor for three human pathogenic viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) offers highly sensitive and specific detection of these three viruses in a single multiplex reaction, but this technique requires costly, specialized equipment that is generally only available in centralized publicmore » health laboratories. We report the use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect WNV, WEEV, and SLEV RNA extracted from pooled mosquito samples collected in California, including novel primer sets for specific detection of WEEV and SLEV, targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) gene of WEEV and the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR) of SLEV. Our WEEV and SLEV RT-LAMP primers allowed detection of <0.1 PFU/reaction of their respective targets in <30 minutes, and exhibited high specificity without cross reactivity when tested against a panel of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Furthermore, the SLEV primers do not cross-react with WNV, despite both viruses being closely related members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex. The SLEV and WEEV primers can also be combined in a single RT-LAMP reaction, with discrimination between amplicons by melt curve analysis. Although RT-qPCR is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than RT-LAMP for all three targets, the RT-LAMP technique is less instrumentally intensive than RT-qPCR and provides a more cost-effective method of vector-borne virus surveillance.« less

  10. Feeling lucky? Using search engines to assess perceptions of urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keirstead, James

    2009-02-15

    The sustainability of urban environments is an important issue at both local and international scales. Indicators are frequently used by decision-makers seeking to improve urban performance but these metrics can be dependent on sparse quantitative data. This paper explores the potential of an alternative approach, using an internet search engine to quickly gather qualitative data on the key attributes of cities. The method is applied to 21 world cities and the results indicate that, while the technique does shed light on direct and indirect aspects of sustainability, the validity of derived metrics as objective indicators of long-term sustainability is questionable. However the method's ability to provide subjective short-term assessments is more promising and it could therefore play an important role in participatory policy exercises such as public consultations. A number of promising technical improvements to the method's performance are also highlighted.

  11. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  12. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  13. Impacts of urban transportation mode split on CO{sub 2} emissions in Jinan, China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, D.; Meng, F.; Wang, M.; He, K.

    2011-04-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation - in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China's Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU) case), then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions - approximately 50% of the BAU scenario emissions.

  14. Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

    2006-03-09

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

  15. URBAN ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (UAO) FIRST PLANNING WORKSHOP, JANUARY 27-28-2003. WORKSHOP SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; LEE,H.N.

    2003-03-27

    The Urban Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) First Planning Workshop was held on 27-28 January 2003 at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in downtown Manhattan, New York City. The meeting was well attended by local, state, and national administrators, as well as scientists and engineers from the national laboratories and academia. The real-time intensive UAO is a necessary step toward the development and validation of new technologies in support of the New York City emergency management and anti-terrorism effort. The real-time intensive UAO will be a dense array of meteorological instrumentation, remote sensing and satellite products and model output, as well as radiation detection, gamma spectrometer and aerosol measurements focused onto a small area in the heart of Manhattan. Such a test-bed, developed in a somewhat homogeneous urban area, and with a well-developed communication and data collection backbone, will be of immense utility for understanding how models of all scales can be improved and how they can best be integrated into the city's emergency program. The goal of the First Planning Workshop was to bring together a small group of experts in the fields of urban meteorology, modeling from mesoscale to fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics, instrumentation, communications and visualization, in order to (1) establish the importance of the observational program, (2) define the most efficient and cost-effective design for the program, (3) define needed intensive observational efforts and establish a schedule, and (4) define the importance of the UAO in emergency operations. The workshop achieved its goals with the enthusiastic participation of over forty persons. There was a synthesis of ideas towards a world-class facility that would benefit both immediate emergency management activities and, over an extended time, the entire field of urban meteorology and contaminant dispersion modeling.

  16. Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings Performers: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Project Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Dow Chemical Company - Midland, MI DOE Funding: $500,000 Cost Share: $500,000 Project Term: Jan. 2013 - Dec. 2014 Project Objective The U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) is a pioneering research and development (R&D) consortium bringing together governments, key policymakers,

  17. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Urbane Homes, Louisville, KY

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Urbane Homes was founded in 2007, the downturn in the housing market was just beginning and the owners Abe Gilbert and Zane Underwood realized they would have to make their homes very affordable to survive. They worked with the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, a Building America research partner, to streamline their building practices and decided to make their homes more efficient as well. Their goal was to "pick all the low-hanging fruit for green and energy-

  18. CERC-BEE Cool Roofs and Urban Heat Islands: infrastructure and anti-soiling coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ronnen Levinson, Staff Scientist, LBNL RMLevinson@LBL.gov Scott Hunter, Senior Research Scientist, ORNL HunterSR@ORNL.gov CERC-BEE Cool Roofs and Urban Heat Islands: infrastructure and anti-soiling coatings 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary (Cool Roof Infrastructure) Timeline: Start date: January 2011 Planned end date: December 2015 Key Milestones 1. Initiate natural exposure trials in many Chinese cities for roof product rating (6/2014) 2. Start black/white/garden

  19. Dynamic analysis of the urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics: Focused on housing and green space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Jimin Jeong, Kwangbok; Koo, Choongwan

    2015-02-09

    To systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings, the government has to enforce greenhouse gas reduction policies. However, most of the policies are not properly executed because they do not consider various factors from the urban level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a dynamic analysis of an urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics, with a specific focus on housing and green space. This study was conducted in the following steps: (i) establishing the variables of urban-based greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions; (ii) creating a stock/flow diagram of urban-based GHGs emissions; (iii) conducting an information analysis using the system dynamics; and (iv) proposing the urban-based low-carbon policy. If a combined energy policy that uses the housing sector (30%) and the green space sector (30%) at the same time is implemented, 2020 CO{sub 2} emissions will be 7.23 million tons (i.e., 30.48% below 2020 business-as-usual), achieving the national carbon emissions reduction target (26.9%). The results of this study could contribute to managing and improving the fundamentals of the urban-based low-carbon policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  1. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In addition to prospective analysis for standards and certification, urban form modeling can also be useful in calculating or verifying ex post facto, bottom-up carbon emissions inventories. Emissions inventories provide a benchmark for evaluating future outcomes and scenarios as well as an empirical basis for valuing low-carbon technologies. By highlighting the embodied energy and emissions of building materials, the LCA approach can also be used to identify the most intensive aspects of industrial production and the supply chain. The agent based modeling aspect of the model can be useful for understanding how policy incentives can impact individual behavior and the aggregate effects thereof. The most useful elaboration of the urban form assessment model would be to further generalize it for comparative analysis. Scenario analysis could be used for benchmarking and identification of policy priorities. If the model is to be used for inventories, it is important to disaggregate the energy use data for more accurate emissions modeling. Depending on the policy integration of the model, it may be useful to incorporate occupancy data for per-capita results. On the question of density and efficiency, it may also be useful to integrate a more explicit spatial scaling mechanism for modeling neighborhood and city-level energy use and emissions, i.e. to account for scaling effects in public infrastructure and transportation.

  2. A Voltage Controlled Oscillator for a Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer in a Silicon-on-Sapphire Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, Sean

    2009-05-21

    Engineers from a government-owned engineering and manufacturing facility were contracted by government-owned research laboratory to design and build an S-band telemetry transmitter using Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) technology packaged in a Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) Multi-Chip Module. The integrated circuit technology chosen for the Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer portion of the telemetry transmitter was a 0.25 um CMOS process that utilizes a sapphire substrate and is fabricated by Peregrine Semiconductor corporation. This thesis work details the design of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) portion of the PLL frequency synthesizer and constitutes an fully integrated VCO core circuit and a high-isolation buffer amplifier. The high-isolation buffer amplifier was designed to provide 16 dB of gain for 2200-3495 MHz as well as 60 dB of isolation for the oscillator core to provide immunity to frequency pulling due to RF load mismatch. Actual measurements of the amplifier gain and isolation showed the gain was approximately 5 dB lower than the simulated gain when all bond-wire and test substrate parasitics were taken into account. The isolation measurements were shown to be 28 dB at the high end of the frequency band but the measurement was more than likely compromised due to the aforementioned bond-wire and test substrate parasitics. The S-band oscillator discussed in this work was designed to operate over a frequency range of 2200 to 2300 MHz with a minimum output power of 0 dBm with a phase-noise of -92 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier. The tuning range was measured to be from 2215 MHz to 2330 MHz with a minimum output power of -7 dBm over the measured frequency range. A phase-noise of -90 dBc was measured at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier.

  3. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  4. Legacy Site Decontamination Experience as Applied to the Urban Radiological Dispersal Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, J.L.; MacKinney, J.A.

    2007-07-01

    Pursuant to the National Response Plan, Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex [1], the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is assigned lead agency responsibility for decontamination and clean-up efforts following a domestic terrorist event involving a radiological dispersal device (RDD). An RDD incident in a modern city environment poses many of the same issues and problems traditionally faced at 'legacy' clean up projects being performed across our country. However there are also many aspects associated with an urban RDD clean-up that have never been faced in legacy site remediation. For example, the demolition and destructive technologies widely used in legacy remediation would be unacceptable in the case of historically or architecturally significant properties or those with prohibitively high replacement cost; contaminated properties will likely belong to numerous small private entities whose business interests are at stake; reducing the time required to decontaminate and return a city to normal use cannot be overemphasized due to its tremendous economic and political impact. The mission of the EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) includes developing the best technology and tools needed for field personnel to achieve their goals should that event occur. To that end, NHSRC has been exploring how the vast experience within the legacy site remediation community could be tapped to help meet this need, and to identify gaps in decontamination technology. This paper articulates much of what has been learned over the past year as a result of efforts to identify these technology and procedural needs to address the urban RDD. This includes comparing and contrasting remediation techniques and methodologies currently used in nuclear facility and site cleanup with those that would be needed following an urban RDD event. Finally, this presentation includes an appeal to the radiological decontamination community to come forward with ideas and technologies for consideration to help meet this nationally significant need. (authors)

  5. Maintenance of solar systems--Housing and urban development demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeborne, W.E.

    1983-06-01

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) residential solar heating and cooling demonstration program provided funding support for over 600 solar projects. These projects provide the largest single data base of solar heating and cooling experience now available. These data suggest that maintenance and system operation have been mixed even though system configurations are similar throughout the program. HUD has been involved in the upgrading of one-third of the 600 solar projects and now can report that projects can be maintained with a more uniform level of effort.

  6. Coping with urban water shortages during drought: the effects of legal and administrative factors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziegielewski, B.; Ferrell-Dillard, R.; Beck, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    The study describes the results of a survey of 547 local water supply systems serving some 31 million residents of urban areas in the states of Alabama, California, Florida, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Wyoming. While examining the legal and administrative aspects of drought management, the survey also included the assessment of the current status of drought preparedness and long-term drought protection among the responding water supply systems. The rate of legal or administrative problems encountered during drought response was surprisingly low, affecting only twenty percent of all implementing systems. The low incidence of difficulties counters a widespread assumption that the legal environment frequently restrains or constricts drought response efforts.

  7. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzlez-Pez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W.

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  8. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR Plant. Volume 7. System failure probability analysis. Load Combination Program Project I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, L.; Mensing, R.

    1981-06-01

    This volume describes the computational methodology used to estimate the probability of a simultaneous occurrence of an earthquake and a primary coolant loop pipe fracture caused directly by an earthquake for a pressurized water reactor. Point estimates of this probability, based on a simulation experiment, and the probabilities of related events are included. Simulation is used to estimate weld fracture probabilities conditional on a crack initially existing and an earthquake of specified intensity occurring at a specified time in the life of the plant. These estimates are combined with probabilities associated with the occurrence of an earthquake and the existence of a crack to obtain an estimate of the probability of simultaneous earthquake and pipe fracture for the entire primary coolant loop piping system. A point estimate of probability, as outlined in this volume, does not fully take into consideration all of the uncertainties associated with an analysis of this type. Uncertainty analysis, confidence interval estimates, and sensitivity measures better reflect potential uncertainties. These topics are discussed. Finally, a discussion of the use of a risk-based, rather than a probability-based, decision criterion for deciding whether to decouple is included. 13 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Central Safety Factor and #12;N Control on NSTX-U via Beam Power and Plasma Boundary Shape Modification, using TRANSP for Closed Loop Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Gates, David A.; Gerhardt, S.; Goumiri, I. R.; Menard, Jon

    2014-08-01

    The high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U will require development of advanced feedback control algorithms, including control of N and the safety factor profile. In this work, a novel approach to simultaneously controlling #12;N and the value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis, q0, through manipulation of the plasma boundary shape and total beam power, is proposed. Simulations of the proposed scheme show promising results and motivate future experimental implementation and eventual integration into a more complex current profile control scheme planned to include actuation of individual beam powers, density, and loop voltage. As part of this work, a flexible framework for closed loop simulations within the high-fidelity code TRANSP was developed. The framework, used here to identify control-design-oriented models and to tune and test the proposed controller, exploits many of the predictive capabilities of TRANSP and provides a means for performing control calculations based on user-supplied data (controller matrices, target waveforms, etc.). The flexible framework should enable high-fidelity testing of a variety of control algorithms, thereby reducing the amount of expensive experimental time needed to implement new control algorithms on NSTX-U and other devices.

  10. On the Issue of the {zeta} series convergence and loop corrections in the generation of observable primordial non-Gaussianity in slow-roll inflation. II. The trispectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Yeinzon; Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A.

    2010-01-15

    We calculate the trispectrum T{sub {zeta}}of the primordial curvature perturbation {zeta}, generated during a slow-roll inflationary epoch by considering a two-field quadratic model of inflation with canonical kinetic terms. We consider loop contributions as well as tree-level terms, and show that it is possible to attain very high, including observable, values for the level of non-Gaussianity {tau}{sub NL} if T{sub {zeta}}is dominated by the one-loop contribution. Special attention is paid to the claim in J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2009) 017 that, in the model studied in this paper and for the specific inflationary trajectory we choose, the quantum fluctuations of the fields overwhelm the classical evolution. We argue that such a claim actually does not apply to our model, although more research is needed in order to understand the role of quantum diffusion. We also consider the probability that an observer in an ensemble of realizations of the density field sees a non-Gaussian distribution. In that respect, we show that the probability associated to the chosen inflationary trajectory is non-negligible. Finally, the levels of non-Gaussianity f{sub NL} and {tau}{sub NL} in the bispectrum B{sub {zeta}}and trispectrum T{sub {zeta}}of {zeta}, respectively, are also studied for the case in which {zeta} is not generated during inflation.

  11. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, William S.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Wilcox, Trevor; Bos, Randall J.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Goorley, John T.; Costigan, Keeley R.

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  12. LCA for household waste management when planning a new urban settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebo, Helge

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household waste management of a new carbon neutral settlement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EASEWASTE as a LCA tool to compare different centralised and decentralised solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental benefit or close to zero impact in most of the categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper and metal recycling important for the outcome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the challenges of waste prevention planning. - Abstract: When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new greenfield settlement with carbon-neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralised waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention and reuse issues.

  13. The potential for reducing urban air temperatures and energy consumption through vegetative cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurn, D.M.; Bretz, S.E.; Huang, B.; Akbari, H.

    1994-05-01

    A network of 23 weather stations was used to detect existing oases in Southern California. Four stations, separated from one another by 15--25 miles (24--40 km), were closely examined. Data were strongly affected by the distance of the stations from the Pacific Ocean. This and other city-scale effects made the network inadequate for detection of urban oases. We also conducted traverse measurements of temperature and humidity in the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area in Los Angeles County on September 8--10, 1993. Near-surface air temperatures over vegetated areas were 1--2{degrees}C lower than background air temperatures. We estimate that vegetation may lower urban temperatures by 1{degrees}C, while the establishment of vegetative canopies may lower local temperatures by an additional 2{degrees}C. An increase in vegetation in residential neighborhoods may reduce peak loads in the Los Angeles area by 0.3 GW, and reduce energy consumption by 0.2 BkWh/year, saving $20 million annually. Large additional savings would result from regional cooling.

  14. Pb Isotopes as an Indicator of the Asian Contribution to Particulate Air Pollution in Urban California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Stephanie A.; Christensen, John N.; Brown, Shaun T.; Vancuren, Richard A.; Cliff, Steven S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-25

    During the last two decades, expanding industrial activity in east Asia has led to increased production of airborne pollutants that can be transported to North America. Previous efforts to detect this trans-Pacific pollution have relied upon remote sensing and remote sample locations. We tested whether Pb isotope ratios in airborne particles can be used to directly evaluate the Asian contribution to airborne particles of anthropogenic origin in western North America, using a time series of samples from a pair of sites upwind and downwind of the San Francisco Bay Area. Our results for airborne Pb at these sites indicate a median value of 29 Asian origin, based on mixing relations between distinct regional sample groups. This trans-Pacific Pb is present in small quantities but serves as a tracer for airborne particles within the growing Asian industrial plume. We then applied this analysis to archived samples from urban sites in central California. Taken together, our results suggest that the analysis of Pb isotopes can reveal the distribution of airborne particles affected by Asian industrial pollution at urban sites in northern California. Under suitable circumstances, this analysis can improve understanding of the global transport of pollution, independent of transport models.

  15. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2015-01-16

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for multiple days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (~50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The multiday production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction productsmore » of both aromatics and alkanes, especially those with relatively low carbon numbers (C4–15). In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions and different vapor pressure schemes, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  16. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2014-07-03

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for several days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (∼50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction products ofmore » both aromatics and alkanes. In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  17. Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Burges, S J.

    2001-10-01

    What is the effect of urbanization and forest use on hydrologic and geomorphic processes? How can we develop land use policies that minimize adverse impacts on ecosystems while sustaining biodiversity? Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas addresses these issues and more. By featuring watersheds principally in the American Pacific Northwest, and the effects of timber harvesting and road construction on stream flow, sediment yield and landslide occurrence, scientists can advance their understanding of what constitutes appropriate management of environments with similar hydro-climatic-geomorphic settings worldwide.

  18. "Table HC8.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Home Appliances Usage Indicators",,"City","Town","Suburbs","Rural" "Total",111.1,47.1,19,22.7,22.3 "Cooking Appliances" "Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked" "3 or More Times A Day",8.2,3.7,1.6,1.4,1.5 "2

  19. EA-1885: Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability Initiative Renovation of Green Alley #444, Boston, Massachusetts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide a grant to Boston Architectural College (BAC) to design, construct and implement the renovation of Public Alley #444 in Boston's Historic Back Bay District. The project would include the installation of 7 to 10 open loop geothermal wells to provide heating and cooling energy to BAC's facilities; the installation of a green screen trellis system, planting soils, concrete pavement, pavers, and landscaping; and mechanical upgrades (plumbing and electrical) to accommodate the geothermal solution into the benefiting facilities. Comment Period Ends: 01/13/2012 Comments should be marked "BAC Public Alley #444 Draft EA Comments" and sent to: Mr. Fred Pozzuto U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880, MS B07 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Email: fred.pozzuto@netl.doe.gov Facsimile: 1-304-285-4403

  20. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection System Evaluator: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper, presented at the IEEE Green Technologies Conference 2013, describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1 (TM). The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

  1. Solid-Fueled Pressurized Chemical Looping with Flue-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for Improved Plant Efficiency and CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Kunlei; Chen, Liangyong; Zhang, Yi; Richburg, Lisa; Simpson, James; White, Jay; Rossi, Gianalfredo

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to report the final result of techno-economic analysis for the proposed 550MWe integrated pressurized chemical looping combustion combined cycle process. An Aspen Plus based model is delivered in this report along with the results from three sensitivity scenarios including the operating pressure, excess air ratio and oxygen carrier performance. A process flow diagram and detailed stream table for the base case are also provided with the overall plant energy balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance and water balance. The approach to the process and key component simulation are explained. The economic analysis (OPEX and CAPX) on four study cases via DOE NETL Reference Case 12 are presented and explained.

  2. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 4. Seismic response analysis. Load Combination Program Project I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, S.C.; Ma, S.M.; Larder, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    This volume of the report gives a detailed account of the seismic response analysis of the primary coolant loop piping of Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Station. Because the purpose of this work was to perform a realistic simulation, best estimate loads and material properties were used for the calculation whenever possible. When such data were unavailable, conservative values were used. The calculation procedure included the generation of seismic input, the determination of dynamic soil properties, a three-part soil-structure-piping interaction analysis, and the post-response data procession. A large number of variables considered in the analysis can affect the seismic response stresses. This volume therefore describes a sensitivity study, as well as the method of analysis. The sensitivity study is included to establish confidence in the computed response stresses. 19 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR Plant. Volume 6. Failure mode analysis load combination program. Project I, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    Material properties and failure criteria were evaluated to assess the requirements for double-ended guillotine break in the primary coolant loop of the Zion Unit 1 pressurized water reactor. The properties of the 316 stainless steel piping materials were obtained from the literature. Statistical distributions of both the tensile and fracture properties at room and operating temperatures were developed. Yield and ultimate strength tensile properties were combined to estimate the material flow strength. The flow strength and fracture properties were used in the various failure models analyzed. Linear-elastic, elastic-plastic, and fully plastic fracture models were compared, and the governing fracture criterion was determined. For the particular case studied, the fully plastic requirement was found to be the controlling fracture criterion leading to a double-ended guillotine pipe break.

  4. Loop-cluster simulation of the zero- and one-hole sectors of the t-J model on the honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, F.-J.; Kaempfer, F.; Nyfeler, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by the unhydrated variant of the superconducting material Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2}{center_dot}yH{sub 2}O at x=(1/3), we study the t-J model on a honeycomb lattice by using an efficient loop-cluster algorithm. The low-energy physics of the undoped system and of the single-hole sector is described by a systematic low-energy effective field theory. The staggered magnetization per spin M-tilde{sub s}=0.2688(3), the spin stiffness {rho}{sub s}=0.102(2)J, the spin-wave velocity c=1.297(16)Ja, and the kinetic mass M{sup '} of a hole are obtained by fitting the numerical Monte Carlo data to the effective field theory predictions.

  5. Development and validation of a radial inflow turbine model for simulation of the SNL S-CO2 split-flow loop.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilim, R. B.

    2012-07-31

    A one-dimensional model for a radial inflow turbine has been developed for super-critical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle applications. The model accounts for the main phenomena present in the volute, nozzle, and impeller of a single-stage turbine. These phenomena include internal losses due to friction, blade loading, and angle of incidence and parasitic losses due to windage and blade-housing leakage. The model has been added as a component to the G-PASS plant systems code. The model was developed to support the analysis of S-CO{sub 2} cycles in conjunction with small-scale loop experiments. Such loops operate at less than a MWt thermal input. Their size permits components to be reconfigured in new arrangements relatively easily and economically. However, the small thermal input combined with the properties of carbon dioxide lead to turbomachines with impeller diameters of only one to two inches. At these sizes the dominant phenomena differ from those in larger more typical machines. There is almost no treatment in the literature of turbomachines at these sizes. The present work therefore is aimed at developing turbomachine models that support the task of S-CO{sub 2} cycle analysis using small-scale tests. Model predictions were compared against data from an experiment performed for Sandia National Laboratories in the split-flow Brayton cycle loop currently located at Barber-Nichols Inc. The split-flow loop incorporates two turbo-alternator-compressor (TAC) units each incorporating a radial inflow turbine and a radial flow compressor on a common shaft. The predicted thermodynamic conditions at the outlet of the turbine on the main compressor shaft were compared with measured values at different shaft speeds. Two modifications to the original model were needed to better match the experiment data. First, a representation of the heat loss from the volute downstream of the sensed inlet temperature was added. Second, an empirical multiplicative factor was applied to the Euler head and another to the head loss to bring the predicted outlet pressure into better agreement with the experiment. These changes also brought the overall efficiency of the turbine into agreement with values cited by Barber Nichols for small turbines. More generally, the quality of measurement set data can in the future be improved by additional steps taken in the design and operation of the experimental apparatus. First, a thermocouple mounted at the nozzle inlet would provide a better indication of temperature at this key point. Second, heat losses from the turbine should be measured directly. Allowing the impeller to free wheel at inlet conditions and measuring the temperature drop between inlet and outlet would provide a more accurate measure of heat loss. Finally, the enthalpy change during operation is more accurately obtained by measuring the torque on the stator using strain gauges rather than by measuring pressure and temperature at inlet and outlet to infer thermodynamic states.

  6. Potential use of feebate systems to foster environmentally sound urban waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2004-07-01

    Waste treatment facilities are often shared among different municipalities as a means of managing wastes more efficiently. Usually, management costs are assigned to each municipality depending on the size of the population or total amount of waste produced, regardless of important environmental aspects such as per capita waste generation or achievements in composting or recycling. This paper presents a feebate (fee+rebate) system aimed to foster urban waste reduction and recovery. The proposal suggests that municipalities achieving better results in their waste management performance (from an ecological viewpoint) be recompensated with a rebate obtained from a fee charged to those municipalities that are less environmentally sound. This is a dynamic and flexible instrument that would positively encourage municipalities to reduce waste whilst increasing the recycling.

  7. PIXE-PIGE Analysis Of Aerosol Composition In Urban Italian Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nava, S.; D'Alessandro, A.; Prati, P.; Zucchiatti, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Mando, P.A.; Marcazzan, G.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.

    2003-08-26

    Fine particulate has become one of the biggest concerns in Italian cities pollution; the study of its composition is a powerful tool to evaluate the effects on health and identify pollution sources. PIXE is an established technique for particulate analysis (being multi-elemental, sensitive, fast, non-destructive and requiring no sample preparations) and has been extensively used, in combination with other IBA techniques, for particulate characterization in Italian urban environments. Here we report the preliminary results on the analysis of the aerosol collected, by two-stage continuous streaker samplers, in two Italian cities, Florence and Milan, during July 2001. Elemental concentrations have been extracted in the fine and coarse fractions, with hourly resolution, by PIXE-PIGE analysis, performed at the 3 MeV external proton beam INFN facility at the University of Florence.

  8. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 1. Summary, Load Combination Program. Project I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, S.; Streit, R.D.; Chou, C.K.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading and to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR, is the demonstration plant used in this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated by a deterministic fracture mechanics model with stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10/sup -12/). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a large LOCA, complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported.

  9. Sustainability principles in strategic environmental assessment: A framework for analysis and examples from Italian urban planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamorgese, Lydia Geneletti, Davide

    2013-09-15

    This paper presents a framework for analysing the degree of consideration of sustainability principles in Strategic environmental assessment (SEA), and demonstrates its application to a sample of SEA of Italian urban plans. The framework is based on Gibson's (2006) sustainability principles, which are linked to a number of guidance criteria and eventually to review questions, resulting from an extensive literature review. A total of 71 questions are included in the framework, which gives particular emphasis to key concepts, such as intragenerational and intergenerational equity. The framework was applied to review the Environmental Report of the urban plans of 15 major Italian cities. The results of this review show that, even if sustainability is commonly considered as a pivotal concept, there is still work to be done in order to effectively integrate sustainability principles into SEA. In particular, most of the attention is given to mitigation and compensation measures, rather than to actual attempts to propose more sustainable planning decisions in the first place. Concerning the proposed framework of analysis, further research is required to clarify equity concerns and particularly to identify suitable indicators for operationalizing the concepts of intra/inter-generational equity in decision-making. -- Highlights: ► A framework was developed in order to evaluate planning against sustainability criteria. ► The framework was applied to analyse how sustainable principles are addressed in 15 Italian SEA reports. ► Over 85% of the reports addressed, to some extent, at least 40% of the framework questions. ► Criteria explicitly linked to intra and inter-generational equity are rarely addressed.

  10. Retrieval of Urban Boundary Layer Structures from Doppler Lidar Data. Part I: Accuracy Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Quanxin; Lin, Ching Long; Calhoun, Ron; Newsom, Rob K.

    2008-01-01

    Two coherent Doppler lidars from the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Arizona State University (ASU) were deployed in the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion field experiment (JU2003) held in Oklahoma City. The dual lidar data are used to evaluate the accuracy of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) method and identify the coherent flow structures in the urban boundary layer. The objectives of the study are three-fold. The first objective is to examine the effect of eddy viscosity models on the quality of retrieved velocity data. The second objective is to determine the fidelity of single-lidar 4DVAR and evaluate the difference between single- and dual-lidar retrievals. The third objective is to correlate the retrieved flow structures with the ground building data. It is found that the approach of treating eddy viscosity as part of control variables yields better results than the approach of prescribing viscosity. The ARL single-lidar 4DVAR is able to retrieve radial velocity fields with an accuracy of 98% in the along-beam direction and 80-90% in the cross-beam direction. For the dual-lidar 4DVAR, the accuracy of retrieved radial velocity in the ARL cross-beam direction improves to 90-94%. By using the dual-lidar retrieved data as a reference, the single-lidar 4DVAR is able to recover fluctuating velocity fields with 70-80% accuracy in the along-beam direction and 60-70% accuracy in the cross-beam direction. Large-scale convective roll structures are found in the vicinity of downtown airpark and parks. Vortical structures are identified near the business district. Strong updrafts and downdrafts are also found above a cluster of restaurants.

  11. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Chirjiv K. Apul, Defne S.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Composting toilets can be an alternative to flush based sanitation. Many different composting toilet designs are available. Composting is affected by moisture content, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio. There are many barriers to composting toilets. Research is needed in science based design of composting toilets. - Abstract: In todays flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (5060%), temperature (4065 C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (2535), pH (5.58.0), and porosity (3550%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperaturetime criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and experience in composting toilet design and operation and program operation.

  12. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with windmore » speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.« less

  13. Underground Infrastructure Impacts Due to a Surface Burst Nuclear Device in an Urban Canyon Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bos, Randall J.; Dey, Thomas N.; Runnels, Scott R.

    2012-07-03

    Investigation of the effects of a nuclear device exploded in a urban environment such as the Chicago studied for this particular report have shown the importance on the effects from the urban canyons so typical of today's urban environment as compared to nuclear test event effects observed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Pacific Testing Area on which many of the typical legacy empirical codes are based on. This report first looks at the some of the data from nuclear testing that can give an indication of the damage levels that might be experienced due to a nuclear event. While it is well known that a above ground blast, even a ground burst, very poorly transmits energy into the ground ( < 1%) and the experimental results discussed here are for fully coupled detonations, these results do indicate a useful measure of the damage that might be expected. The second part of the report looks at effects of layering of different materials that typically would make up the near ground below surface environment that a shock would propagate through. As these simulations support and is widely known in the community, the effects of different material compositions in these layers modify the shock behavior and especially modify the energy dispersal and coupling into the basement structures. The third part of the report looks at the modification of the underground shock effects from a surface burst 1 KT device due to the presence of basements under the Chicago buildings. Without direct knowledge of the basement structure, a simulated footprint of a uniform 20m depth was assumed underneath each of the NGI defined buildings in the above ground environment. In the above ground case, the underground basement structures channel the energy along the line of site streets keeping the shock levels from falling off as rapidly as has been observed in unobstructed detonations. These simulations indicate a falloff of factors of 2 per scaled length as compared to 10 for the unobstructed case. Again, as in the above ground case, the basements create significant shielding causing the shock profile to become more square and reducing the potential for damage diagonal to the line of sight streets. The results for a 1KT device is that the heavily damaged zone (complete destruction) will extend out to 50m from the detonation ({approx}100m for 10KT). The heavily to moderately damaged zone will extend out to 100m ({approx}200m for 10KT). Since the destruction will depend on geometric angle from the detonation and also the variability of response for various critical infrastructure, for planning purposes the area out to 100m from the detonation should be assumed to be non-operational. Specifically for subway tunnels, while not operational, they could be human passable for human egress in the moderately damaged area. The results of the simulations presented in this report indicate only the general underground infrastructure impact. Simulations done with the actual basement geometry would be an important improvement. Equally as important or even more so, knowing the actual underground material configurations and material composition would be critical information to refine the calculations. Coupling of the shock data into structural codes would help inform the emergency planning and first response communities on the impact to underground structures and the state of buildings after the detonation.

  14. EIS-0505: Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington

  15. EIS-0505: Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project, Yakima, Grant, Benton and Kittitas Counties, Washington

  16. EIS-0505: EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington

  17. Optical bullet-tracking algorithms for weapon localization in urban environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R S; Breitfeller, E F

    2006-03-31

    Localization of the sources of small-arms fire, mortars, and rocket propelled grenades is an important problem in urban combat. Weapons of this type produce characteristic signatures, such as muzzle flashes, that are visible in the infrared. Indeed, several systems have been developed that exploit the infrared signature of muzzle flash to locate the positions of shooters. However, systems based on muzzle flash alone can have difficulty localizing weapons if the muzzle flash is obscured or suppressed. Moreover, optical clutter can be problematic to systems that rely on muzzle flash alone. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a projectile tracking system that detects and localizes sources of small-arms fire, mortars and similar weapons using the thermal signature of the projectile rather than a muzzle flash. The thermal signature of a projectile, caused by friction as the projectile travels along its trajectory, cannot be concealed and is easily discriminated from optical clutter. The LLNL system was recently demonstrated at the MOUT facility of the Aberdeen Test Center [1]. In the live-fire demonstration, shooters armed with a variety of small-arms, including M-16s, AK-47s, handguns, mortars and rockets, were arranged at several positions in around the facility. Experiments ranged from a single-weapon firing a single-shot to simultaneous fire of all weapons on full automatic. The LLNL projectile tracking system was demonstrated to localize multiple shooters at ranges up to 400m, far greater than previous demonstrations. Furthermore, the system was shown to be immune to optical clutter that is typical in urban combat. This paper describes the image processing and localization algorithms designed to exploit the thermal signature of projectiles for shooter localization. The paper begins with a description of the image processing that extracts projectile information from a sequence of infrared images. Key to the processing is an adaptive spatio-temporal filter developed to suppress scene clutter. The filtered image sequence is further processed to produce a set of parameterized regions, which are classified using several discriminate functions. Regions that are classified as projectiles are passed to a data association algorithm that matches features from these regions with existing tracks, or initializes new tracks as needed. A Kalman filter is used to smooth and extrapolate existing tracks. Shooter locations are determined by solving a combinatorial least-squares solution for all bullet tracks. It also provides an error ellipse for each shooter, quantifying the uncertainty of shooter location. The paper concludes with examples from the live-fire exercise at the Aberdeen Test Center.

  18. NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-11-01

    The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

  19. A spatially distributed model for the assessment of land use impacts on stream temperature in small urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Yearsley, John; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-05-15

    Stream temperatures in urban watersheds are influenced to a high degree by anthropogenic impacts related to changes in landscape, stream channel morphology, and climate. These impacts can occur at small time and length scales, hence require analytical tools that consider the influence of the hydrologic regime, energy fluxes, topography, channel morphology, and near-stream vegetation distribution. Here we describe a modeling system that integrates the Distributed Hydrologic Soil Vegetation Model, DHSVM, with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM, which has the capability to simulate the hydrology and water temperature of urban streams at high time and space resolutions, as well as a representation of the effects of riparian shading on stream energetics. We demonstrate the modeling system through application to the Mercer Creek watershed, a small urban catchment near Bellevue, Washington. The results suggest that the model is able both to produce realistic streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales, and to provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that are consistent with observations throughout a complex stream network. We use the modeling construct to characterize impacts of land use change and near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature throughout the Mercer Creek system. We then explore the sensitivity of stream temperature to land use changes and modifications in vegetation along the riparian corridor.

  20. A non-CFD modeling system for computing 3D wind and concentration fields in urban environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Matthew A; Brown, Michael J; Williams, Michael D; Gowardhan, Akshay; Pardyjak, Eric R

    2010-01-01

    The Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) Dispersion Modeling System has been developed to rapidly compute the transport and dispersion of toxic agent releases in the vicinity of buildings. It is composed of an empirical-diagnostic wind solver, an 'urbanized' Lagrangian random-walk model, and a graphical user interface. The code has been used for homeland security and environmental air pollution applications. In this paper, we discuss the wind solver methodology and improvements made to the original Roeckle schemes in order to better capture flow fields in dense built-up areas. The mode1-computed wind and concentration fields are then compared to measurements from several field experiments. Improvements to the QUIC Dispersion Modeling System have been made to account for the inhomogeneous and complex building layouts found in large cities. The logic that has been introduced into the code is described and comparisons of model output to full-scale outdoor urban measurements in Oklahoma City and New York City are given. Although far from perfect, the model agreed fairly well with measurements and in many cases performed equally to CFD codes.

  1. Capacitated location of collection sites in an urban waste management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Lagana, Demetrio; Manni, Emanuele; Triki, Chefi

    2012-07-15

    Urban waste management is becoming an increasingly complex task, absorbing a huge amount of resources, and having a major environmental impact. The design of a waste management system consists in various activities, and one of these is related to the location of waste collection sites. In this paper, we propose an integer programming model that helps decision makers in choosing the sites where to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, as well as the capacities of the bins to be located at each collection site. This model helps in assessing tactical decisions through constraints that force each collection area to be capacitated enough to fit the expected waste to be directed to that area, while taking into account Quality of Service constraints from the citizens' point of view. Moreover, we propose an effective constructive heuristic approach whose aim is to provide a good solution quality in an extremely reduced computational time. Computational results on data related to the city of Nardo, in the south of Italy, show that both exact and heuristic approaches provide consistently better solutions than that currently implemented, resulting in a lower number of activated collection sites, and a lower number of bins to be used.

  2. Integrating impact assessment and conflict management in urban planning: Experiences from Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltonen, Lasse; Sairinen, Rauno

    2010-09-15

    The article examines the interlinkages between recent developments in conflict management and impact assessment procedures in the context of urban planning in Finland. It sets out by introducing the fields of impact assessment and conflict mediation. It then proceeds to discuss the development of impact assessment practices and the status of conflict mediation in Finnish land use planning. The case of Korteniitty infill development plan in Jyvaeskylae is used to demonstrate how the Finnish planning system operates in conflict situations - and how social impact assessment can contribute to managing planning conflicts. The authors ask how the processes of impact assessment contribute to conflict management. Based on the Finnish experience, it is argued that social impact assessment of land use plans can contribute to conflict management, especially in the absence of institutionalised conflict mediation processes. In addition, SIA may acquire features of conflict mediation, depending on extent and intensity of stakeholder participation in the process, and the quality of linkages it between knowledge production and decision-making. Simultaneously, conflict mediation practices and theoretical insights can inform the application of SIA to help it address land use conflicts more consciously.

  3. Study of the operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urban solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo M, Edgar Fernando . E-mail: efcastil@uis.edu.co; Cristancho, Diego Edison; Victor Arellano, A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology as an option for the management of organic solid waste in developing countries. As raw material, a real and heterogeneous organic waste from urban solid wastes was used. In the first experimental phase, seed selection was achieved through an evaluation of three different anaerobic sludges coming from wastewater treatment plants. The methanization potential of these sludges was assessed in three different batch digesters of 500 mL, at two temperature levels. The results showed that by increasing the temperature to 15 deg. C above room temperature, the methane production increases to three times. So, the best results were obtained in the digester fed with a mixed sludge, working at mesophilic conditions (38-40 deg. C). Then, this selected seed was used at the next experimental phase, testing at different digestion times (DT) of 25, 20 and 18 days in a bigger batch digester of 20 L with a reaction volume of 13 L. The conversion rates were registered at the lowest DT (18 days), reaching 44.9 L/kg{sup -1} of wet waste day{sup -1}. Moreover, DT also has a strong influence over COD removal, because there is a direct relationship between solids removal inside the reactor and DT.

  4. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohut, P.

    1994-07-01

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%.

  6. Establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in disturbed soil as a function of an urban-rural macro-enviornment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis H. Ziska, Kate George, David A. Frenz

    2007-01-01

    No data are available on whether rising carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] or increased air temperature can alter the establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) within a plant community following soil disturbance. To determine ragweed longevity, we exposed disturbed soil with a common seed bank population to an in situ temperature and [CO2] gradient along an urban-rural transect beginning in early 2002. No other consistent differences in meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed, humidity, PAR, tropospheric ozone) as a function of urbanization were documented over the course of the study (2002-2005). Above-ground measurements of biomass over this period demonstrated that ragweed along the transect responded to urban induced increases in [CO2]/temperature with peak biomass being observed at this location by the end of 2003. However, by the Fall of 2004, and continuing through 2005, urban ragweed populations had dwindled to a few plants. The temporal decline in ragweed populations was not associated with increased disease, herbivory or auto-allelopathy, but was part of a demographic reduction in the total number of annual plant species observed for the urban location. In a separate experiment, we showed that such a demographic shift is consistent with CO2/temperature induced increases in biomass and litter accumulation, with a subsequent reduction in germination / survival of annual plant species. Overall, these data indicate that [CO2]/temperature differences associated with urbanization may increase initial ragweed productivity and pollen production, but suggest that long-term, multi-year persistence of ragweed in the urban macro-environment may be dependent on other factors.

  7. CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Project: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to provide geothermal energy as a common utilitiy for a new community college campus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chevron Energy Solutions; Matt Rush; Scott Shulda

    2011-01-03

    Colorado Northwestern Community College (CNCC) is working collaboratively with recipient vendor Chevron Energy Solutions, an energy services company (ESCO), to develop an innovative GHP project at the new CNCC Campus constructed in 2010/2011 in Craig, Colorado. The purpose of the CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program scope was to utilize an energy performance contracting approach to develop a geothermal system with a shared closed-loop field providing geothermal energy to each building's GHP mechanical system. Additional benefits to the project include promoting good jobs and clean energy while reducing operating costs for the college. The project has demonstrated that GHP technology is viable for new construction using the energy performance contracting model. The project also enabled the project team to evaluate several options to give the College a best value proposition for not only the initial design and construction costs but build high performance facilities that will save the College for many years to come. The design involved comparing the economic feasibility of GHP by comparing its cost to that of traditional HVAC systems via energy model, financial life cycle cost analysis of energy savings and capital cost, and finally by evaluating the compatibility of the mechanical design for GHP compared to traditional HVAC design. The project shows that GHP system design can be incorporated into the design of new commercial buildings if the design teams, architect, contractor, and owner coordinate carefully during the early phases of design. The public also benefits because the new CNCC campus is a center of education for the much of Northwestern Colorado, and students in K-12 programs (Science Spree 2010) through the CNCC two-year degree programs are already integrating geothermal and GHP technology. One of the greatest challenges met during this program was coordination of multiple engineering and development stakeholders. The leadership of Principle Investigator Pres. John Boyd of CNCC met this challenge by showing clear leadership in setting common goals and resolving conflicts early in the program.

  8. Evaluation of Analytical and Numerical Techniques for Defining the Radius of Influence for an Open-Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2013-09-26

    In an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GHP) system, groundwater is extracted, run through a heat exchanger, and injected back into the ground, resulting in no mass balance changes to the flow system. Although the groundwater use is non-consumptive, the withdrawal and injection of groundwater may cause negative hydraulic and thermal impacts to the flow system. Because GHP is a relatively new technology and regulatory guidelines for determining environmental impacts for GHPs may not exist, consumptive use metrics may need to be used for permit applications. For consumptive use permits, a radius of influence is often used, which is defined as the radius beyond which hydraulic impacts to the system are considered negligible. In this paper, the hydraulic radius of influence concept was examined using analytical and numerical methods for a non-consumptive GHP system in southeastern Washington State. At this location, the primary hydraulic concerns were impacts to nearby contaminant plumes and a water supply well field. The results of this study showed that the analytical techniques with idealized radial flow were generally unsuited because they over predicted the influence of the well system. The numerical techniques yielded more reasonable results because they could account for aquifer heterogeneities and flow boundaries. In particular, the use of a capture zone analysis was identified as the best method for determining potential changes in current contaminant plume trajectories. The capture zone analysis is a more quantitative and reliable tool for determining the radius of influence with a greater accuracy and better insight for a non-consumptive GHP assessment.

  9. A P-loop Mutation in G[alpha] Subunits Prevents Transition to the Active State: Implications for G-protein Signaling in Fungal Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, Dustin E.; Willard, Francis S.; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Kimple, Adam J.; Willard, Melinda D.; Naqvi, Naweed I.; Siderovski, David P.

    2012-10-23

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches integral to a panoply of different physiological responses that many organisms make to environmental cues. The switch from inactive to active G{alpha}{beta}{gamma} heterotrimer relies on nucleotide cycling by the G{alpha} subunit: exchange of GTP for GDP activates G{alpha}, whereas its intrinsic enzymatic activity catalyzes GTP hydrolysis to GDP and inorganic phosphate, thereby reverting G{alpha} to its inactive state. In several genetic studies of filamentous fungi, such as the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a G42R mutation in the phosphate-binding loop of G{alpha} subunits is assumed to be GTPase-deficient and thus constitutively active. Here, we demonstrate that G{alpha}(G42R) mutants are not GTPase deficient, but rather incapable of achieving the activated conformation. Two crystal structure models suggest that Arg-42 prevents a typical switch region conformational change upon G{alpha}{sub i1}(G42R) binding to GDP {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}{sup -} or GTP, but rotameric flexibility at this locus allows for unperturbed GTP hydrolysis. G{alpha}(G42R) mutants do not engage the active state-selective peptide KB-1753 nor RGS domains with high affinity, but instead favor interaction with G{beta}{gamma} and GoLoco motifs in any nucleotide state. The corresponding G{alpha}{sub q}(G48R) mutant is not constitutively active in cells and responds poorly to aluminum tetrafluoride activation. Comparative analyses of M. oryzae strains harboring either G42R or GTPase-deficient Q/L mutations in the G{alpha} subunits MagA or MagB illustrate functional differences in environmental cue processing and intracellular signaling outcomes between these two G{alpha} mutants, thus demonstrating the in vivo functional divergence of G42R and activating G-protein mutants.

  10. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area. Our si mulations suggest that cool-city strategies can typically reduce local urban air temperature by 0.5-1 degrees C; as more sporadic events, larger decreases (1.5 degrees C, 2.5-2.7 degrees C and 4-6 degrees C) were also simulated. With regard to ozone mixing ratios along the simulated trajectories, the effects of cool-city strategies appear to be on the order of 2 ppb, a typical decrease. The photochemical trajectory model (CIT) also simulates larger decreases (e.g., 4 to 8 ppb), but these are not taken as representative of the potential impacts in this report. A comparison with other simulations suggest very crudely that a decrease of this magnitude corresponds to significant ''equivalent'' decreases in both NOx and VOCs emissions in the region. Our preliminary results suggest that significant UHI control can be achieved with cool-cities strategies in the GTA and is therefore worth further study. We recommend that better input data and more accurate modeling schemes be used to carry out f uture studies in the same direction.

  11. Winter urban air particles from Rome (Italy): Effects on the monocytic-macrophagic RAW 264.7 cell line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozzi, Roberta . E-mail: pozzi@iss.it; De Berardis, Barbara; Paoletti, Luigi; Guastadisegni, Cecilia

    2005-11-15

    Epidemiological data show an association between exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM), in particular the fine fraction (<2.5{mu}m in diameter), and an increase in cardiovascular mortality and respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro toxicity of coarse and fine particulate matter collected with a cascade impactor during winter in an urban area of Rome in relation to their physicochemical characterization (size distribution and chemical composition) as assessed by analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The X-ray microanalysis data of single particles of coarse and fine matter were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the principal component of the two granulometric fractions. The main chemical difference between the two fractions was the greater abundance of carbonaceous particles in the fine fraction. We compared the ability of coarse and fine fractions, carbon black (CB), and residual oil fly ash (ROFA) to induce arachidonic acid release and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) production in the monocytic-macrophagic RAW 264.7 cell line at concentrations of 30 and 120{mu}g/mL. Our results showed that CB and ROFA were consistently less effective than both fractions of urban particles at inducing an inflammatory reaction in RAW 264.7 cells. Both PM fractions dose-dependently increased TNF-{alpha} production in RAW 264.7 cells after 5 and 24h of incubation, and only the TNF-{alpha} production induced by coarse particles at 30{mu}g/mL decreased significantly (P<0.01) after 24h of treatment. In our in vitro model the winter fine fraction was more reactive than the winter coarse fraction, in contrast to a previously examined summer sample. In the summer sample, coarse particles produced higher levels of inflammatory mediators than fine particles and the CB was consistently less effective than the urban particles. The different behaviors between summer and winter urban fractions may be due to their different physicochemical characteristics; in fact, the comparison of the two samples' characterization by SEM/EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that in winter the carbonaceous particles are more abundant than in summer and that winter particles carry a greater quantity of organic compounds. We suggest that the higher concentration of organic compounds on fine carbonaceous particles may partially explain the higher activation of RAW 264.7 cells by fine particles.

  12. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.

  13. Extending cost–benefit analysis for the sustainability impact of inter-urban Intelligent Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolosz, Ben Grant-Muller, Susan

    2015-01-15

    The paper reports research involving three cost–benefit analyses performed on different ITS schemes (Active Traffic Management, Intelligent Speed Adaptation and the Automated Highway System) on one of the UK's busiest highways — the M42. The environmental scope of the assets involved is widened to take into account the possibility of new technology linked by ICT and located within multiple spatial regions. The areas focused on in the study were data centre energy emissions, the embedded emissions of the road-side infrastructure, vehicle tailpipe emissions, additional hardware required by the vehicles (if applicable) and safety, and all aspects of sustainability. Dual discounting is applied which aims to provide a separate discount rate for environmental elements. For ATM, despite the energy costs of the data centre, the initial implementation costs and mitigation costs of its embedded emissions, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved, although the scheme becomes less effective later on its lifecycle due to rising costs of energy. ISA and AHS generate a negative result, mainly due to the cost of getting the vehicle on the road. In order to negate these costs, the pricing of the vehicle should be scaled depending upon the technology that is outfitted. Retrofitting on vehicles without the technology should be paid for by the driver. ATM will offset greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over a 25 year lifespan. This reduction has taken into account the expected improvement in vehicle technology. AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 15 years of operational usage. However, this offset is largely dependent on assumptions such as the level of market penetration. - Highlights: • Three cost–benefit analyses are applied to inter-urban intelligent transport. • For ATM, a high cost–benefit ratio of 5.89 is achieved. • ATM offsets greenhouse gas emissions by 99 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 25 years. • ISA and AHS generate a negative result due to vehicle implementation costs. • AHS is anticipated to save 280 kt of CO{sub 2} equivalency over 15 years.

  14. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal to the 40% blend. Neither commercial production of sized urban waste wood for the energy market in Pittsburgh nor commercial cofiring of wood/coal blends at BBP are anticipated in the near future.

  15. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-02-15

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

  16. Large-Scale Urban Decontamination; Developments, Historical Examples and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Demmer

    2007-02-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actual events have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the real potential for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or dirty bomb) residues. In response the U. S. Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. Interest in chemical and biological (CB) cleanup has also peaked with the threat of terrorist action like the anthrax attack at the Hart Senate Office Building and with catastrophic natural events such as Hurricane Katrina. The efficiency of cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the old reliable methodologies. Perhaps the most interesting area of investigation for large area decontamination is that of the RDD. While primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. Non-radioactive, CB threats each have unique decontamination challenges and recent events have provided some examples. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as lead agency for these emergency cleanup responses, has a sound approach for decontamination decision-making that has been applied several times. The anthrax contamination at the U. S. Hart Senate Office Building and numerous U. S. Post Office facilities are examples of employing novel technical responses. Decontamination of the Hart Office building required development of a new approach for high level decontamination of biological contamination as well as techniques for evaluating the technology effectiveness. The World Trade Center destruction also demonstrated the need for, and successful implementation of, appropriate cleanup methodologies. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly package and dispose method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination.

  17. Mathematical Analysis of High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of CO2 and O2 Production in a Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; Manohar S. Sohal; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna; Morgan B. Abney

    2010-03-01

    NASA has been evaluating two closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures based on Sabatier and Bosch carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. A number of process models have been developed and analyzed to determine the theoretical power required to recover oxygen, O2, in each case. These models include the current Sabatier and Bosch technologies and combinations of those processes with high-temperature co-electrolysis. The cases of constant CO2 supply and constant O2 production were evaluated. In addition, a process model of the hydrogenation process with co-electrolysis was developed and compared. Sabatier processes require the least amount of energy input per kg of oxygen produced. If co-electrolysis replaces solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis within the Sabatier architecture, the power requirement is reduced by over 10%, but only if heat recuperation is used. Sabatier processes, however, require external water to achieve the lower power results. Under conditions of constant incoming carbon dioxide flow, the Sabatier architectures require more power than the other architectures. The Bosch, Boudouard with co-electrolysis, and the hydrogenation with co-electrolysis processes require little or no external water. The Bosch and hydrogenation processes produce water within their reactors, which aids in reducing the power requirement for electrolysis. The Boudouard with co-electrolysis process has a higher electrolysis power requirement because carbon dioxide is split instead of water, which has a lower heat of formation. Hydrogenation with co-electrolysis offers the best overall power performance for two reasons: it requires no external water, and it produces its own water, which reduces the power requirement for co-electrolysis.

  18. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyaya, Belle; Hines, J. Wesley; Damiano, Brian; Mehta, Chaitanya; Collins, Price; Lish, Matthew; Cady, Brian; Lollar, Victor; de Wet, Dane; Bayram, Duygu

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on plant parameters and the pump electrical signatures. Additionally, the reactor simulation is being used to generate normal operation data and data with instrumentation faults and process anomalies. A frequency controller was interfaced with the motor power supply in order to vary the electrical supply frequency. The experimental flow control loop was used to generate operational data under varying motor performance characteristics. Coolant leakage events were simulated by varying the bypass loop flow rate. The accuracy of motor power calculation was improved by incorporating the power factor, computed from motor current and voltage in each phase of the induction motor.- A variety of experimental runs were made for steady-state and transient pump operating conditions. Process, vibration, and electrical signatures were measured using a submersible pump with variable supply frequency. High correlation was seen between motor current and pump discharge pressure signal; similar high correlation was exhibited between pump motor power and flow rate. Wide-band analysis indicated high coherence (in the frequency domain) between motor current and vibration signals. - Wide-band operational data from a PWR were acquired from AMS Corporation and used to develop time-series models, and to estimate signal spectrum and sensor time constant. All the data were from different pressure transmitters in the system, including primary and secondary loops. These signals were pre-processed using the wavelet transform for filtering both low-frequency and high-frequency bands. This technique of signal pre-processing provides minimum distortion of the data, and results in a more optimal estimation of time constants of plant sensors using time-series modeling techniques.

  19. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  20. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  1. Integration of health into urban spatial planning through impact assessment: Identifying governance and policy barriers and facilitators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Gray, Selena; Lease, Helen; Pilkington, Paul

    2012-01-15

    This article presents the results of a review of literature examining the barriers and facilitators in integrating health in spatial planning at the local, mainly urban level, through appraisals. Our literature review covered the UK and non UK experiences of appraisals used to consider health issues in the planning process. We were able to identify four main categories of obstacles and facilitators including first the different knowledge and conceptual understanding of health by different actors/stakeholders, second the types of governance arrangements, in particular partnerships, in place and the political context, third the way institutions work, the responsibilities they have and their capacity and resources and fourth the timeliness, comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the appraisal process. The findings allowed us to draw some lessons on the governance and policy framework regarding the integration of health impact into spatial planning, in particular considering the pros and cons of integrating health impact assessment (HIA) into other forms of impact assessment of spatial planning decisions such as environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environment assessment (SEA). In addition, the research uncovered a gap in the literature that tends to focus on the mainly voluntary HIA to assess health outcomes of planning decisions and neglect the analysis of regulatory mechanisms such as EIA and SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Governance and policy barriers and facilitators to the integration of health into urban planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of literature on impact assessment methods used across the world. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knowledge, partnerships, management/resources and processes can impede integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA evaluations prevail uncovering research opportunities for evaluating other techniques.

  2. Scheduling the Remediation of Port Hope: Logistical and Regulatory Challenges of a Multiple Site Urban Remediation Project - 13119

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson Jones, Andrea; Lee, Angela; Palmeter, Tim

    2013-07-01

    The Port Hope Project is part of the larger CAN$1.28 billion Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) in the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario, Canada. Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) is the Project Proponent, Public Works and Government Services (PWGSC) is managing the procurement of services and the MMM Group Limited - Conestoga Rovers and Associates Joint Venture (MMM-CRA Joint Venture) is providing detailed design and construction oversight and administration services for the Project. The Port Hope Project includes the construction of a long-term waste management facility (LTWMF) in the Municipality of Port Hope and the remediation of 18 (eighteen) large-scale LLRW, numerous small-scale sites still being identified and industrial sites within the Municipality. The total volume to be remediated is over one million cubic metres and will come from sites that include temporary storage sites, ravines, beaches, parks, private commercial and residential properties and vacant industrial sites all within the urban area of Port Hope. Challenges that will need to be overcome during this 10 year project include: - Requirements stipulated by the Environmental Assessment (EA) that affect Project logistics and schedule. - Coordination of site remediation with the construction schedule at the LTWMF. - Physical constraints on transport routes and at sites affecting production rates. - Despite being an urban undertaking, seasonal constrains for birds and fish (i.e., nesting and spawning seasons). - Municipal considerations. - Site-specific constraints. - Site interdependencies exist requiring consideration in the schedule. Several sites require the use of an adjacent site for staging. (authors)

  3. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  4. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schetke, Sophie; Haase, Dagmar; Koetter, Theo

    2012-01-15

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Koetter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test runs with planners identified prominent environmental indicators and assigned individual weights. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans according to sustainable housing development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test runs also show that greenfield development generally exhibits less sustainability than infill development.

  5. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

  6. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L.

    1995-05-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.

  8. Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che Xiuzhen; English, Alex; Lu Jia; Chen, Yongqin David

    2011-11-15

    The enactment and implementation of the 2003 EIA Law in China institutionalised the role of plan environmental impact assessment (PEIA). While the philosophy, methodology and mechanisms of PEIA have gradually permeated through the various levels of government with a positive effect on the process and outcome of urban planning, only a few cities in China have so far carried out PEIA as a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)-type procedure. One such case is the southern city of Shenzhen. During the past three decades, Shenzhen has grown from a small town to a large and booming city as China has successfully and rapidly developed its economy by adopting the 'reform and open door' policy. In response to the challenges arising from the generally divergent processes of rapid urbanisation, economic transformation and environment protection, Shenzhen has incrementally adopted the SEA concept in developing the city's Master Urban Plan. As such, this paper reviews the effectiveness of PEIA in three ways: {center_dot}as a tool and process for achieving more sustainable and strategic planning; {center_dot}to determine the level of integration of SEA within the planning system; and, {center_dot}its effectiveness vis-a-vis implementation. The implementation of PEIA within Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan offers important insights into the emergence of innovative practices in undertaking PEIA as well as theoretical contributions to the field, especially in exploring the relationship between PEIA and SEA and highlighting the central role of local governing institutions in SEA development.

  9. A survey of urban noise annoyance in a large Brazilian city: the importance of a subjective analysis in conjunction with an objective analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zannin, Paulo H.T.; Calixto, Alfredo; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose A.C

    2003-03-01

    This study describes the reaction to environmental noise of the population of Curitiba ({approx}1.6 million inhabitants). Out of 1000 distributed forms, 860 were returned. The main isolated noise sources revealed by the survey as disturbing were traffic (73%) and neighbors (38%). As a class, neighborhood noise was pointed out as the most disturbing type of noise as 100% of the surveyed people indicated at least one of the items belonging to this class: neighbors, animals, sirens, civil construction, religion temples, night clubs, toys and domestic electric appliances. The main outcomes of exposure to noise were: irritability (58%), difficulty to concentrate (42%), sleeping disorders (20%) and headaches (20%). In this survey, the importance of the realization of objective surveys, in other words, noise emission measurements in conjunction with the subjective evaluation of the reaction of the urban population to the environmental noise, is also discussed. The present survey shows that in the subjective evaluation performed in the city of Curitiba, the perception of the population is that the urban noise has increased. On the other hand, another study conducted in the same city, where only the noise emission levels were evaluated, has showed a decrease on the urban noise.

  10. Lead Speciation in House Dust from Canadian Urban Homes Using EXAFS Micro-XRF and Micro-XRD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L MacLean; S Beauchemin; P Rasmussen

    2011-12-31

    X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, micro-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF), and micro-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) were used to determine the speciation of Pb in house dust samples from four Canadian urban homes having elevated Pb concentrations (>1000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). Linear combination fitting of the XAFS data, supported by {mu}XRF and {mu}XRD, shows that Pb is complexed in a variety of molecular environments, associated with both the inorganic and organic fractions of the dust samples. The inorganic species of lead identified were as follows: Pb metal, Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb oxide, and Pb adsorbed to iron oxyhydroxides. Pb carbonate and/or Pb hydroxyl carbonate occurred in all four dust samples and accounted for 28 to 75% of total Pb. Pb citrate and Pb bound to humate were the organic species identified. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of XAFS to identify Pb speciation in house dust and show the potential to identify Pb sources from new homes versus older homes. Understanding Pb speciation and how it influences bioaccessibility is important for human health risk assessment and risk management decisions which aim to improve indoor environmental health.

  11. Examples of cooler reflective streets for urban heat-island mitigation : Portland cement concrete and chip seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chang, S.-C.; Levinson, R.; Pon, B.

    2003-04-30

    Part of the urban heat island effect can be attributed to dark pavements that are commonly used on streets and parking lots. In this paper we consider two light colored, hence cooler, alternative paving materials that are in actual use in cities today. These are Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and chip seals. We report measurements of the albedos of some PCC and chip sealed pavements in the San Francisco Bay Area. The albedos of the PCC pavements ranged from about 0.18 to 0.35. The temperatures of some PCC pavements are also measured and calculated. We then consider how the albedos of the constituent materials of the PCC (stone, sand and cement) contribute to the albedos of the resulting finished concrete. The albedos of a set of chip sealed pavements in San Jose, CA, were measured and correlated with the times of their placement. It is found that the albedos decrease with age (and use) but remain higher than that of standard asphalt concrete (AC) for about five years. After t hat, the albedos of the chip seals are about 0.12, similar to aged AC. The fact that many PCC pavements have albedos at least twice as high as aged AC suggests that it is possible to have pavement albedos that remain high for many years.

  12. Lead Speciation in Indoor Dust: A Case Study to Assess Old Paint Contribution in a Canadian Urban House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S Beauchemin; L MacLean; P Rasmussen

    2011-12-31

    Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {mu}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

  13. Lead speciation in indoor dust: a case study to assess old paint contribution in a Canadian urban house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; MacLean, Lachlan C.W.; Rasmussen, Pat E.

    2012-10-23

    Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 {micro}m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {micro}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

  14. California Energy Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Energy & Power Place: Pomona, California Zip: CA 91767 Sector: Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product: California Energy & Power...

  15. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swartjes, Frank A. Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plantsoil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plantsoil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a conservative vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a realistic worst case site-specific vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor. -- Highlights: A scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables. Uptake characteristics of cadmium in a series of vegetables is represented by a vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor. Calculations and measurement steps are combined.

  16. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 8. Pipe fracture indirectly induced by an earthquake. Load Combination Program, Project I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    This volume considers the probability that a double-ended guillotine break in the primary coolant loop of a pressurized water reactor occurs simultaneously with (and is indirectly caused by) a seismic event. The pipe break is a consequence of a seismically initiated failure in a system other than the primary piping itself. Events studied that can lead to an indirectly induced pipe break include structural and mechanical failures, missile impact, pressure transients, jet impingement, fire, and explosion. Structural failures of the supports for the reactor pressure vessel, reactor coolant pump, and steam generator have the highest probability of causing a double-ended pipe break. Furthermore, we found that structural failure of the containment dome and failure of the reactor coolant pump flywheel have the highest potential for a missile-caused pipe break. Since structural failure proved to be a major factor, we developed a model to estimate the probability of structural failure; this model is based on the engineering factors of safety and seismic hazard. preliminary results indicate that the probability of a double-ended pipe break indirectly caused by a seismic event during the plant life is on the order of 10/sup -9/.

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices E (Sections E.1--E.8). Volume 2, Part 3A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. The authors recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful.

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report.

  19. Metagenomic analysis of planktonic microbial consortia from a non-tidal urban-impacted segment of James River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Bonnie L.; LePrell, Rebecca V.; Franklin, Rima B.; Rivera, Maria C.; Cabral, Francine M.; Eaves, Hugh L.; Gardiakos, Vicki; Keegan, Kevin P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-09-19

    Knowledge of the diversity and ecological function of the microbial consortia of James River in Virginia, USA, is essential to developing a more complete understanding of the ecology of this model river system. Metagenomic analysis of James River's planktonic microbial community was performed for the first time using an unamplified genomic library and a 16S rDNA amplicon library prepared and sequenced by Ion PGM and MiSeq, respectively. From the 0.46-Gb WGS library (GenBank:SRR1146621; MG-RAST:4532156.3), 4 x 106 reads revealed >3 x 106 genes, 240 families of prokaryotes, and 155 families of eukaryotes. From the 0.68-Gb 16S library (GenBank:SRR2124995; MG-RAST:4631271.3; EMB:2184), 4 x 106 reads revealed 259 families of eubacteria. Results of the WGS and 16S analyses were highly consistent and indicated that more than half of the bacterial sequences were Proteobacteria, predominantly Comamonadaceae. The most numerous genera in this group were Acidovorax (including iron oxidizers, nitrotolulene degraders, and plant pathogens), which accounted for 10 % of assigned bacterial reads. Polaromonas were another 6 % of all bacterial reads, with many assignments to groups capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Albidiferax (iron reducers) and Variovorax (biodegraders of a variety of natural biogenic compounds as well as anthropogenic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and endocrine disruptors) each accounted for an additional 3% of bacterial reads. Comparison of these data to other publically-available aquatic metagenomes revealed that this stretch of James River is highly similar to the upper Mississippi River, and that these river systems are more similar to aquaculture and sludge ecosystems than they are to lakes or to a pristine section of the upper Amazon River. Altogether, these analyses exposed previously unknown aspects of microbial biodiversity, documented the ecological responses of microbes to urban effects, and revealed the noteworthy presence of 22 human-pathogenic bacterial genera (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae, pathogenic Pseudomonadaceae, and Vibrionales') and 6 pathogenic eukaryotic genera (e.g., Trypanosomatidae and Vahlkampfiidae). This information about pathogen diversity may be used to promote human epidemiological studies, enhance existing water quality monitoring efforts, and increase awareness of the possible health risks associated with recreational use of James River.

  20. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Leslie A.; Biggs, James; Bennett, Kathryn D.; Bare, Carey; Sherwood, Sherri R.

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation between the density of accidents and the density of road crossings. This was probably related to the high number of deer crossings of tertiary arterial roads, where accidents were not likely to occur.