National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for urban areas limit

  1. Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2010-10-31

    /plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035 The 2035 Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the Monroe Urbanized Area Developed for The Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization and The Louisiana Department... of Transportation and Development Developed by In association with Neel-Schaffer, Inc. **DRAFT** Adopted Date Here This document was prepared in cooperation with: The Monroe Urbanized Area MPO Technical Advisory Committee and The Louisiana...

  2. Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lake Charles Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2009-08-04

    CONSTRAINED AND UNCONSTRAINED PLAN PROJECTS . C-1 ? Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034 ? Page v Alliance Transportation Group, Inc. Adopted August 4, 2009 Table of Tables Table 2-1 Stakeholders Present... ......................................................................................................... 3-1 ? Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034 ? Page iii Alliance Transportation Group, Inc. Adopted August 4, 2009 LAKE CHARLES URBANIZED AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODEL .............................................................. 3-2 SOCIOECONOMIC...

  3. Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas! Center for Transportation Studies Research of Minnesota Grant No. 0853467 #12;Air Pollution Impacts on Health 2 EPA, 2010 Ozone PM2.5 PM10 Lead Nitrogen #12;Purpose and Research Questions 4 Purpose: Explore relationship between air pollution and urban

  4. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    decreases the roads' level of service, while at the same time increasing both fuel consump- tion5Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas Pu Wang1,2 , Timothy Hunter4 , Alexandre M. Bayen4 patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own

  5. EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenn, David C.

    EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL Lock Wai Lek In an urban environment, the linkage between UAVs and ground control stations are subjected to multipath multipath can result in a nearly complete loss of command signals, which can limit the UAV's operational

  6. Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

  7. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  8. Short communication Study of pollution dispersion in urban areas using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    wind directions and wind speeds. 2. Model validation The developed models have to be verified before they can be applied to real life simulations. To test the performance of the present wind field modelShort communication Study of pollution dispersion in urban areas using Computational Fluid Dynamics

  9. Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011 Fact 775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011...

  10. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States David J forestry Tree cover Forest inventory a b s t r a c t Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole

  11. On the variability of streamflow - urban versus rural areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddes, Robert George

    1970-01-01

    infiltration is 56 per cent of mean intensity. Examination of the soil cover on both basins indicates that the pervious areas of Burton may have a higher water holding capacity than Hudson. For this reason the infiltration rate on the lawns in the urban...-to-peak for Bur ton Creek 32 Lag time versus time-to-peak for Hudson Creek 33 10. Mean rainfall intensity versus mean infiltration rate for Burton Creek 35 Mean rainfall intensity versus mean infiltration rate for Hudson Creek 36 12. Antecedent precipitation...

  12. 2014 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan- Chapter 2, Limited Areas, Vault-Type Rooms and Temporary Limited Areas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2014 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 2, Limited Areas, Vault-Type Rooms and Temporary Limited Areas Describes DOE Headquarters procedures for establishing, maintaining, and deactivating Limited Areas and Vault-Type Rooms and protecting the classified information handled within those Areas.

  13. Instrumentation for slope stability -- Experience from an urban area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flentje, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the monitoring of several existing landslides in an urban area near Wollongong in the state of New South Wales, Australia. A brief overview of topography and geology is given and reference is made to the types of slope movement, processes and causal factors. Often the slope movements are extremely slow and imperceptible to the eye, and catastrophic failures are quite infrequent. However, cumulative movements at these slower rates do, over time, cause considerable distress to structures and disrupt residential areas and transport routes. Inclinometers and piezometers have been installed at a number of locations and monitoring of these has been very useful. The performance of instrumentation at different sites is discussed in relation to the monitoring of slope movements and pore pressures. Interval rates of inclinometer shear displacement have been compared with various periods of cumulative rainfall to assess the relationships.

  14. The Footprint of Urban Areas on Global Climate as Characterized by MODIS MENGLIN JIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Menglin

    to specify the parameters needed by climate models to compute the impacts of urbanization. For this purpose such as the temperatures, hu- midity, and near-surface winds. Because both nonurban and urban surfaces are quite variedThe Footprint of Urban Areas on Global Climate as Characterized by MODIS MENGLIN JIN Department

  15. Development of Atmospheric Tracer Methods To Measure Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Facilities and Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1995-01-01

    an urban area is used with crosswind integrated tracerCWI,) and the average crosswind concen- tration of methane (directly, and the crosswind average methane concentration

  16. USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

  17. INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS ­ RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS M of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations and numerical models effects in meso-scale mod- els are reviewed. Given that neither the surface energy balance, nor its

  18. Network Awareness and the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed Joseph B. Kopena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cicirello, Vincent A.

    Network Awareness and the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed Joseph B. Kopena Kris William C. Regli College of Engineering Drexel University 3141 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19104 Abstract This paper overviews the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Net- work Testbed (PA-UWNT) project

  19. Automatic Semantic Labelling of Urban Areas using a rule-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automatic Semantic Labelling of Urban Areas using a rule-based approach and realized with Me and the actual implementation of a model to perform an automatic semantic labelling of urban areas. For this assignment we looked at automatic semantic labelling of very high resolution airborne images (derived ortho

  20. Intake fraction of nonreactive vehicle emissions in US urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.; Teoh, Soon-Kay; Nazaroff, William W.

    2006-01-01

    and trends in motor vehicle emissions to monthly urbanExposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fractionpollutants: Motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast Air

  1. Intake fraction of nonreactive vehicle emissions in US urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, J D; Teoh, S K; Nazaroff, William W

    2005-01-01

    fraction of nonreactive vehicle emissions JD Marshall et al.and trends in motor vehicle emissions to monthly urbanExposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction

  2. Survey on Cooling Costs and Related Factors for Apartments in an Urban Area of Osaka 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umemiya, N.; Lin, X.; Inoue, G.

    2006-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess cooling behaviors and cooling costs for 290 apartments in an urban area. 1) Cooling costs are strongly related to the number of air conditioners, the months of occupation, and the air conditioner...

  3. Limitations on area compression of beams from pierce guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, V.P.; Nezhevenko, O.A. [Omega-P Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-2008 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    An important limitation for rf sources such as klystrons and magnicons, designed for 10{close_quote}s of MW power outputs at cm-wavelengths, is the transverse electron beam size. Cathode current density limits require high beam area compressions to obtain small transverse beam areas for fixed currents. This paper discusses the limitations to high beam area compression, namely geometrical aberrations and thermal spread in transverse velocities. Compensation can oftentimes be introduced for aberrations, but thermal velocity spread presents a fundamental limitation. Examples where subtle compensation strategies were employed are discussed for three guns with 100 MW beam power, and area compressions greater than 2000:1. Two of these guns have already been built. A clear determination of effective cathode temperature has yet to be found experimentally, but possible means to measure it are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Pedestrian Only Area University visitors' car parks (limited access)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Campus Map Pedestrian Only Area Car Parks University visitors' car parks (limited access) Other university car parks Public multi-storey car park Lawns Free City Bus Stop ST. GEORGE'S FIELD WOODHOUSE LAN E

  5. Urban areas may serve as habitat and corridors for dry-adapted, heat tolerant species; an example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    and assemblage composition. Since urban areas are warmer (i.e., heat island effect) we also tested if cities were be particularly successful at tracking future climate change. Keywords Urban heat island . Range shift . AntUrban areas may serve as habitat and corridors for dry-adapted, heat tolerant species; an example

  6. The limits of public policy intervention in urban logistics: The case of Vicenza (Italy) and lessons for other European cities.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The limits of public policy intervention in urban logistics: The case of Vicenza (Italy - University of Lyon Laetitia DABLANC, INRETS Abstract For over fifteen years, the subject of urban logistics logistics, local policy, regulations, urban distribution centres, competition 1. Introduction Freight

  7. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  8. Visual Servoing for Tracking Features in Urban Areas Using an Autonomous Helicopter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    Visual Servoing for Tracking Features in Urban Areas Using an Autonomous Helicopter Abstract of a vision-based feature tracker for an autonomous helicopter. Using vision in the control loop allows estimating the position and velocity of a set of features with respect to the helicopter. The helicopter

  9. Visual Servoing of an Autonomous Helicopter in Urban Areas Using Feature Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    1 Visual Servoing of an Autonomous Helicopter in Urban Areas Using Feature Tracking Luis Mej of a vision-based feature tracking system for an autonomous helicopter. Visual sensing is used for estimating, autonomous helicopter I. INTRODUCTION Our goal is to build vision-guided autonomous flying robots. Vision

  10. Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 May 2013 Accepted 24 May 2013 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic examines the role of gasoline prices in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have

  11. Robert C. Goodspeed, Urban Renewal in Postwar Detroit: The Gratiot Area Redevelopment Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    Robert C. Goodspeed, Urban Renewal in Postwar Detroit: The Gratiot Area Redevelopment Project WILL NOT Be Bussed: The American Dream and the Mothers' Anti-Busing Movement in Detroit 11:20 ­CULTURAL MISCHIEF Black Economy: The Detroit Housewives League of the 1930s Great Depression Era Michael Bloom

  12. Fusion of Feature-and Area-Based Information for Urban Buildings Modeling from Aerial Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Fusion of Feature- and Area-Based Information for Urban Buildings Modeling from Aerial Imagery on Graph Cuts. The fusion pro- cess exploits the advantages of both information sources and thus yields the complete geometry of the build- ing. The fusion of those sparse features is very fragile as there is no way

  13. The AI Technologies of the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed Gustave Anderson and Andrew Burnheimer and Vincent Cicirello

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cicirello, Vincent A.

    The AI Technologies of the Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed Gustave Anderson Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 Introduction Drexel University's College a Philadelphia Area Urban Wireless Network Testbed (PA-UWNT) (Cicirello et al. 2004). The PA- UWNT is a mobile ad

  14. Modeling urban growth and land use/land cover change in the Houston Metropolitan Area from 2002 - 2030 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oguz, Hakan

    2005-08-29

    for the period from 2002 to 2030 is predicted. Within SLEUTH, growth in the Houston CMSA is predominately "organic" with most growth occurring along the urban/rural fringe. Projected increases in urban area from 2002 to 2030 parallel projected increases...

  15. Spectrometry for urban area remote sensing--Development and analysis of a spectral library from 350 to 2400 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spectrometry for urban area remote sensing--Development and analysis of a spectral library from 350 spectral characteristics of urban environments using spectral library of more than 4500 individual spectra land cover types (i.e. specific roof and road types) spectral- resolution remote sensing for detailed

  16. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Synoptic weather patterns associated with NO{sub x} pollution episodes in Hong Kong urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuen, C.Y.; Wang, T. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This study aims to find out the relationship between synoptic weather patterns and the air quality in HK urban areas. The air pollutants in HK are mainly vehicular emissions. Therefore, in this study, NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) was used as an indicator of the urban air quality. Three years record of NO{sub x} concentration was examined and high NO{sub x} episodes were selected. 70% of high NO{sub x} pollution episodes were found to be related to calm or light wind conditions. Under low wind speed and stable conditions, both horizontal and vertical dispersion of local air pollutants are prohibited, hence air pollutants accumulate to harmful levels. The synoptic weather patterns on the episode days associated with calm conditions were investigated. The authors; found that the existence of: (1) a tropical cyclone over the NW Pacific Ocean, and HK is under the influence of its periphery subsiding air; (2) a weak continental high-pressure system with central highest pressure less than 1030hPa; and (3) a low-pressure trough being close to HK, were likely to give rise to calm conditions and hence NO{sub X} episodes in urban areas.

  18. The case for pension plan and university endowment equity investment in brownfields in the urban core of major metropolitan areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsen, Tamara C. (Tamara Candace), 1977-

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to present a case for institutional equity investment in brownfields in the urban core of major metropolitan areas. Pension plans and university endowments are the primary institutional investors ...

  19. The gated community: residents' crime experience and perception of safety behind gates and fences in the urban area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Suk Kyung

    2006-10-30

    The primary purpose of the study is to explore the connections between residents' perception of safety and their crime experience, and the existence of gates and fences in multi-family housing communities in urban areas. ...

  20. Remote sensing of exposure to NO2: Satellite versus ground-based measurement in a large urban area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    area. Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Urban air pollution is one of the top 15 causes cardiopulmonary mortality (Beelen et al., 2008), lung cancer (Filleul et al., 2005), and asthma exacerbations

  1. Boston's urban wilds : the persistence of an idea over time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bird, Caroline J. (Caroline Jennifer)

    2014-01-01

    Many city natural areas programs are constricted due to limited resources for the acquisition and management of land. Boston's urban wilds offer an alternative model for the protection of urban open space that focuses on ...

  2. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2006-01-01

    height (e.g. , via the urban heat island effect). Exposuree.g. , habitat loss, urban heat island effects, and global

  3. AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    , Delaware ABSTRACT While numerous studies have examined the magnitude of the urban heat island, no large masses show considerably larger urban heat island disparities than the three "moist" air masses locations, the summer urban heat island appears to be strengthening, whereas in winter little to no change

  4. Urbanizing terrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romanos, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    Urban "sprawl"in the East Attica area of Athens has dramatically changed the former rural economy in a manner consistent with the urbanizing terrain's underlying properties: agricultural subdivisions, existing centres, ...

  5. RAINWATER HARVESTING, ALTERNATIVE TO THE WATER SUPPLY IN INDIAN URBAN AREAS: THE CASE OF AHMEDABAD IN GUJARAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RAINWATER HARVESTING, ALTERNATIVE TO THE WATER SUPPLY IN INDIAN URBAN AREAS: THE CASE OF AHMEDABAD for complementarities between the present system of water supply and the alternative system of rainwater harvesting IN GUJARAT (Akil AMIRALY1 , Nathalie PRIME2 , Joginder P. SINGH3 ) ABSTRACT Water scarcity

  6. RAINWATER HARVESTING, ALTERNATIVE TO THE WATER SUPPLY IN INDIAN URBAN AREAS: THE CASE OF AHMEDABAD IN GUJARAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RAINWATER HARVESTING, ALTERNATIVE TO THE WATER SUPPLY IN INDIAN URBAN AREAS: THE CASE OF AHMEDABAD their water requirements. Rainwater harvesting is one of them. It was functioning in the Old city of Ahmedabad and the alternative system of rainwater harvesting, in a context of water scarcity. The objective of the research

  7. Changes to the groundwater system, from 1888 to present, in a highly-urbanized coastal area in Hong Kong, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Changes to the groundwater system, from 1888 to present, in a highly-urbanized coastal area in Hong Kong, China Jiu Jimmy Jiao & Chi-man Leung & Guoping Ding Abstract Historical groundwater levels to reveal changes to the groundwater regime over the last century. The coastal springs and seeps have

  8. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with windmore »speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., -1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.« less

  9. Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Urban Stewardship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    -SCI 360 Economic Geography GEO-SCI 362 Land Use & Society GEO-SCI 370 Urban Geography GEO-SCI 372 Urban-SCI 597K ST-Conservation Geography HISTORY 383 American Env History HT-MGT 230 Introduction to Travel of Arboriculture NRC 597WR Water Resources Management & Policy NRC 597R Watershed Science and Management NRC 597T

  10. Comparison of personal radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in different urban areas across Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Wout; University of Basel ; Thuroczy, Gyoergy; French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks , Verneuil en Halatte ; Gajsek, Peter; Trcek, Tomaz; Bolte, John; Vermeeren, Guenter; University of Basel ; Juhasz, Peter; Finta, Viktoria

    2010-10-15

    Background: Only limited data are available on personal radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday life. Several European countries performed measurement studies in this area of research. However, a comparison between countries regarding typical exposure levels is lacking. Objectives: To compare for the first time mean exposure levels and contributions of different sources in specific environments between different European countries. Methods: In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), measurement studies were performed using the same personal exposure meters. The pooled data were analyzed using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method in order to allow for data below the detection limit. Mean exposure levels were compared between different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoor. Results: Exposure levels were of the same order of magnitude in all countries and well below the international exposure limits. In all countries except for the Netherlands, the highest total exposure was measured in transport vehicles (trains, car, and busses), mainly due to radiation from mobile phone handsets (up to 97%). Exposure levels were in general lower in private houses or flats than in offices and outdoors. At home, contributions from various sources were quite different between countries. Conclusions: Highest total personal RF-EMF exposure was measured inside transport vehicles and was well below international exposure limits. This is mainly due to mobile phone handsets. Mobile telecommunication can be considered to be the main contribution to total RF-EMF exposure in all microenvironments.

  11. Recommendations for the analysis and design of naturally ventilated buildings in urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Phan Hue

    2012-01-01

    The motivation behind this work was to obtain a better understanding of how a building's natural ventilation potential is affected by the complexities introduced by the urban environment. To this end, we have derived in ...

  12. Plant and Soil-Based Carbon Sequestration in Urban Areas Objective: Investigate current research into plant and soil carbon storage capacities,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Plant and Soil-Based Carbon Sequestration in Urban Areas Objective: Investigate current research into plant and soil carbon storage capacities, perform an urban land assessment in terms of these capacities matter in soils, as a result of accumulation of plant litter and other biomass. Indeed, carbon in soil

  13. Introduction. Climate change and urban areas: research dialogue in a policy framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    consuming over 75% of the world's energy use; as human development (as measured by the UN index) energy use that the 2003 heat wave in Europe killed as many as 35 000 people. With modern urban lifestyles cities require the best expert knowledge available. Hence, the importance and timeliness of the papers

  14. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Streets, D. G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Foy, B. [Saint Louis Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)] (ORCID:0000000341509922); Lamsal, L. N. [Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Duncan, B. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Xing, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.

  15. High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    and it is widely applied, for example in photocatalysis, electrochemical energy storage, in white pigmentsHigh surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis T. Fröschl1 , U. Hörmann2 , P. Kubiak3 , G. Kucerova2 , M. Pfanzelt3 , C.K. Weiss4

  16. Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in areas with limited hydrological data using a mixed-effects model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in areas with limited hydrological data using a mixed of Geography, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada Abstract: Sediment rating curves are commonly used to estimate the suspended sediment load in rivers and streams under the assumption

  17. Behind "successful" land acquisition : a case study of the Van Quan new urban area project in Hanoi, Vietnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bui, Phuong Anh, M. C. P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The transition to a market economy has sparked Vietnam's unprecedented urbanization and industrialization. In order to accommodate the spiraling land demand triggered by urban and economic growth, the Vietnamese government ...

  18. A Hydrometeorological Study Related to the Distribution of Precipitation and Runoff over Small Drainage Basins -- Urban Versus Rural Areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddes, R. G.; Clark, R.A.; Runnels, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on streamflow are investigated for two adjacent similar watersheds located in and near Bryan, Texas. The Burton Creek watershed is 84 per cent urbanized and the Hudson Creek watershed is completely ...

  19. Experimental characterization and modelling of the nighttime directional anisotropy of thermal infrared measurements over an urban area: Case study of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the structure of the urban canopy and the radiative and energy exchanges inside it. Following the work a simplified 3D representation of the urban canopy with 2 energy transfer models, TEB and SOLENE UHIs), building related alert systems and improving aspects of urban planning in which the surface

  20. Experimental characterization and modelling of the nighttime directional anisotropy of thermal infrared measurements over an urban area: Case study of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the urban canopy and the radiative and energy exchanges inside it. Following the work of Lagouarde et al a simplified 3D representation of the urban canopy with 2 energy transfer models, TEB and SOLENE UHIs), building related alert systems and improving aspects of urban planning in which the surface

  1. Effects of urban land cover modifications in a mesoscale meteorological model on surface temperature and heat fluxes in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Effects of urban land cover modifications in a mesoscale meteorological model on surface between the two simulations. Mesoscale atmospheric models such as the Pennsylvania State University for the Phoenix metropolitan area was implemented in the fifth- generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model

  2. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  3. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  4. Wide-Area Situational Awareness of Power Grids with Limited Phasor Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Nieplocha, Jarek; Nguyen, Tony B.

    2006-09-30

    Lack of situational awareness has been identified as one of root causes for the August 14, 2003 Northeast Blackout in North America. To improve situational awareness, the Department of Energy (DOE) launched several projects to deploy Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) in different interconnections. Compared to the tens of thousands of buses, the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) is quite limited and not enough to achieve the observability for the whole interconnections. To utilize the limited number of PMU measurements to improve situational awareness, this paper proposes to combine PMU measurement data and power flow equations to form a hybrid power flow model. Technically, a model which combines the concept of observable islands and modeling of power flow conditions, is proposed. The model is called a Hybrid Power Flow Model as it has both PMU measurements and simulation assumptions, which describes prior knowledge available about whole power systems. By solving the hybrid power flow equations, the proposed method can be used to derive power system states to improve the situational awareness of a power grid.

  5. Sustainable Urbanism: Vision and Planning Process Through an Examination of Two Model Neighborhood Developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasioumi, Eirini

    2011-01-01

    the 1990s. Routledge. Sustainable Urbanism Davoudi, S. 2001.Council. 2008. Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design withVauban area). Sustainable Urbanism Stadt Freiburg Im

  6. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in...

  7. Identification of the relationship between economic and land use characteristics and urban mobility at the macroscopic level in Texas urban areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrank, David Lynn

    2004-11-15

    finances ? Lack of land-use forecasting capabilities ? Inadequate GIS training ? Outdated or no origin-destination surveys for the area ? Improper or no mode choice information for the area ? No in-house modeling capabilities. Despite all... ? Lack of adequate finances ? Lack of land-use forecasting capabilities ? Inadequate GIS training ? Outdated or no origin-destination surveys for the area ? Improper or no mode choice information for the area ? No in-house modeling...

  8. Drivers of variability in water use of native and non-native urban trees in the greater Los Angeles area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Heather R.; Pataki, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    simulation of tree effects in an urban water balance model.J Am Water Resour Assn 44:75–85 White R, Havlak R, NationsD, Dewey D (2007) How much water is “enough”? Using PET to

  9. Evidence-based spatial intervention for regeneration of deteriorating urban areas, a case of study from Tehran, Iran 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rismanchian, Omid

    2012-06-27

    Throughout the urban development process over the last seven decades in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, many self-generated neighbourhoods have developed in which the majority of the residents are low-income families. ...

  10. Urban Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    property taxation regional economics residential segregationexternalities urban economics urban production externalitiesproperty taxation regional economics residential segregation

  11. Remediation of Highland Drive Landfill: Technical Challenges of Segregating Co-Mingled LLRW and Municipal Solid Waste in an Urbanized Area - 13319

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Jeff; Lawrence, Dave; Case, Glenn; Fergusson Jones, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Highland Drive Landfill is an inactive Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill which received waste from the 1940's until its closure in 1991. During a portion of its active life, the Landfill received low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) which currently exists both in a defined layer and co-mingled with MSW. Remediation of this site to remove the LLRW to meet established cleanup criteria, forms part of the Port Hope Project being undertaken by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) as part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The total volume of LLRW and co-mingled LLRW/MSW estimated to require removal from the Highland Drive Landfill is approximately 51,900 cubic metres (m{sup 3}). The segregation and removal of LLRW at the Highland Drive Landfill presents a number of unique technical challenges due to the co-mingled waste and location of the Landfill in an urbanized area. Key challenges addressed as part of the design process included: delineation of the extent of LLRW, development of cut lines, and estimation of the quantity of co-mingled LLRW in a heterogeneous matrix; protection of adjacent receptors in a manner which would not impact the use of adjacent facilities which include residences, a recreational facility, and a school; coordination and phasing of the work to allow management of six separate material streams including clean soil, MSW, co-mingled LLRW/MSW, LLRW, un-impacted water, and impacted water/leachate within a confined environment; and development of a multi-tiered and adaptive program of monitoring and control measures for odour, dust, and water including assessment of risk of exceedance of monitoring criteria. In addition to ensuring public safety and protection of the environment during remedy implementation, significant effort in the design process was paid to balancing the advantages of increased certainty, including higher production rates, against the costs of attaining increased certainty. Many of these lessons may be applicable to other projects. (authors)

  12. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil guidelines as inputs into the code was also performed to determine the maximum (peak) dose for all receptors. This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of ALs for the 'Property.' A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines.

  13. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swartjes, Frank A. Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor. -- Highlights: • A scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables. • Uptake characteristics of cadmium in a series of vegetables is represented by a vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor. • Calculations and measurement steps are combined.

  14. Urban waterfront : problems and potentials of Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Mohammad Iqbal

    1984-01-01

    The essence of this thesis is based on the fact that downtown waterfronts are special urban areas in a city. These areas offer unique opportunities for providing cultural and recreational public amenities to urban life. ...

  15. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutter, A. P.

    In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban ...

  16. Urban Scaling in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography, and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the for...

  17. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

    2014-08-21

    Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

  19. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (?) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a ? of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing ? to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  20. Identification of limiting case between DBA and SBDBA (CL break area sensitivity): A new model for the boron injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, R.; Petruzzi, A.; D'Auria, F.; Mazzantini, O.

    2012-07-01

    Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed PHWR reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and (e.g., oblique Control Rods, Positive Void coefficient) required a developed and validated complex three dimensional (3D) neutron kinetics (NK) coupled thermal hydraulic (TH) model. Reactor shut-down is obtained by oblique CRs and, during accidental conditions, by an emergency shut-down system (JDJ) injecting a highly concentrated boron solution (boron clouds) in the moderator tank, the boron clouds reconstruction is obtained using a CFD (CFX) code calculation. A complete LBLOCA calculation implies the application of the RELAP5-3D{sup C} system code. Within the framework of the third Agreement 'NA-SA - Univ. of Pisa' a new RELAP5-3D control system for the boron injection system was developed and implemented in the validated coupled RELAP5-3D/NESTLE model of the Atucha 2 NPP. The aim of this activity is to find out the limiting case (maximum break area size) for the Peak Cladding Temperature for LOCAs under fixed boundary conditions. (authors)

  1. Boundaries to membranes : the urban project revisited : an urban strategy for Rio de Janeiro, Zona Norte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Phebe (Phebe Helena Melania)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates urban boundaries in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro. The Zona Norte transitioned in the last hundred years from a rural outskirts area of Rio, into its industrial hinterland, into a fully urbanized ...

  2. SproutslO Urban Microfarm : interactive indoor farming system for urban use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farah, Jennifer Broutin

    2013-01-01

    SproutslO Urban Microfarm is an interactive farming system that enables people to reliably grow and access healthy produce in urban areas. The introduction of a localized system with the capacity to induce scalar impact ...

  3. Technifying Public Space and Publicizing Infrastructures: Exploring New Urban Political Ecologies through the Square of General Vara del Rey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez Rubio, Fernando; Fogue, Uriel

    2013-01-01

    energy production, a process that has been removed from urban public spacesand discrete spaces within the urban fabric. While energyenergy by International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37.3 © 2013 Urban Research Publications Limited Technifying public space

  4. A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Lopes, Myriam

    2013-01-15

    Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decision support system enables incorporating scientific knowledge into planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scale, data availability and stakeholder representativeness limit its application.

  5. Strategies for systemic urban constructed wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balderas-Guzmán, Celina

    2013-01-01

    As a result of ubiquitous impermeable surfaces, conventional water management and stormwater infrastructure, and the resultant degradation of natural hydrologic networks, most American urban areas have suffered severely ...

  6. Urban Reclamation in São Paulo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskinazi, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The urbanized terrain of São Paulo is characterized by wasteful landscapes on peripheral areas of the metropolitan agglomeration, and decaying landscapes of waste in the core of the city. If on the one hand, the increasingly ...

  7. This article has been published in: Urban Water Journal, Vol. 9(1), 2012 Rainwater harvesting to control stormwater runoff in suburban areas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 This article has been published in: Urban Water Journal, Vol. 9(1), 2012 Rainwater harvesting. This paper investigates the macroscopic effect of rainwater harvesting on runoff, and thus the potential. Keywords: rainwater harvesting; source control; BMP; runoff; rainfall-runoff analysis; sewer overflows 1

  8. Investigations of Atmospheric and Plant Physiological Effects along an Urban-To-Rural Gradient in the Houston Metropolitan Area Comparing 2011 to 2012 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gramann, Jonathan

    2014-09-02

    to rural trees. To study this, an urban0to-rural gradient was set up starting near downtown Houston, TX, and extending north approximately 90 km. Three weather stations were erected along this gradient to continually monitor weather. Photosynthesis rates...

  9. Basly L., Wald L., 2000. Remote sensing and air quality in urban areas. In : Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on telegeoprocessing, TeleGeo'2000,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of atmospheric pollution in cities and the number of personal car is still growing [2]. Furthermore, the air such that heat (or cold) islands which influence the chemical transformation of pollutants. Hence the urban air attributable to air pollution [3]. A survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) shown that

  10. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the contractor. A decision was reached between the NTS regulator and NSTec, opting for alternative authorized limits from DOE Headquarters. In doing so, NSTec personnel performed a dose model using the DOE-approved modeling code RESRAD-BUILD v3.5 to evaluate scenarios. The parameters used in the dose model were conservative. NSTec’s Radiological Engineering Calculation, REC-2010-001, “Public Dose Estimate from the EMAD 25 Ton Locomotive,” concluded that the four scenarios evaluated were below the 25-millirem per year limit, the “likely” dose scenarios met the “few millirem in a year” criteria, and that the EMAD 25-ton locomotive met the radiological requirements to be released with residual radioactivity to the public.

  11. Wind- and thermal-driven air flows and the buoyancy and advection effects on air exchange within urban environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnusson, Sigurður Pétur

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollutants and thermal stress in urban areas are public health concerns. The year 2008 was the first year when more than half of the human population lived in urban areas. Studies of the urban air ...

  12. Urban ideograms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luarasi, Skender, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis offers the concept of Urban Ideograms. It is developed and crystallized through a strategic gathering and selection of specific textual and contextual information from various sources, such as the drawings of ...

  13. Flexible urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anandam, Anahita

    2006-01-01

    This thesis seeks to find a new approach/method towards urbanization in existing low density neighborhoods in major metropolitan cities in the United States. The near South side of the city of Chicago (a city that carries ...

  14. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  15. Quantifying exchange processes in the urban canopy layers of dense neighborhoods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Terianne C

    2015-01-01

    There is a global trend towards urbanization, particularly in developing regions that are home to new and rapidly growing cities. In the center of large, dense urban areas, weak exchange between the urban canopy layer (UCL) ...

  16. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Surabi

    2010-01-01

    basis of the urban heat island, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor.of cool materials as a heat island mitigation strategy, J.Similar to the urban heat island effect, where urban areas

  17. Urban Physiology: City Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance Michael J. Angilletta Jr1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angilletta, Michael

    on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12uC hotter than their surroundings. Optimality, and the unusual pattern of convection [1]. Urban heat islands--increased temperatures within urban areas-- scale [6­8]. Urban heat islands should not only concern ecologists who wish to manage urban populations

  18. Abilene Metropolitan Area Metropolitan Transportation Plan 2010-2035 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abilene Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2010-01-12

    Lindley, former Abilene City Engineer MPO Staff (Non-Voting) Robert Allen, Abilene MPO Transportation Planning Director Dyess AFB SH 351 SH 351 FM 10 82 Jones County JonesCounty Jones County Jones County Jones County Te xt Jones County Jones... Area Urbanized Area Boundary county lines City Limits Freeways and Expressways Major Streets and Highways Railroad 0241Miles Tye Potosi Caps Dyess AFB Abilene Regional Airport Abilene ??? 20 ??? 20 ??? 20 Hamby State Prisons Lake Fort Phantom Hill...

  19. Approach to Recover Hydrocarbons from Currently Off-Limit Areas of the Antrim Formation, MI Using Low-Impact Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Wood; William Quinlan

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop and execute a novel drilling and completion program in the Antrim Shale near the western shoreline of Northern Michigan. The target was the gas in the Lower Antrim Formation (Upper Devonian). Another goal was to see if drilling permits could be obtained from the Michigan DNR that would allow exploitation of reserves currently off-limits to exploration. This project met both of these goals: the DNR (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) issued permits that allow drilling the shallow subsurface for exploration and production. This project obtained drilling permits for the original demonstration well AG-A-MING 4-12 HD (API: 21-009-58153-0000) and AG-A-MING 4-12 HD1 (API: 21-009-58153-0100) as well as for similar Antrim wells in Benzie County, MI, the Colfax 3-28 HD and nearby Colfax 2-28 HD which were substituted for the AG-A-MING well. This project also developed successful techniques and strategies for producing the shallow gas. In addition to the project demonstration well over 20 wells have been drilled to date into the shallow Antrim as a result of this project's findings. Further, fracture stimulation has proven to be a vital step in improving the deliverability of wells to deem them commercial. Our initial plan was very simple; the 'J-well' design. We proposed to drill a vertical or slant well 30.48 meters (100 feet) below the glacial drift, set required casing, then angle back up to tap the resource lying between the base to the drift and the conventional vertical well. The 'J'-well design was tested at Mancelona Township in Antrim County in February of 2007 with the St. Mancelona 2-12 HD 3.

  20. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery?temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overeem, A.

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on ...

  1. Hydrological urbanism in China's Pearl River Delta : how water landscape shapes the urban form in a changing climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Wenji, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    When standing among urban villages, residential towers and warehouses in an urbanizing city in the Pearl River delta (PRD), it is hard to imagine that just forty years ago this area was filled with streams, ponds and rice ...

  2. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  3. Implementing Arrangement Between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Natural Resources of Canada and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited For Collaboration in the Area of Nuclear Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Implementing Arrangement Between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Natural Resources of Canada and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited For Collaboration in the Area of Nuclear Research

  4. The use of acetylene and 1,3-butadiene as tracers for vehicular combustion in urban air and the estimation of the contributions of vehicular emissions to benzene, and alkane concentrations in the Edmonton industrial area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, R. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Prairie and Northern Region; Wong, R. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Dann, T.; Wang, D. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    1998-12-31

    Acetylene, propylene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations at two downtown urban sites in Alberta, Canada were used to characterize an area dominated by vehicular emissions. The relationship of acetylene with 1,3-butadiene at the Edmonton industrial site was similar to that observed for the two downtown sites. This suggesting that these volatile organic compounds, VOCs, can be used as tracers for vehicular emissions for the Edmonton industrial area. The tracer VOCs were found to correlate with benzene, n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, iso-pentane, n-heptane and n-octane concentrations for the two Alberta downtown sites. The best fit lines from the downtown sites were used to predict daily concentrations of benzene and alkanes at the Edmonton industrial site. During the winter, when benzene levels are predicted to reach a maximum of 4.5 to 6.5 m g/m{sup 3}, it is estimated that industrial sources contribute < 1 m g/m{sup 3} to ambient levels at the Edmonton industrial site. During the summer, when predicted benzene levels are at a minimum of 1 to 2 m g/m{sup 3}, industrial area sources dominate the ambient benzene levels at the Edmonton industrial site, and can contribute up to 6 m g/m{sup 3}. For alkanes, such as butane and pentane, industrial area sources or evaporative storage tank emissions dominate throughout the year. This dominance of industrial sources is also observed for n-heptane and n-octane during summer months. During the winter when predicted n-heptane and n-octane concentrations reach a maximum, 11 to 100% of ambient daily levels can be attributed to vehicular emissions.

  5. Large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers for pH measurement at the Nernstian limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakih, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahim.fakih@mail.mcgill.ca; Sabri, Shadi; Szkopek, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.szkopek@mcgill.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2A7 (Canada); Mahvash, Farzaneh [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2A7 (Canada); Département de Chimie et Biochimie, Universite du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada); Nannini, Matthieu [McGill Nanotools Microfab, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2A7 (Canada); Siaj, Mohamed [Département de Chimie et Biochimie, Universite du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2014-08-25

    We have fabricated and characterized large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers and demonstrated pH sensitivities approaching the Nernstian limit. Low temperature atomic layer deposition was used to deposit tantalum pentoxide atop large area graphene ISFETs. The charge neutrality point of graphene, inferred from quantum capacitance or channel conductance, was used to monitor surface potential in the presence of an electrolyte with varying pH. Bare graphene ISFETs exhibit negligible response, while graphene ISFETs with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers show increased sensitivity reaching up to 55?mV/pH over pH 3 through pH 8. Applying the Bergveld model, which accounts for site binding and a Guoy-Chapman-Stern picture of the surface-electrolyte interface, the increased pH sensitivity can be attributed to an increased buffer capacity reaching up to 10{sup 14} sites/cm{sup 2}. ISFET response was found to be stable to better than 0.05 pH units over the course of two weeks.

  6. URBAN LOGISTICS BY RAIL AND WATERWAYS IN FRANCE AND JAPAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 URBAN LOGISTICS BY RAIL AND WATERWAYS IN FRANCE AND JAPAN Main author: Diana Diziain, Greater-Est, France KEYWORDS: rail, waterways, intermodal logistics, urban freight, city logistics ABSTRACT been carried out on intermodal logistic policies at national scales. However, in urban areas, the use

  7. Cultivation, Capital, and Contamination: Urban Agriculture in Oakland, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClintock, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    flatlands urban agriculture. The rolling range and orchardsurban areas, Pb arsenate (PbHAsO 4 ) was commonly applied as a pesticide in orchards (

  8. A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Shuli Yeh Chiatsung Budd, William W. Chen Liling

    2009-02-15

    Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed.

  9. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Voropay, Dmitry; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  10. Metromorphosis : evolution on the urban island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vezina, Kenrick (Kenrick Freitas)

    2011-01-01

    Cities are very much alive. Like islands, they provide a natural testing ground for evolution. With more than half of the world's population living in urban areas now, the influence cities have on the planet's life is ...

  11. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 1: Deep Convective Updraft Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, A. C.; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Collis, Scott M.; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias. Snow reflectivity can exceed 40 dBZ in a two-moment scheme when a constant bulk density of 100 kg m-3 is used. Making snow mass more realistically proportional to area rather than volume should somewhat alleviate this problem. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations. This is associated with large amounts of liquid water above the freezing level in updraft cores. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of large rainwater contents lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. Strong simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some showing supercell characteristics. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 meters to 100 meters weakens strong updrafts, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may partly be a product of interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and large-scale environmental biases that promote different convective modes and strengths than observed.

  12. City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queensland, University of

    City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography Richard G. Davies in urban form and topography. The total area of buildings and length of the road network are equally strong-cover. Topography. Urban form Urban Ecosyst (2008) 11:269­287 DOI 10.1007/s11252-008-0062-y R. G. Davies :O. Barbosa

  13. Urban Ecosyst (2006) 9:243257 DOI 10.1007/s11252-006-9354-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

    2006-01-01

    - or late-spring bloomers, and wind-pollinated plants. Researchers attribute advanced flowering in urban; therefore, many researchers study urbanized areas as small-scale experiments, or models, of global climateUrban Ecosyst (2006) 9:243­257 DOI 10.1007/s11252-006-9354-2 Effects of urbanization on plant

  14. Behavioral ecology of striped skunk: factors influencing urban rabies management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruffino, Denise Marie

    2009-05-15

    within urban areas by using short grass area baiting strategies during the fall season, using dip net capturing for faster surveillance collection, and by initiating a rabies education program targeted at Texas’ primary care physicians and their staff....

  15. Controlling Roosting Birds in Urban Areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2006-09-06

    ornamental plants. Grackles are noisy birds, often making a disturbing and obnoxious racket. Grackles may consume or destroy farm crops such as citrus, tomatoes, watermelons, cabbage, lettuce, grain, corn, peaches, figs and can- taloupes. Starlings Starlings...

  16. Managing Imported Fire Ants in Urban Areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2006-08-17

    The imported fire ant is found in much of Texas and across the southeastern U.S. This publication describes options for managing the pest in specific locations such as home lawns, gardens and buildings. Other topics include fire ant treatment...

  17. Rooftop Gardens: A Feasible Method for Urban Sustainability in the UK? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, Oliver

    2014-11-27

    Urbanisation is causing cities to expand and increase in density. As this happens, nature is removed from urban areas and replaced with concrete, slate and metal surfaces; carbon emissions increase; the Urban Heat Island ...

  18. Urban land subdivision : a case for more practical by-laws, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hsueh-Jane

    1981-01-01

    This thesis, dealing with the land subdivision in urban areas, evaluates inefficiency of the case studies resulting from inadequate and improper existing by-laws in Kaohsiung and provides guidelines for urban development. ...

  19. Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Erik

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

  20. Development of a fast, urban chemistry metamodel for inclusion in global models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jason Blake

    A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating the urban ...

  1. Time series study of urban rainfall suppression during clean-up periods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Jun

    2009-05-15

    The effect on urban rainfall of pollution aerosols is studied both by data analysis and computational simulation. Our study examines data for urban areas undergoing decadal clean-up. We compare the annual precipitation between polluted sites...

  2. Urban alliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zmuda, J.T. [Cottrell Environmental Services, Branchburg, NJ (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Early reviews of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) focused most strongly on the effects of Title I on local governments, the impact of Title III on industry, and requirements of Title IV on utilities. By concentrating on the compliance issues presented by Title III, however, some industries have overlooked the potential consequences of Title I, which can be expected to affect virtually every industrial operation within it designated nonattainment area by the turn of the century.

  3. Building an urban image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russin, Andrew J

    1992-01-01

    This design project explores the principles of "urban legibility" and "shared space". The readability, or imageability (in Kevin Lynch's term) of a city results from the recognition of larger urban patterns, organizations, ...

  4. A global map of urban extent from nightlights

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Zhao, Kaiguang; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Zhang, Xuesong; He, Chunyang; Elvidge, Christopher

    2015-05-13

    Urbanization, one of the major human induced land-cover and land-use changes, has a profound impact on the Earth system including biodiversity, the cycling of water and carbon and exchange of energy and water between Earth’s surface and atmosphere, all affecting weather and climate. Accurate information on urban areas and their spatial distribution at the regional and global scales is important for scientific understanding of their contribution to the changing Earth system, and for practical management and policy decisions. We developed a method to map the urban extent from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable-light data atmore »the global level and derived a new global map of 1-km urban extent for year 2000. Based on this map, we found that globally, urban land area is about 0.5% of total land area but ranges widely at regional level from 0.1% in Oceania to 2.3% in Europe. At the country level, urban land area varies from lower than 0.01% to higher than 10%, but is lower than 1% for most (70%) countries. Urbanization follows land mass distribution, as anticipated, with the highest concentration found between 30°N to 45°N latitude and the largest longitudinal peak around 80°W. Based on a sensitivity analysis and comparison with other global urban area products, we found that our global product of urban area provides a reliable estimate of global urban areas and offer the potential of capturing more accurately their spatial and temporal dynamics.« less

  5. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Shea Rose, Leanna

    2007-06-14

    Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30 km{sup 2} to 52 km{sup 2}. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, educational, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29-41% of the area, roofs 19-25%, and paved surfaces 29-39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20-37% of the area, roofs 20-25%, and paved surfaces 29-36%.

  6. UrbanSolutionsCenter Soil Organic Matter and Compost Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Soil Organic Matter and Compost Utilization Background High clay content soils is yard waste compost, and composting is becoming increasingly common in urban areas due to municipal yard waste collection and composting programs such as the one in Plano, Texas. Wastewater biosolids

  7. nature geoscience | VOL 1 | DECEMBER 2008 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 805 Sustaining coastal urban ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    Sustaining coastal urban ecosystems Torbjörn E. TörnqvisT1 * and douglas j. MEffErT2 are at 1 Department and in the future. Preserving protective shorelines and wetlands wherever feasible, limiting the growth of urban is required to make urban coasts more resilient. ­92­93­94­95­96­97 ­91 ­90 ­89 ­88 ­87 31 30 29 28 27 26

  8. Acoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment using a three-dimensional numerical simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    - cally complex problem that has many practical applications. In urban planning and city design, acoustic and scattering play a significant role in acoustic energy transport in urban areas, especially in cases whenAcoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment using a three-dimensional numerical simulation

  9. Assessing Landowner Activities Related to Birds Across Rural-to-Urban Landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , however, this realization was lim- ited to such systems as agriculture, pasture, orchards, and urban areasAssessing Landowner Activities Related to Birds Across Rural-to-Urban Landscapes CHRISTOPHER A on three breeding bird survey routes ( 120 km) that represent a continuum of rural-to-urban landscapes

  10. Ris-R-Report Urban Wind Energy-State of the Art 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -shore, the erection of wind turbines in urban areas is carried out and also shows perspectives regarding e. g. direct set the application of wind turbines in the urban environment in a relevant perspective. Information.risoe.dtu.dk #12;Risø-R-1668(EN) 3 1 INTRODUCTION 4 2 URBAN WIND TURBINES 5 2.1 Turbines Integrated in Buildings 5

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The study of metal contamination in urban topsoils of Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE The study of metal contamination in urban topsoils of Mexico City using GIS Mari distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ba, Co, Cr, Ni and V) in the urban environments of Mexico City using- politan area of Mexico City. Keywords Heavy metals Á GIS Á Mexico City Á Urban topsoils Á Pollution Á

  12. Parametric Urban Regulation Models for Predicting Development Performances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jong Bum

    2014-12-23

    are significant indicators for predicting environmental footprints for the resource managements (Fischer and Guy, 2009; Lang, 1994; Punter, 1997). The prescriptive urban regulations such as FBC are less rigid in limiting density than the conventional zoning...

  13. Urban redevelopment in sunbelt cities : strategies and approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, James A. (James Andrew), 1959-

    1996-01-01

    Most Sunbelt cities reflect the suburbanization that characterized urban growth and development over the past forty years. Given this dispersion, these cities often contain large areas of strategically located land that ...

  14. Sustainable urban forms for Chinese typical new towns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Sunhwa, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    The phenomena of exploding world urban population and sharply decreasing global arable lands are illustrated in contemporary China in a dramatically amplified form. Construction of many new towns in rural areas has been ...

  15. A gradient analysis of urban landscape pattern: a case study from the Phoenix metropolitan region, Arizona, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

    A gradient analysis of urban landscape pattern: a case study from the Phoenix metropolitan region the spatial pattern of urbanization in the Phoenix metropolitan area, Arizona, USA. Several landscape metrics

  16. Public Transport and Sustainable Urbanism: Global Lesson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Public Transport and Sustainable Urbanism: Global Lessonsviable and sustainable form of urbanism. Notes J. Kenworthy

  17. Alternative Fuels, Vehicle Technologies and Urban Logistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witt, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    Technologies and Urban Logistics Policy Note prepared byvehicle technologies, urban logistics, and VMT reduction. It

  18. Structuring institutional analysis for urban ecosystems: A key to sustainable urban forest management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Tom

    Structuring institutional analysis for urban ecosystems: A key to sustainable urban forest in urban settings with a specific focus on sustainable urban forest management. We conclude that urban management . Urban forest policy. Institutional analysis . Ecosystem services . Public goods . Sustainability

  19. Urban Retrofit: A Whole-Watershed Approach to Urban Stormwater Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithander, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Creek  Watershed:  Urban  Stormwater  Management  Opportuni?Creek  Watershed:  Urban  Stormwater  Management  Opportuni?Creek  Watershed:  Urban  Stormwater  Management  Opportuni?

  20. Airborne Pollution In urban environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broday, David

    Airborne Pollution In urban environments What are the real health effects of urban pollution Air Pollution- relevant Human Exposure in Urban Environments" Funded under the "City of Tomorrow" programme of the European Union: Contract number EVK4-CT-2002-00090 URBAN POLLUTION Airborne pollutants

  1. Managing Stormwater for Urban Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Managing Stormwater for Urban Sustainability Using Trees and Structural Soils A new space.B. Dickinson (Eds.) 2008. Managing Stormwater for Urban Sustainability using Trees and Structural Soils Forest Service Urban & Community Forestry Program on the recommendation of the National Urban & Community

  2. Curbside Parking Time Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnott, Richard; Rowse, John

    2009-01-01

    J. Rowse. 1999. Modeling parking. Journal of Urban Economicsand J. Rowse. 2009. Downtown parking in auto city. RegionalThe economics of pricing parking. Journal of Urban Economics

  3. Curbside Parking Time Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnott, Richard; Rowse, John

    2011-01-01

    J. Rowse. 1999. Modeling parking. Journal of Urban Economicsand J. Rowse. 2009. Downtown parking in auto city. RegionalThe economics of pricing parking. Journal of Urban Economics

  4. Technifying Public Space and Publicizing Infrastructures: Exploring New Urban Political Ecologies through the Square of General Vara del Rey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez Rubio, Fernando; Fogue, Uriel

    2013-01-01

    energy production, a process that has been removed from urban public spacesenergy production or water collection and distribution, should take place in the public spaceenergy by International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37.3 © 2013 Urban Research Publications Limited Technifying public space

  5. THE URBAN BOUNDARY-LAYER FIELD CAMPAIGN IN MARSEILLE (UBL/CLU-ESCOMPTE): SET-UP AND FIRST RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Abstract. The UBL/CLU (urban boundary layer/couche limite urbaine) observation and modelling campaign to the heat and moisture exchanges between the urban canopy and the atmosphere during periods of low wind mapping of urban land cover, land-use and aerodynamic parameters used in UBL models, and (iv) testing

  6. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    Finster. 2000. “The Urban Heat Island, Photochemical Smog,2001. “EPA/NASA Urban Heat Island Pilot Project,” GlobalSystem Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

  7. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  8. Taipei mobility : gone in less than 300 seconds : mixed modality transportation system in dense mixed-use urban fabric, take Taipei City for example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Chih-Chao

    2008-01-01

    Urban designers and planners always try to tackle the urban issues from spatial, cultural and economical point of views; However, sometimes these issues were limited or, even more, created by current transportation system. ...

  9. Consequences of Urban Stability Conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Urban Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Chan, S T

    2005-11-30

    The validity of omitting stability considerations when simulating transport and dispersion in the urban environment is explored using observations from the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulations of that experiment. Four releases of sulfur hexafluoride, during two daytime and two nighttime intensive observing periods, are simulated using the building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model, FEM3MP to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with two options of turbulence parameterizations. One option omits stability effects but has a superior turbulence parameterization using a non-linear eddy viscosity (NEV) approach, while the other considers buoyancy effects with a simple linear eddy viscosity (LEV) approach for turbulence parameterization. Model performance metrics are calculated by comparison with observed winds and tracer data in the downtown area, and with observed winds and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) profiles at a location immediately downwind of the central business district (CBD) in the area we label as the urban shadow. Model predictions of winds, concentrations, profiles of wind speed, wind direction, and friction velocity are generally consistent with and compare reasonably well with the field observations. Simulations using the NEV turbulence parameterization generally exhibit better agreement with observations. To further explore this assumption of a neutrally-stable atmosphere within the urban area, TKE budget profiles slightly downwind of the urban wake region in the 'urban shadow' are examined. Dissipation and shear production are the largest terms which may be calculated directly. The advection of TKE is calculated as a residual; as would be expected downwind of an urban area, the advection of TKE produced within the urban area is a very large term. Buoyancy effects may be neglected in favor of advection, shear production, and dissipation. For three of the IOPs, buoyancy production may be neglected entirely, and for one IOP, buoyancy production contributes approximately 25% of the total TKE at this location. For both nighttime releases, the contribution of buoyancy to the total TKE budget is always negligible though positive. Results from the simulations provide estimates of the average TKE values in the upwind, downtown, downtown shadow, and urban wake zones of the computational domain. These values suggest that building-induced turbulence can cause the average turbulence intensity in the urban area to increase by as much as much as seven times average 'upwind' values, explaining the minimal role of buoyant forcing in the downtown region. The downtown shadow exhibits an exponential decay in average TKE, while the distant downwind wake region approaches the average upwind values. For long-duration releases in downtown and downtown shadow areas, the assumption of neutral stability is valid because building-induced turbulence dominates the budget. However, further downwind in the urban wake region, which we find to be approximately 1500 m beyond the perimeter of downtown Oklahoma City, the levels of building-induced turbulence greatly subside, and therefore the assumption of neutral stability is less valid.

  10. National setting for productive conservation in urban transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.R.; LaBelle, S.J.

    1981-04-01

    The need for productive conservation strategies in urban transportation is discussed. Key trends in urban transportation are discussed as a basis for identifying target areas for productive conservation strategies. The need for and expected impacts of such candidate strategies as improvements in conventional automobiles, increases in automobile load factors, changes in highway and transit system operation, price-driven reductions in travel, and shifts to more-efficient modes are briefly outlined.

  11. Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    &AB Junghans Wind and Architecture 33454 P LEC 005 T 330-630PM 2108 A&AB Kim Bioclimatic Bldg Enclosure Sys 506Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning Architecture (ARCH) 201

  12. Alien plants in urban nature reserves: from red-list species to future invaders? 27 Alien plants in urban nature reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    Alien plants in urban nature reserves: from red-list species to future invaders? 27 Alien plants 2011 Citation: Jarosík V, Pysek P, KadlecT (2011) Alien plants in urban nature reserves: from red in these protected areas are complicated by high proportions of alien species. We examined which environmental

  13. Urban health and health inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urban health and health inequalities and the role of urban forestry in Britain: A review Liz O'Brien Kathryn Williams Amy Stewart 2010 #12;Urban health and woodlands Contents Executive Summary 4 1.1.3 Definition of terms 9 3. The policy context: health and forestry policies 11 3.1 Health policies 11 3

  14. Urban dispersion : challenges for fast response modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. J. (Michael J.)

    2004-01-01

    There is renewed interest in urban dispersion modeling due to the need for tools that can be used for responding to, planning for, and assessing the consequences of an airborne release of toxic materials. Although not an everyday phenomenon, releases of hazardous gases and aerosols have occurred in populated urban environments and are potentially threatening to human life. These releases may stem from on-site accidents as in the case of industrial chemical releases, may result during transport of hazardous chemicals as in tanker truck or railroad spills, or may be premeditated as in a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) agent terrorist attack. Transport and dispersion in urban environments is extremely complicated. Buildings alter the flow fields and deflect the wind, causing updrafts and downdrafts, channeling between buildings, areas of calm winds adjacent to strong winds, and horizontally and vertically rotating-eddies between buildings, at street corners, and other places within the urban canopy (see review by Hosker, 1984). Trees, moving vehicles, and exhaust vents among other things further complicate matters. The distance over which chemical, biological, or radiological releases can be harmful varies from tens of meters to many kilometers depending on the amount released, the toxicity of the agent, and the atmospheric conditions. As we will show later, accounting for the impacts of buildings on the transport and dispersion is crucial in estimating the travel direction, the areal extent, and the toxicity levels of the contaminant plume, and ultimately for calculating exposures to the population.

  15. Housing and urban development research reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The sixth in a series of documents published by the Department of Housng and Urban Development (HUD) to assist in the formulation of policy decision contains 247 abstracts entered in the HUD USER automated data base during the past six months, bringing the data base total to 3,583 documents. There are 45 subject areas in the main section, with the abstracts in each area arranged alphabetically by title. Each abstract is identified by an order number and is followed by descriptive keywords. Other listings of the documents are alphabetical, numerical, by personal or corporate author, by contract and grant number, and by subject index.

  16. The urban coffee shop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadios, Konstantinos

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of the role of the coffee shop in the urban environment throughout history. Coffee shops spread from the Arab world to Europe and then to the U.S. at the end of the seventeenth century. ...

  17. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  18. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern of urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns associated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on the generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanization. The census data of America and China are adopted to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is not so much a positive analysis as a normative study, but it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  19. Transport Infrastructure and the Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2013-01-01

    ideas for advancing sustainable urbanism and mobility willand sustainable transport and urbanism everywhere --the Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism Robert

  20. DC's Marble ceiling : urban height and its regulation in Washington, DC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trueblood, Andrew Tyson

    2009-01-01

    Washington, DC has a unique urban form that is the result of a century-old law. Through the narrow lens of DC's height limit, I survey a range of topics related to urban height, starting with a review of its history of ...

  1. Urbanism in the Age of Climate Change, by Peter Calthorpe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungkyoo

    2013-01-01

    Waldheim 2006), Sustainable Urbanism (Farr 2008), EcologicalFarr, Douglas. 2008. Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design withof Urbanism on the New Urbanist Frontier: Sustainable

  2. Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulvihill, Peter R. . E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris . E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

    2007-05-15

    This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

  3. San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances A Review of Urban Runoff Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances A Review of Urban RunoffKee Jon Leatherbarrow Sarah Pearce Jay Davis SFEI Contribution 66 September 2003 San Francisco Estuary Institute #12;A Review of Urban Runoff Processes in the San Francisco Bay Area: Existing knowledge

  4. WATER POVERTY IN THE PERI-URBAN TERRITORIES OF MUMBAI, INDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 WATER POVERTY IN THE PERI-URBAN TERRITORIES OF MUMBAI, INDIA Anastasia Angueletou Ph.D. student addresses water poverty in the peri-urban areas of Mumbai1 . The term "water poverty" refers to a variety of situations where people lack from sufficient water in terms of quality and quantity or from enough money

  5. An object-oriented approach for analysing and characterizing urban landscape at the parcel level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    and characterizing the urban landscape structure at the parcel level using high-resolution digital aerial imagery classification accuracy. The study area is the Gwynns Falls watershed, which includes portions of Baltimore City classification approach proved to be effective for urban land cover classification. The overall accuracy

  6. Classification of urban & industrial soils in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Classification of urban & industrial soils in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources: Working, Industrial, Traffic and Mining Areas (SUITMA) of the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS), 09­11 July . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Urban and industrial soils in the current WRB 4 3.1 Natural Soils

  7. Validation of satellite observed thermal emission with in-situ measurements over an urban surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    Validation of satellite observed thermal emission with in-situ measurements over an urban surface: Meteorology applied to urban pollution problems). Besides very detailed field measurements of the structure and validations of thermal satellite imagery are conducted in rural, mostly homogeneous areas (Sobrino et al

  8. An examination of urban heat island characteristics in a global climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleson, Keith W.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Jackson, Trisha L.

    2010-07-27

    to increased long-wave radiation from a warmer atmosphere. The larger storage capacity of urban areas buffers the increase in long-wave radiation such that urban night-time temperatures warm less than rural. Space heating and air conditioning processes add...

  9. Effects of white roofs on urban temperature in a global climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleson, Keith W.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-02-01

    over all urban areas, the annual mean heat island decreased by 33%. Urban daily maximum temperature decreased by 0.6°C and daily minimum temperature by 0.3°C. Spatial variability in the heat island response is caused by changes in absorbed solar...

  10. Formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Urban versus background levels and evaluation using aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Urban versus background levels formaldehyde column (WHCHO) retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and assess the information (20­200 km) near many urban areas. Citation: Boeke, N. L., et al. (2011), Formaldehyde columns from

  11. Final Report on MAPPR Project: The Detroit Living Wage Ordinance: Will it Reduce Urban Poverty?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, Shawn J.

    Final Report on MAPPR Project: The Detroit Living Wage Ordinance: Will it Reduce Urban Poverty? David Neumark May 30, 2001 #12;Detroit's Living Wage Ordinance The Detroit Living Wage Ordinance passed in the fall of 1998. As in other major urban areas passing living wage ordinances in the 1990s, Detroit

  12. Observations and Numerical Simulations of Urban Heat Island and Sea Breeze Circulations over New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    (HIC) associated with an urban area can significantly alter lower tropospheric winds and lowObservations and Numerical Simulations of Urban Heat Island and Sea Breeze Circulations over New disaster on September 11, 2001. An ARPS model numerical simulation was conducted to explore the complex

  13. SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    consumption Vehicle production 0.77 0.59 0.79 0.32 4.35 0.44 12.25 2.45 3.85 0.97 (Source: Harto, C; et al% Mining; 1% Decentralized Water Production (LID) Decentralized Energy Production Urban Farming #12;Water Footprint of Agricultural Products #12;`Water for Energy' and `Energy for Water' in US Water for Energy

  14. Modeling urban runoff characteristics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Alfred

    1987-01-01

    , commercial, and industrial developments (Jones 1970). From a hydrologic viewpoint, urban developments are characterized by impervious surfaces occupying surfaces that were once pervious. Impervious surfaces can exist in two general forms: (I) single... which reduces both infiltration and depression storage. These factors coupled with hydraulic channel improvements cause a decrease in the time of concentration, a decrease in the hydrograph base length, an increase in the runoff volume...

  15. Urban Ecosystems ISSN 1083-8155

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angilletta, Michael

    1 23 Urban Ecosystems ISSN 1083-8155 Urban Ecosyst DOI 10.1007/s11252-015-0460-x Urban heat island at link.springer.com". #12;Urban heat island mitigation strategies and lizard thermal ecology: landscaping. Urban heat island (UHI) effects may further exacerbate the impacts of climate change on organisms

  16. Casinos in context : the impacts of stand-alone casino development on urban neighborhoods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schray, Luke J. (Luke Joseph)

    2007-01-01

    As the stigma of gambling fades and governments seek more sources of revenue the urban casino is becoming more common. Many of these are legalized to operate with limited competition in their state, standing alone in their ...

  17. Redesigning rural life : relocation and In Situ urbanization in a Shandong village by Saul Kriger Wilson.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Saul Kriger

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government's attempts to improve village public service provision, limit the loss of arable land, and coordinate urbanization have converged in land readjustment schemes to rebuild some villages as more densely ...

  18. Manifestation of Coupled Geometric Complexity in Urban Road Networks under Mono-Centric Assumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peiravian, Farideddin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the complex geometry of urban transportation networks as a gateway to understanding their encompassing urban systems. Using a proposed ring-buffer approach and applying it to 50 urban areas in the United States, we measure road lengths in concentric rings from carefully-selected urban centers and study how the trends evolve as we move away from these centers. Overall, we find that the complexity of urban transportation networks is naturally coupled, consisting of two distinct patterns: (1) a fractal component (i.e., power law) that represent a uniform grid, and (2) a second component that can be exponential, power law, or logarithmic that captures changes in road density. From this second component, we introduce two new indices, density index and decay index, which jointly capture essential characteristics of urban systems and therefore can help us gain new insights into how cities evolve.

  19. Chapter_2_Limited_Areas_Vault-Type_Rooms_and_Temporary_Limited_Areas

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectricSouthApplying caulkChapter 9 of

  20. Unpaving the Way to Creek Restoration in Lower Sausal Creek Watershed: Applying the EU Water Framework Directive to a US Urban Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hong; Wardani, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Management Plan addresses stormwater pollution and detentionpoint source pollution. As well, the management of urbanmanagement problems in urban areas including flashy runoff and water pollution

  1. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (?15N, ?18O, and ?17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  2. Urban-scale impacts on the global-scale composition and climate effects of anthropogenic aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jason Blake

    2010-01-01

    A reduced form meta model has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

  3. Tenements : dwellings for the urban poor. Comparative study illustrating 28 cases in developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliman, Isam Mohammad

    1981-01-01

    Tenements are significant systems that provide habitation to the poor in most of the urban areas of the developing countries. Yet, tenements are practically ignored if not prohibited by the public sector and consequently ...

  4. Development of a Fast and Detailed Model of Urban-Scale Chemical and Physical Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

  5. Urban Influences on Stream Chemistry and Biology in the Big Brushy Creek Watershed, South Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and buildings). As ISC increases in urban areas, the infiltration of precipitation into soils Water Air Soil under baseflow conditions (Hoare, 1984; Smart, Jones, & Sebaugh, 1985; Wahl, McKellar, & Williams, 1997

  6. Predicting GIS-Based Spatially Distributed Unit-Hydrograph from Urban Development Scenarios. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kute, Abhijeet

    2007-11-27

    Spatially distributed Unit-Hydrograph model is implemented using a Geographical Information System (GIS) in this study to investigate the effects of how increasing impervious areas may influence surface runoff in urban ...

  7. UrbanSolutionsCenter Urban Uses for Dairy Manure Compost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Urban Uses for Dairy Manure Compost Background Construction of new homes with time and with heat and drought stress. Dairy manure compost (DMC) is readily available for amending regulatory agencies are developing mechanisms for using composted dairy manure to remedy disturbed soils

  8. Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning Architecture (ARCH) 201 ARR Newell 213 Bldgs, Cities,People 4.00 26819 S LEC 001 TTH 1130-1PM UMMA AUD Zimmerman Architecture Bioclimatic Bldg Enclosure Sys 506 Spec Topics Des Fund 3.00 ADVISORY 23543 P RW SEM 001 M 9-12PM 1227 A&AB Mc

  9. Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning Architecture (ARCH) 201, Scherer Intro to Robotics Fabrication 421 Geometric Modeling 3.00 ADVISORY 25595 P RW LEC 001 TH 9-12PMShed 27543 P LEC 004 M 1-4PM 2222 A&AB Junghans Wind and Architecture 28434 P W LEC 005 T 9-12PM 2108 A

  10. High-resolution urban thermal sharpener (HUTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C; Rickman, Douglas L

    2011-01-01

    C.  A. , 2005.  Urban heat  islands developing in coastal the  Phoenix Urban Heat Island (UHI) experiment: effects at growth of the urban heat island of Houston, Texas,  Remote 

  11. High-resolution urban thermal sharpener (HUTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C; Rickman, Douglas L

    2011-01-01

    C.  A. , 2005.  Urban heat  islands developing in coastal growth of the urban heat island of Houston, Texas,  Remote the  Phoenix Urban Heat Island (UHI) experiment: effects at 

  12. Detroit's Urban Regime: Composition and Consequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Leda Mclntyre; Hall, Melvin F.

    1993-04-01

    This article examines the urban regime in Detroit, Michigan, specifically examining how the regime makes decisions about redevelopment and major capital projects. Detroit's urban regime, which emergedfrom the urban unrest of the 1960s, mobilizes...

  13. Habitable piers : an alternative for urban expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Chin Yuan, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    1990-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation into an alternative way of urban expansion for a seaside community. This thesis proposes a habitable urban environment on the water by creating for an exchange between the built urban landscape ...

  14. Nitrogen Fluxes and Retention in Urban Watershed Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21227, USA; 4 US Geological Survey, Baltimore, Maryland 21237, USA, forested, and agricultural watersheds. The work is a product of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, a long- term of these areas (Pickett and others 2001). Two urban ecosystem research sites (Baltimore and Central Ar- izona

  15. The Urban Environmental Gradient: Anthropogenic Influences on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as vehicular traffic. Introduction Many of the common anthropogenic pollution problems are focused in urban geographic areas. Suburbia does not contribute much by way of industrial pollution, but it does serve operations and fossil-fuel combustion (2-4). From 1950 to the 1970s, automobile use increased in response

  16. Diagnosis of Aged Prescribed Burning Plumes Impacting an Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Mei

    Diagnosis of Aged Prescribed Burning Plumes Impacting an Urban Area S A N G I L L E E , * , , H Y November 30, 2007. An unanticipated wind shift led to the advection of plumes from two prescribed burning region should be considered in air quality models (e.g., receptor and emission- based models) to assess

  17. Waller Creek Urban Redevelopment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, S.

    2013-01-01

    Winkler Melba Whatley Waller Creek Conservancy Directors – November 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-51 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 CITY COUNCIL APPROVES DESIGN PLAN... Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Thomas Phifer ESL-KT-13-12-51 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 8Waller Creek and a Chain of Parks Palm Park Shaded Respite The Narrows Intensified Urbanity The Refuge...

  18. Lesson 8 Infinite Limits and One-sided Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-09-06

    Sep 6, 2013 ... long-term behavior. A common model for the population of a species in an area is the logistic model: Lesson 8 Infinite Limits and One-sided ...

  19. Toward an Integrated Paradigm: Further Thoughts on the Three Urbanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelbaugh, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    a richer, more sustainable, more enduring urbanism? Everydaysustainable and voluntary process. 16 Otherwise, New Urbanism

  20. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

  1. 11/17/14 Urbanization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    · In cities, natural resource production is displaced, meaning that urban effects extend well beyond city resource production is displaced, meaning that urban effects extend well beyond city boundaries · Species;11/17/14 3 · Locations of cities exaggerate local effects on wildlife - coasts, river mouths, lakeshores

  2. Reconsidering Sustainable Development: Urbanization, Political-Economy, and Deliberative Democracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman-Alcalá, Antonio M.M.

    2013-01-01

    What can we learn for urban energy planning and urbanizationWhat can we learn for urban energy planning and urbanizationEnergy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. ” Journal for Urban Planning

  3. Rethinking the nonmetropolitan turnaround: renewed rural growth or extended urbanization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodong

    2007-04-25

    was rural, the dominant pattern of urbanization was rural-urban migration. When the majority of the population became urban, the dominant urbanization pattern reversed to urbanrural migration because urban centers had reached beyond their optimal density...

  4. Environmental security planning : an application to the Longwood Medical Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmaise, Miriam Gail

    1982-01-01

    The thesis is a study of the security problems due to street crime in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston. The first part of the thesis defines the theories and practices of environmental security .planning, the urban ...

  5. Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Lundquist, J; D.Mirocha, J

    2006-09-06

    As accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow impinging upon the urban complex to the flow, transport and dispersion within it and downwind has received less attention. Building-resolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are commonly employed to investigate interactions between the flow and three-dimensional structures comprising the urban environment, however such models are typically forced with simplified boundary conditions that fail to include important regional-scale phenomena that can strongly influence the flow within the urban complex and downwind. This paper investigates the interaction of an important and frequently occurring regional-scale phenomenon, the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), with urban-scale turbulence and dispersion in Oklahoma City using data from the Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003) field experiment. Two simulations of nocturnal tracer release experiments from JU2003 using Lawrence Livermore National laboratory's FEM3MP CFD model yield differing levels of agreement with the observations in wind speed, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and concentration profiles in the urban wake, approximately 750m downwind of the central business district. Profiles of several observed turbulence parameters at this location indicate characteristics of both bottom-up and top-down boundary layers during each of the experiments. These data are consistent with turbulence production due to at least two sources, the complex flow structures of the urban area and the region of strong vertical wind shear occurring beneath the LLJs present each night. While strong LLJs occurred each night, their structures varied considerably, resulting in significant differences in the magnitudes of the turbulence parameters observed during the two experiments. As FEM3MP was forced only with an upwind velocity profile that did not adequately represent the LLJ, the downward propagation of TKE observed during the experiments was absent from the simulations. As such, the differing levels of agreement between the simulations and observations during the two experiments can, in part, be explained by their exclusion of this important larger-scale influence. We demonstrate the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to simulate accurate velocity fields during each night, and identify the use of regional-scale simulation data as a promising approach for representing the effects of important regional-scale phenomena such as the LLJ, on urban-scale simulations.

  6. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, William S.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Wilcox, Trevor; Bos, Randall J.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Goorley, John T.; Costigan, Keeley R.

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  7. New Orleans Urbanized Area Metropolitan Transportation Plan FY 2032 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Orleans Urbanized Area Regional Planning Commission

    2007-06-12

    Road Corridor---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 52 Earhart Corridor--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53 Causeway Boulevard Widening...

  8. Logit Models for Estimating Urban Area Through Travel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, Eric

    2011-10-21

    because the variable of interest is a proportion, rather than a continuous number. To improve on these previous models, the research described in this document developed a system of two models. Each model was developed using logistic regression... to develop through trip tables. For predictor variables, the models use results from a very simple gravity model; the average daily traffic (ADT) at each external station as a proportion of the total ADT at all available external stations; the number...

  9. Applications of sustainable technology to retrofits in urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Paki (Paki A.), 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Energy Losses from old buildings comprise a significant percentage of the total residential energy consumption in the United States. Retrofitting buildings for conservation can greatly decrease the present energy demand ...

  10. Intake fraction of nonreactive vehicle emissions in US urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.; Teoh, Soon-Kay; Nazaroff, William W.

    2006-01-01

    vehicle emission, 1,3-butadiene (characteristic lifetime E6remove a portion of the 1,3-butadiene from ambient air. Ourreactions (as for 1,3- butadiene) and physical removal as

  11. Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects Da-Lin Zhang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da-Lin

    Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects Da-Lin Zhang,1 Yi-Xuan Shou,1; published 19 December 2009. [1] Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban

  12. Urban Energy Fluxes in Built-Up Downtown Areas and Variations across the Urban Area, for Use in Dispersion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanna, Steven

    Surface energy fluxes, at averaging times from 10 min to 1 h, are needed as inputs to most state-of-the-art dispersion models. The sensible heat flux is a major priority, because it is combined with the momentum flux to ...

  13. Information Resources for URBAN FARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    .5 .U72 A55 2012 Anger, Judith et al. EDIBLE CITIES: URBAN PERMACULTURE FOR GARDENS, YEARS, BALCONIES: A GUIDE TO HOME- SCALE PERMACULTURE. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2009. S 494.5 .P47 H46 2009

  14. Claiming the urban industrial landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linton, Cynthia Mayhew

    1992-01-01

    This thesis presents a propositIOn about a prevalent urban condition, that of marginal, left over, or disused space. It contends that these spaces, generally viewed as negative attributes by their communities have inherent ...

  15. Climate Change and Urban Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Climate Change and Urban Trees: effects on disease and insect pests Drew C. Zwart, Ph.D. Bartlett · Other climate related impacts on plant health: Elevated atmospheric CO2 (no real question about

  16. West Central North East Area of Tucson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    a, b) in urbanized areas. The Tucson Hummingbird Project (THP) is a citizen-science, reconciliation for migrating ones. Citizen Science and OutreachCitizen Science and Outreach The latter was achieved with citizen scientists via large-scale outreach to the local community. Projects such as the THP can

  17. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 2, Limited...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Temporary Limited Areas This chapter covers the establishment, maintenance, and termination of areas within HQ buildings where classified activities take place. It covers the...

  18. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban

  19. Transport Infrastructure and the Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2013-01-01

    the Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism Robertthe Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism RobertGlobal South on more sustainable mobility and urbanization

  20. Indonesia-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies in Emerging Economy Countries (URBAN-LEDS) Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Promoting Low Emission Urban...

  1. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The International Urban Energy Balance Models ComparisonT. Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: modelof the international urban energy balance model comparison,

  2. Economic Growth in Urban Regions: Implications for Future Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2006-01-01

    diesels) and “sustainable urbanism” (e.g. , TOD). To bringto embrace sustainable transport and urbanism can be thea program of sustainable mobility, urbanism, and finance. 2.

  3. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The International Urban Energy Balance Models ComparisonT. Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: modelthree-dimensional urban energy balance model for studying

  4. Modeling and Remote Sensing of Urban Land-Atmosphere Interactions with a Focus on Urban Irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahmani, Pouya

    2014-01-01

    representation of both water and energy fluxes is criticalemployed to quantify water and energy cycle fluxes in urban2008), Linking urban water balance and energy balance models

  5. Professional Learning Communities as a Leadership-Initiated Reform Strategy for Math and Science Teaching in Urban High Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn

    2011-10-21

    advocated is through restructuring schools into community-like organizations, often called professional learning communities. Yet, limited empirical research has been conducted concerning professional learning communities, especially in urban high schools...

  6. An Urban Parameterization for a Global Climate Model. Part I: Formulation and Evaluation for Two Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleson, Keith W.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Vertenstein, M.; Grimmond, C.S.B.

    2008-01-01

    stream_size 70935 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Feddema_Urban_Parameterization_Climate Model_PtI.pdf.txt stream_source_info Feddema_Urban_Parameterization_Climate Model_PtI.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type..., all of these studies have focused on land use/land cover re- lated to changes in vegetation types. Urbanization, or the expansion of built-up areas, is an important yet less studied aspect of anthropogenic land use/land cover change in climate science...

  7. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chang Hyoun

    2011-08-08

    tall platform must be found that does not influence the wind itself while allowing a measurement setup. The system should be located at minimally twice the urban canopy height and ideally higher to avoid the urban roughness layer (Roth, 2000... of an urban area, we used the median isoprene flux to compare with the isoprene model 8 result. As in other studies, we used the normalization condition of 30?C of leaf temperature and 1000 ?mol m-2 s-1 of PAR to determine basal emission rate (on...

  8. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform in Houston, Texas: Trends and Tracers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Martin C

    2014-05-08

    and traffic counts except during variable working hours. To assign measured fluxes to local sources, we tested a bulk flux footprint model (Kormann and Meixner model) designed for uniform emission surface areas in this urban, heterogeneous landscape. Tracer...

  9. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  10. Urban weather generator user interface development : towards a usable tool for integrating urban heat island effect within urban design process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakano, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    Urban Weather Generator (UWG) is the urban design simulation tool that provides climate-specific advice for cityscape geometry and land use to assist the development of energy-efficient cities that are also thermally ...

  11. Variation of Solar Attenuation with Height in CAPLTER The atmosphere over rural and urbanized areas differs in many ways in relation to terrain influences and human-induced variations (e.g., heat, humidity, wind, and pollution). The sun's energy penetrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    on amounts of solar energy that are accumulated at any given time. These controls range from extraterrestrial of variability cascade into plant productivity, solar energy technology, and urban climate processes, in generalVariation of Solar Attenuation with Height in CAPLTER Abstract The atmosphere over rural

  12. Containers : project for a new urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghasemkhani, Yashar

    2011-01-01

    This project investigates the possibilities of a new urbanism in vast territories of urban industrial and logistics landscapes, which have become a significant feature of the American city. It is a search for a hybrid ...

  13. URBANISM AND ENERGY IN DEVELOPING REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Global Urban Population 9b TREND CHANGES IN ENERGY CONSUMPTIONGlobal Urban Population 9a 9b Trend Changes i n Energy ConsumptionEnergy Consumption i n C i t i e s Competition i n the Forthcoming Global

  14. Field crossings : hybridizing the urban park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyphers, Scott M

    2003-01-01

    The growth and identity of urban open space is a vital issue facing our cities today. The development and revitalization of old industrial centers in the United States has prompted urban transformations in usage, densification ...

  15. Urban regeneration : enabled by mobility centric architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Wayne Charles

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop a new urban architectural prototype to reinvigorate the British New Town. New models of adaptable, sustainable, architecture and urban design are explored with the ultimate ...

  16. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    racial- ized poverty. He challenged the conventional wisdom that urban decline was the result of failed the roots of urban poverty in a hidden history of racial violence, discrimination, and deindustri- alization

  17. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 7 (2008) 195206 Nitrogen fertilization during planting and establishment of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    2008-01-01

    Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 7 (2008) 195­206 Nitrogen fertilization during planting forest increasingly consists of planted trees, especially as native forest fragments yield to urban little for the first few years after planting. Stressful urban sites exacerbate this effect and many

  18. Urban Retrofit: A Whole-Watershed Approach to Urban Stormwater Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithander, Becky

    2012-01-01

    use  reduction  and   heat  island  mitigation.  These  providing  urban  heat-­?island   mitigation  which  

  19. Roles of Urban Tree Canopy and Buildings in Urban Heat Island Effects: Parameterization and Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    and Forecasting model and an urban canopy model (WRF-UCM). By parameterizing the effects of these natural surfacesRoles of Urban Tree Canopy and Buildings in Urban Heat Island Effects: Parameterization (Manuscript received 28 October 2011, in final form 16 April 2012) ABSTRACT Urban heat island (UHI) effects

  20. Center for Sustainable Urban LandscapesCenter for Sustainable Urban Landscapes At a glance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Center for Sustainable Urban LandscapesCenter for Sustainable Urban Landscapes At a glance After rehabilitation, visit www.cnre.vt.edu/urbanforestry/SRES The Center for Sustainable Urban Landscapes (CSUL and never attain their full potential. Soil rehabilitation methods are needed to improve urban soil

  1. Urban Forestry at Virginia Tech Promoting sustainable urban forests through education and research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Urban Forestry at Virginia Tech Promoting sustainable urban forests through education and research's undergraduate curriculum holds Society of American Foresters Specialized Accreditation in Urban Forestry. This accreditation assures that the curriculum has both breadth and depth specifically in urban forestry and meets

  2. Impact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the WashingtonBaltimore Corridor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da-Lin

    of Washington, D.C. Results from a coupled ultrahigh-resolution mesoscale­urban canopy model with 2001 National of the urban­bay interaction reveals the importance of horizontal wind direction in determining the intensityImpact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the Washington

  3. Metro Vancouver: Designing for Urban Food Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roehr, Daniel; Kunigk, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    urbanism, which would provide for the integration of sustainableurbanism and municipal supported agriculture: a new food system path for sustainable

  4. Decontamination of Terrorist-Dispersed Radionuclides from Surfaces in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Robert; Sutton, Mark; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Gray, Jeremy; Hu, Qinhong; McNab, Walt; Viani, Brian

    2008-01-15

    Research is currently underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to advance the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment. Investigations have focused on more optimized decontamination agents for cesium (Cs) and americium (Am) specifically for use in mass transit infrastructure and urban environments. This project is designed to enhance the capability of the United States to effectively respond to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) attack. The work addresses recognized data gaps by advancing the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment and provides a solution to a national need. The research is focused in four major areas: (1) a better understanding of urban surface conditions that influence the efficacy of decontamination processes, (2) development of prototype decontamination agents for Am and Cs optimized for use in urban environments, (3) the development of capabilities to realistically contaminate surfaces at both the real world and laboratory scale and (4) a validated model for radionuclide-surface interactions. The decontamination of urban surfaces following the detonation of an RDD presents a number of challenges. The following key points are found to be critical for the efficiency of decontamination agents in an urban environment: - Particle size and surface deposition of radionuclide particles on urban surface materials. - Interactions between radionuclides and urban materials. - The presence of grime and carbonation/alteration layers on the surface of urban surfaces. - Post-detonation penetration of radionuclides strongly affected by the dynamic wetting/drying processes. A laboratory scale contamination system has been developed allowing for samples to be contaminated and radionuclide interactions to be studied. In combination with laboratory scale experiments, a real scale outdoor test is scheduled for the spring of 2007. In conclusion, integrated laboratory, field, and numerical approaches are utilized to better understand the radionuclide behavior and the development/utility of decontamination agents.

  5. Safety in urban environment and emergency notice boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confortini, Claudia; Tira, Maurizio

    2008-07-08

    Reliable and safe urban system conditions have to be a crucial goal of ordinary planning activities. Among planning goals, priority must be given to indications relating to the safety levels to be achieved and to the amount of resources to be directed towards reducing the vulnerability of urban systems and therefore of the measures to be taken. Uban vulnerability cannot in fact be reduced to the sum of the vulnerability of single buildings or to the physical vulnerability of its various components. This research work consists of identifying those urban sub-areas that are important for safety in relation to natural risks, ambits that should be highlighted by means of permanent emergency notice boards/billboards. What are the hazard notices relating to all natural hazards and related risks? Where are they located? Are they clear and straightforward so that all residents and visitors are able to understand them, as it is already the case for road signs (or at least it should be)? What urban sub-areas are worth highlighting in relation to natural risks, acting for example as escape routes or meeting points? How is information for the public managed in order that people are immediately, easily and regularly notified? What is the relation of such signals to ordinary traffic signals? Research into the state of the art of permanent notice boards/billboards of this type, currently distinguished only by sporadic and local initiatives, aims at carrying out a census of and recognizing urban elements already considered as important for reducing the vulnerability of the urban system to different natural calamities and at providing new highlights as regards the identification of new ones. The next step is to work out a decision and common-language strategy for planning these elements and for their adequate signposting, so as to be able to live in the urban environment with awareness, safety and confidence, including with respect to more remote and therefore often neglected natural risks. The paper deals with literature in the field and shows the results of the few relevant case studies at work.

  6. Towards Militaristic Urban Planning: the Genealogy of the Post-Colonial European Approach to Social and Urban Insecurity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedjazi, Alexandre B; Fekkak, Hatem

    2012-01-01

    Urban Planning: the Genealogy of the Post-Colonial Europeanexperience, the British genealogy of city planning and urban

  7. Cornell's Urban Sustainability Initiatives ACSF Lunch Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Cornell's Urban Sustainability Initiatives ACSF Lunch Summary Compiled by Marianne Krasny (NTRES was to outline steps that Cornell could take to define an urban sustainability initiative in collaboration of our student body, it is important for Cornell to more broadly address urban sustainability issues. Our

  8. Game Preserves and Closed Areas (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Game preserves and closed areas exist within the state of Montana for the protection of all the game animals and birds. Construction and development is limited in these areas. Currently, only three...

  9. Research Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashome /Areas Research Areas

  10. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Nina Bauer, Annette Haase, Dagmar

    2011-03-15

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

  11. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  12. The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission levels: Results from a case study in Portland,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    in urban areas such as London, Prague, and Tokyo (OECD, 2003; Crainic et al., 2009). The fast rate for transportation agencies is to improve the efficiency of urban freight and commercial vehicle move- ments while.1016/j.trc.2010.11.002 E-mail address: figliozzi@pdx.edu Transportation Research Part C 19 (2011) 766

  13. CitySee: Urban CO2 Monitoring with Sensors Xufei Mao, Xin Miao, Yuan He, Tong Zhu, Jiliang Wang, Wei Dong, Xiang-Yang Li, and Yunhao Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yunhao

    CitySee: Urban CO2 Monitoring with Sensors Xufei Mao, Xin Miao, Yuan He, Tong Zhu, Jiliang Wang of precise carbon emission measurement and real-time surveillance for CO2 management in cities, we present CitySee, a real-time CO2-monitoring system using sensor networks for an urban area (around 100 square

  14. A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. J. (Michael J.); Ivey, A. (Austin); McPherson, T. N. (Timothy N.); Boswell, D. (David); Pardyjak, E. R. (Eric R.)

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four primary routes that included legs from the downtown core to four different 'rural' areas. Each route went through residential areas and most often went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2004) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 20 to 40 minutes to complete. Based on seven nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 0.5-6.5 C between the urban core and nearby 'rural' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Oklahoma City, and to test new urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt and Shi, 2004). In addition to the ground measurements, skin temperature measurements were also analyzed from remotely sensed images taken from the Earth Observing System's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A surface kinetic temperature thermal infrared image captured by the ASTER of the Oklahoma City area on July 21, 2001 was analyzed within ESRI's ArcGIS 8.3 to correlate variations in temperature with land use type. Analysis of this imagery suggests distinct variations in temperature across different land use categories. Through the use of remotely sensed imagery we hope to better understand the development of the urban heat island analysis.

  15. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  16. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water runoff into the Charles River Basin in one of its most significantly polluted sections and, will provide a green renovation mechanism for the redirected storm water of a public alley way. This activity is designed to improve the quality of water recharging the ground water and protecting the vulnerable wood pilings under many of the historic masonry buildings in Boston's Back Bay. Sustainable design research and system monitoring opportunities will also be incorporated, providing ongoing tools for public outreach and education through innovative signage and "virtual tour" technology. The monitoring will include a "building performance dash board" that reflects real time operating conditions and improvements in environmental and economic performance to be prominently displayed on the face of our 320 Newbury Street building (approximately 1.5 million people walk by annually). The project site and demonstration area is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task II of the project is Geothermal Solution. This task involves the installation of approximately seven Geothermal wells which will tap into the earth's constant underground temperatures to provide air-conditioning and heating for BAC facilities. The environmentally friendly geothermal system uses no fossil fuel, produces no emissions and runs silently, providing a sustainable model for commercial and residential buildings throughout Boston. Ultimately the combination of this project and other projects will assist in making the BAC "carbon-neutral", and could generate enough additional energy to provide free power to the Engine 33 and Ladder 15 Firehouse located at 941 Boylston Street. The project is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task III of the project is the Sustainability Design Curriculum at the BAC. The BAC is the nation’s largest independent, multi-disciplinary college of spatial design, and a leader in

  17. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei, Wenfang

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO ...

  18. A landslide risk rating system for the Baguio City, Philippines area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldivar-Sali, Artessa Niccola D., 1980-

    2004-01-01

    This research formulates a LANDSLIDE RISK RATING SYSTEM for the Greater Baguio area in the Philippines. It is hoped that the tool will be made a part of the physical/urban planning process when used by engineers and planners ...

  19. THE MEXICO CITY INITIATIVE: RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION OF EVERYDAY URBANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, X. Shirley

    sustainable urbanism. Innovations in Everyday Urbanism. At the same time as risk problematizes the urbanTHE MEXICO CITY INITIATIVE: RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION OF EVERYDAY URBANISM An expanding metropolis, physically expanding, environmentally fragile, and socially complex locale that has faced new urban

  20. An urban weather generator coupling a building simulation program with an urban canopy model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bueno Unzeta, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The increase in air temperature observed in urban environments compared to the undeveloped rural surroundings, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, is being intensely studied, due to its adverse environmental and ...

  1. Managing change: tensions between urban morphology and everyday life in the heterotopic urban context of Tainan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei-Kuang

    2011-06-29

    Urban conservation and development practices are often in conflict. This thesis examines this general claim in the context of rapid urban development in East Asia through an analysis of the postcolonial historic city of ...

  2. Urban Parks: The Value of Small Urban Parks, Plazas and Other Outdoor Spaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafer, Carl Scott; Jacob, John

    2006-11-27

    People need parks. Great urban parks are places where communities come together, people interact, and social capital develops. Learn the characteristics of great urban parks and how they are created....

  3. Climate Prediction: The Limits of Ocean Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Peter H.

    We identify three major areas of ignorance which limit predictability in current ocean GCMs. One is the very crude representation of subgrid-scale mixing processes. These processes are parameterized with coefficients whose ...

  4. High-resolution urban thermal sharpener (HUTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C; Rickman, Douglas L

    2011-01-01

    of zoning in urban ecosystems with remote sensing, Remote Sensing of Environment  Yaghoobian, N. , J.  of thermal imagery.  Remote Sensing of Environment 107 , 

  5. Parcel delivery and urban logistics-changes in urban courier, express and parcel services: the French (DUCRET, Raphalle; DELAITRE, Loc)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Parcel delivery and urban logistics- changes in urban courier, express and parcel services PARCEL DELIVERY AND URBAN LOGISTICS- CHANGES IN URBAN COURIER, EXPRESS AND PARCEL SERVICES: THE FRENCH new logistic organisations. The purpose of this paper is to give an updated overview of the urban

  6. Keep the Kids Inside: Juvenile Curfews, Bad Weather, and Urban Gun Violence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Keep the Kids Inside: Juvenile Curfews, Bad Weather, and Urban Gun Violence Jillian B. Carr;Abstract Gun violence is an important problem across the United States. Due to limited data, it has been affected by each intervention to estimate its causal impact on gun violence and reported crime. We find

  7. Introduction Housing shortage and crowding in urban China have long been recorded in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Youqin

    Introduction Housing shortage and crowding in urban China have long been recorded in the popular media. Yet research on residential crowding and housing shortage in China has been quite limited, because of the lack of housing data and the fact that housing was not open for debate in socialist China

  8. JOINT CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 7th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering (7CUEE) &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    JOINT CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 7th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering (7CUEE. INTRODUCTION Limiting the response of civil structures to large external lateral disturbances (e.g., wind loads tended to be characterized by a small number of large and expensive actuators that were either passive (e

  9. Scaling the Daytime Urban Heat Island and Urban-Breeze Circulation JULIA HIDALGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that describe the shape of the urban heat island and the horizontal and vertical wind intensity and profiles. 1 an atmospheric numerical model coupled with an urban surface energy balance (SEB) model. For example, simulations atmospheric Nonhydrostatic Meso- scale (Meso-NH) model (Lafore et al. 1998) with a Town Energy Balance urban

  10. Scheduling the Remediation of Port Hope: Logistical and Regulatory Challenges of a Multiple Site Urban Remediation Project - 13119

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson Jones, Andrea; Lee, Angela; Palmeter, Tim

    2013-07-01

    The Port Hope Project is part of the larger CAN$1.28 billion Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) in the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario, Canada. Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) is the Project Proponent, Public Works and Government Services (PWGSC) is managing the procurement of services and the MMM Group Limited - Conestoga Rovers and Associates Joint Venture (MMM-CRA Joint Venture) is providing detailed design and construction oversight and administration services for the Project. The Port Hope Project includes the construction of a long-term waste management facility (LTWMF) in the Municipality of Port Hope and the remediation of 18 (eighteen) large-scale LLRW, numerous small-scale sites still being identified and industrial sites within the Municipality. The total volume to be remediated is over one million cubic metres and will come from sites that include temporary storage sites, ravines, beaches, parks, private commercial and residential properties and vacant industrial sites all within the urban area of Port Hope. Challenges that will need to be overcome during this 10 year project include: - Requirements stipulated by the Environmental Assessment (EA) that affect Project logistics and schedule. - Coordination of site remediation with the construction schedule at the LTWMF. - Physical constraints on transport routes and at sites affecting production rates. - Despite being an urban undertaking, seasonal constrains for birds and fish (i.e., nesting and spawning seasons). - Municipal considerations. - Site-specific constraints. - Site interdependencies exist requiring consideration in the schedule. Several sites require the use of an adjacent site for staging. (authors)

  11. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic black and white photographs provide a partial record of some excavations, including trenches, building basements, and material lay-down yards. Estimates of excavation depth and width can be made, but these estimates are not accurate enough to pinpoint the exact location where the disturbedhmdisturbed interface is located (e.g., camera angles were such that depths and/or widths of excavations could not be accurately determined or estimated). In spite of these limitations, these photographs provide essential information. Aerial and historic low-level photographs have captured what appears to be backfill throughout much of the eastern portion of the 300 Area-near the Columbia River shoreline. This layer of fill has likely afforded some protection for the natural landscape buried beneath the fill. This assumption fits nicely with the intermittent and inadvertent discoveries of hearths and stone tools documented through the years in this part of the 300 Area. Conversely, leveling of sand dunes appears to be substantial in the northwestern portion of the 300 Area during the early stages of development. o Project files and engineer drawings do not contain information on any impromptu but necessary adjustments made on the ground during project implementation-after the design phase. Further, many projects are planned and mapped but never implemented-this information is also not often placed in project files. Specific recommendations for a 300 Area cultural resource monitoring strategy are contained in the final section of this document. In general, it is recommended that monitoring continue for all projects located within 400 m of the Columbia River. The 400-m zone is culturally sensitive and likely retains some of the most intact buried substrates in the 300 Area.

  12. 10 Water Resources and the Urban Environment Tide-induced Air Pressure Fluctuation in Coastal Unsaturated Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    such as asphalt pavement of extremely low permeability, soil structures of the reclamation area, and rainfall soil near the coast may also fluctuate in response to sea tides. If the soil is well capped by low-permeability materials such as concrete or asphalt, which is common in the extensively urbanized coastal areas

  13. Baskerville, C. A.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1982, Tectonic history of the New York Metropolitan area.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merguerian, Charles

    Baskerville, C. A.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1982, Tectonic history of the New York Metropolitan area. Urban field mapping of basement (literally in some cases) rocks in the New York Metropolitan area: Baskerville, C. A.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1982, Tectonic history of the New York Metropolitan area (abs

  14. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    of outdoor urban spaces, The role of materials, Solar Energyof outdoor urban spaces, The role of materials, Sol. Energy.outdoor urban spaces, the role of materials. Sol. Energy 77,

  15. Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View Alanurban climate is the phenomenon of the urban heat island.The urban heat island phenomenon was first observed over one

  16. Master of Urban Affairs & Policy: Economic/ Community Development Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haiying

    Master of Urban Affairs & Policy: Economic/ Community Development Policy Student Name Relations __________ URPA 5311 Social Policy Formation and Analysis __________ URPA 5312 Urban Economic Policy __________ Research and Analysis Courses (12 hours) URPA 5302 Foundations of Urban Research

  17. Faculty perceptions of presidential leadership in urban school reform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClendon, Rodney Prescott

    2009-06-02

    The study examined urban university faculty members’ perceptions of their presidents’ leadership role in urban school reform. The population for this study consisted of faculty members from five urban research universities. All of the universities...

  18. Development of PM trap system for urban buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Yasuaki; Nakashima, Naohisa; Miyata, Osamu; Ikeda, Tatuya

    1996-09-01

    In response to stringent particulate matter (PM) emission regulations worldwide, developments of diesel particulate filter (DPF) continue apace in addition to engine modification for PM reduction. Particularly with buses used in urban areas, reduction methods in black smoke emissions are being researched in addition to the efforts to satisfy the aforementioned PM regulations. The system described in this paper was developed for use mainly with buses in large urban concentrations. The system consists of both wall-flow monolith filters for filtration of PM emissions and electric heaters for regeneration. A key feature of this system is that exhaust gas is used for effective combustion of PM during regeneration. Optimization of the exhaust gas flow rate drawn into the filter under regeneration has resulted in regeneration efficiency comparable with those achieved using air pumps. The difficulty of putting DPF systems to practical use has been due to cracking and melting of filters caused by excessive PM accumulation and subsequent increases in temperature in excess of tolerable levels. To prevent these problems, some means of controlling the accumulated PM mass was required. Since bus routes in large urban concentrations follow common patterns, the mass of PM accumulated over a given time period is more or less constant. Thus, the amount of PM accumulated over a given time period can be estimated easily and filter damage can be prevented.

  19. Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management; Urban areas; Hydraulic models; Sand, filter; Parameters; Estimation; Water treatment. Author and nutrient removal is often low. Water quality performance of the sand filter can be evaluated by comparing a surface sand filter. If the water quality attributes of the sand filter can be confidently mod- eled

  20. Energy in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 22. annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference addressed the energy and environmental challenges facing large metropolitan areas. The topics included a comparison of the environmental status of cities twenty years ago with the challenges facing today`s large cities, sustainable economic development, improving the energy and environmental infrastructure, and the changing urban transportation sector. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. The Propagation of Light Pollution in Diffusely Urbanised Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Cinzano

    1998-11-19

    The knowledge of the contribution $b_d(d)$ to the artificial sky luminance in a given point of the sky of a site produced by the sources beyond a given distance $d$ from it is important to understand the behaviour of light pollution in diffusely urbanized areas and to estimate which fraction of the artificial luminance would be regulated by norms or laws limiting the light wasted upward within protection areas of given radii. I studied the behaviour of $b_d(d)$ constructing a model for the propagation of the light pollution based on the modelling technique introduced by Garstang which allows to calculate the contribution to the artificial luminance in a given point of the sky of a site of given altitude above sea level, produced by a source of given emission and geographic position. I obtained $b_d(d)$ integrating the contribution to the artificial luminance from every source situated at a distance greater than $d$. I also presented an analitical expression for $b_d(d)$ depending mainly from one parameter, a core radius, well reproducing model's results. In this paper I present the results for $b_d(d)$ at some Italian Astronomical Observatories. In a diffusely urbanised territory the artificial sky luminance produced by sources located at large distances from the site is not negligible due at the additive character of light pollution and its propagation at large distances. Only when the core radius is small, e.g. for sites in the inner outskirts of a city, the sky luminance from sources beyond few kilometers is negligible. The radii of protection zones around Observatories needs to be large in order that prescriptions limiting upward light be really effective.

  2. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 2, Limited Areas,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,Security Officer Program | Department of Energy

  3. SWOPE PARK INDUSTRIAL AREA Kansas City, Missouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    SWOPE PARK INDUSTRIAL AREA Kansas City, Missouri MODIFICATION REQUEST Modification to support this request. PROJECT PURPOSE Swope Park Industrial Area is located in the south-central portion safe ingress/egress during flooding. The Swope Park Industrial Area has limited access, one

  4. Rapid urbanization and changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation in Beijing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AghaKouchak, Amir

    ., 2011], and urban heat islands [Oke, 1973]. The hydrological impacts of urbanization and heat island

  5. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Document describing a model design for urban development and redevelopment that will reduce urban energy consumption

  6. An analytical approximation for the macropscopic fundamental diagram of urban traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daganzo, Carlos F; Geroliminis, Nikolas

    2008-01-01

    Future Urban Transport, University of California, Berkeley,Future Urban Transport, University of California, Berkeley,

  7. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004 Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed...

  8. Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban...

  9. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    efforts to reduce urban heat island, Build Environ. 49 (saving potentials of heat-island reduction strategies,Taha, Mitigation of urban heat islands: materials, utility

  10. Essays on Urban Transportation and Transportation Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chun Kon

    2008-01-01

    energy can be approached in two ways: one is through urban planningenergy, it may be approached in two ways: one is through urban planning

  11. Cultivation, Capital, and Contamination: Urban Agriculture in Oakland, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClintock, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    urban gardens. Land Contamination & Reclamation 12 Schiff,Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils andAlloway, B. J. 2004. Contamination of soils in domestic

  12. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    to mitigate urban heat islands. Atmos. Environ. 32, 95–saving potentials of heat-island reduction strategies.of surface urban heat islands under “ideal” conditions at

  13. Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis...

  14. Village Vices: The Contradiction of New Urbanism and Sustainability [Portfolio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durack, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Urbanism and its dubious claims to sustainability, and to draw attention to an altogether more sustainablesustainable form. Admittedly, we cannot accurately evaluate the impacts of New Urbanism

  15. Migration and the City: Urban Effects of the Morisco Expulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valencia, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Migration and the City: Urban Effects of the MoriscoJames Monroe Spring 2011 Migration and the City: Urbanby Adriana Valencia Abstract Migration and the City: Urban

  16. Urban Form, Wind, Comfort, and Sustainability: The San Francisco Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungkoo

    2014-01-01

    small subset of San Francisco’s diverse urban form and windsmall. The boundary layer changes in the vertical wind profile over urban,

  17. "Dangerous" urban trees & community health & safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "Dangerous" urban trees & community health & safety Norman Dandy Forest Research #12;Urban trees application 4. When tree is deemed `dead, dying or dangerous' ­ no consent is needed under either forestry. Full assessment of `dead, dying or dangerous' requires `expert' knowledge Liability + lack

  18. UF in Brazil Urban, Medical, & Agricultural Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    UF in Brazil Urban, Medical, & Agricultural Entomology Summer B: August 9 - 21, 2015 Explore aspects in Brazil and the United States. Course Information College of Agricultural and Life Sciences: Urban, Medical and Agricultural Entomology in Brazil Total Number of Credits Offered: 3 About

  19. ANALYSIS OF 3-D URBAN DATABASES WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION DISPERSION FOR A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN CITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. RATTI; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Models to estimate pollution dispersion and wind flow in cities (both at the city-scale and above) require a parametrical description of the urban canopy. For instance, two key parameters are the aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} and the zero-plane displacement height z{sub d}, which are related, amongst others, to the surface drag coefficient, the scale and intensity of turbulence, the depth of the roughness sub-layer and the wind speed profile. The calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d}, however, is not straightforward. The classical way to estimate them in open terrain is based on the measurement of wind profile data from a tall mast or, less accurately, on the inference from published roughness values for similar terrain elsewhere (Davenport, 1960; Davenport et al., 2000). Both methods, however, are very difficult to apply to cities, due to the considerable height where wind measurements should be taken (well above the urban canopy) and to the irregularities of urban texture. A promising alternative that has become available in recent years, due to increasing computing resources and the availability of high-resolution 3-D databases in urban areas, is based on the calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d} from the analysis and measure of the city geometry (urban morphometry). This method is reviewed for instance in Grimmond and Oke (1999), where values are calculated using different formulas and then compared with the results of field measurements. Urban morphometry opens up a new range of parameters that can easily be calculated in urban areas and used as input for meso-scale and urban dispersion models. This paper reviews a number of them and shows how they could be calculated from urban Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using image-processing techniques. It builds up on the recent work by Ratti et al. 2000, extending the number of case studies cities: London, Toulouse, Berlin, Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

  20. Reconnecting urban communities : Northeastern University Housing Project, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jing, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This design thesis studies the potential of urban design and urban housing to weave vacant lands, their urban context and the urban communities surrounding them. It focuses on an urban housing project adjacent to Northeastern ...

  1. Power and White: Race, Class, and Sexuality in Kansas City's Urban Renewal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogler, Stefan

    2012-05-31

    -private mega-projects that attempt to harness “culture” as a tool for urban regeneration (Miles and Paddison 2005). This generally means the construction of areas for the exclusive consumption of culture—art, food, fashion, music, tourism—resulting in public...:410). This assertion is especially true of the most recent manifestation of urban renewal: large- scale, top-down, public-private mega-projects. Such projects have the potential to displace many people and can result in the rapid redefinition of space and place, which...

  2. Gas Sampling At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOEMaui Area (DOE

  3. Gas Sampling At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOEMaui Area (DOE

  4. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  5. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-02-12

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  6. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  7. Urban Land and Housing Markets in the Punjab, Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David E. Dowall; Peter Ellis

    2007-01-01

    Planning Support provided by the California Resource Agency and the California Energy Commission Institute of Urban

  8. Economic Growth in Urban Regions: Implications for Future Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2006-01-01

    to pursue a program of sustainable mobility, urbanism, andthe Challenges to Sustainable Mobility”, the World Business

  9. Urban Form, Wind, Comfort, and Sustainability: The San Francisco Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungkoo

    2014-01-01

    sustainable transportation modes. 2.2 Vernacular Urban Form and Historical Attempts Vernacular settlements and architecture

  10. Enhancing Resource Sustainability by Transforming Urban and Suburban Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable Transportation, Smart Growth, and New Urbanismsustainable transportation,” “smart growth,” and “new urbanism

  11. Chapter_2_Limited_Areas_Vault-Type_Rooms_and_Temporary_Limited...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    be used. * Personally-owned cameras must undergo a TSCM inspection prior to taking pictures. * All classified and sensitive matter must be removed from the camera's view before...

  12. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  13. Upstream Urbanization Exacerbates Urban Heat Island Effects Da-Lin Zhang*, Yi-Xuan Shou, & Russell R. Dickerson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    1 Upstream Urbanization Exacerbates Urban Heat Island Effects Da-Lin Zhang*, Yi-Xuan Shou, Maryland 20742 Email: dalin@atmos.umd.edu The adverse impacts of urbanization on climate and weather through urban heat island (UHI) effects and greenhouse emissions are issues of growing concern1

  14. Redefining Housing Market Areas in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muir, Christopher Iain

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to address some of the limitations inherent in the methods currently used for identification of Housing Market Areas (HMAs) in Scotland. Firstly the conventionally defined geography of HMAs for the four ...

  15. Beyond opposites : an urban initiative in Seoul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Hoon

    1993-01-01

    The thesis began with the understanding of urban, cultural, and social conditions of Seoul. The choice of the existing bridge as the point of departure has meaning in two layers. layer one: the need for more space in the ...

  16. Counter urban transformation in Istanbul Beyoglu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uzunyayla, Sakine Dicle

    2014-01-01

    Urban transformation has become central to the Turkish government's neo-liberal program of commercial development for Istanbul. These transformations have provoked public discontent and passionate responses, the largest ...

  17. Multilevel comparison of large urban systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pumain, Denise; Cottineau, Clémentine; Vacchiani-Marcuzzo, Céline; Ignazzi, Antonio; Bretagnolle, Anne; Delisle, François; Cura, Robin; Lizzi, Liliane; Baffi, Solène

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the systems of cities in seven countries or regions among the largest in the world (China, India, Brazil, Europe, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), the United States and South Africa) are made comparable through the building of spatio-temporal standardised statistical databases. We first explain the concept of a generic evolutionary urban unit ("city") and its necessary adaptations to the information provided by each national statistical system. Second, the hierarchical structure and the urban growth process are compared at macro-scale for the seven countries with reference to Zipf's and Gibrat's model: in agreement with an evolutionary theory of urban systems, large similarities shape the hierarchical structure and growth processes in BRICS countries as well as in Europe and United States, despite their positions at different stages in the urban transition that explain some structural peculiarities. Third, the individual trajectories of some 10,000 cities are mapped at micro-scale following a...

  18. Ecotransology : integrated design for urban mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim, Mitchell Whitney

    2006-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates a rethinking of urban mobility through ecological design. Human mobility and ecological accountability are inextricably linked in city design; our current world ecological crisis underscores this ...

  19. A design project for an urban frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Robert Louis

    1992-01-01

    The interplay between the form and infrastructure of modern cities produces spatial and temporal dimensions which allow for erratic growth and fragmentary perception. Though their origins can be clearly seen in urban ...

  20. Browse : re-forming the urban library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baron, Sandra Ann

    2007-01-01

    The urban library has persisted as a cultural entity, largely because its interiorized form functions as a vault, creating a clear, although often intimidating, boundary between library program and the public realm. While ...

  1. The urban garden : Port Alliance, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Isaac Hall, 1958-

    1990-01-01

    This thesis focuses on of three urban parks; Central Park i n New York , the Fens to Franklin Park in Boston, and Rock Creek Park in washington, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and the growth of the cities around them. ...

  2. Sustainable and equitable urban environments in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badshah, Akhtar

    1993-01-01

    This study identifies some of the factors and conditions that can encourage the development of sustainable and equitable urban environments. It argues that cities will continue to grow and that it is not productive to view ...

  3. Team MIT Urban Challenge Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, John

    2007-12-14

    This technical report describes Team MIT?s approach to theDARPA Urban Challenge. We have developed a novel strategy forusing many inexpensive sensors, mounted on the vehicle periphery,and calibrated with a new cross-­modal ...

  4. Urban solarium : thermal performance in Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juliet Chia-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of energy efficiency through the lens of thermal performance in the context of urban housing in the city of Boston. Located in the historic brick row house neighborhood of the South End, the ...

  5. Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negi, Pallav

    2007-09-17

    Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) offer a novel approach to solving many diagnosis, optimization and control problems. In the course of this research this paradigm was applied to the problem of optimizing urban...

  6. Urban Parks: Volunteers and Civic Engagement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuett, Michael A.

    2007-03-02

    When citizens are engaged with urban park and recreation departments, everyone benefits. This publication describes successful programs that involve community volunteers, and explains what managers can do to engage citizens in such programs....

  7. 2014 Urban Forest Symposium Tom Hinckley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    2014 Urban Forest Symposium Tom Hinckley Professor Emeritus May 24, 2014 #12;Questions, temperature, ppt, extremes) #12;Simple Model: Carbon and Stress Leaf GrowthCarbon Production Carbon Storage, solarization · Growing season ­ Soil moisture ­ Atmospheric (wind, temperature, humidity, radiation) ­ Outcomes

  8. Intellimotion Vol. 17 no. 1 2012 Integrated Construction Zone Traffic Management, Low-Cost Vehicle Detection and Communication Systems for Urban Intersections, Freeways, and Parking Lots, Extracting More Information from the Existing Freeway Traffic Monit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Detection and Communication Systems for Urban Intersections, Freeways, and Parking Lots, Extracting More for Urban Intersections, Freeways, and Parking Lots, Extracting More Information from the Existing Freeway of Changes in Graduated Licensing Laws in California, Smart Parking Management Pilot Project: A Bay Area

  9. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  10. Wildlife Management Areas (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Certain sites in Florida are designated as wildlife management areas, and construction and development is heavily restricted in these areas.

  11. Research Highlights Sorted by Research Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday Production of SOA in UrbanArctic Haze:IceResearch Area

  12. Performance Measures for Complete, Green Streets: A Proposal for Urban Arterials in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Elizabeth; Sanders, Rebecca; Anderson, Alia

    2010-01-01

    through the urban heat island effect. Harmful environmentalcontribute to the urban heat island effect, which increaseswater pollution, mitigate urban heat island effects, reduce

  13. Regional climate effects of irrigation and urbanization in the western united states: a model intercomparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    water, and the urban heat island. ” International Journal ofthe nocturnal urban heat island: Comparison of scale modelexchange, and the urban heat island have been extensively

  14. Accessible Cities and Regions: A Framework for Sustainable Transport and Urbanism in the 21st Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Framework for Sustainable Transport and Urbanism in the 21stfor advancing sustainable transport and urbanism in comingcurrency as a sustainable form of urbanism that directly

  15. 2015 The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development A NATIONAL URBAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a significant impact on economic development. Project Overview The Best Practices in Urban Innovation project), education, workforce development, urban policy, and environmental justice issues. The Project had five in other places - Ability to make a sustained and sustainable impact For instance, the Center

  16. From Camp Dwellers to Urban Refugees?: Urbanization and Marginalization of Refugee Camps in Lebanon.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - From Camp Dwellers to Urban Refugees?: Urbanization and Marginalization of Refugee Camps villes invisibles 1. Introduction Palestinian refugees in Lebanon are marginalized in their host society with the relationship between the refugees' own socio-political dynamic, political actors, and space. The migrations

  17. Area Activation 1 Running Head: AREA ACTIVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomplun, Marc

    Area Activation 1 Running Head: AREA ACTIVATION Advancing Area Activation towards a General Model at Boston 100 Morrissey Boulevard Boston, MA 02125-3393 USA Phone: 617-287-6485 Fax: 617-287-6433 e. Without great effort, human observers clearly outperform every current artificial vision system in tasks

  18. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

  19. Program Areas Nutrient Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for agriculture and rural communities in the South. Regional teams are working to develop and deliver technology and resources to agricultural producers and rural communities across the South to enable them to better Water and Rural Urban Interface Education Water Policy and Economics Watershed Education

  20. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  1. Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines Greenhouse Gas Benefits of Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines that were used to derive average household carbon footprints (HCF) for U.S. zip codes, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas. We find consistently lower HCF in urban core cities (40 tCO2e) and higher carbon footprints

  2. Interdependent infrastructures and multi-mode attacks and failures: improving the security of urban water systems and fire response 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristow, Elizabeth Catherine

    2009-05-15

    ........................................................................................ 47 4.2. Overview of Vulnerability Analysis .................................................. 47 4.3. Damage Scenarios: Water System ..................................................... 48 4.4. Urban Fire Ignition Points... for Mitigation..................................... 90 5.3. MMAF Fire Spread Profiles: Visualizing Burned Area Extent ......... 93 5.4. Using Dynamic Programming to Find Worst-Case Ignition Point Placement...

  3. Accomplishments and future perspective of coastal ocean observing systems Coastal oceans are the most densely urbanized regions on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are the most densely urbanized regions on the planet with populations growing at rapid rate. In the near future as communities increasingly rely on the coastal ocean to provide additional sources of energy (wind, waves, oil, our ability to map and forecast the coastal ocean remains low. While certain areas are difficult

  4. Title: New York After Sandy: New and Old Challenges to Urban Sustainability Hosts: Rick Geddes, Oliver Gao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Title: New York After Sandy: New and Old Challenges to Urban Sustainability Hosts: Rick Geddes caused extensive damage to physical infrastructure throughout the New York metropolitan area, particularly along the New York, New Jersey and Connecticut coasts. Serious infrastructure damage was sustained

  5. Escherichia coli Regrowth and Macroinvertebrate Health in Urban and Rural Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrary, Kathryn Jordan

    2012-07-16

    Over the last few decades, increased urbanization has led to a new recognition in stream health – the urban stream or the urban stream syndrome. Understanding urban water quality is important for identifying those factors ...

  6. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  7. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-11-18

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  8. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-10-08

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  9. LIMITED SUBMISSION Obama-Singh 21st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    -secondary educational institutions, in the thematic areas of energy; sustainable development; climate changeLIMITED SUBMISSION Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative (OSI) US-India Institutional for the support of projects through the Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative (OSI). Announced by the U.S

  10. Silicon Chips and Spatial Structure: The Industrial Basis of Urbanization In Santa Clara County, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxenian, AnnaLee

    1981-01-01

    From Orchards to Suburbs: The Logic of Urban Development in68 From Orchards to Suburbs: The Logic of Urban Development

  11. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    13 Dec [18] Connolly, Heat Island and Smog Reduction Act ofUrban climates and heat islands: Albedo, evapotranspiration,efforts to reduce urban heat island, Build Environ. 49 (

  12. Transportation planning for mega events : a model of urban change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassens, Eva

    2009-01-01

    My study is about opportunities for revolutionary developments in urban transport. Often, we think of transport and urban development as an evolutionary process, yet there exist a few opportunities for cities to revolutionize ...

  13. Political participation and transformation in urban China, 1993 and 2002 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lou, Diqing

    2008-10-10

    My dissertation examines political participation in non-democratic countries. Specifically, it looks into China's urban political participation in the past decade and examines how Chinese urban citizens are mobilized to ...

  14. Predicting traffic speed in urban transportation subnetworks for multiple horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaillet, Patrick

    such as route guidance, urban traffic control and management, and sustainable mobility [1]­[3]. Consequently Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, MIT, Cambridge, MA. 4 Center for Future Urban Mobility

  15. Framing dispersal : urban strategies for Mexico City's sprawl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of Mexico City's urban sprawl, this thesis investigates one specific type of territorial occupation: the urbanization of subsidized housing developments on the periphery, which accounts for 17% of the ...

  16. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofThe Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and UrbanTHE GREENNESS OF CITIES: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND URBAN

  17. Digital places : rethinking urban elements : the case of the tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gichuhi, Christopher M. (Christopher Mwethera), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Problem - How can we make working, living and all aspects of our life in the urban tower more palatable? How can we create environment at the urban tower scale. With technology as one of the biggest drivers of social and ...

  18. Approximate translation : media, narrative, and experience in urban design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Approximate translation is developed as a design process through which the place-embedded history of an urban environment can be understood, allowing for better design and intervention in that urban environment. Generally, ...

  19. Modernity of Chinese urban neighborhoods : toward new spatial forms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Qian, 1973-

    2002-01-01

    There is always a general dilemma about how to balance technology and humanity in urban neighborhood development. Modem technology creates many new spatial forms for Chinese urban neighborhoods, but it also destroys many ...

  20. Parameterization of Urban Characteristics for Global Climate Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Trisha L.

    2011-10-31

    The data presented here are part of a global dataset developed specifically for use in climate models to simulate urban climates for specific regions of the globe. Article abstract: To help understand potential effects of urbanization on climates...

  1. Manufactured landscape : strategies for peri-urbanism in Dongguan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Chit Ying Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Thirty years of Open Door Policy has brought about a series of urban restructuring of cities in the Pearl River Delta of China. The Peri Urban fabric of the these cities are formed as a result of complex orchestration of ...

  2. IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez. Urban consolidation and logistics sharing. III. Multi-stakeholder mutli-criteria methodology. A of application. V. Conclusion. ABSTRACT Collaborative transportation and logistics pooling are relatively new

  3. Architecture of the rail : exploring the potential of urban infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iboshi, Gregory Kenji

    1994-01-01

    This thesis is the pursuit of a sensitivity for the relationship between urban infrastructure and architectural form, an attempt to restore a quality of "publicness" in the urban landscape through the implementation of a ...

  4. Stadium development and urban renewal : a look at Washington, DC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzo, James W. (James Watson)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the factors, related to urban stadium development, that act as a catalyst for subsequent local urban renewal. Over the recent decades there has been substantial debate related to stadium or arena ...

  5. Camera for the invisible : toward a toolkit for urban exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Jay (Jay Saul)

    2008-01-01

    We are disconnected from our environment. We can't reconnect because we can't even see the Nature within our urban surroundings. Inspired by urban explorers and Nature Awareness traditions, I will develop methodologies and ...

  6. Exploding the edge : inversions into the urban landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chia, Katherine Kai-sun

    1991-01-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between building and green space in a dense urban environment in order to create a humane contemplative experience of individual and collective memory. The urban environment has the ...

  7. Mapping urban perception : how do we know where we are?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Shan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    How do we remember urban space? How can we measure what is remembered? This thesis presents a new approach to study urban spatial perception in an efficient, automated, and scalable way. It explores the use of novel tools ...

  8. Urban acupuncture as a strategy for São Paulo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shieh, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    This work is the study of one city, São Paulo, and one idea, how small and precise architectural interventions can be catalytic to major urban transformations. The largest urban agglomeration in the southern hemisphere is ...

  9. Volker Urban | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 -UsingHeat & CoolVolker Urban Volker Urban Volker

  10. Vascular flora of the Rocky Flats area, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2010-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Site (Site) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility near Golden, Colorado that produced nuclear weapons components during the Cold War. Like many federal properties that have been off-limits to public access for decades, it has become a refugia for biodiversity as surrounding landscapes have been lost to agriculture and urbanization. A floristic study of the area was conducted on approximately 2,505 ha (6,189 ac) and includes the parcels currently managed and operated by DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge). A flora of 630 species of vascular plants inmore »84 families and 340 genera was documented, including 12 species endemic to the southern Rocky Mountains and seven species considered rare or imperiled by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. The flora of the Site is characterized by a predominantly Western North American floristic element, however, an Adventive floristic element contributes the greatest number of species. The vegetation is dominated by xeric tallgrass prairie and mixed grass prairie, with areas of wetland, shrubland, and riparian woodland.« less

  11. Vascular flora of the Rocky Flats area, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2010-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Site (Site) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility near Golden, Colorado that produced nuclear weapons components during the Cold War. Like many federal properties that have been off-limits to public access for decades, it has become a refugia for biodiversity as surrounding landscapes have been lost to agriculture and urbanization. A floristic study of the area was conducted on approximately 2,505 ha (6,189 ac) and includes the parcels currently managed and operated by DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge). A flora of 630 species of vascular plants in 84 families and 340 genera was documented, including 12 species endemic to the southern Rocky Mountains and seven species considered rare or imperiled by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. The flora of the Site is characterized by a predominantly Western North American floristic element, however, an Adventive floristic element contributes the greatest number of species. The vegetation is dominated by xeric tallgrass prairie and mixed grass prairie, with areas of wetland, shrubland, and riparian woodland.

  12. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore »Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr?¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  13. Quantum Limits of Thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Stace

    2010-06-08

    The precision of typical thermometers consisting of $N$ particles is shot noise limited, improving as $\\sim1/\\sqrt{N}$. For high precision thermometry and thermometric standards this presents an important theoretical noise floor. Here it is demonstrated that thermometry may be mapped onto the problem of phase estimation, and using techniques from optimal phase estimation, it follows that the scaling of the precision of a thermometer may in principle be improved to $\\sim1/N$, representing a Heisenberg limit to thermometry.

  14. Old Space, New Urbanism: Israeli Perspective on the Spatial Turn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Oded

    2010-01-01

    orchards and fields of evacuated Arab dwellings were appropriated to resolve housing distress in the bursting city until urban

  15. USING GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE TO MANAGE URBAN STORMWATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minor, Emily

    USING GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE TO MANAGE URBAN STORMWATER QUALITY: A Review of Selected Practices.................................................................30 The International Stormwater BMP Database..................................................34

  16. Effects of SpayVacâÂ?¢ on urban white-tailed deer at Johnson Space Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Saul

    2007-04-25

    is surrounded by urban development and Galveston Bay. The entire space center is surrounded with a 1.8 m chain-link fence with 3 strands of angled out barbed-wire. The space center is characterized by improved pasturelands and scattered park-like areas.... Whisenant (2003) reported approximately 90% of the area at JSC was observed from the survey route due to the relatively small study area and the high road density (i.e., adequate road coverage of area surveyed). The low estimate obtained from distance...

  17. Sustainable Urbanism : an examination of environmentally responsible neighborhood developments in Europe and lessons for sustainable urban planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasioumi, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of the sustainable development concept at the end of the 1980s triggered the intensification of the environmental sustainability discourse in urban design and planning. The vision of sustainable urbanism ...

  18. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  19. Persistent pollutants urban rivers sediment survey: implications for pollution control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persistent pollutants urban rivers sediment survey: implications for pollution control C. Wilson.heal@ed.ac.uk) Abstract The impacts of diffuse urban sources of pollution on watercourses are quantified. A survey of nine urban streams in Scotland for persistent pollutants in stream sediments is described, together

  20. Wind power resource assessment in complex urban environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind power resource assessment in complex urban environments: MIT campus case-study using CFD in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods holds potential for the advancement of wind energy resource assessment in complex urban terrain by modeling wind circulation around urban obstacles. The geometry

  1. The Urbanism track draws on the Dutch tradition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    and plan for more sustainable development. This track differs from other urban design or planning to make and organize sustainable urban Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment MSc Programme in the Laboratory Urban Transformations and Sustainability on an individual graduation project on a topic

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Economic development, urban expansion, and sustainable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Yehua Dennis

    ORIGINAL PAPER Economic development, urban expansion, and sustainable development in Shanghai Wenze-Verlag 2012 Abstract Studies of urbanization effects in Chinese cities from the aspect of the coupled urban expansion and examined the dynamic relationship between economic growth and envi- ronment

  3. Evaluation of Environmental Quality and Evolution in Urban Soils of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report on Evaluation of Environmental Quality and Evolution in Urban Soils of Qingdao City Y. Cai and Evolution in Urban Soils of Qingdao City ­ p. 0/2 #12;1. Problems Report on Evaluation of Environmental Quality and Evolution in Urban Soils of Qingdao City ­ p. 1/2 #12;1. Problems What we know about

  4. TRANSPORTATION NODES, REAL ESTATE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT The Metamorphosis Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufto, Jarle

    1 TRANSPORTATION NODES, REAL ESTATE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT The Metamorphosis Project Norwegian POTENTIALS FOR PROJECT- AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT AT TRANSPORTATION NODES · TO QUICKLY DEVELOP AN ARCHITECTURAL? · DEVELOP AN URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT AND PROGRAM · DESIGN AND PRESENT THE PROJECT #12;6 PHOENICIAN

  5. Inhalation of Vehicle Emissions in Urban Environments Julian David Marshall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Inhalation of Vehicle Emissions in Urban Environments by Julian David Marshall B.S.E. (Princeton Spring 2005 #12;3 Inhalation of Vehicle Emissions in Urban Environments Copyright 2005 By Julian David Marshall #12;1 ABSTRACT Inhalation of Vehicle Emissions in Urban Environments by Julian David Marshall

  6. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schetke, Sophie; Haase, Dagmar; Koetter, Theo

    2012-01-15

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Koetter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test runs with planners identified prominent environmental indicators and assigned individual weights. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans according to sustainable housing development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test runs also show that greenfield development generally exhibits less sustainability than infill development.

  7. Planning for mitigating climate change risk to metropolitan areas (USA) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Himanshu

    2009-06-02

    the growing urban areas in the world. The program coordinated the CO2 reduction efforts of 14 municipalities in Canada, the United States, and Europe. The program proved remarkably successful, with municipalities achieving both significant reductions in CO2... compensation (Rayner et al., 1999). The approach places the responsibility of remediation on the communities that have caused the damage by overuse of the common pool resources. The CCP program itself aims to enlist the higher polluting cities to commit...

  8. SCHOOL OF URBAN AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS Graduate Certificate in Urban Nonprofit Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haiying

    5357 Strategic Management and Planning in Public and Nonprofit Sectors Management Certificate Coordinator: Dr. Karabi Bezboruah, bezborua@uta.edu The certificate in Urban Nonprofit Management at UTA prepares students who are working

  9. Urban square as theater : issues of continuity and discontinuity in urban design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Buo-yuan

    1993-01-01

    This thesis tries to establish some criteria for designing a good urban square, with concern for the static and dynamic approaches. The former refers to aesthetic issues, and the latter refers to social and contextual ones. ...

  10. Food urbanism : urban agriculture as a strategy to facilitate social mobility in informal settlements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amirtahmasebi, Rana

    2008-01-01

    Can community-based urban agriculture generate stronger communities? How is this possible? This thesis explores the possibility of community development through application of community gardens in an informal settlement ...

  11. An analysis of area type and the availability of alternative transportation services on subjective well-being : are people happiest in cities?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Janet (Janet I.)

    2013-01-01

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of how rural, suburban, and urban areas compare in terms of the subjective well-being (SWB) of their residents and how the availability of transportation services affects SWB. Because ...

  12. THE URBAN HISTORY GROUP Annual Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    -75........................................................................................................4 Urban form as knowledge: the production and consumption of the built environment.5 `Injurious' vistas-70.......... ..........................................................................................12 A space to congregate, educate and exhibit: sites of knowledge production and consumption....... ............................................................................................8 The production and use of cartographic knowledge in Edinburgh, 1880-1920 .............9 The MESH

  13. Urban PDE dynamics: Situating PRIPODE research in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    urban policymakers 1. Water & sanitation 2. Waste disposal 3. Slum & Informal settlements 4. Air;8 Environment Environmental Health Focus "Health provides an important tracer to indicate the quality pollution #12;9 Water & Sanitation Source: UN Statistics Division 2005 Total House Connections MDG Target 10

  14. NFWF Five Star & Urban Waters Restoration Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) is accepting applications for up to $2.1 million to develop community capacity to sustain local natural resources for future generations by providing modest financial assistance to diverse local partnership for wetland, riparian, forest and coastal habitat restoration, urban wildlife conservation, stormwater management as well as outreach, education and stewardship.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accounting process; evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry programs with CO2 reduction measures carbon dioxide (CO2 ) reduction. The calculation of CO2 reduction that can be made with the use climate. With these Guidelines, they can: report current and future CO2 reductions through a standardized

  16. Urban fox squirrel ecology and management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCleery, Robert Alan

    2007-09-17

    I studied the habitat selection, survival, and anti-predator behaviors of the fox squirrel (Siurus niger) across the urban-rural gradient in College Station, Texas. From two years of tracking the radio locations of 82 fox squirrels, my data...

  17. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  18. The different urban efforts to revitalize urban neighborhoods in the United States and the United Kingdom: comparative case study based on governmental responses focusing on urban neighborhood revitalization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Youngho

    2008-10-10

    stream_source_info Ko Youngho.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 132275 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ko Youngho.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 THE DIFFERENT URBAN EFFORTS......................................................................... 3 II FORCES OF URBAN AND NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE ............. 6 Demographic Change to Social Change......................................... 6 Causes of Urban Neighborhood Change........................................ 8 Stages...

  19. Wal-Mart’s Limited Growth in Urban Retail Markets: The Cost of Low Labor Investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    2007-2014) On average, Walmart holds 25 percent of theareas. In 2007 and 2008, Walmart experienced double-digitSpringer. Loeb, Walter. “Why Walmart Suddenly Thinks Smaller

  20. inhabitants from rural areas to more urban areas (Aide and Grau, 2004; Grau and Aide, 2008; Rey Benayas, 2005).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rey Benayas, José María

    in the carbon concentrations within the bio- mass (with global variations ranging from 1 to 35 t CO2 haÀ1 yrÀ1 Benayas, 2005). Adding to this uncertainty, when accounting for the carbon absorption and storage capacity more, the quantification of total plant biomass and carbon, including roots, has not been a common

  1. Gas Sampling At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOEMaui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to:

  2. Unit 51 - GIS Application Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unit 51, CC in GIS; Cowen, David; Ferguson, Warren

    1990-01-01

    51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS UNIT 51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS1990 Page 1 Unit 51 - GIS Application Areas Computers inyour students. UNIT 51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS Compiled with

  3. Car-Free Housing Developments: Toward Sustainable Smart Growth and Urban Regeneration Through Car-Free Zoning, Car-Free Redevelopment, Pedestrian Improvement Districts, and New Urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable Smart Growth and Urban Regeneration Through Car-Free Zoning, Car-Free Redevelopment, Pedestrian Improvement Districts, and New Urbanism

  4. Paradoxical Interpretations of Urban Scaling Laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottineau, Clementine; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scaling laws are powerful summaries of the variations of urban attributes with city size. However, the validity of their universal meaning for cities is hampered by the observation that different scaling regimes can be encountered for the same territory, time and attribute, depending on the criteria used to delineate cities. The aim of this paper is to present new insights concerning this variation, coupled with a sensitivity analysis of urban scaling in France, for several socio-economic and infrastructural attributes from data collected exhaustively at the local level. The sensitivity analysis considers different aggregations of local units for which data are given by the Population Census. We produce a large variety of definitions of cities (approximatively 5000) by aggregating local Census units corresponding to the systematic combination of three definitional criteria: density, commuting flows and population cutoffs. We then measure the magnitude of scaling estimations and their sensitivity to city defin...

  5. URBAN ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (UAO) FIRST PLANNING WORKSHOP, JANUARY 27-28-2003. WORKSHOP SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; LEE,H.N.

    2003-03-27

    The Urban Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) First Planning Workshop was held on 27-28 January 2003 at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in downtown Manhattan, New York City. The meeting was well attended by local, state, and national administrators, as well as scientists and engineers from the national laboratories and academia. The real-time intensive UAO is a necessary step toward the development and validation of new technologies in support of the New York City emergency management and anti-terrorism effort. The real-time intensive UAO will be a dense array of meteorological instrumentation, remote sensing and satellite products and model output, as well as radiation detection, gamma spectrometer and aerosol measurements focused onto a small area in the heart of Manhattan. Such a test-bed, developed in a somewhat homogeneous urban area, and with a well-developed communication and data collection backbone, will be of immense utility for understanding how models of all scales can be improved and how they can best be integrated into the city's emergency program. The goal of the First Planning Workshop was to bring together a small group of experts in the fields of urban meteorology, modeling from mesoscale to fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics, instrumentation, communications and visualization, in order to (1) establish the importance of the observational program, (2) define the most efficient and cost-effective design for the program, (3) define needed intensive observational efforts and establish a schedule, and (4) define the importance of the UAO in emergency operations. The workshop achieved its goals with the enthusiastic participation of over forty persons. There was a synthesis of ideas towards a world-class facility that would benefit both immediate emergency management activities and, over an extended time, the entire field of urban meteorology and contaminant dispersion modeling.

  6. Financing Sustainable Urban Transport | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL

  7. The Limit of Mental Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandler, George

    2013-01-01

    of constructing such structures. References A cautionaryTHE LIMIT OF MENTAL STRUCTURES Asch, S. E. , & Ebenholtz, S.100. THE LIMIT OF MENTAL STRUCTURES Halford, G. S. , Cowan,

  8. Balanced Transport and Sustainable Urbanism: Enhancing Mobility and Accessibility through Institutional, Demand Management, and Land-Use Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Transport and Sustainable Urbanism: Enhancing Mobility andparagons of sustainable transport and urbanism from whichhallmark of sustainable transport and urbanism. 3.1 Zürich:

  9. REAL-TIME DEPTH BOUNDARY OPTIMIZATION FOR LOCAL AREA-BASED STEREO David Gallup1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollefeys, Marc

    a snake-like energy optimized with a dynamic programming method. This clean-up step requires only O(#pixels) time and space, making it well-suited for real-time where local area-based stereo is often used. Our depth estimates are needed immediately, or for processing large amounts of data as in urban

  10. Inversion of surface NOx anthropogenic emission fluxes in the Paris area during the ESQUIF campaign.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    1 Inversion of surface NOx anthropogenic emission fluxes in the Paris area during the ESQUIF OF SURFACE EMISSIONS #12;2 Abstract. An inverse modeling approach has been developed to optimize urban NOx emission fluxes. Based on the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE and its adjoint, the new methodology

  11. "Sustainable" and Worth-living Integrated Development of mountainous areas in Greece and worldwide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psarrakos, Panayiotis

    "Sustainable" and Worth-living Integrated Development of mountainous areas in Greece and worldwide on initiatives of one-dimensional and mostly urban economic development. The exception to this rule has been is being discovered and its "exploitation" is being pursued, in the context of the ideology of "sustainable

  12. An ozone episode in the Philadelphia metropolitan area Lawrence I. Kleinman,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , winds were nearly stagnant, allowing local emissions to accumulate. In contrast to typical O3 episodes urban areas. High O3 was also observed in a less likely region near the Delaware-Pennsylvania border by 60­80 ppb. Photochemical model calculations indicate O3 production rates in excess of 20 ppb hÀ1

  13. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  14. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    The population growth coupled with increasing urbanization is predicted to exert a huge demand on the growth and retrofit of urban infrastructure, particularly in water and energy systems. The U.S. population is estimated to grow by 23% (UN, 2009) between 2005 and 2030. The corresponding increases in energy and water demand were predicted as 14% (EIA, 2009) and 20% (Elcock, 2008), respectively. The water-energy nexus needs to be better understood to satisfy the increased demand in a sustainable manner without conflicting with environmental and economic constraints. Overall, 4% of U.S. power generation is used for water distribution (80%) and treatment (20%). 3% of U.S. water consumption (100 billion gallons per day, or 100 BGD) and 40% of U.S. water withdrawal (340 BGD) are for thermoelectric power generation (Goldstein and Smith, 2002). The water demand for energy production is predicted to increase most significantly among the water consumption sectors by 2030. On the other hand, due to the dearth of conventional water sources, energy intensive technologies are increasingly in use to treat seawater and brackish groundwater for water supply. Thus comprehending the interrelation and interdependency between water and energy system is imperative to evaluate sustainable water and energy supply alternatives for cities. In addition to the water-energy nexus, decentralized or distributed concept is also beneficial for designing sustainable water and energy infrastructure as these alternatives require lesser distribution lines and space in a compact urban area. Especially, the distributed energy infrastructure is more suited to interconnect various large and small scale renewable energy producers which can be expected to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the case of decentralized water infrastructure, on-site wastewater treatment facility can provide multiple benefits. Firstly, it reduces the potable water demand by reusing the treated water for non-potable uses and secondly, it also reduces the wastewater load to central facility. In addition, lesser dependency on the distribution network contributes to increased reliability and resiliency of the infrastructure. The goal of this research is to develop a framework which seeks an optimal combination of decentralized water and energy alternatives and centralized infrastructures based on physical and socio-economic environments of a region. Centralized and decentralized options related to water, wastewater and stormwater and distributed energy alternatives including photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells and microturbines are investigated. In the context of the water-energy nexus, water recovery from energy alternatives and energy recovery from water alternatives are reflected. Alternatives recapturing nutrients from wastewater are also considered to conserve depleting resources. The alternatives are evaluated in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and economic performance using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and cost benefit analysis, respectively. Meeting the increasing demand of a test bed, an optimal combination of the alternatives is designed to minimize environmental and economic impacts including CO2 emissions, human health risk, natural resource use, and construction and operation cost. The framework determines the optimal combination depending on urban density, transmission or conveyance distance or network, geology, climate, etc. Therefore, it will be also able to evaluate infrastructure resiliency against physical and socio-economic challenges such as population growth, severe weather, energy and water shortage, economic crisis, and so on.

  15. Changes on the Waterfront - Transforming Harbor Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans Harms

    2008-01-01

    energy system. The realization of these concepts and the management of the procedure is an urban planning

  16. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    slabs and foundation walls, advanced framed walls, high-efficiency heat pumps, and ducts in conditioned space. Urbane Homes - Louisville, KY More Documents & Publications High...

  17. USDA National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant Program to assist the U.S. Forest Service in establishing the grant categories and recommendations of final proposals...

  18. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can significantly curb the trajectories of energy consumption and the ensuing carbon dioxide emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban...

  19. Sustainable Urban Development: A Literature Review and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    Introduction I. What is Sustainable Development in General?PAGE Definitions of Sustainable Development Perspectiveson Sustainable Development Perspectives on Sustainable Urban

  20. Energy Department Announces the SUN Project, Empowering Urban...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    between the U.S. Department of Energy and the American Indian Science and Engineering Society to engage urban Native American youth in science, technology, engineering,...

  1. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  2. Decentralizing urbanization : harnessing the potential of small cities in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suri, Sagarika

    2011-01-01

    Perceived as symbols of national development or degeneration, megacities continue to dominate discourse and action related to urbanization, particularly in developing countries like India. Simultaneously, a large portion ...

  3. Planning Kabul: The politics of urbanization in Afghanistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calogero, Pietro Anders

    2011-01-01

    of urban apartheid? ” Planning theory 8:88-100. Yiftachel,of the colonized. ” City Planning Kabul: BibliographyCalif. : Sage Publications. Planning Kabul: Planning as

  4. Urban Bias, Rural Sexual Minorities, and the Courts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Boso

    2013-01-01

    titil- lated the rural community and jurors of PendletonAdolescents in Rural Communities in British Columbia, 99 Ain minority, poor, and rural communities. Urban bias both

  5. Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable transport: a sourcebook for policy-makers in developing cities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  6. Site Monitoring Area Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and roads The spatial location and boundaries for each Site shown on the Site Monitoring Area maps originate from activities conducted under the Compliance Order on Consent with...

  7. Dallas area-wide intelligent transportation system plan. Draft research report, August 1992-August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvell, J.D.; Seymour, E.J.; Walters, C.H.; Starr, T.R.; Balke, K.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the development of a comprehensive plan for implementation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in the Dallas Urban Area. The contract defined objectives: Develop a Broadly Based Steering Committee; Assess Existing Transportation Management Systems and Potential ITS Technology; Identify Institutional Issues and Legal Barriers; Develop an Implementable, Area-Wide Multi-Jurisdictional ITS Plan; and Develop Cost, Benefits, and an Implementation Plan.

  8. Plume Rise and Dispersion of Emissions from Low Level Buoyant Sources in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pournazeri, Sam

    2012-01-01

    M.J. , 2005. Spatial analysis of air pollution and mortalityM.J. , 2005. Spatial analysis of air pollution and mortalityfrom DG units (An analysis of air quality impact of CG

  9. Plume Rise and Dispersion of Emissions from Low Level Buoyant Sources in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pournazeri, Sam

    2012-01-01

    fluid modeling of liquefied natural gas cloud dispersion -fluid modeling of liquefied natural gas cloud dispersion -

  10. Plume Rise and Dispersion of Emissions from Low Level Buoyant Sources in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pournazeri, Sam

    2012-01-01

    in the vertical and crosswind directions, respectively,the standard deviation of crosswind and vertical velocityplume spread in the u 2 crosswind direction at distance x

  11. Visualization of Traffic Flow and Atmospheric Pollutant Flow in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    and air pollutants using polygons and translucent particles. The system is applied for public roads around.transport.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp CCity modelity model Air pollutionAir pollution simsim.. TrafficTraffic simsim.. CCity modelity model Air pollutionAir pollution simsim.. TrafficTraffic simsim.. #12;

  12. Global comparison of VOC and CO observations in urban areas Erika von Schneidemesser a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sources, such as industry and LPG-related sources in non- Annex I countries. Yearly benzene to ethyne of air quality. Certain VOCs are very reactive in the atmosphere (e.g., xylenes and benzene compounds

  13. Plume Rise and Dispersion of Emissions from Low Level Buoyant Sources in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pournazeri, Sam

    2012-01-01

    150 Upstream and Downstreamc, f), both upstream and downstream (d, g). Single storey (with single storey upstream and downstream buildings, and (

  14. Experts of Probabilistic Flow Subspaces for Robust Monocular Odometry in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the following interpretation: Flow fields observed by a forward- facing camera in a car moving through related to the movement of the observing platform. The approach has the additional ad- vantage

  15. Development of Atmospheric Tracer Methods To Measure Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Facilities and Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1995-01-01

    to coal and 30% less compared to fuel oil, switching fromcoal and fuel oil to natural gas has the potential to reducehydrocarbon emissions from an oil refinery wastewater

  16. Mapping urban forest leaf area index with airborne lidar using penetration metrics and allometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bookhagen, Bodo

    and transpiration (Chen, Rich, Gower, Norman, & Plummer, 1997). In addi- tion, dry depositional uptake building cooling costs. At the sa

  17. 1 Introduction Residential segregation in urban areas has been studied extensively by scientists from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meron, Ehud

    neighbourhoods Hezi Yizhaq Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institute of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben and perceptions. Behavioural models emphasize household characteristics affecting such choices, like the age

  18. Plume Rise and Dispersion of Emissions from Low Level Buoyant Sources in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pournazeri, Sam

    2012-01-01

    dispersion at Ostiglia power station. Atmos. Environ. 8 (Northfleet and Tilbury power stations. Atmos. Environ. , 1,Tilbury and Northfleet power station resembling an isolated

  19. A robust motion planning approach for autonomous driving in urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiore, Gaston A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents an improved sampling-based motion planning algorithm, Robust RRT, that is designed specifically for large robotic vehicles and uncertain, dynamic environments. Five main extensions have been made to ...

  20. Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of insulators in winter due to road salt. We have started a research project at Arizona State University that is being funded through an industry-utility-university consortium PSERC, Power Sytems Engineering Research Center. Rest assured, we are not trying to reproduce winter conditions in Sunny Arizona, rather, we

  1. Challenges and strategies for increasing adoption of small wind turbines in urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrigno, Kevin J. (Kevin James)

    2010-01-01

    A student group at MIT in cooperation with the MIT Department of Facilities is currently working to install a Skystream 3.7 wind turbine on MIT's campus. This has raised several questions about how to best develop small ...

  2. Inhalation of primary motor vehicle emissions: Effects of urban population and land area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-01-01

    and inhalation of motor vehicle emissions JD Marshall et al.pollutants: motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast AirAn on-road motor vehicle emissions inventory for Denver: an

  3. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2006-01-01

    in California light-duty vehicle emissions. Environmentalload on motor vehicle emissions. Environmental Science andpollutants: motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast Air

  4. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, J D; McKone, T E; Deakin, E; Nazaroff, William W

    2005-01-01

    and inhalation of motor vehicle emissions JD Marshall et al.pollutants: motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast Airand inhalation of motor vehicle emissions JD Marshall et al.

  5. Core Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Urban, Et Al., 1987) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company)| Open(Evans,Oregon: EnergyInformationOpen1988) | OpenOpen

  6. Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FY 2007Traffic Congestion, 2011 | Department of

  7. Novel materials for Li-ion batteries is one of the principle thrust areas of current research in energy storage. One of the major limiting factors in a Li-ion battery's performance is the low specific capacities of the active

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in energy storage. One of the major limiting factors in a Li-ion battery's performance is the low specific capacities of the active materials in the electrodes. Anode materials based on silicon have generated much interest of late. Both cubic and amorphous silicon can reversibly alloy with lithium and have a theoretical

  8. Geothermal br Resource br Area Geothermal br Resource br Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Central Nevada Seismic Zone Pull Apart in Strike Slip Fault Zone Ordovician shale quartzite MW K Blue Mountain Geothermal Area Blue Mountain Geothermal Area Northwest...

  9. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Energy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and their Mitigation: A

  10. Biomass, Carbon Sequestration, and Avoided Emissions:  Assessing the Role of Urban Trees in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat threat rank, using urban heat island and climateProtection Agency. 2013. Heat Island Impacts. http://threat rank, using urban heat island and climate data. % of

  11. Effects of temperature and fertilization on nitrogen cycling and community composition of an urban lawn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIJOOR, NEETAS; CZIMCZIK, CLAUDIAI; PATAKI, DIANEE; BILLINGS, SHARONA

    2008-01-01

    change and the urban heat island effect (Arnfield, 2003) maychange as well as the urban heat island effect may result inland cover, the urban heat island effect as well as climate

  12. Cave and City: A Procedural Reconstruction of the Urban Topography of Magnesia on the Maeander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldana, Marie

    2015-01-01

    P. (2001). The Historical Topography of Ephesos. In UrbanismReconstruction of the Urban Topography of Magnesia on theReconstruction of the Urban Topography of Magnesia on the

  13. Vertical Village : towards a new typology of high-density low-income urban housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, Caleb Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Apocalyptic global urbanization is old news. For generations statistically supported oracles have warned against the rising tide of rapid urban growth, one must only casually search the keywords "urban slum" on Goggle to ...

  14. Prfungsordnung der Universitt Stuttgart fr den Masterstudiengang Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyle, Uwe

    Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design beschlossen. Der Rektor der Universität Stuttgart hat dieser die Modulprüfungen. #12;2 Präambel Der Masterstudiengang Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design1 Prüfungsordnung der Universität Stuttgart für den Masterstudiengang Integrated Urbanism

  15. TITLE: Cornell's Urban Sustainability Initiatives HOST: Marianne Krasny, Helene Dillard and Marvin Pritts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    TITLE: Cornell's Urban Sustainability Initiatives HOST: Marianne Krasny, Helene Dillard and Marvin take to define an urban sustainability initiative in collaboration with ACSF. In particular, we broadly address urban sustainability issues. Our initiative dovetails with concerns Cornell University

  16. Rail + Property Development: A model of sustainable transit finance and urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert; Murakami, Jin

    2008-01-01

    Development and Sustainable Urbanism While R+P projects arehigh-quality and sustainable urbanism is an important by-A model of sustainable transit finance and urbanism Robert

  17. Urbanism and/or Architecture: Toward a Theory of Norm and Scale [Awards Juror Commentaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelbaugh, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    consequences of our architecture and urbanism, or natureable to premiate good architecture and good urbanism in theUrbanism and/or Architecture: Toward a Theory of Norm and

  18. Smart Beijing: Correlation of Urban Electrical Energy Consumption with Urban Environmental Sensing for Optimizing Distribution Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beigl, Michael

    parameters (air quality, noise pollution, traffic levels, water quality, etc.) in a distributed manner and create anomolies in pollution levels in specific locations, such as sporting events, rallies and fairs pollution and a series of other social problems. The urban electrical energy development has also been

  19. Cleanly -Trashducation Urban System Half the world's population is expected to live in urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production Rued Langgaards Vej 7, DK-2300, Denmark jdhr@itu.dk Katerina Poteriaykina University of Haifa to address it. The CHI com- munity has looked into related solutions to create awareness about the energy

  20. Report of Research Center for Urban Safety and Security, Kobe University Surface fault associated with the 2010 Darfield earthquake and disasters by the 2011 Christchurch earthquake,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    earthquakes around the Bungo Channel area and its implication for seismic hazard assessment Hitoshi HiroseReport of Research Center for Urban Safety and Security, Kobe University No. 18 Contents Surface and boundary condition between wharf and earth retaining on the seismic performance of pile supported wharves

  1. Converting urban tree maintenance residue to energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, W.K.; Massey, J.G.; Sumrall, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three methods of utilizing urban wood waste collected by a tree maintenance firm in Houston, Texas (handling 30,000 ton waste/year) are examined: (a) hauling to a remote landfill; (b) chipping and hauling to a (local) power plant and converting to electricity; and (c) chipping and selling to an outside firm for use as boiler fuel. Breakdown of costs are given for each method in monetary and energy terms. Method (b) was the cheapest, producing a net energy gain (870 million Btu/day), but the firm chose method (c), since it realized a direct monetary return.

  2. DURA URBAN HOUSE | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOEAnalysis,Department of U.S.DURA URBAN HOUSE People from many

  3. DURA URBAN HOUSE | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOEAnalysis,Department of U.S.DURA URBAN HOUSE People from

  4. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow in urban terrain : implications for transport of pollution and heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Long

    2011-01-01

    such as the urban heat island and increase in urban energyloads and the urban heat island-the effects of albedo,modeling of urban heat islands. Final report prepared by

  5. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow in urban terrain : implications for transport of pollution and heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Long

    2011-01-01

    loads and the urban heat island-the effects of albedo,modeling of urban heat islands. Final report prepared byeffects such as the urban heat island and increase in urban

  6. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow in urban terrain : implications for transport of pollution and heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Long

    2011-01-01

    loads and the urban heat island-the effects of albedo,modeling of urban heat islands. Final report prepared byespecially the urban heat island (UHI) and urban air

  7. Coping with urban water shortages during drought: the effects of legal and administrative factors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziegielewski, B.; Ferrell-Dillard, R.; Beck, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    The study describes the results of a survey of 547 local water supply systems serving some 31 million residents of urban areas in the states of Alabama, California, Florida, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Wyoming. While examining the legal and administrative aspects of drought management, the survey also included the assessment of the current status of drought preparedness and long-term drought protection among the responding water supply systems. The rate of legal or administrative problems encountered during drought response was surprisingly low, affecting only twenty percent of all implementing systems. The low incidence of difficulties counters a widespread assumption that the legal environment frequently restrains or constricts drought response efforts.

  8. A Web Based Geographic Information Platform to Support Urban Adaptation to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, Philip J; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Parish, Esther S; Mei, Rui; Ernst, Kathleen M; Absar, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    The urban climate is changing rapidly. Therefore, climate change and its projected impacts on environmental conditions must be considered in assessing and comparing urban planning alternatives. In this paper, we present an integrated framework for urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT) that will help cities to plan for, rather than react to, possible risks. Urban-CAT will be developed as a scenario planning tool that is locally relevant to existing urban decision-making processes.

  9. Impacts of urban transportation mode split on CO{sub 2} emissions in Jinan, China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, D.; Meng, F.; Wang, M.; He, K.

    2011-04-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation - in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China's Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU) case), then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions - approximately 50% of the BAU scenario emissions.

  10. Neutron Science Research Areas | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home | Science & Discovery | Neutron Science | Research Areas SHARE Research Areas Neutron scattering research at ORNL covers four broad research areas: biology and soft...

  11. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    and urban areas can take into account both energy efficiencyurban planning to limit heat island effect. Considering energy efficiency

  12. Specters in the Sand: The Urban Hauntings in Alicia Gaspar de Alba’s Desert Blood: The Juárez Murders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocegueda, Isela

    2008-01-01

    Specters in the Sand: The Urban Hauntings in Alicia Gasparentitled “Specters in the Sand: The Urban Hauntings in

  13. Development and Pilot Application of the California Urban and Biodiversity Analysis (CURBA) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landis, John D.; Monzon, Juan Pablo; Reilly, Michael; Cogan, Chris

    1998-01-01

    projected urban growth are R o w & Field Crops, Orchards &Urban or Built- up Land Agricultural Land Row and Field Crops Irrigated Hayfield Pasture Orchard

  14. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    saving potentials of heat-island reduction strategies,”Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,

  15. Assessment of MeMS Sensors in an Urban Traffic Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varaiya, Pravin

    2004-01-01

    BERKELEY Assessment of MeMS Sensors in an Urban Traf?cAND HIGHWAYS Assessment of MeMS Sensors in an Urban Traffic

  16. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-11-15

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  17. Sustainable Decentralized Model for Solid Waste Management in Urban India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Sustainable Decentralized Model for Solid Waste Management in Urban India Hita Unnikrishnan, Brunda the sustenance of a decentralized solid waste management system in urban India. Towards this end, two a national legislation ­ the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) rules, 2000 (Ministry

  18. Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

  19. John Accordino Center for Urban and Regional Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    elimination in the Brazilian Amazon Damian Pitt Urban and Regional Studies/Planning L. Douglas Wilder SchoolJohn Accordino Center for Urban and Regional Analysis L. Douglas Wilder School of Government of Government and Public Affairs Optimizing the grid integration of distributed solar energy through smart grid

  20. CARPOOL: Extending Free Internet Access over DTN in Urban Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsaoussidis, Vassilis

    - tolerant access to the Internet for everyone, and (iii) has energy- efficient design that delegates allCARPOOL: Extending Free Internet Access over DTN in Urban Environments Ioannis Komnios and Vassilis-tolerant Internet access to all. Targeting an urban scenario, where means of public transport, such as buses

  1. Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

  2. Main Campus Urban Forest and Landscape Management Policy Policy Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Main Campus Urban Forest and Landscape Management Policy Policy Statement: Clemson University and recreation. This Main Campus Urban Forest and Landscape Management Policy enables that commitment through procedures and requirements for achieving the purpose of this policy and its implementation ("Main Campus

  3. Interactive Urban Development Control with Collaborative Virtual Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Hamish

    a collaborative virtual environment system can be constructed, applied and used in the context of urban planning medium that also allows interactions with 3D representations of the environment being worked onInteractive Urban Development Control with Collaborative Virtual Environments Tina Manoharana

  4. Urban Pollution Control Strategies Reading: pages 422-437

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500 Urban Pollution Control Strategies Reading: pages 422-437 Details to come #12;#12;Urban Pollution Control Strategies What we know so far: · Different regions have different issues, but two types, warm, NOx, HCs, ozone, CO) · Pollution is made worse by meteorological conditions called "inversions

  5. Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment Jim Halliday, Alan Ruddell, Jane;Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment Tyndall Centre Technical Report No. 32 efficiencies, and therefore reduced CO2 emissions, compared to conventional centralised generation. Fuel cell

  6. Sediment management in sustainable urban drainage system ponds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sediment management in sustainable urban drainage system ponds K.V. Heal*, D.A. Hepburn** and R.lunn@strath.ac.uk) Abstract Since removal and disposal of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) sediment can incur high maintenance costs, assessments of sediment volumes, quality and frequency of removal are required. Sediment

  7. Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences of Aerodynamics and Debris Laboratory University of Notre Dame The Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences east of the city of Houston. Initial reconnaissance suggested that the observed glass/cladding damage

  8. Urban logistics pooling viabililty analysis via a multicriteria multiactor method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Urban logistics pooling viabililty analysis via a multicriteria multiactor method Jesus Gonzalez transportation and logistics pooling are relatively new concepts in research, but are very popular in practice. In the last years, collaborative transportation seems a good city logistics alternative to classical urban

  9. Urban Land Use and Transportation Center University of California, Davis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Urban Land Use and Transportation Center University of California, Davis The Urban Land Use and Transportation Center (ULTRANS) at the UC Davis Institute of Transportation Studies (ITS-Davis) is tackling-Davis researchers have provided strong input to the design and analysis of the entire array of California's proposed

  10. Approaching Urban Disaster Reality: The ResQ Firesimulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebel, Bernhard

    on a realistic physical model of heat development and heat transport in urban fires. It allows to simulate threeApproaching Urban Disaster Reality: The ResQ Firesimulator Timo A. N¨ussle, Alexander Kleiner different ways of heat transport (radiation, convection, direct transport) and the influence of wind

  11. AN URBAN SURFACE EXCHANGE PARAMETERISATION FOR MESOSCALE MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN URBAN SURFACE EXCHANGE PARAMETERISATION FOR MESOSCALE MODELS ALBERTO MARTILLI1, , ALAIN CLAPPIER. A scheme to represent the impact of urban buildings on airflow in mesoscale atmospheric models is presented the presence of the buildings. The parameterisation is introduced into a mesoscale model and tested

  12. Transferred metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices The evaporation of metal-film gate electrodes for top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) limits the...

  13. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  14. Geographic Area Month

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Fuels by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate a No. 4 Fuel b Sales to End Users Sales for...

  15. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  16. Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

  17. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations.

  18. Gas Sampling At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP)EnergyWith

  19. Gas Sampling At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP)EnergyWith(Redirected

  20. Geophysical Method At Raft River Geothermal Area (1975) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway1997) | OpenRaft riverArea,