National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for uranium oxide lb

  1. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  2. Effect of ammonia plasma treatment on graphene oxide LB monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Gulbagh; Botcha, V. Divakar; Narayanam, Pavan K.; Sutar, D. S.; Talwar, S. S.; Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2013-02-05

    Graphene oxide monolayer sheets were transferred on Si and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and were exposed to ammonia plasma at room temperature. The monolayer character of both graphene oxide and plasma treated graphene oxide sheets were ascertained by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ammonia plasma treatment results in enhancement of graphitic carbon content along with the incorporation of nitrogen. The conductivity of graphene oxide monolayers, which was in the range of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} S/cm, increased to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} S/cm after the ammonia plasma treatment. These results indicate that the graphene oxide was simultaneously reduced and N-doped during ammonia plasma treatment, without affecting the morphological stability of sheets.

  3. Method for fluorination of uranium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

  4. Standard test method for determination of uranium or gadolinium (or both) in gadolinium oxide-uranium oxide pellets or by X-ray fluorescence (XRF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    Standard test method for determination of uranium or gadolinium (or both) in gadolinium oxide-uranium oxide pellets or by X-ray fluorescence (XRF)

  5. Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-23

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

  6. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  7. Pentavalent Uranium Chemistry - Synthetic Pursuit Of A Rare Oxidation State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, Christopher R; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2009-01-01

    This feature article presents a comprehensive overview of pentavalent uranium systems in non-aqueous solution with a focus on the various synthetic avenues employed to access this unusual and very important oxidation state. Selected characterization data and theoretical aspects are also included. The purpose is to provide a perspective on this rapidly evolving field and identify new possibilities for future developments in pentavalent uranium chemistry.

  8. Acoustic Measurements of the Elastic Properties and Quality of Plutonium and Uranium Based Oxide Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acoustic Measurements of the Elastic Properties and Quality of Plutonium and Uranium Based Oxide ranged from depleted uranium oxide to mixtures of plutonium and depleted uranium oxide (MOX) and mixed.8Pu0.2 92 121 152.6 63.3 281Plutonium Futures -- The Science 2010, September 19-23, 2010, Keystone, CO

  9. CRAD, Management- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Management program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  10. CRAD, Training- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Training Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  11. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  13. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    1 Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred.byu.edu ABSTRACT We present the measured reflectances (beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface

  14. Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

  15. Small cell experiments for electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides to uranium metal using fluoride salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Adcock, P.W.; Coroneos, A.C.; Hendrix, D.E. )

    1994-08-01

    Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide was proposed for the preparation of uranium metal feed for the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. A laboratory cell of 25-cm ID was operated to obtain additional information in areas important to design and operation of a pilot plant cell. Reproducible test results and useful operating and control procedures were demonstrated. About 20 kg of uranium metal of acceptable purity were prepared. A good supply of dissolved UO[sub 2] feed at the anode is the most important controlling requirement for efficient cell operation. A large fraction of the cell current is nonproductive in that it does not produce a metal product nor consume carbon anodes. All useful test conditions gave some reduction of UF[sub 4] to produce CF[sub 4] in addition to the reduction of UO[sub 2], but the fraction of metal from the reduction of UF[sub 4] can be decreased by increasing the concentration of dissolved UO[sub 2]. Operation of large continuous cells would probably be limited to current efficiencies of less than 60 pct, and more than 20 pct of the metal would result from the reduction of UF[sub 4].

  16. Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

  17. Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-07-08

    Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3·2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21°C and 50°C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004±0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21°C than the particles prepared at 50°C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

  19. Oxidation behaviour of uranium and neptunium in stabilised zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, Marcus; Somers, Joseph; Bouexiere, Daniel; Gaczynski, Piotr; Brendebach, Boris

    2009-12-15

    Yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) based (Zr,Y,U)O{sub 2-x} and (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} solid solutions with 6 and 20 mol% actinide were prepared with Y/Zr ratios ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 to investigate uranium and neptunium oxidation behaviour depending on the oxygen vacancies in the defect fluorite lattice. Sintering at 1600 deg. C in Ar/H{sub 2} yields a cubic, fluorite-type structure with U(IV) and Np(IV). Annealing (Zr,Y,U)O{sub 2-x} with Y/Zr=0.2 at 800 deg. C in air results in a tetragonal phase, whereas (Zr,Y,U)O{sub 2-x} with higher Y/Zr ratios and (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} retain the cubic structure. XANES and O/M measurements indicate mixed U(V)-U(VI) and Np(IV)-Np(V) oxidation states after oxidation. Based on X-ray diffraction, O/M and EXAFS measurements, different oxidation mechanisms are identified for U- and Np-doped stabilised zirconia. In contrast to U, excess oxygen vacancies are needed to oxidise Np in (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} as the oxidation process competes with Zr for oxygen vacancies. As a consequence, U(VI) and Np(V) can only be obtained in stabilised zirconia with Y/Zr=1 but not in YSZ with Y/Zr=0.2. - Graphical abstract: The O/U ratio in oxidised (Zr,Y,U)O{sub 2-x} depends on the Y/U ratio, whereas O/Np in (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} correlates with the Y/(Zr+Np) ratio. This indicates that both Zr and Np compete for oxygen vacancies, which hinders the Np oxidation at low Y/Zr ratios. Display Omitted

  20. A comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crist, Kevin Craig

    1983-01-01

    qain inf'ormai. ion on the human risk associated with the inhalation of uranium oxide particles produced when firing anti-tank shells called penetrators, The penetrators are formed from uranium metal rods produced from a raw st'ock of uranium...A CUMRARISON Ul 1MD LUNG CLLARANCE MODEl S BASED ON THE OISSOLLlTION RA1FS OF OXIDIZED DErIETED URANIUM A The" is KEVIN CRAIG CRIST Submitt. ed to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas A 8 M University in parti a1 fu1fi 1 1men t of the requirement...

  1. Incorporation of oxidized uranium into Fe (hydr)oxides during Fe(II) catalyzed remineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nico, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    B. M. ; Geesey, G. G. Uranium complexes formed at hematiteheterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation fieldL. R. In-situ evidence for uranium immobilization and

  2. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  3. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site;...

  4. The influence of surface morphology and oxide microstructure on the nucleation and growth of uranium hydride on alpha uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.

    1998-12-31

    While the bulk kinetics of the uranium-hydrogen reaction are well understood, the mechanisms underlying the initial nucleation of uranium hydride on uranium remain controversial. In this study, the authors have employed environmental cell optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy, (AFM) in an attempt to relate the structure of the surface and the microstructure of the substrate with the susceptibility and site of hydride nucleation. Samples have been investigated with varying grain size, inclusion (carbide) concentration, and thermal history. There is a clear correlation to heat treatment immediately prior to hydrogen exposure. Susceptibility to hydride formation also appears to be related to impurities in the uranium. The oxidized surface is very complex, exhibiting wide variations in thickness and topography between samples, between grains in the same sample, and within individual grains. It is, however, very difficult to relate this fine scale variability to the relatively sparse hydride initiation sites. Therefore, the surface oxide layer itself does not appear to control the sites where hydride attack is initiated, although it must play a role in the induction period prior to hydride initiation.

  5. Incorporation of oxidized uranium into Fe (hydr)oxides during Fe(II) catalyzed remineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nico, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium isotopic evidence for the origin of the Bahariya iron deposits,U deposit, and the DOE Oak Ridge site (where uranium bearingdeposits, mining activities, and nuclear weapons production. Uranium

  6. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  7. Oxidation behavior and segregation of uranium in the intermetallic compound UFe/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erbudak, M.; Stucki, F.

    1985-08-15

    Ion scattering and Auger-electron spectroscopies show that there is a large segregation of uranium at the surface of UFe/sub 2/. Adsorbed oxygen reacts only with this uranium and forms a stable oxide layer at the surface, which prevents further oxygen diffusing into the solid. As a result of this process, the iron remains in metallic form even after prolonged oxygen exposures.

  8. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. U.S. Forward-Cost Uranium Reserves by State, Year-End 2008 State 50lb 100lb Ore (million tons) Gradea (%) U3O8 (million lbs) Ore (million tons) Gradea (%) U3O8 (million lbs)...

  9. Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Miller, Philip E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction.

  10. Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1997-12-16

    A method is described for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction. 3 figs.

  11. CRAD, Emergency Management- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Emergency Management program at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  12. CRAD, DOE Oversight- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a DOE independent oversight assessment of the Y-12 Site Office's programs for oversight of its contractors at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  13. CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January, 2005 assessment of Conduct of Operations program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  14. CRAD, Safety Basis- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Safety Basis at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  15. CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Industrial Safety and Industrial Health programs at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  16. CRAD, Environmental Protection- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Environmental Compliance program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  17. CRAD, Radiological Controls- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  18. EIS-0089: PUREX Plant and Uranium Oxide Plant Facilities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of resumption of operations of the PUREX/Uranium Oxide facilities at the Hanford Site to produce plutonium and other special nuclear materials for national defense needs.

  19. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Kayo [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan)] [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan); Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)] [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  20. Stability of uranium incorporated into Fe(hydr)oxides under fluctuating redox conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    for Bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers withReoxidation of bioreduced uranium under reducing conditions.Komlos, J. ; Jaffe, P. R. Uranium reoxidation in previously

  1. Influence of uranyl speciation and iron oxides on uranium biogeochemical redox reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, B.D.; Amos, R.T.; Nico, P.S.; Fendorf, S.

    2010-03-15

    Uranium is a pollutant of concern to both human and ecosystem health. Uranium's redox state often dictates its partitioning between the aqueous- and solid-phases, and thus controls its dissolved concentration and, coupled with groundwater flow, its migration within the environment. In anaerobic environments, the more oxidized and mobile form of uranium (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and associated species) may be reduced, directly or indirectly, by microorganisms to U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO{sub 2}. However, various factors within soils and sediments may limit biological reduction of U(VI), inclusive of alterations in U(VI) speciation and competitive electron acceptors. Here we elucidate the impact of U(VI) speciation on the extent and rate of reduction with specific emphasis on speciation changes induced by dissolved Ca, and we examine the impact of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite and hematite) varying in free energies of formation on U reduction. The amount of uranium removed from solution during 100 h of incubation with S. putrefaciens was 77% with no Ca or ferrihydrite present but only 24% (with ferrihydrite) and 14% (no ferrihydrite) were removed for systems with 0.8 mM Ca. Imparting an important criterion on uranium reduction, goethite and hematite decrease the dissolved concentration of calcium through adsorption and thus tend to diminish the effect of calcium on uranium reduction. Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) can proceed through different enzyme pathways, even within a single organism, thus providing a potential second means by which Fe(III) bearing minerals may impact U(VI) reduction. We quantify rate coefficients for simultaneous dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) in systems varying in Ca concentration (0 to 0.8 mM), and using a mathematical construct implemented with the reactive transport code MIN3P, we reveal the predominant influence of uranyl speciation, specifically the formation of uranyl-calcium-carbonato complexes, and ferrihydrite on the rate and extent of uranium reduction in complex geochemical systems.

  2. Stability of uranium incorporated into Fe(hydr)oxides under fluctuating redox conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Northern Australia -Uranium isotopic evidence for the origin of the Bahariya iron deposits,

  3. Uranium Immobilization through Fe(II) bio-oxidation: A Column study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, John D.

    2009-09-14

    Current research on the bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides is focused on the ability of reducing organisms to use these metals as alternative electron acceptors in the absence of oxygen and thus precipitate them out of solution. However, many aspects of this proposed scheme need to be resolved, not the least of which is the time frame of the treatment process. Once treatment is complete and the electron donor addition is halted, the system will ultimately revert back to an oxic state and potentially result in the abiotic reoxidation and remobilization of the immobilized metals. In addition, the possibility exists that the presence of more electropositive electron acceptors such as nitrate or oxygen will also stimulate the biological oxidation and remobilization of these contaminants. The selective nitrate-dependent biooxidation of added Fe(II) may offer an effective means of “capping off” and completing the attenuation of these contaminants in a reducing environment making the contaminants less accessible to abiotic and biotic reactions and allowing the system to naturally revert to an oxic state. Our previous DOE-NABIR funded studies demonstrated that radionuclides such as uranium and cobalt are rapidly removed from solution during the biogenic formation of Fe(III)-oxides. In the case of uranium, X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicated that the uranium was in the hexavalent form (normally soluble) and was bound to the precipitated Fe(III)-oxides thus demonstrating the bioremediative potential of this process. We also demonstrated that nitrate-dependent Fe(II)- oxidizing bacteria are prevalent in the sediment and groundwater samples collected from sites 1 and 2 and the background site of the NABIR FRC in Oakridge, TN. However, all of these studies were performed in batch experiments in the laboratory with pure cultures and although a significant amount was learned about the microbiology of nitrate-dependent bio-oxidation of Fe(II), the effects of complex processes (such as advective flow) present in the natural environment are unknown. The objective of the current studies was to address some of these short-comings in an attempt to develop this bioremediative strategy into a robust, field applicable technology. This objective was approached by both pure culture studies investigating the mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation by nitrate reducing bacteria and examining the flow dynamics and microbial processes in advective flow columns amended with Fe(II) and nitrate over an extended period.

  4. Stability of uranium incorporated into Fe(hydr)oxides under fluctuating redox conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    uranium deposit, Northern Australia - Lessons from the Alligator Rivers analogue project. Physics and Chemistry

  5. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degueldre, Claude Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O? lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg?¹) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (~0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am³? species within an [AmO?]¹³? coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix. - Graphical abstract: Americium LIII XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 ?m×300 ?m beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO? matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am³? face an AmO?¹³?coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O? matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix.

  6. Apparatus and process for the electrolytic reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poa, David S. (Naperville, IL); Burris, Leslie (Naperville, IL); Steunenberg, Robert K. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for reducing uranium and/or plutonium oxides to produce a solid, high-purity metal. The apparatus is an electrolyte cell consisting of a first container, and a smaller second container within the first container. An electrolyte fills both containers, the level of the electrolyte in the first container being above the top of the second container so that the electrolyte can be circulated between the containers. The anode is positioned in the first container while the cathode is located in the second container. Means are provided for passing an inert gas into the electrolyte near the lower end of the anode to sparge the electrolyte and to remove gases which form on the anode during the reduction operation. Means are also provided for mixing and stirring the electrolyte in the first container to solubilize the metal oxide in the electrolyte and to transport the electrolyte containing dissolved oxide into contact with the cathode in the second container. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal product so that the metal forms as a solid on the cathode.

  7. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  8. Detailed Destructive Post-Irradiation Examinations of Mixed Uranium and Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delashmitt, Jeffrey {Jeff} S [ORNL; Keever, Tamara {Tammy} Jo [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL] [ORNL; Hexel, Cole R [ORNL] [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is pursuing disposal of surplus weapons-usable plutonium by reactor irradiation as the fissile constituent of MOX fuel. Lead test assemblies (LTAs) have been irradiated for approximately 36 months in Duke Energy's Catawba-1 nuclear power plant (NPP). Per the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel topical report, approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) are to be performed on second cycle rods (irradiated to an average burnup of approximately 45 GWd/MTHM). The Radiochemical Analysis Group (RAG) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently performing the detailed destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIE) on four of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuel rods. The analytical process involves dissolution of designated fuel segments in a shielded hot cell for high precision quantification of select fission products and actinide isotopes employing isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) among other analyses. The hot cell dissolution protocol to include the collection and subsequent alkaline fusion digestion of the fuel's acid resistant metallic particulates will be presented. Although the IDMS measurements of the fission products and actinide isotopes will not be completed by the time of the 51st INMM meeting, the setup and testing of the HPLC chromatographic separations in preparation for these measurements will be discussed.

  9. Bacterial influence on uranium oxidation reduction reactions : implications for environmental remediation and isotopic composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Lisa Maureen

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial influence on the chemistry and speciation of uranium has some important impacts on the environment, and can be exploited usefully for the purposes of environmental remediation of uranium waste contamination. ...

  10. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  11. Molecular uranates - laser synthesis of uranium oxide anions in the gas phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcalo, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    readily from solutions of uranyl salts by reaction withstate of the uranium, a uranyl moiety may or may not be

  12. Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

  13. THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rosa Lu.

    2010-01-01

    Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

  14. ELECTRONIC SOLUTION SPECTRA FOR URANIUM AND NEPTUNIUM IN OXIDATION STATES (III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baluka, M.; Edelstein, N.; O'Donnell, T. A.

    1980-10-01

    Spectra have been recorded for solutions in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) of uranium and neptunium in oxidation states (III) to (VI). The spectra for U(III), Np(III) and Np(IV) in AHF are very similar to those in acidified aqueous solution, but that for U(IV) suggests that the cationic species is UF{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The AHF spectra for the elements in oxidation states (V) and (VI) are not comparable with those of the formally analogous aqueous solutions, where the elements exist as well-defined dioxo-cations. However, the AHF spectra can be related to spectra in the gas phase, in the solid state or in non-aqueous solvents for each element in its appropriate oxidation state.

  15. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  16. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2Omore »and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.« less

  17. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, Brian J; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-10-01

    In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

  18. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  19. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  20. DISSOLUTION OF METAL OXIDES AND SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM LANTHANIDES AND ACTINIDES IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO2 modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO2 and counter current stripping columns is presented.

  1. CRAD, Criticality Safety- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Criticality Safety program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Facility.

  2. Dissolution of metal oxides and separation of uranium from lanthanides and actinides in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quach, D.L.; Wai, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Mincher, B.J. [Idaho National Lab, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO{sub 2} and counter current stripping columns is presented. (authors)

  3. Characterization of a novel angular dioxygenase from fluorene-degrading1 Sphingomonas sp. strain LB1262

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Characterization of a novel angular dioxygenase from fluorene-degrading1 Sphingomonas sp. strain;2 ABSTRACT26 In this study, the genes involved in the initial attack on fluorene by Sphingomonas sp. LB12627 for the angular oxidation of fluorene, fluorenol, fluorenone,31 dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin. Moreover, FlnA1

  4. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  5. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and empty) currently stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Portsmouth; construction of a new cylinder storage yard at Portsmouth (if required) for ETTP cylinders; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) produced as a conversion coproduct; and neutralization of HF to calcium fluoride and its sale or disposal in the event that the HF product is not sold.

  6. Theoretical modeling of the uranium 4f XPS for U(VI) and U(IV) oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Constance J.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2013-12-28

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and in particular the U4f level, has been widely used to elucidate the chemical state of uranium in various materials. In large part, previous experimental work has relied on comparing the U4f spectra of an unknown to some “standard” or using qualitative intuitive judgments on the expected behavior of the primary lines and satellite structures as a function of oxidation state and bonding environment. Such approaches are useful and can be sufficiently robust to make defensible claims. Nonetheless, there is no quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics that control satellite structures or even the shape of the primary peaks. To address this issue, we used a rigorous, strictly ab initio theoretical approach to investigate the U(4f) XPS of U oxides with formal U(VI) and U(IV) oxidation states. Our theoretical studies are based on the electronic structures of embedded cluster models, where bonding between U and O is explicitly incorporated. We demonstrate that treatment of the many-body character of the cluster wavefunctions is essential to correctly model and interpret the U4f XPS. Here we definitively show that shake configurations, where an electron is transferred from a dominantly O2p bonding orbital into dominantly 5f or 6d antibonding orbitals, are indeed responsible for the major satellite features. Based on this rigorous theoretical framework, it is possible to establish quantitative relationships between features of the XPS spectra and the chemistry of the material.

  7. Efficacy of a Solution-Based Approach for Making Sodalite Waste Forms for an Oxide Reduction Salt Utilized in the Reprocessing of Used Uranium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyas, Josef; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes various approaches for making sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to recover uranium from used oxide fuel. The approaches include sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt.

  8. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  9. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  10. A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

    2013-03-01

    Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.

  11. INFORMATION: Management Alert on Environmental Management's Select Strategy for Disposition of Savannah River Site Depleted Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-04-01

    The Administration and the Congress, through policy statements and passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), have signaled that they hope that proactive actions by agency Inspectors General will help ensure that Federal Recovery Act activities are transparent, effective and efficient. In that context, the purpose of this management alert is to share with you concerns that have been raised to the Office of Inspector General regarding the planned disposition of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) inventory of Depleted Uranium (DU) oxides. This inventory, generated as a by-product of the nuclear weapons production process and amounting to approximately 15,600 drums of DU oxides, has been stored at SRS for decades. A Department source we deem reliable and credible recently came to the Office of Inspector General expressing concern that imminent actions are planned that may not provide for the most cost effective disposition of these materials. During April 2009, the Department chose to use funds provided under the Recovery Act to accelerate final disposition of the SRS inventory of DU oxides. After coordination with State of Utah regulators, elected officials and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department initiated a campaign to ship the material to a facility operated by EnergySolutions in Clive, Utah. Although one shipment of a portion of the material has already been sent to the EnergySolutions facility, the majority of the product remains at SRS. As had been planned, both for the shipment already made and those planned in the near term, the EnergySolutions facility was to have been the final disposal location for the material. Recently, a member of Congress and various Utah State officials raised questions regarding the radioactive and other constituents present in the DU oxides to be disposed of at the Clive, Utah, facility. These concerns revolved around the characterization of the material and its acceptability under existing licensing criteria. As a consequence, the Governor of Utah met with Department officials to voice concerns regarding further shipments of the material and to seek return of the initial shipment of DU oxides to SRS. Utah's objections and the Department's agreement to accede to the State's demands effectively prohibit the transfer of the remaining material from South Carolina to Utah. In response, the Department evaluated its options and issued a draft decision paper on March 1, 2010, which outlined an alternative for temporary storage until the final disposition issue could be resolved. Under the terms of the proposed option, the remaining shipments from SRS are to be sent on an interim basis to a facility owned by Waste Control Specialists (WCS) in Andrews, Texas. Clearly, this choice carries with it a number of significant logistical burdens, including substantial additional costs for, among several items, repackaging at SRS, transportation to Texas, storage at the interim site, and, repackaging and transportation to the yet-to-be-determined final disposition point. The Department source expressed the concern that the proposal to store the material on an interim basis in Texas was inefficient and unnecessary, asserting: (1) that the materials could remain at SRS until a final disposition path is identified, and that this could be done safely, securely and cost effectively; and, (2) that the nature of the material was not subject to existing compliance agreements with the State of South Carolina, suggesting the viability of keeping the material in storage at SRS until a permanent disposal site is definitively established. We noted that, while the Department's decision paper referred to 'numerous project and programmatic factors that make it impractical to retain the remaining inventory at Savannah River,' it did not outline the specific issues involved nor did it provide any substantive economic or environmental analysis supporting the need for the planned interim storage action. The only apparent driver in this case was a Recovery Act-related goal esta

  12. Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium--Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Y.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides computational results of an extensive study to examine the following: (1) infinite media neutron-multiplication factors; (2) material bucklings; (3) bounding infinite media critical concentrations; (4) bounding finite critical dimensions of water-reflected and homogeneously water-moderated one-dimensional systems (i.e., spheres, cylinders of infinite length, and slabs that are infinite in two dimensions) that were comprised of various proportions and densities of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides, each having various isotopic compositions; and (5) sensitivity coefficients of delta k-eff with respect to critical geometry delta dimensions were determined for each of the three geometries that were studied. The study was undertaken to support the development of a standard that is sponsored by the International Standards Organization (ISO) under Technical Committee 85, Nuclear Energy (TC 85)--Subcommittee 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology (SC 5)--Working Group 8, Standardization of Calculations, Procedures and Practices Related to Criticality Safety (WG 8). The designation and title of the ISO TC 85/SC 5/WG 8 standard working draft is WD 14941, ''Nuclear energy--Fissile materials--Nuclear criticality control and safety of plutonium-uranium oxide fuel mixtures outside of reactors.'' Various ISO member participants performed similar computational studies using their indigenous computational codes to provide comparative results for analysis in the development of the standard.

  13. Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milling of Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted from ore with strong acids or bases. The uranium is concentrated in a solid substance called"yellowcake." Chemical Conversion Plants convert the uranium in yellowcake to uranium hexafluoride (UF6 ), a compound that can be made into nuclear fuel. Enrichment

  14. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Identification and properties of the 1 Lb states of pyranine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    studies and electronic structure calculations. Magnetic circu- lar dichroism MCD spectroscopy differs interpre- tations of the short time dynamics for HPTS, including an inversion of electronic states,9 locations of the 1 La and 1 Lb electronic states of pyranine 1-hydroxy-3,6,8-pyrenetrisulfonic acid

  16. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  17. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus FW-101-2B, an Organic Acid-Oxidizing Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Uranium(VI)-Contaminated Groundwater

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramsay, Bradley D.; Hwang, Chiachi; Woo, Hannah L.; Carroll, Sue L.; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; et al

    2015-03-12

    Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus subsp. oakridgensis FW-101-2B is an anaerobic, organic acid/alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing ?-proteobacterium. FW-101-2B was isolated from contaminated groundwater at The Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Lab after in situ stimulation for heavy metal-reducing conditions. The genome will help elucidate the metabolic potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium reduction.

  18. Radical anionic versus neutral 2,2'-bipyridyl coordination in uranium complexes supported by amide and ketimide ligands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaconescu, PL; Cummins, CC

    2015-01-01

    A series of 2,2’-bipyridyl uranium complexes shows that bipyor a neutral ligand such that uranium is in the +4 oxidationBipyridyl Coordination in Uranium Complexes Supported by

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  20. Subsurface Uranium Fate and Transport: Integrated Experiments and Modeling of Coupled Biogeochemical Mechanisms of Nanocrystalline Uraninite Oxidation by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides - Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State University; Timothy, Ginn R. [University of California Davis; Sani, Rajesh K. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

    2013-08-14

    Subsurface bacteria including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO2. We have shown that SRB reduce U(VI) to nanometer-sized UO2 particles (1-5 nm) which are both intra- and extracellular, with UO2 inside the cell likely physically shielded from subsequent oxidation processes. We evaluated the UO2 nanoparticles produced by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 under growth and non-growth conditions in the presence of lactate or pyruvate and sulfate, thiosulfate, or fumarate, using ultrafiltration and HR-TEM. Results showed that a significant mass fraction of bioreduced U (35-60%) existed as a mobile phase when the initial concentration of U(VI) was 160 µM. Further experiments with different initial U(VI) concentrations (25 - 900 ?M) in MTM with PIPES or bicarbonate buffers indicated that aggregation of uraninite depended on the initial concentrations of U(VI) and type of buffer. It is known that under some conditions SRB-mediated UO2 nanocrystals can be reoxidized (and thus remobilized) by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides, common constituents of soils and sediments. To elucidate the mechanism of UO2 reoxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, we studied the impact of Fe and U chelating compounds (citrate, NTA, and EDTA) on reoxidation rates. Experiments were conducted in anaerobic batch systems in PIPES buffer. Results showed EDTA significantly accelerated UO2 reoxidation with an initial rate of 9.5?M day-1 for ferrihydrite. In all cases, bicarbonate increased the rate and extent of UO2 reoxidation with ferrihydrite. The highest rate of UO2 reoxidation occurred when the chelator promoted UO2 and Fe(III) (hydr)oxide dissolution as demonstrated with EDTA. When UO2 dissolution did not occur, UO2 reoxidation likely proceeded through an aqueous Fe(III) intermediate as observed for both NTA and citrate. To complement to these laboratory studies, we collected U-bearing samples from a surface seep at the Rifle field site and have measured elevated U concentrations in oxic iron-rich sediments. To translate experimental results into numerical analysis of U fate and transport, a reaction network was developed based on Sani et al. (2004) to simulate U(VI) bioreduction with concomitant UO2 reoxidation in the presence of hematite or ferrihydrite. The reduction phase considers SRB reduction (using lactate) with the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) solids, which is set to be microbially mediated as well as abiotically driven by sulfide. Model results show the oxidation of HS– by Fe(III) directly competes with UO2 reoxidation as Fe(III) oxidizes HS– preferentially over UO2. The majority of Fe reduction is predicted to be abiotic, with ferrihydrite becoming fully consumed by reaction with sulfide. Predicted total dissolved carbonate concentrations from the degradation of lactate are elevated (log(pCO2) ~ –1) and, in the hematite system, yield close to two orders-of-magnitude higher U(VI) concentrations than under initial carbonate concentrations of 3 mM. Modeling of U(VI) bioreduction with concomitant reoxidation of UO2 in the presence of ferrihydrite was also extended to a two-dimensional field-scale groundwater flow and biogeochemically reactive transport model for the South Oyster site in eastern Virginia. This model was developed to simulate the field-scale immobilization and subsequent reoxidation of U by a biologically mediated reaction network.

  1. Economics of large-scale thorium oxide production: assessment of domestic resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.; Enderlin, W.I.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Drost, M.K.; Weakley, S.A.

    1980-02-01

    The supply curve illustrates that sufficient amounts of thorium exist supply a domestic thorium-reactor economy. Most likely costs of production range from $3 to $60/lb ThO/sub 2/. Near-term thorium oxide resources include the stockpiles in Ohio, Maryland, and Tennessee and the thorite deposits at Hall Mountain, Idaho. Costs are under $10/lb thorium oxide. Longer term economic deposits include Wet Mountain, Colorado; Lemhi Pass, Idaho; and Palmer, Michigan. Most likely costs are under $20/lb thorium oxide. Long-term deposits include Bald Mountain, Wyoming; Bear Lodge, Wyoming; and Conway, New Hampshire. Costs approximately equal or exceed $50/lb thorium oxide.

  2. Uranium industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report provides statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing.

  3. Probing the electronic structures of low oxidation-state uranium fluoride molecules UFx- (x=2-4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei-Li; Hu, Hanshi; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary V.; Su, Jing; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-12-28

    We report the experimental observation of gaseous UFx- (x = 2-4) anions, which are investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy and relativistic quantum chemistry. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for all three species and the electron affinities of UFx (x = 2-4) are measured to be 1.16(3), 1.09(3), and 1.58(3) eV, respectively. Significant multi-electron transitions are observed in the photoelectron spectra of U(5f(3)7s(2)) F-2(-), as a result of strong electron correlation effects of the two 7s electrons. The U-F symmetric stretching vibrational modes are resolved for the ground states of all UFx (x = 2-4) neutrals. Theoretical calculations are performed to qualitatively understand the photoelectron spectra. The entire UFx- and UFx (x = 1-6) series are considered theoretically to examine the trends of U-F bonding and the electron affinities as a function of fluorine coordination. The increased U-F bond lengths and decreased bond orders from UF2- to UF4- indicate that the U-F bonding becomes weaker as the oxidation state of U increases from I to III. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  4. Method for fabricating laminated uranium composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, L.R.

    1983-08-03

    The present invention is directed to a process for fabricating laminated composites of uranium or uranium alloys and at least one other metal or alloy. The laminated composites are fabricated by forming a casting of the molten uranium with the other metal or alloy which is selectively positioned in the casting and then hot-rolling the casting into a laminated plate in or around which the casting components are metallurgically bonded to one another to form the composite. The process of the present invention provides strong metallurgical bonds between the laminate components primarily since the bond disrupting surface oxides on the uranium or uranium alloy float to the surface of the casting to effectively remove the oxides from the bonding surfaces of the components.

  5. Uranium Metal Analysis via Selective Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2008-09-10

    Uranium metal, which is present in sludge held in the Hanford Site K West Basin, can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during sludge handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage operations by its oxidation/corrosion in water. A thorough knowledge of the uranium metal concentration in sludge therefore is essential to successful sludge management and waste process design. The goal of this work was to establish a rapid routine analytical method to determine uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of up to 1000-fold higher total uranium concentrations (i.e., up to 30 wt% and more uranium) for samples to be taken during the upcoming sludge characterization campaign and in future analyses for sludge handling and processing. This report describes the experiments and results obtained in developing the selective dissolution technique to determine uranium metal concentration in K Basin sludge.

  6. High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment S. Yagoubi a,b,c,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svane, Axel Torstein

    High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment and theory S. Yagoubi a, USi3, as well as some non-stoichiometric phases presented in Table 1. Among the thoriumB-type) that a ferromagnetic ordering is reported, with TC = 127 K and a saturated moment of 0.1 lB [3]. Concerning the thorium

  7. OC and LA-LB-SA Merchandise Exports December 2012 ii IEES, California State University Fullerton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    #12;OC and LA-LB-SA Merchandise Exports December 2012 ii IEES, California State University Exports By Mira Farka, Ph.D. Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph.D. December 2012 California State University Fullerton © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES) #12;OC and LA-LB-SA Merchandise Exports December

  8. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  9. Uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This book presents the GAO's views on the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to develop a new uranium enrichment technology, the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process (AVLIS). Views are drawn from GAO's ongoing review of AVLIS, in which the technical, program, and market issues that need to be addressed before an AVLIS plant is built are examined.

  10. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  11. Chapter 5. Conclusion Uranium, a naturally occurring element, contributes to low levels of natural background radiation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    5-1 Chapter 5. Conclusion Uranium, a naturally occurring element, contributes to low levels into uranium oxide or other chemical forms usable in industry. Uranium undergoes radioactive decay into a long are extracted from the earth. Protore is mined uranium ore that is not rich enough to meet the market demand

  12. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  13. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01

    1962. "Diatremes and Uranium Deposits in the Hopi Buttes,H. , 1970. "Low-Grade Uranium Deposits in Agpaitic NephelineL. Torkild, 1974B. "The Uranium Deposit at Kvanefjeld, The

  14. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01

    1977. "Geology of Brazil's Uranium and Thorium Occurrences,"A tantalo-niobate of uranium, near pyrochlore. Isometric,niobate and tantalate of uranium, with ferrous iron and rare

  15. Uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector.

  16. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  17. NVLAP LAB BULLETIN NUMBER: LB-60-2011 PAGE: 1 of 1 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BULLETIN NUMBER: LB-60-2011 LAP: Energy Efficient Lighting (EEL) SUBJECT: Update of Energy Efficient Lighting Test Method Selection List Effective August 4, 2011, the Energy Efficient Lighting LAP released

  18. Mechanism of biosynthesis of the dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor of class lb Ribonucleotide reductase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotruvo, Joseph Alfred, Jr

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all organisms. The class Ia and lb RNRs comprise two subunits: a2 contains the site of nucleotide reduction, and p2 contains an ...

  19. Radionuclide inventories : ORIGEN2.2 isotopic depletion calculation for high burnup low-enriched uranium and weapons-grade mixed-oxide pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Ross, Kyle W.; Smith, James Dean; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory computer code, ORIGEN2.2 (CCC-371, 2002), was used to obtain the elemental composition of irradiated low-enriched uranium (LEU)/mixed-oxide (MOX) pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies. Described in this report are the input parameters for the ORIGEN2.2 calculations. The rationale for performing the ORIGEN2.2 calculation was to generate inventories to be used to populate MELCOR radionuclide classes. Therefore the ORIGEN2.2 output was subsequently manipulated. The procedures performed in this data reduction process are also described herein. A listing of the ORIGEN2.2 input deck for two-cycle MOX is provided in the appendix. The final output from this data reduction process was three tables containing the radionuclide inventories for LEU/MOX in elemental form. Masses, thermal powers, and activities were reported for each category.

  20. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the october 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost is estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three prinicpal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  1. High temperature behavior of metallic inclusions in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.L.

    1980-08-01

    The object of this thesis was to construct a temperature gradient furnace to simulate the thermal conditions in the reactor fuel and to study the migration of metallic inclusions in uranium oxide under the influence of temperature gradient. No thermal migration of molybdenum and tungsten inclusions was observed under the experimental conditions. Ruthenium inclusions, however, dissolved and diffused atomically through grain boundaries in slightly reduced uranium oxide. An intermetallic compound (probably URu/sub 3/) was formed by reaction of Ru and UO/sub 2-x/. The diffusivity and solubility of ruthenium in uranium oxide were measured.

  2. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  3. Potential remediation approach for uranium-contaminated groundwaters through potassium uranyl vanadate precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokunaga, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    and secondary phase precipitation in aqueous suspension.Potassium Uranyl Vanadate Precipitation Tetsu K. Tokunaga,uranium (U) through precipitation under oxidizing conditions

  4. Adsorption study for uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Rupert, M.C.; Harris, M.J.; Duran, A.

    1995-01-01

    Six adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in removing uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater. The bench column and batch (Kd) tests showed that uranium can be removed (>99.9%) by four adsorbents. Bone Charcoal (R1O22); F-1 Alumina (granular activated alumina); BIOFIX (immobilized biological agent); SOPBPLUS (mixed metal oxide); Filtrasorb 300 (granular activated carbon); and Zeolite (clinoptilolite).

  5. Uranium in iron formations and the rise of atmospheric oxygen C.A. Partin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konhauser, Kurt

    Uranium in iron formations and the rise of atmospheric oxygen C.A. Partin a, , S.V. Lalonde b , N Paleoproterozoic Geochemical uranium cycle The concept of the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), during which atmospheric oxygenation through the record of uranium (U) concentrations in iron formations (IF). Just as IF are important

  6. Refinement in the ultrasonic velocity data and estimation of the critical parameters for molten uranium dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    uranium dioxide Abdul-Majeed Azad * Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University, reliable data on the sound prop- agation velocity in molten uranium dioxide have been obtained. An equation 61:98 ffiffiffiffi T p : ð1Þ For stoichiometric uranium oxide (O/U = 2.00) values of 3070 K [6], 3115

  7. Mineralogical analysis and uranium distribution of the sediments from the upper Jackson formation, Karnes County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fishman, Paul Harold

    1978-01-01

    "-shaped cross sectional geometry is typical of many deposits (Fig. 7). In theory, the uranium was deposited at the transition between uranium-bearing, oxidizing ground waters and depleted reduced waters. Oxidizing surface water, probably flowing 18..., 77 13. 82-30. 83 33. 05 9. 92 5. 70 8. 70 12. 38 19. 30 39 Uranium Determination B~kd Uranium determination was made using a delayed neutron counting method. Mhen a heavy nuclide (Z&90, such as Z92 for uranium) undergoes a fission process...

  8. Review of the NURE Assessment of the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Susan M., E-mail: SusanHall@usgs.gov [Central Energy Resources Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Historic exploration and development were used to evaluate the reliability of domestic uranium reserves and potential resources estimated by the U.S. Department of Energy national uranium resource evaluation (NURE) program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province. NURE estimated 87 million pounds of reserves in the $30/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} cost category in the Coast Plain uranium resource region, most in the Gulf Coast Uranium Province. Since NURE, 40 million pounds of reserves have been mined, and 38 million pounds are estimated to remain in place as of 2012, accounting for all but 9 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the reserve or production categories in the NURE estimate. Considering the complexities and uncertainties of the analysis, this study indicates that the NURE reserve estimates for the province were accurate. An unconditional potential resource of 1.4 billion pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, 600 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the forward cost category of $30/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1980 prices), was estimated in 106 favorable areas by the NURE program in the province. Removing potential resources from the non-productive Houston embayment, and those reserves estimated below historic and current mining depths reduces the unconditional potential resource 33% to about 930 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and that in the $30/lb cost category 34% to 399 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Based on production records and reserve estimates tabulated for the region, most of the production since 1980 is likely from the reserves identified by NURE. The potential resource predicted by NURE has not been developed, likely due to a variety of factors related to the low uranium prices that have prevailed since 1980.

  9. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  10. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

  11. Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Uranium Leasing...

  12. NVLAP LAB BULLETIN NUMBER: LB-57-2011 PAGE: 1 of 2 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BULLETIN NUMBER: LB-57-2011 LAP: Radiation Detection Instruments SUBJECT: Electromagnetic Compatibility testing (ECT) as required for Radiation Detection Instruments (RDI) testing Several of the ANSI/IEEE N42 standards are written for testing radiation detection instruments (RDI) used in homeland security

  13. NVLAP LAB BULLETIN NUMBER: LB-55-2011 PAGE: 1 of 1 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , then the proficiency testing laboratory will inform the dosimeter processor of the radiation sources to whichNVLAP LAB BULLETIN NUMBER: LB-55-2011 PAGE: 1 of 1 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute, the processor does not know to what sources the dosimeter was exposed when testing in Category IV. Category IV

  14. Depleted Uranium Technical Brief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depleted Uranium Technical Brief United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Washington, DC 20460 EPA-402-R-06-011 December 2006 #12;#12;Depleted Uranium Technical Brief EPA of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division ii #12;iii #12;FOREWARD The Depleted Uranium

  15. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  16. New Technique for Speciation of Uranium in Sediments Following Acetate-Stimulated Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    Acetate-stimulated bioremediation is a promising new technique for sequestering toxic uranium contamination from groundwater. The speciation of uranium in sediments after such bioremediation attempts remains unknown as a result of low uranium concentration, and is important to analyzing the stability of sequestered uranium. A new technique was developed for investigating the oxidation state and local molecular structure of uranium from field site sediments using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and was implemented at the site of a former uranium mill in Rifle, CO. Glass columns filled with bioactive Rifle sediments were deployed in wells in the contaminated Rifle aquifer and amended with a hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) stock solution to increase uranium concentration while maintaining field conditions. This sediment was harvested and XAS was utilized to analyze the oxidation state and local molecular structure of the uranium in sediment samples. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) data was collected and compared to known uranium spectra to determine the local molecular structure of the uranium in the sediment. Fitting was used to determine that the field site sediments did not contain uraninite (UO{sub 2}), indicating that models based on bioreduction using pure bacterial cultures are not accurate for bioremediation in the field. Stability tests on the monomeric tetravalent uranium (U(IV)) produced by bioremediation are needed in order to assess the efficacy of acetate-stimulation bioremediation.

  17. Synthesis of Uranium Trichloride for the Pyrometallurgical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; J.C. Price; R.D. Mariani

    2011-11-01

    The pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel via electrorefining requires the continued addition of uranium trichloride to sustain operations. Uranium trichloride is utilized as an oxidant in the system to allow separation of uranium metal from the minor actinides and fission products. The inventory of uranium trichloride had diminished to a point that production was necessary to continue electrorefiner operations. Following initial experimentation, cupric chloride was chosen as a reactant with uranium metal to synthesize uranium trichloride. Despite the variability in equipment and charge characteristics, uranium trichloride was produced in sufficient quantities to maintain operations in the electrorefiner. The results and conclusions from several experiments are presented along with a set of optimized operating conditions for the synthesis of uranium trichloride.

  18. Identification and In-vivo Characterization of a Novel OhrR Transcriptional Regulator in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, Tinh T.; Martí-Arbona, Ricardo; Hall, Richard S.; Maity, Tuhin; Valdez, Yolanda E.; Dunbar, John M.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Unkefer, Pat J.

    2013-05-21

    Transcriptional regulators (TRs) are an important and versatile group of proteins, yet very little progress has been achieved towards the discovery and annotation of their biological functions. We have characterized a previously unknown organic hydroperoxide resistance regulator from Burkholderia xenovoransLB400, Bxe_B2842, which is homologous to E. coli’s OhrR. Bxe_B2842 regulates the expression of an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (OsmC). We utilized frontal affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (FAC-MS) and electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSA) to identify and characterize the possible effectors of the regulation by Bxe_B2842. Without an effector, Bxe_B2842 binds a DNA operator sequence (DOS) upstream ofmore »osmC. FAC-MS results suggest that 2-aminophenol binds to the protein and is potentially an effector molecule. EMSA analysis shows that 2-aminophenol also attenuates the Bxe_B2842’s affinity for its DOS. EMSA analysis also shows that organic peroxides attenuate Bxe_B2842/DOS affinity, suggesting that binding of the TR to its DOS is regulated by the two-cysteine mechanism, common to TRs in this family. Bxe_B2842 is the first OhrR TR to have both oxidative and effector-binding mechanisms of regulation. Our paper reveals further mechanistic diversity TR mediated gene regulation and provides insights into methods for function discovery of TRs.« less

  19. Identification and In-vivo Characterization of a Novel OhrR Transcriptional Regulator in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tinh T.; Martí-Arbona, Ricardo; Hall, Richard S.; Maity, Tuhin; Valdez, Yolanda E.; Dunbar, John M.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Unkefer, Pat J.

    2013-05-21

    Transcriptional regulators (TRs) are an important and versatile group of proteins, yet very little progress has been achieved towards the discovery and annotation of their biological functions. We have characterized a previously unknown organic hydroperoxide resistance regulator from Burkholderia xenovoransLB400, Bxe_B2842, which is homologous to E. coli’s OhrR. Bxe_B2842 regulates the expression of an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (OsmC). We utilized frontal affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (FAC-MS) and electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSA) to identify and characterize the possible effectors of the regulation by Bxe_B2842. Without an effector, Bxe_B2842 binds a DNA operator sequence (DOS) upstream of osmC. FAC-MS results suggest that 2-aminophenol binds to the protein and is potentially an effector molecule. EMSA analysis shows that 2-aminophenol also attenuates the Bxe_B2842’s affinity for its DOS. EMSA analysis also shows that organic peroxides attenuate Bxe_B2842/DOS affinity, suggesting that binding of the TR to its DOS is regulated by the two-cysteine mechanism, common to TRs in this family. Bxe_B2842 is the first OhrR TR to have both oxidative and effector-binding mechanisms of regulation. Our paper reveals further mechanistic diversity TR mediated gene regulation and provides insights into methods for function discovery of TRs.

  20. Fission Enhanced diffusion of uranium in zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bérerd, N; Moncoffre, N; Sainsot, P; Faust, H; Catalette, H

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison between thermal and Fission Enhanced Diffusion (FED) of uranium into zirconia, representative of the inner face of cladding tubes. The experiments under irradiation are performed at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble using the Lohengrin spectrometer. A thin $^{235}UO\\_2$ layer in direct contact with an oxidized zirconium foil is irradiated in the ILL high flux reactor. The fission product flux is about 10$^{11}$ ions cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and the target temperature is measured by an IR pyrometer. A model is proposed to deduce an apparent uranium diffusion coefficient in zirconia from the energy distribution broadening of two selected fission products. It is found to be equal to 10$^{-15}$ cm$^2$ s$^{-1}$ at 480$\\circ$C and compared to uranium thermal diffusion data in ZrO$\\_2$ in the same pressure and temperature conditions. The FED results are analysed in comparison with literature data.

  1. Probing the electronic structures of low oxidation-state uranium fluoride molecules UF{sub x}{sup ?} (x = 2?4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei-Li; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary V.; Wang, Lai-Sheng, E-mail: lai-sheng-wang@brown.edu [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun, E-mail: junli@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Su, Jing [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-28

    We report the experimental observation of gaseous UF{sub x}{sup ?} (x = 2?4) anions, which are investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy and relativistic quantum chemistry. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for all three species and the electron affinities of UF{sub x} (x = 2?4) are measured to be 1.16(3), 1.09(3), and 1.58(3) eV, respectively. Significant multi-electron transitions are observed in the photoelectron spectra of U(5f{sup 3}7s{sup 2})F{sub 2}{sup ?}, as a result of strong electron correlation effects of the two 7s electrons. The U?F symmetric stretching vibrational modes are resolved for the ground states of all UF{sub x} (x = 2?4) neutrals. Theoretical calculations are performed to qualitatively understand the photoelectron spectra. The entire UF{sub x}{sup ?} and UF{sub x} (x = 1?6) series are considered theoretically to examine the trends of U?F bonding and the electron affinities as a function of fluorine coordination. The increased U?F bond lengths and decreased bond orders from UF{sub 2}{sup ?} to UF{sub 4}{sup ?} indicate that the U?F bonding becomes weaker as the oxidation state of U increases from I to III.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM, URANIUM OXIDE AND SILICON MULTILAYER THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    . Oliphant in its final form and have found that (1) its format, citations, and bibli- ographical style

  3. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  4. Uranium Purchases Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    Final issue. This report details natural and enriched uranium purchases as reported by owners and operators of commercial nuclear power plants. 1996 represents the most recent publication year.

  5. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR 44 Inch Lead-Boron (LB44) Bucket Environment (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-CL).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parma, Edward J.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Vehar, David W.

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the 44 inch Lead-Boron (LB44) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  6. Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

    2012-07-16

    llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Sean M. McDeavitt Committee Members, Kenneth L. Peddicord Lin Shao Head of Department, Yassin A. Hassan May 2012 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering iii.../m-K) Density (units: g/cm3) CHTA Crucible Heater Test Assembly DU Depleted uranium EU Enriched uranium LFA Laser (or light) ash analysis LFA 447 Light ash analyzer, model 447, by Netzsch Instruments LWR Light water reactor ODU Oxidized depleted uranium...

  7. U.S.Uranium Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Uranium Reserves Data for: 2003 Release Date: June 2004 Next Release: Not determined Uranium Reserves Estimates The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has reported the...

  8. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock Site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-07-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of the stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and(c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

  9. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

    2010-09-21

    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  10. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Ratavia, IL)

    2007-09-11

    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  11. LBL-26762 Co4F49.0.274 LB Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResource and Job EventpopLA349226762 Co4F49.0.274 LB

  12. 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report May 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U Administration | 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report ii Contacts This report was prepared by the staff of the Renewables and Uranium Statistics Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables, and Uranium Statistics. Questions

  13. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-08-01

    Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $4,300,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $9,600,000 for disposal at a distance of about 30 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Green River tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $1,800/lb by heap leach and $1,600/lb by conventional plant processes.

  14. Thermo-chemical Modelling of Uranium-free Nitride Fuels Mikael JOLKKONEN1;;y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    be applied to modelling of oxide and carbide fuels as well. In this paper we give a brief introductionThermo-chemical Modelling of Uranium-free Nitride Fuels Mikael JOLKKONEN1;Ã;y , Marco STREIT2 and accepted December 22, 2003) A production process for americium-bearing, uranium-free nitride fuels

  15. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  16. BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rosa L.

    2013-01-01

    Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

  17. The best-estimate analysis of LB LOCA with uncertainty evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stritar, A.; Mavko, B.; Prosek, A.

    1992-01-01

    The large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LB LOCA) has been analyzed with a conservative computer code and methodology. One of the conclusions of that analysis was the need for the uncertainty analysis of the final result with the number of input parameters as independent variables. In this paper, the analysis of the LB LOCA with the best-estimate code, RELAP5/MOD2, is described. The analysis has been performed for the Krsko nuclear power plant in Slovenia. It is a Westinghouse two-loop 664-MW (electric) pressurized water reactor. The cold-leg break between the pump and the reactor vessel has been selected for the analysis. The input model that was used with the RELAP5/MOD2 code was the modified standard input for that plant, which had been used for transient analyses for several years. The changes to the model were introduced mainly to achieve better efficiency of the extensive computational task. The number of heat slabs on the secondary side of the steam generators has been reduced to gain computing speed. The number of axial heat slabs in the core has been increased to achieve a better power profile. There were two hot rods modeled in the average hydraulic core. With two hot rods, the number of necessary calculations has been halved. In each hot rod, a model of another input parameter has been applied.

  18. Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucchini, Jean-francois; Khaing, Hnin; Reed, Donald T

    2010-01-01

    When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

  19. Reductive stripping process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, Fred J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Crouse, David J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A reductive stripping flow sheet for recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid is described. Uranium is stripped from a uranium-loaded organic phase by a redox reaction converting the uranyl to uranous ion. The uranous ion is reoxidized to the uranyl oxidation state to form an aqueous feed solution highly concentrated in uranium. Processing of this feed through a second solvent extraction cycle requires far less stripping reagent as compared to a flow sheet which does not include the reductive stripping reaction.

  20. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  1. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Rige, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  2. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

    1995-05-02

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

  3. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blanding highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Miller, Philip E. (Livermore, CA); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gasses into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gasses from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gasses into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell.

  4. Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

    2013-04-09

    Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

  5. file://\\\\fs-f1\\shared\\uranium\\uranium.html

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Glossary Home > Nuclear > U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates Data for: 2008 Report Released: July 2010 Next Release Date: 2012 Summary The U.S. Energy...

  6. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  7. Record production on Gary No. 13 blast furnace with 450 lb./THM co-injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G. [US Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States). Gary Works

    1996-12-31

    Coal injection was initiated on No. 13 Blast Furnace in 1993 with 400 lb/THM achieved in 9 months. In early 1994, cold weather and coal preparation upsets led to the use of a second injectant, oil atomized by natural gas, to supplement the coal. Various combinations of coal and oil were investigated as total injection was increased to 450 lb/THM. Beginning in the last half of 1994, a continuing effort has been made to increase furnace production while maintaining this high co-injection level. Typical furnace production is now in excess of 10,000 THM/day compared with about 8500 THM/day in late 1993.

  8. Removal of Uranium from Plutonium Solutions by Anion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2002-03-22

    The anion exchange capacity in the HB-Line Phase II Facility will be used to purify plutonium solutions potentially containing significant quantities of depleted uranium. Following purification, the plutonium will be precipitated as an oxalate and calcined to plutonium oxide (PuO2) for storage until final disposition.

  9. Uranium-titanium-niobium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gail M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A uranium alloy having small additions of Ti and Nb shows improved strength and ductility in cross section of greater than one inch over prior uranium alloy having only Ti as an alloying element.

  10. Substrate-and Time-Dependent Photoluminescence of Quantum Dots Inside the Ultrathin Polymer LbL Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, and DepartmentSubstrate- and Time-Dependent Photoluminescence of Quantum Dots Inside the Ultrathin Polymer Lb of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State UniVersity, Ames, Iowa 50011 ReceiVed December 20, 2006

  11. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  12. Uranium Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, William D.

    2008-01-15

    Uranium contamination is prevalent at many of the U.S. DOE facilities and at several civilian sites that have supported the nuclear fuel cycle. The potential off-site mobility of uranium depends on the partitioning of uranium between aqueous and solid (soil and sediment) phases. Hexavalent U (as uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) is relatively mobile, forming strong complexes with ubiquitous carbonate ion which renders it appreciably soluble even under mild reducing conditions. In the presence of carbonate, partition of uranyl to ferri-hydrate and select other mineral phases is usually maximum in the near-neutral pH range {approx} 5-8. The surface complexation reaction of uranyl with iron-containing minerals has been used as one means to model subsurface migration, used in conjunction with information on the site water chemistry and hydrology. Partitioning of uranium is often studied by short-term batch 'equilibrium' or long-term soil column testing ; MCLinc has performed both of these methodologies, with selection of method depending upon the requirements of the client or regulatory authority. Speciation of uranium in soil may be determined directly by instrumental techniques (e.g., x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS; x-ray diffraction, XRD; etc.) or by inference drawn from operational estimates. Often, the technique of choice for evaluating low-level radionuclide partitioning in soils and sediments is the sequential extraction approach. This methodology applies operationally-defined chemical treatments to selectively dissolve specific classes of macro-scale soil or sediment components. These methods recognize that total soil metal inventory is of limited use in understanding bioavailability or metal mobility, and that it is useful to estimate the amount of metal present in different solid-phase forms. Despite some drawbacks, the sequential extraction method can provide a valuable tool to distinguish among trace element fractions of different solubility related to mineral phases. Four case studies are presented: Water and Soil Characterization, Subsurface Stabilization of Uranium and other Toxic Metals, Reductive Precipitation (in situ bioremediation) of Uranium, and Physical Transport of Particle-bound Uranium by Erosion.

  13. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3.3. Uranium

  14. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3.3. Uranium5.

  15. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3.3.b. Uranium

  16. The IMCA: A field instrument for uranium enrichment measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, G.H.; Koskelo, M.; Moeslinger, M.; Mayer, R.L. II; McGinnis, B.R.; Wishard, B.

    1996-12-31

    The IMCA (Inspection Multi-Channel Analyzer) is a portable gamma-ray spectrometer designed to measure the enrichment of uranium either in a laboratory or in the field. The IMCA consists of a Canberra InSpector Multi-Channel Analyzer, sodium iodide or a planar germanium detector, and special application software. The system possesses a high degree of automation. The IMCA uses the uranium enrichment meter principle, and is designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for the verification of enriched uranium materials. The IMCA is available with MGA plutonium isotopic analysis software or MGAU uranium analysis software as well. In this paper, the authors present a detailed description of the hardware and software of the IMCA system, as well as results from preliminary measurements testing compliance of IMCA with IAEA requirements using uranium standards and UF6 cylinders. Measurements performed on UF6 cylinders in the field under variable environmental conditions (temperatures ranging from 0 to 35 C) have shown that good results can be achieved. The enrichment of UF6 contained in the cylinder is determined by using calibration constants generated from an instrument calibration, using traceable uranium oxide standards, performed in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. The IMCA software is designed to make the necessary matrix and container corrections to ensure that accurate results are achieved in the field.

  17. Diffusion model of the non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Emily, E-mail: emily.moore@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN-DPC-SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guéneau, Christine, E-mail: christine.gueneau@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN-DPC-SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocombette, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.crocombette@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2013-07-15

    Uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), which is used in light water reactors, exhibits a large range of non-stoichiometry over a wide temperature scale up to 2000 K. Understanding diffusion behavior of uranium oxides under such conditions is essential to ensure safe reactor operation. The current understanding of diffusion properties is largely limited by the stoichiometric deviations inherent to the fuel. The present DICTRA-based model considers diffusion across non-stoichiometric ranges described by experimentally available data. A vacancy and interstitial model of diffusion is applied to the U–O system as a function of its defect structure derived from CALPHAD-type thermodynamic descriptions. Oxygen and uranium self and tracer diffusion coefficients are assessed for the construction of a mobility database. Chemical diffusion coefficients of oxygen are derived with respect to the Darken relation and migration energies of defects are evaluated as a function of stoichiometric deviation. - Graphical abstract: Complete description of Oxygen–Uranium diffusion as a function of composition at various temperatures according to the developed Dictra model. - Highlights: • Assessment of a uranium–oxygen diffusion model with Dictra. • Complete description of U–O diffusion over wide temperature and composition range. • Oxygen model includes terms for interstitial and vacancy migration. • Interaction terms between defects help describe non-stoichiometric domain of UO{sub 2±x}. • Uranium model is separated into mobility terms for the cationic species.

  18. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Maybell Site, Maybell, Colorado. Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Maybell site in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The two alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to disposal of the tailings in a nearby open pit mine and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II). Cost estimates for the two options are about $11,700,000 for stabilization in-place and about $22,700,000 for disposal within a distance of 2 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Maybell tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $125 and $165/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach and conventional plant processes, respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present.

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  20. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Mexican Hat site, Mexican Hat, Utah. Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Mexican Hat site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.2 million tons of tailings at the Mexican Hat site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $15,200,000 for stabilization in place, to about $45,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Mexican Hat tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $115/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Mexican Hat tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive under present conditions.

  2. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Maybell Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Maybell site in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The two alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to disposal of the tailings in a nearby open pit mine and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II). Cost estimates for the two options are about $11,700,000 for stabilization in-place and about $22,700,000 for disposal within a distance of 2 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Maybell tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $125 and $165/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach and conventional plant processes, respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present.

  4. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Riverton Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon, and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Riverton site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Riverton, Wyoming. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 900,000 tons of tailings materials at the Riverton site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The nine alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontaminations of the tailings site (Options II through IX). Cost estimates for the nine options range from about $16,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $23,200,000 for disposal at a distance of 18 to 25 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Riverton tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $260 and $230/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach and conventional plant processes respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive.

  5. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  6. Colloids generation from metallic uranium fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, C.; Fortner, J.; Goldberg, M.; Shelton-Davis, C.

    2000-07-20

    The possibility of colloid generation from spent fuel in an unsaturated environment has significant implications for storage of these fuels in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Because colloids can act as a transport medium for sparingly soluble radionuclides, it might be possible for colloid-associated radionuclides to migrate large distances underground and present a human health concern. This study examines the nature of colloidal materials produced during corrosion of metallic uranium fuel in simulated groundwater at elevated temperature in an unsaturated environment. Colloidal analyses of the leachates from these corrosion tests were performed using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Results from both techniques indicate a bimodal distribution of small discrete particles and aggregates of the small particles. The average diameters of the small, discrete colloids are {approximately}3--12 nm, and the large aggregates have average diameters of {approximately}100--200 nm. X-ray diffraction of the solids from these tests indicates a mineral composition of uranium oxide or uranium oxy-hydroxide.

  7. Geochemical Evaluation of Uranium Fate and Transport Guterl Specialty Steel Site, New York - 12077

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, Bill; Tandon, Vikas

    2012-07-01

    Between 1948 and 1952, up to 15,875 metric tons (35 million pounds) of natural uranium metal (U) were processed at the former Guterl Specialty Steel Corporation site in Lockport, New York. The resulting dust, thermal scale, mill shavings and associated land disposal contaminated both the facility and on-site soils. Uranium subsequently impacted groundwater and a fully developed plume exists below the site. Site soils are composed of anthropogenic fill and re-worked, glacially-derived native soil. This overburden is underlain by the weathered and fractured Lockport Dolostone bedrock. Shallow groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally and allow groundwater to contact U contaminated soil, which promotes transport. This condition is exemplified through coincident increases in specific conductivity and groundwater levels, which flush soluble constituents in the fill/soil to groundwater during recharge events. In addition, water-level fluctuations affect reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions at the site. The U in soils is subject to wetting and drying cycles that promote oxidation more than stable redox conditions (e.g., dry soil or fully saturated conditions). This oxidizing mechanism increases uranium solubility and mobility. Site groundwater also receives uranium via leaching from near-surface contaminated fill. The strong correlation between nitrate and uranium in groundwater indicates that uranium is mobile where oxidizing conditions occur. Analytical models of contaminant leaching determined that multiple pathways and transport mechanisms govern site risk. Uranium transport to groundwater involves three mechanisms: 1) direct contact of contaminated soil with groundwater, 2) the oxidation-state or chemical valence of uranium, and 3) the leaching of near-surface contamination to groundwater. These mechanisms require an integrated remedial solution that is sustainable and cost effective. (authors)

  8. Economics of nuclear fuel cycles : option valuation and neutronics simulation of mixed oxide fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Roo, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    In most studies aiming at the economic assessment of nuclear fuel cycles, a primary concern is to keep scenarios economically comparable. For Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels, a traditional way to achieve ...

  9. Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    March 2008 Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008 Uranium is an often misunderstood metal uranium research. In reality, uranium presents a wealth of possibilities for funda- mental chemistry. Many research groups have been involved in utilizing the large size and unique reactivity of the uranium atom

  10. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Jones, Edward (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  11. Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofman, Gerard L. (Downers Grove, IL); Meyer, Mitchell K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knighton, Gaven C. (Moore, ID); Clark, Curtis R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-09-05

    A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

  12. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01

    IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

  13. Uranium in prehistoric Indian pottery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filberth, Ernest William

    1976-01-01

    URANIUM IN PREHISTORIC INDIAN POTTERY A Thesis by ERNEST WILLIAM FILBERTH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject...: Chemistry URANIUM IN PREHISTORIC INDIAN POTTERY A Thesis by ERNEST WILLIAM FILBERTH Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Membe (Member) (Member) December 1976 ABSTRACT Uranium in Prehistoric...

  14. Assessment of the Group 5-6 (LB C2, LB S2, LV S1) Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2011-03-11

    This document reports on a series of tests to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 5-6 exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LB-C2, LV-S1, and LB S2 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 5-6) because the common factor in their design is that the last significant flow disturbance upstream of the air sampling probe is a reduction in duct diameter. Federal regulations( ) require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria of the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The testing on scale models of the stacks conducted for this project was part of the River Protection Project—Waste Treatment Plant Support Program under Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 according to the statement of work issued by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI, 24590-QL-SRA-W000-00101, N13.1-1999 Stack Monitor Scale Model Testing and Qualification, Revision 1, 9/12/2007) and Work Authorization 09 of Memorandum of Agreement 24590-QL-HC9-WA49-00001. The internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) project for this task is 53024, Work for Hanford Contractors Stack Monitoring. The testing described in this document was further guided by the Test Plan Scale Model Testing the Waste Treatment Plant LB-C2, LB-S2, and LV-S1 (Test Group 5-6) Stack Air Sampling Positions (TP-RPP-WTP-594). The tests conducted by PNNL during 2009 and 2010 on the Group 5-6 scale model systems are described in this report. The series of tests consists of various measurements taken over a grid of points in the duct cross-section at the designed sampling probe locations and at five duct diameters up and downstream from the design location to accommodate potential construction variability. The tests were done only at the design sampling probe location on the scale model of LB-S2 because that ductwork was already constructed. The ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 criteria and the corresponding results of the test series on the scale models are summarized in this report.

  15. Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Appropriations Subcommittee, is shown some of the technology in the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility by Warehousing and Transportation Operations Manager Byron...

  16. Laser isotope separation: Uranium. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and assessment of laser separation of uranium isotopes, compounds, oxides, and alloys. Topics include uranium enrichment plants, isotope enriched materials, gaseous diffusion, centrifuge enrichment, reliability and safety, and atomic vapor separation. Citations also discuss commercial enrichment, market trends, licensing, international competition, and waste management. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual report for FY 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Primm, Trent; Sease, John D; Guida, Tracey; Jolly, Brian C

    2010-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2009 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Studies are reported of the application of a silicon coating to surrogates for spheres of uranium-molybdenum alloy. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. A description of the progress in developing a finite element thermal hydraulics model of the LEU core is provided.

  18. Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund's Fiscal Year 2008 and 2007 Financial Statement Audit, OAS-FS-10-05 Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and...

  19. Uranium Biomineralization By Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Uranium Biomineralization By Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uranium Biomineralization By...

  20. Conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to a solid uranium compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Alan B. (Willowbrook, IL); Graczyk, Donald G. (Lemont, IL); Essling, Alice M. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A process for converting UF.sub.6 to a solid uranium compound such as UO.sub.2 and CaF. The UF.sub.6 vapor form is contacted with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH at a pH greater than 7 to precipitate at least some solid uranium values as a solid leaving an aqueous solution containing NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values. The solid uranium values are separated from the aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values which is then diluted with additional water precipitating more uranium values as a solid leaving trace quantities of uranium in a dilute aqueous solution. The dilute aqueous solution is contacted with an ion-exchange resin to remove substantially all the uranium values from the dilute aqueous solution. The dilute solution being contacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to precipitate CaF.sub.2 leaving dilute NH.sub.4 OH.

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Gunnison Site, Gunnison, Colorado: summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Gunnison site in order to revise the November 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the ivnvestigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the combined 540,000 dry tons of tailings and the 435,400 tons of contaminated waste at the Gunnison site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The 10 alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from stabilization of the site in its present location with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to disposal sites along with decontamination of the Gunnison site (Options II through X). Cost estimates for the 10 options range from about $8,900,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $14,000,000 for disposal in the North Alkali Creek area at a distance of about 18 mi. Truck haulage would be used to transport the tailings and contaminated materials from the Gunnison site to the selected disposal site. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Gunnison tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocesssing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $250 and $230/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach and conventional plant processes, respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981.

  2. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Falls City site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Falls City site in order to update the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranum mill tailings at Falls City, Texas. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrolgy and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.5 million tons of tailings at the Falls City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,700,000 for stabilization in place, to about $35,100,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Falls City tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The tailings piles are presently being rewashed for uranium recovery by Solution Engineering, Inc. The cost for further reprocessing would be about $250/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive for the foreseeable future.

  3. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium purchased by

  4. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium purchased byb.

  5. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium purchased byb.S2.

  6. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium purchased

  7. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium purchasedb.

  8. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium purchasedb.4.

  9. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium purchasedb.4..

  10. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium purchasedb.4..0.

  11. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium

  12. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3. Deliveries of

  13. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3. Deliveries of4.

  14. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3. Deliveries

  15. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3. Deliveries6.

  16. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3. Deliveries6.7.

  17. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.

  18. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9. Foreign

  19. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9. Foreign.

  20. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9. Foreign.0.

  1. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9. Foreign.0.1.

  2. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.

  3. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3. Inventories

  4. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3.

  5. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3.3.

  6. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3.3.b.

  7. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3.3.b.8.

  8. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa. Uranium3.9.3.3.b.8.9.

  9. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sector Full reportTown2008 Final May1. U.S. uranium

  10. Section 8.5 1. A worker on a roof 50 ft above the ground needs to lift a 300 lb bucket of cement from the ground

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Kevin K.

    Section 8.5 1. A worker on a roof 50 ft above the ground needs to lift a 300 lb bucket of cement the top of the tank. Note: 1 cubic foot water weighs 62.4 lb. 4. A gas station stores its gasoline;5. A gas station stores its gasoline in a tank under the ground. The tank is a cylinder standing in upright

  11. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  12. APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium #12;Appendix J Partition Coefficients For Uranium J.1.0 Background The review of uranium Kd values obtained for a number of soils, crushed rock and their effects on uranium adsorption on soils are discussed below. The solution pH was also used as the basis

  13. SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING US EPA Project Meeting April 7 2011April 7, 2011/Titan Uranium, VP Development · Deborah LebowAal/EPA Region 8 Air Program Introduction to Titan Uranium USA;PROJECT OVERVIEW ·Site Location·Site Location ·Fremont , Wyoming ·Existing Uranium Mine Permit 381C

  14. statistical physics canonical ensemble Uranium Centrifuges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    statistical physics canonical ensemble Uranium Centrifuges The easiest type of nuclear weapon of the physics behind crude uranium enrichment methods. 2 The centrifuge concept is a very generic way of trying the uranium, we remove gas from the ends of the centrifuge, where the heavier uranium atoms are more

  15. Measurements of Low-Enriched Uranium Holdup.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belian, A. P. (Anthony P.); Reilly, T. D. (T. Douglas); Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Tobin, S. J. (Stephen J.)

    2005-01-01

    A recent effort determined uranium holdup at a large fuel fabrication facility abroad where low enriched ({approx} 3%) uranium (LEU) oxide feeds the pellet manufacturing process. Measurements taken with both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry systems include extensive data for the ventilation and vacuum systems. Equipment dimensions and the corresponding holdup deposit masses are large for LEU. Because deposits are infinitely thick to the 186 keV gamma ray in many locations in an LEU environment, measurements of both the 186 and 1001 keV gamma-rays were required, and self-attenuation was significant at 1001 keV in many cases. These wide-dynamic-range measruements used short count times, portable scintillator detectors, and portable MCAs. Because equipment is elevated above floor levels, most measurements were made with detectors mounted on extended telescoping poles. One of the main goals of this effort was to demonstrate and validate methods for measurement and quantitative analysis of LEU holdup using low-resolution detectors and the Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) techniques. The current GGH approach is applied elsewhere for holdup measurements of plutonium and high-enriched uranium. The recent experience is directly applicable to holdup measruements at LEU facilities such as the Paducah and Portmouth gaseous diffusion enrichment plants and elsewhere, including LEU sites where D and D is active. This report discusses the measurement methodology, calibration of the measurement equipment, measurement control, analysis of the data, and the global and local assay results including random and systematic uncertainties. It includes field-validation exercises (multiple calibrated systems that perform measruements on the same extended equipment) as well as quantitative validation results obtained on reference materials assembled to emulate the deposits in an extended vacuum line that was also measured by these techniques. The paper examines the differences in assay results between the low-resolution system using the GGH method and the high-resolution system utilizing the commercially available ISOCS analysis method.

  16. Evidence for Alkane Coordination to an Electron-Rich Uranium Center Ingrid Castro-Rodriguez, Hidetaka Nakai, Peter Gantzel, Lev N. Zakharov, Arnold L. Rheingold, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    Evidence for Alkane Coordination to an Electron-Rich Uranium Center Ingrid Castro of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UniVersity of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman DriVe, MC 0358, La Jolla adducts of the low-valent, coordinatively unsaturated, tris-aryl oxide uranium(III) complex [((ArO)3tacn

  17. Investigations of factors affecting the use of uranium metal as a source of alpha particles for the evaluation of alpha track detectors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voirin, Marc

    1994-01-01

    , an uranium foil was used as the alpha particle source. The foil created new problems which needed to be studied in detail. Among these problems, the effect of the thickness of the oxide layer on the uranium metal foil surface was the most important. To study...

  18. The End of Cheap Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Dittmar

    2011-06-21

    Historic data from many countries demonstrate that on average no more than 50-70% of the uranium in a deposit could be mined. An analysis of more recent data from Canada and Australia leads to a mining model with an average deposit extraction lifetime of 10+- 2 years. This simple model provides an accurate description of the extractable amount of uranium for the recent mining operations. Using this model for all larger existing and planned uranium mines up to 2030, a global uranium mining peak of at most 58 +- 4 ktons around the year 2015 is obtained. Thereafter we predict that uranium mine production will decline to at most 54 +- 5 ktons by 2025 and, with the decline steepening, to at most 41 +- 5 ktons around 2030. This amount will not be sufficient to fuel the existing and planned nuclear power plants during the next 10-20 years. In fact, we find that it will be difficult to avoid supply shortages even under a slow 1%/year worldwide nuclear energy phase-out scenario up to 2025. We thus suggest that a worldwide nuclear energy phase-out is in order. If such a slow global phase-out is not voluntarily effected, the end of the present cheap uranium supply situation will be unavoidable. The result will be that some countries will simply be unable to afford sufficient uranium fuel at that point, which implies involuntary and perhaps chaotic nuclear phase-outs in those countries involving brownouts, blackouts, and worse.

  19. Helium on Venus: Implications for uranium and thorium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Mcelroy, MB

    1983-01-01

    Implications for Uranium and Thorium Abstract. Helium isa wide range of uranium and thorium abundances. simi· lar toof crustal uranium and thorium. Studies of helium in Earth's

  20. THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olander, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Soubbaramayer, (1979) in "Uranium Enrichment", S. Villani,and Davies, E. (1973) "Uranium Enrichment by Gas Centrifuge"Nuclear Energy THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS

  1. Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan The 2013 Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan describes a framework for the effective...

  2. Uranium hexafluoride bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports written about the transportation, handling, safety, and processing of uranium hexafluoride. An on-line literature search was executed using the DOE Energy files and the Nuclear Science Abstracts file to identify pertinent reports. The DOE Energy files contain unclassified information that is processed at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information of the US Department of Energy. The reports selected from these files were published between 1974 and 1983. Nuclear Science Abstracts contains unclassified international nuclear science and technology literature published from 1948 to 1976. In addition, scientific and technical reports published by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the US Energy Research and Development Administration, as well as those published by other agencies, universities, and industrial and research organizations, are included in the Nuclear Science Abstracts file. An alphabetical listing of the acronyms used to denote the corporate sponsors follows the bibliography.

  3. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Portsmouth site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H. M.

    2001-06-05

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Portsmouth site, near Portsmouth, Ohio. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Portsmouth site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) management activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  4. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Paducah site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H.

    2001-06-07

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Paducah site, near Paducah, Kentucky. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Paducah site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  5. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium 201457 201425.

  6. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium 201457

  7. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium 201457Feed

  8. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium

  9. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium17. Purchases of

  10. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium17. Purchases

  11. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium17.

  12. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 20144. Uranium sellers to

  13. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 20144. Uranium sellers to57.

  14. Laser induced phosphorescence uranium analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushaw, Bruce A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the uranium content of aqueous solutions wherein a uranyl phosphate complex is irradiated with a 5 nanosecond pulse of 425 nanometer laser light and resultant 520 nanometer emissions are observed for a period of 50 to 400 microseconds after the pulse. Plotting the natural logarithm of emission intensity as a function of time yields an intercept value which is proportional to uranium concentration.

  15. Laser induced phosphorescence uranium analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushaw, B.A.

    1983-06-10

    A method is described for measuring the uranium content of aqueous solutions wherein a uranyl phosphate complex is irradiated with a 5 nanosecond pulse of 425 nanometer laser light and resultant 520 nanometer emissions are observed for a period of 50 to 400 microseconds after the pulse. Plotting the natural logarithm of emission intensity as a function of time yields an intercept value which is proportional to uranium concentration.

  16. DESIGN STUDY FOR A LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM CORE FOR THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR, ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2010 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current level. Studies are reported of support to a thermal hydraulic test loop design, the implementation of finite element, thermal hydraulic analysis capability, and infrastructure tasks at HFIR to upgrade the facility for operation at 100 MW. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. Continuing development in the definition of the fuel fabrication process is described.

  17. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800.degree. C. to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein.

  18. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-08-25

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure.

  19. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  20. Plutonium (III) and uranium (III) nitrile complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enriquez, A. E.; Matonic, J. H.; Scott, B. L.; Neu, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    Iodine oxidation of uranium and plutonium metals in tetrahydrofuran and pyridine form AnI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} and AnI{sub 3}(py){sub 4} (An = Pu, U). These compounds represent convenient entries Into solution An(III) chemistry in organic solvents. Extensions of the actinide metal oxidation methodology in nitrile solvents by I{sub 2}, AgPF{sub 6}, and TIPF{sub 6} are presented here. Treatment of Pu{sup 0} in acetonitrile with iodine yields a putative PuI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub x} intermediate which can be trapped with the tripodal nitrogen donor ligand tpza (tpza = (tris[(2-pyrazinyl)methyl]amine)) and forms the eight-coordinate complex (tpza)PuI{sub 3}(NCMe). Treatment of excess U{sup 0} metal by iodine in acetonitrile afforded a brown crystalline mixed valence complex, [U(NCMe){sub 9}][UI{sub 6}][I], instead of UI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub 4}. The analogous reaction in bezonitrile forms red crystalline UI{sub 4}(NCPh){sub 4}. In contrast, treatment of UI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} with excess acetonitrile cleanly generates [U(NCMe){sub 9}][I]{sub 3}. Oxidation of Pu{sup 0} by either TI(I) or Ag(I) hexafluorophosphate salts generates a nine-coordinate homoleptic acetonitrile adduct [Pu(NCMe){sub 9}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3}. Attempts to oxidize U{sub 0} with these salts were unsuccessful.

  1. Standard practice for removal of uranium or plutonium, or both, for impurity assay in uranium or plutonium materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    Standard practice for removal of uranium or plutonium, or both, for impurity assay in uranium or plutonium materials

  2. Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium-mail: kmeyer@ucsd.edu Abstract: The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of the mononuclear uranium complex [((ArO)3tacn)UIII (NCCH3)] is reported. The uranium(III) complex reacts with organic azides

  3. 230Th-234U Age-Dating Uranium by Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M

    2012-04-18

    This is the standard operating procedure used by the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Group of the Chemical Sciences Division at LLNL for the preparation of a sample of uranium oxide or uranium metal for {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U age-dating. The method described here includes the dissolution of a sample of uranium oxide or uranium metal, preparation of a secondary dilution, spiking of separate aliquots for uranium and thorium isotope dilution measurements, and purification of uranium and thorium aliquots for mass spectrometry. This SOP may be applied to uranium samples of unknown purity as in a nuclear forensic investigation, and also to well-characterized samples such as, for example, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U-metal certified reference materials. The sample of uranium is transferred to a quartz or PFA vial, concentrated nitric acid is added and the sample is heated on a hotplate at approximately 100 C for several hours until it dissolves. The sample solution is diluted with water to make the solution approximately 4 M HNO{sub 3} and hydrofluoric acid is added to make it 0.05 M HF. A secondary dilution of the primary uranium solution is prepared. Separate aliquots for uranium and thorium isotope dilution measurements are taken and spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 229}Th, respectively. The spiked aliquot for uranium isotope dilution analysis is purified using EiChrom UTEVA resin. The spiked aliquot for thorium isotope dilution analysis is purified by, first, a 1.8 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 9 M HCl on which U adsorbs and Th passes through; second, adsorbing Th on a 1 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 8 M HNO{sub 3} and then eluting it with 9 M HCl followed by 0.1 M HCl + 0.005 M HF; and third, by passing the Th through a final 1.0 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 9 M HCl. The mass spectrometry is performed using the procedure 'Th and U Mass Spectrometry for {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U Age Dating'.

  4. The End of Cheap Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittmar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Historic data from many countries demonstrate that on average no more than 50-70% of the uranium in a deposit could be mined. An analysis of more recent data from Canada and Australia leads to a mining model with an average deposit extraction lifetime of 10+- 2 years. This simple model provides an accurate description of the extractable amount of uranium for the recent mining operations. Using this model for all larger existing and planned uranium mines up to 2030, a global uranium mining peak of at most 58 +- 4 ktons around the year 2015 is obtained. Thereafter we predict that uranium mine production will decline to at most 54 +- 5 ktons by 2025 and, with the decline steepening, to at most 41 +- 5 ktons around 2030. This amount will not be sufficient to fuel the existing and planned nuclear power plants during the next 10-20 years. In fact, we find that it will be difficult to avoid supply shortages even under a slow 1%/year worldwide nuclear energy phase-out scenario up to 2025. We thus suggest that a world...

  5. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  6. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  7. Decolonizing cartographies : sovereignty, territoriality, and maps of meaning in the uranium landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voyles, Traci Brynne

    2010-01-01

    227! Figure 19 Uranium depositsthe Geological Features and Uranium Deposits in the Shiprockresource sovereignty” to uranium deposits located on Native

  8. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÑON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium

  9. High strength uranium-tungsten alloy process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Hogan, Billy M. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Homer D. (Bayfield, CO); Dickinson, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  10. High strength uranium-tungsten alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Hogan, Billy M. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Homer D. (Bayfield, CO); Dickinson, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  11. Y-12 Uranium Exposure Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Kerr, G.D.

    1999-08-05

    Following the recent restart of operations at the Y-12 Plant, the Radiological Control Organization (RCO) observed that the enriched uranium exposures appeared to involve insoluble rather than soluble uranium that presumably characterized most earlier Y-12 operations. These observations necessitated changes in the bioassay program, particularly the need for routine fecal sampling. In addition, it was not reasonable to interpret the bioassay data using metabolic parameter values established during earlier Y-12 operations. Thus, the recent urinary and fecal bioassay data were interpreted using the default guidance in Publication 54 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP); that is, inhalation of Class Y uranium with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 {micro}m. Faced with apparently new workplace conditions, these actions were appropriate and ensured a cautionary approach to worker protection. As additional bioassay data were accumulated, it became apparent that the data were not consistent with Publication 54. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine the situation.

  12. Continuous reduction of uranium tetrafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMint, A.L.; Maxey, A.W.

    1993-10-21

    Operation of a pilot-scale system for continuous metallothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4} or green salt) has been initiated. This activity is in support of the development of a cost- effective process to produce uranium-iron (U-Fe) alloy feed for the Uranium-Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) program. To date, five runs have been made to reduce green salt (UF{sub 4}) with magnesium. During this quarter, three runs were made to perfect the feeding system, examine feed rates, and determine the need for a crust breaker/stirrer. No material was drawn off in any of the runs; both product metal and by-product salt were allowed to accumulate in the reactor.

  13. Assessment of severe accident source terms in pressurized-water reactors with a 40% mixed-oxide and 60% low-enriched uranium core using MELCOR 1.8.5.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Goldmann, Andrew S.; Wagner, Kenneth C.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Ashbaugh, Scott G.; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    As part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) research program to evaluate the impact of using mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power plants, a study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of the usage of MOX fuel on the consequences of postulated severe accidents. A series of 23 severe accident calculations was performed using MELCOR 1.8.5 for a four-loop Westinghouse reactor with an ice condenser containment. The calculations covered five basic accident classes that were identified as the risk- and consequence-dominant accident sequences in plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments for the McGuire and Catawba nuclear plants, including station blackouts and loss-of-coolant accidents of various sizes, with both early and late containment failures. Ultimately, the results of these MELCOR simulations will be used to provide a supplement to the NRC's alternative source term described in NUREG-1465. Source term magnitude and timing results are presented consistent with the NUREG-1465 format. For each of the severe accident release phases (coolant release, gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release), source term timing information (onset of release and duration) is presented. For all release phases except for the coolant release phase, magnitudes are presented for each of the NUREG-1465 radionuclide groups. MELCOR results showed variation of noble metal releases between those typical of ruthenium (Ru) and those typical of molybdenum (Mo); therefore, results for the noble metals were presented for Ru and Mo separately. The collection of the source term results can be used as the basis to develop a representative source term (across all accident types) that will be the MOX supplement to NUREG-1465.

  14. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium 201457 201425.+1

  15. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014 Uranium17. Purchases6a.

  16. Process for alloying uranium and niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Northcutt, Jr., Walter G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Chapman, Lloyd R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01

    Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uraniun sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

  17. Radiochemistry of uranium, neptunium and plutonium: an updating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R.A.; Choppin, G.R.; Wild, J.F.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents some procedures used in the radiochemical isolation, purification and/or analysis of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. In this update of the procedures, we have not attempted to discuss the developments in the chemistry of U, Np, and Pu but have restricted the report to the newer procedures, most of which have resulted from the increased emphasis in environmental concern which requires analysis of extremely small amounts of the actinide element in quite complex matrices. The final section of this report describes several schemes for isolation of actinides by oxidation state.

  18. The Sorption/Desorption Behavior of Uranium in Transport Studies Using Yucca Mountain Alluvium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. D. Scism

    2006-02-15

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the proposed site of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. In the event repository engineered barriers fail, the saturated alluvium located south of Yucca Mountain is expected to serve as a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. The purpose of this study is to improve the characterization of uranium retardation in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain to support refinement of an assessment model. The distribution of uranium desorption rates from alluvium obtained from Nye County bore holes EWDP-19IM1, EWDP-10SA, EWDP-22SA were studied to address inconsistencies between results from batch sorption and column transport experiments. The alluvium and groundwater were characterized to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the observed behavior. Desorption rate constants were obtained using an activity based mass balance equation and column desorption experiments were analyzed using a mathematical model utilizing multiple sorption sites with different first-order forward and reverse reaction rates. The uranium desorption rate constants decreased over time, suggesting that the alluvium has multiple types of active sorption sites with different affinities for uranium. While a significant fraction of the initially sorbed uranium desorbed from the alluvium quite rapidly, a roughly equivalent amount remained sorbed after several months of testing. The information obtained through this research suggests that uranium may experience greater effective retardation in the alluvium than simple batch sorption experiments would suggest. Electron Probe Microanalysis shows that uranium is associated with both clay minerals and iron oxides after sorption to alluvial material. These results provide further evidence that the alluvium contains multiple sorption sites for uranium.

  19. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  20. Uranium 2005 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2006-01-01

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major c...

  1. Uranium in the Oatman Creek granite of Central Texas and its economic potential 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conrad, Curtis Paul

    1982-01-01

    50 Fission track pattern corresponding to 5C showing uranium concentration 1n cracks which have been infilled with iron ox1de material. Note the extreme enrichment of uran1um in the large 1ron oxide mineral. 50 Photom1crograph 1n plane polarized...buted throughout the plagioclase grain along fractures cutt1ng perpendicular to the cleavage traces. 56 7C Fission track pattern corresponding to 7A showing uranium enr1chment 1n the fractures. 56 BA Photomicrograph in plane polar1zed light of a...

  2. Non-linear Dependence of L(B) on L(FIR) and M(H2) among Spiral Galaxies and Effects of Tidal Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Perea; A. del Olmo; L. Verdes-Montenegro; M. S. Yun

    1997-06-30

    Through the study of a carefully selected sample of isolated spiral galaxies, we have established that two important global physical quantities for tracing star forming activities, L(FIR) and M(H2), have non-linear dependence on another commonly cited global quantity L(B). Furthermore we show that simple power law relations can effectively describe these non-linear relations for spiral galaxies spanning four orders of magnitude in FIR and M(H2) and nearly three orders of magnitude in L(B). While the existence of non-linear dependence of M(H2) (assuming a constant CO-to-H2 conversion) and L(FIR) on optical luminosity L(B) has been previously noted in the literature, an improper normalization of simple scaling by L(B) has been commonly used in many previous studies to claim enhanced molecular gas content and induced activities among tidally interacting and other types of galaxies. We remove these non-linear effects using the template relations derived from the isolated galaxy sample and conclude that strongly interacting galaxies do not have enhanced molecular gas content, contrary to previous claims. With these non-linear relations among L(B), L(FIR) and M(H2) properly taken into account, we confirm again that the FIR emission and the star formation efficiency L(FIR)/M(H2) are indeed enhanced by tidal interactions. Virgo galaxies show the same level of M(H2) and L(FIR) as isolated galaxies. We do not find any evidence for enhanced star forming activity among barred galaxies.

  3. EPA Update: NESHAP Uranium Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPA Update: NESHAP Uranium Activities Reid J. Rosnick Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Mining (Clean Air Act) · 40 CFR 61.20, Subpart B regulations limiting radon emissions from underground air radon standard not to exceed 10 mrem/yr to any member of the public-compliance determined

  4. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more »i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  5. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  6. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-03-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2008 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Scoping experiments with various manufacturing methods for forming the LEU alloy profile are presented.

  7. Global terrestrial uranium supply and its policy implications : a probabilistic projection of future uranium costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Isaac A

    2010-01-01

    An accurate outlook on long-term uranium resources is critical in forecasting uranium costresource relationships, and for energy policy planning as regards the development and deployment of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. ...

  8. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  9. 2014 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual Report 2014

  10. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  11. THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olander, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    E. (1973) "Uranium Enrichment by Gas Centrifuge" Mills andTHEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE Donald R.THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE by Donald

  12. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  13. Colorimetric detection of uranium in water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVol, Timothy A. (Clemson, SC); Hixon, Amy E. (Piedmont, SC); DiPrete, David P. (Evans, GA)

    2012-03-13

    Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

  14. Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tribe 11 12 Title: Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement 13 (DOEEIS-0472) 14 15 For additional information on this Programmatic...

  15. High strength and density tungsten-uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Alloys of tungsten and uranium and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 55 vol % to about 85 vol %. A porous preform is made by sintering consolidated tungsten powder. The preform is impregnated with molten uranium such that (1) uranium fills the pores of the preform to form uranium in a tungsten matrix or (2) uranium dissolves portions of the preform to form a continuous uranium phase containing tungsten particles.

  16. Sequestering Uranium from Seawater: Binding Strength and Modes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sequestering Uranium from Seawater: Binding Strength and Modes of Uranyl Complexes with Glutarimidedioxime Sequestering Uranium from Seawater: Binding Strength and Modes of Uranyl...

  17. Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility, Major Design Changes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility, Major Design Changes Late...Lessons Learned Report, NNSA, Dec 2010 Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility, Major Design Changes...

  18. Department of Energy to Continue Managing Uranium Leasing Program...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy to Continue Managing Uranium Leasing Program in Western Colorado Department of Energy to Continue Managing Uranium Leasing Program in Western Colorado May 12,...

  19. DOE Extends Public Comment Period for the Draft Uranium Leasing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extends Public Comment Period for the Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOE Extends Public Comment Period for the Draft Uranium Leasing...

  20. Decommissioning of U.S. Uranium Production Facilities

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This report analyzes the uranium production facility decommissioning process and its potential impact on uranium supply and prices. 1995 represents the most recent publication year.

  1. Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium Transfers Secretarial Determination of No Adverse Material Impact for Uranium Transfers The determination covers...

  2. Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility Compliance Agreement Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility Compliance Agreement Toxic...

  3. DOE Extends Public Comment Period for Uranium Program Environmental...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Uranium Program Environmental Impact Statement DOE Extends Public Comment Period for Uranium Program Environmental Impact Statement April 18, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Contractor, Bob...

  4. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at...

  5. Record of Decision for the Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Record of Decision for the Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision for the Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

  6. Uranium Speciation As a Function of Depth in Contaminated Hanford...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PLUMES; PONDS; SEDIMENTS; SILICATE MINERALS; SODIUM; SPECTRA; SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACE COATING; URANIUM; URANIUM MINERALS; WASTES; WATER TABLES Word Cloud More Like This Full Text...

  7. Structural Sequestration of Uranium in Bacteriogenic Manganese Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C.3X-rays3EnergyParameterFilaments and

  8. Covalency in oxidized uranium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider TestspolycarbonateArticle) | SciTechcollectiveCovalency in

  9. Control of structure and reactivity by ligand design : applications to small molecule activation by low-valent uranium complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Oanh Phi

    2010-01-01

    Coordination Chemistry of Uranium………………………………….11 1.4researchers from uranium chemistry. Fortunately, despiteclassical coordination chemistry of uranium has flourished

  10. Uranium Management - Preservation of a National Asset

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, J. D.; Stroud, J. C.

    2002-02-27

    The Uranium Management Group (UMG) was established at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Operations in 1999 as a mechanism to expedite the de-inventory of surplus uranium from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. This successful initial venture has broadened into providing uranium material de-inventory and consolidation support to the Hanford site as well as retrieving uranium materials that the Department had previously provided to universities under the loan/lease program. As of December 31, 2001, {approx} 4,300 metric tons of uranium (MTU) have been consolidated into a more cost effective interim storage location at the Portsmouth site near Piketon, OH. The UMG continues to uphold its corporate support mission by promoting the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative (NMSI) and the twenty-five (25) action items of the Integrated Nuclear Materials Management Plan (1). Before additional consolidation efforts may commence to remove excess inventory from Environmental Management closure sites and universities, a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) must be completed. Two (2) noteworthy efforts currently being pursued involve the investigation of re-use opportunities for surplus uranium materials and the recovery of usable uranium from the shutdown Portsmouth cascade. In summary, the UMG is available as a DOE complex-wide technical resource to promote the responsible management of surplus uranium.

  11. Clean Air Act Requirements: Uranium Mill Tailings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPA'S Clean Air Act Requirements: Uranium Mill Tailings Radon Emissions Rulemaking Reid J. Rosnick Requirements for Uranium Operations (Clean Air Act) Subpart W Requirements (continued) · Radon emission standard of 20 pCi/m2/sec -- annual reporting requirements, notification in advance of testing · The radon

  12. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  13. Thermodynamic data for uranium fluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Self-consistent thermodynamic data have been tabulated for uranium fluorides between UF/sub 4/ and UF/sub 6/, including UF/sub 4/ (solid and gas), U/sub 4/F/sub 17/ (solid), U/sub 2/F/sub 9/ (solid), UF/sub 5/ (solid and gas), U/sub 2/F/sub 10/ (gas), and UF/sub 6/ (solid, liquid, and gas). Included are thermal function - the heat capacity, enthalpy, and free energy function, heats of formation, and vaporization behavior.

  14. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for Relative StandardCensusp2. U.S. uranium

  15. Treatment of Uranium and Plutonium Solutions Generated in the Atalante Facility, France - 12004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagrave, Herve

    2012-07-01

    The Atalante complex operated by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) at the Rhone Valley Research Center consolidates research programs on actinide chemistry, especially separation chemistry, processing for recycling spent fuel, and fabrication of actinide targets for innovative concepts in future nuclear systems. The design of future systems (Generation IV reactors, material recycling) will increase the uranium and plutonium flows in the facility, making it important to anticipate the stepped-up activity and provide Atalante with equipment dedicated to processing these solutions to obtain a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide that will be stored pending reuse. Ongoing studies for integral recycling of the actinides have highlighted the need for reserving equipment to produce actinides mixed oxide powder and also minor actinides bearing oxide for R and D purpose. To meet this double objective a new shielded line should be built in the facility and should be operational 6 years after go decision. The main functions of the new unit would be to receive, concentrate and store solutions, purify them, ensure group conversion of actinides and conversion of excess uranium. This new unit will be constructed in a completely refurbished building devoted to subcritical and safe geometry of the process equipments. (author)

  16. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  17. Study of Chemical Changes in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles Progress Report March - October 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kips, R; Kristo, M; Hutcheon, I

    2009-11-22

    Nuclear forensics relies on the analysis of certain sample characteristics to determine the origin and history of a nuclear material. In the specific case of uranium enrichment facilities, it is the release of trace amounts of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) gas - used for the enrichment of uranium - that leaves a process-characteristic fingerprint. When UF{sub 6} gas interacts with atmospheric moisture, uranium oxyfluoride particles or particle agglomerates are formed with sizes ranging from several microns down to a few tens of nanometers. These particles are routinely collected by safeguards organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), allowing them to verify whether a facility is compliant with its declarations. Spectrometric analysis of uranium particles from UF{sub 6} hydrolysis has revealed the presence of both particles that contain fluorine, and particles that do not. It is therefore assumed that uranium oxyfluoride is unstable, and decomposes to form uranium oxide. Understanding the rate of fluorine loss in uranium oxyfluoride particles, and the parameters that control it, may therefore contribute to placing boundaries on the particle's exposure time in the environment. Expressly for the purpose of this study, we prepared a set of uranium oxyfluoride particles at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EU-JRC-IRMM) from a static release of UF{sub 6} in a humid atmosphere. The majority of the samples was stored in controlled temperature, humidity and lighting conditions. Single particles were characterized by a suite of micro-analytical techniques, including NanoSIMS, micro-Raman spectrometry (MRS), scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and focused ion beam (FIB). The small particle size was found to be the main analytical challenge. The relative amount of fluorine, as well as the particle chemical composition and morphology were determined at different stages in the ageing process, and immediately after preparation. This report summarizes our most recent findings for each of the analytical techniques listed above, and provides an outlook on what remains to be resolved. Additional spectroscopic and mass spectrometric measurements were carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, but are not included in this summary.

  18. Uranium Cluster Chemistry DOI: 10.1002/anie.200906605

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uranium Cluster Chemistry DOI: 10.1002/anie.200906605 Tetranuclear Uranium Clusters by Reductive in the coordination chemistry and small-molecule reactivity of uranium. Among the intriguing reactivity patterns of tetravalent uranium with 3,5-dimethylpyrazolate (Me2PzÀ ) led to forma- tion of an unprecedented homoleptic

  19. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.

  20. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasizedmore »and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.« less

  1. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan

    2008-04-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  2. Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, P.

    2009-01-01

    of the Nopal I uranium deposit, Mexico: Proceedings, 2006of the Nopal I uranium deposit (Sierra Peña Blanca, Mexico),Chihuahua, Mexico, in Uranium Deposits in Volcanic Rocks,

  3. Electrochemistry, Spectroscopy, and Reactivity of Uranium Complexes Supported by Ferrocene Diamide Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duhovic, Selma

    2012-01-01

    J. L. , Pentavalent Uranium Chemistry-Synthetic Pursuit of aand High-Valent Uranium Chemistry. Organometallics 2011,for Trivalent Uranium Chemistry. Inorg. Chem. 1989, 28, (

  4. Behavior of Uranium(VI) during HEDPA Leaching for Aluminum Dissolution in Tank Waste Sludges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Martin, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Behavior of Uranium(VI) during HEDPA Leaching for Aluminuman increase in the aqueous phase uranium concentration.The concentration of uranium continually increased over 59

  5. In-well sediment incubators to evaluate microbial community stability and dynamics following bioimmobilization of uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    D. R. (1992). Enzymatic uranium precipitation. Environmentalof technetium and uranium in a nitrate-contaminated aquifer.in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater.

  6. Sequestering Uranium from Seawater: Binding Strength and Modes of Uranyl Complexes with Glutarimidedioxime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    data_request/cif. OECD, Uranium 2009: Resources, Productionthermodynamics of uranium”, (H. Wanner and I. Forest,of California. Sequestering uranium from seawater: binding

  7. Sulfur isotopes as indicators of amended bacterial sulfate reduction processes influencing field scale uranium bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Druhan, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    in situ bioremediation of uranium in a highly contaminatedwith bioremediation of uranium to submicromolar levels.Reoxidation of bioreduced uranium under reducing conditions.

  8. Decolonizing cartographies : sovereignty, territoriality, and maps of meaning in the uranium landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voyles, Traci Brynne

    2010-01-01

    Figure 8 Colorado Plateau uranium district, Life magazine in146! Figure 12 Navajo Nation and uranium industry162! Figure 14 An undated poster protesting uranium

  9. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves...

  10. Novel Transformations using Uranium and Group 5 Metal Complexes Supported by 1,1'-diamidoferrocene Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Michael Joseph

    2013-01-01

    in the past decade. 1 Uranium is the most studiedactinide, due the stability of uranium-238and uranium involvement in nuclear power. Despite interest

  11. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    and river transport. Uranium-Series Geochemistry 52, 533-using high- precision uranium isotopic measurements.B. , Turner, S.P. , 2008. Uranium-series isotopes in river

  12. Magnetic Exchange Coupling and Single-Molecule Magnetism in Uranium Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Jeffrey Dennis

    2010-01-01

    method for interpreting uranium magnetism and will becontaining lower-valent uranium centers can be seen to1995. Chapter 4: Tetranuclear Uranium Clusters via Reductive

  13. Decolonizing cartographies : sovereignty, territoriality, and maps of meaning in the uranium landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voyles, Traci Brynne

    2010-01-01

    uranium mining .. 176!Doug, “The History of Uranium Mining and the Navajo People,”The Navajo People and Uranium Mining, University of New

  14. uranium

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 FederalRivers andMEDA Station3/%2A ¡BLM Public

  15. In Situ Microbial Community Control of the Stability of Bio-reduced Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, Brett, R.; Peacock, Aaron, D.; Resch, Charles, T.; Arntzen, Evan; Smithgall, Amanda, N.; Pfiffner, Susan; Gan, M.; McKinley, James, P.; Long, Philip, E.; White, David, C.

    2008-03-28

    In aerobic aquifers typical of many Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites, uranium is present in the oxidized U(VI) form which is more soluble and thus more mobile. Field experiments at the Old Rifle UMTRA site have demonstrated that biostimulation by electron donor addition (acetate) promotes biological U(VI) reduction (2). However, U(VI) reduction is reversible and oxidative dissolution of precipitated U(IV) after the cessation of electron donor addition remains a critical issue for the application of biostimulation as a treatment technology. Despite the potential for oxidative dissolution, field experiments at the Old Rifle site have shown that rapid reoxidation of bio-reduced uranium does not occur and U(VI) concentrations can remain at approximately 20% of background levels for more than one year. The extent of post-amendment U(VI) removal and the maintenance of bioreduced uranium may result from many factors including U(VI) sorption to iron-containing mineral phases, generation of H2S or FeS0.9, or the preferential sorption of U(VI) by microbial cells or biopolymers, but the processes controlling the reduction and in situ reoxidation rates are not known. To investigate the role of microbial community composition in the maintenance of bioreduced uranium, in-well sediment incubators (ISIs) were developed allowing field deployment of amended and native sediments during on-going experiments at the site. Field deployment of the ISIs allows expedient interrogation of microbial community response to field environmental perturbations and varying geochemical conditions.

  16. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  17. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. Uranium isotopic composition and uranium concentration in special reference material SRM A (uranium in KCl/LiCl salt matrix)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Sabau, C.S.; Smith, F.P.; Bowers, D.L.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    To help assure that analysis data of known quality will be produced in support of demonstration programs at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (Idaho Falls, ID), a special reference material has been prepared and characterized. Designated SRM A, the material consists of individual units of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt containing a nominal concentration of 2.5 wt. % enriched uranium. Analyses were performed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (Argonne, IL) to determine the uniformity of the material and to establish reference values for the uranium concentration and uranium isotopic composition. Ten units from a batch of approximately 190 units were analyzed by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique to determine their uranium concentration. These measurements provided a mean value of 2.5058 {+-} 0.0052 wt. % U, where the uncertainty includes estimated limits to both random and systematic errors that might have affected the measurements. Evidence was found of a small, apparently random, non-uniformity in uranium content of the individual SRM A units, which exhibits a standard deviation of 0.078% of the mean uranium concentration. Isotopic analysis of the uranium from three units, by means of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a special, internal-standard procedure, indicated that the uranium isotopy is uniform among the pellets with a composition corresponding to 0.1115 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 234}U, 19.8336 {+-} 0.0059 wt. % {sup 235}U, 0.1337 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 236}U, and 79.9171 {+-} 0.0057 wt. % {sup 238}U.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the thermodynamic properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, there has been international agreement on a vapor pressure equation for the total pressure over UO/sub 2/, new methods have been suggested for the calculation of enthalpy and heat capacity, and a phase change at 2670 K has been proposed. In this report, an electronic term is used in place of the Frenkel defect term in the enthalpy and heat capacity equation and the phase transition is accepted.

  20. TRANSITION STATE FOR THE GAS-PHASE REACTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, S; James Becnel, J

    2008-03-18

    Density Functional Theory and small-core, relativistic pseudopotentials were used to look for symmetric and asymmetric transitions states of the gas-phase hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride, UF{sub 6}, with water. At the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)/SDD level, an asymmetric transition state leading to the formation of a uranium hydroxyl fluoride, U(OH)F{sub 5}, and hydrogen fluoride was found with an energy barrier of +77.3 kJ/mol and an enthalpy of reaction of +63.0 kJ/mol (both including zero-point energy corrections). Addition of diffuse functions to all atoms except uranium led to only minor changes in the structure and relative energies of the reacting complex and transition state. However, a significant change in the product complex structure was found, significantly reducing the enthalpy of reaction to +31.9 kJ/mol. Similar structures and values were found for PBE0 and MP2 calculations with this larger basis set, supporting the B3LYP results. No symmetric transition state leading to the direct formation of uranium oxide tetrafluoride, UOF{sub 4}, was found, indicating that the reaction under ambient conditions likely includes several more steps than the mechanisms commonly mentioned. The transition state presented here appears to be the first published transition state for the important gas-phase reaction of UF{sub 6} with water.

  1. Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

  2. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the K-25 site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H. M.

    2001-06-05

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the K-25 site and summarizes the potential environmental impacts that could result from continued cylinder storage and preparation of cylinders for shipment at the site. It is probable that the cylinders at the K-25 site will be shipped to another site for conversion. Because conversion and long-term storage of the entire inventory at the K-25 site are highly unlikely, these data are not presented in this report. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted uranium hexafluoride inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  3. Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA seeks to recover the economic value of the material by using the resulting LEU as nuclear reactor fuel. U.S.-Russian Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement NNSA's HEU...

  4. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  5. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Gifford G. (Cincinnatti, OH); Kato, Takeo R. (Cincinnatti, OH); Schonegg, Edward (Cleves, OH)

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  6. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology The U.S. uranium ore reserves reported by EIA for specific MFC categories represent the sums of quantities estimated to occur in known deposits on properties where data...

  7. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. U.S. Forward-Cost Uranium Reserves by Mining Method, Year-End 2008 Mining Method 50 per pound 100 per pound Ore (million tons) Gradea (percent U3O8) U3O8 (million pounds) Ore...

  8. Innovative design of uranium startup fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei, Tingzhou

    2012-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors are one of the three candidates of GEN-IV fast reactors. Fast reactors play an important role in saving uranium resources and reducing nuclear wastes. Conventional fast reactors rely on transuranic ...

  9. Decommissioning of uranium mines in Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zgola, M.B. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) regulates the nuclear fuel cycle in Canada. This paper overviews the nature and function of the AECB; discusses its {open_quotes}site-specific{close_quotes} approach to regulating the decommissioning of uranium mining facilities; catalogues the location and status of inactive uranium tailings impoundments in Canada; and, summarizes the decommissioning work at the licensed Elliot Lake tailings impoundments.

  10. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  11. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

  12. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  13. Production of small uranium dioxide microspheres for cermet nuclear fuel using the internal gelation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Robert T; Collins, Jack Lee; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L; Patton, Kaara K; Hickman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a uranium dioxide (UO2)/tungsten cermet fuel for potential use as the nuclear cryogenic propulsion stage (NCPS). The first generation NCPS is expected to be made from dense UO2 microspheres with diameters between 75 and 150 m. Previously, the internal gelation process and a hood-scale apparatus with a vibrating nozzle were used to form gel spheres, which became UO2 kernels with diameters between 350 and 850 m. For the NASA spheres, the vibrating nozzle was replaced with a custom designed, two-fluid nozzle to produce gel spheres in the desired smaller size range. This paper describes the operational methodology used to make 3 kg of uranium oxide microspheres.

  14. Spain`s uranium industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-05-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power`s share of Spain`s total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain`s integration into the European Community also is affecting the country`s energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country`s domestic uranium industry.

  15. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  16. Composition, stability, and measurement of reduced uranium phases for groundwater bioremediation at Old Rifle, CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, K. M. [USGS, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Davis, J. A. [USGS, Menlo Park, CA (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States); Bargar, J. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Giammar, D. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Bernier-Latmani, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Environmental Microbiology Lab.; Kukkadapu, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, K. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States); Veramani, H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Ulrich, K. U. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States) and BGD Boden- und Grundwasserlabor GmbH Dresden (Germany); Stubbs, J. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yabusaki, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Lesher, E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Wilkins, M. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, A. [Haley and Aldrich, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Long, P. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Reductive biostimulation is currently being explored as a possible remediation strategy for uranium (U) contaminated groundwater, and is currently being investigated at a field site in Rifle, CO, USA. The long-term stability of the resulting U(IV) phases is a key component of the overall performance and depends upon a variety of factors, including rate and mechanism of reduction, mineral associations in the subsurface, and propensity for oxidation. To address these factors, several approaches were used to evaluate the redox sensitivity of U: measurement of the rate of oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite (UO{sub 2(s)}) deployed in groundwater at Rifle, characterization of a zone of natural bioreduction exhibiting relevant reduced mineral phases, and laboratory studies of the oxidative capacity of Fe(III) and reductive capacity of Fe(II) with regard to U(IV) and U(VI), respectively.

  17. RESOLUTION OF URANIUM ISOTOPES WITH KINETIC PHOSPHORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, Sarah M.; Hylden, Anne T.; Friese, Judah I.

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to test the ability of the Chemchek™ Kinetic Phosphorescence Analyzer Model KPA-11 with an auto-sampler to resolve the difference in phosphorescent decay rates of several different uranium isotopes, and therefore identify the uranium isotope ratios present in a sample. Kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA) is a technique that provides rapid, accurate, and precise determination of uranium concentration in aqueous solutions. Utilizing a pulsed-laser source to excite an aqueous solution of uranium, this technique measures the phosphorescent emission intensity over time to determine the phosphorescence decay profile. The phosphorescence intensity at the onset of decay is proportional to the uranium concentration in the sample. Calibration with uranium standards results in the accurate determination of actual concentration of the sample. Different isotopes of uranium, however, have unique properties which should result in different phosphorescence decay rates seen via KPA. Results show that a KPA is capable of resolving uranium isotopes.

  18. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Jack Zimmerman, DUF6 at the PortsmouthPaducah Project Office. DUF6 is depleted uranium hexafluoride, a byproduct of uranium enrichment that has taken place at U.S. gaseous...

  19. EA-1290: Disposition of Russian Federation Titled Natural Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to transport up to an average of 9,000 metric tons per year of natural uranium as uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from the United...

  20. ORNL/TM-2009/110 Profile of World Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2009/110 Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs--2009 April 2009 Prepared by M. D PROFILE OF WORLD URANIUM ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS--2009 M. D. Laughter Date Published: April 2009 This work

  1. Prospects for the recovery of uranium from seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Best, F. R.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program entitled URPE (Uranium Recovery Performance and Economics) has been developed to simulate the engineering performance and provide an economic analysis O of a plant recovering uranium from seawater. The ...

  2. Assessments of long-term uranium supply availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaterman, Daniel R

    2009-01-01

    The future viability of nuclear power will depend on the long-term availability of uranium. A two-form uranium supply model was used to estimate the date at which peak production will occur. The model assumes a constant ...

  3. Assessment of Waste Treatment Plant Lab C3V (LB-S1) Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Geeting, John GH

    2013-02-01

    This report documents a series of tests used to assess the proposed air sampling location in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Lab C3V (LB-S1) exhaust stack with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Federal regulations require that an air sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack in accordance with the criteria of American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

  4. Incorporation of oxidized uranium into Fe (hydr)oxides during Fe(II) catalyzed remineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nico, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    I. H. Modelling the adsorption of uranyl on the surface ofof molecularly imprinted uranyl ion exchange resins. Sep.processes in which uranyl compounds, e.g. uranyl hydroxide

  5. Incorporation of oxidized uranium into Fe (hydr)oxides during Fe(II) catalyzed remineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nico, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    uranyl on the surface of goethite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Actaby interaction with goethite, lepidocrocite, muscovite, andthe octahedral position of the goethite and magnetite formed

  6. Electron Microbeam Investigation of Uranium-Contaminated Soils from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Chen

    . Uranium(VI), which typically occurs in the uranyl (UO2 2+) ion or in uranyl complexes, dominates under

  7. Monitoring Uranium Transformations Determined by the Evolution of Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, Terence L.

    2013-07-30

    Our contribution to the larger project (ANL) was the phylogenetic analysis of evolved communities capable of reducing metals including uranium.

  8. The Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) Finite Element Meshing Discussion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) Finite Element Meshing Discussion Loring Wyllie Arne Halterman Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco

  9. Modeling Uranium-Proton Ion Exchange in Biosorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Modeling Uranium-Proton Ion Exchange in Biosorption J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V O L E, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 Biosorption of uranium metal ions by a nonliving protonated Sargassum fluitans seaweed biomass was used to remove the heavy metal uranium from the aqueous solution. Uranium biosorption

  10. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Greengard, T. |; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization.

  11. The radioactive Substances (Uranium and Thorium) Exemption Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Keith

    1962-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No.2710 ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (Uranium and Thorium) Exemption Order 1962

  12. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1992-03-17

    A process is described for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  14. Soil to plant transfer of 238 Th on a uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Soil to plant transfer of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed. Keywords: Uranium; Thorium; Radium; Tailings-contaminated soil; Soileplant transfer 1. Introduction

  15. Uranium Reduction in Sediments under Diffusion-Limited Transport of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    Uranium Reduction in Sediments under Diffusion-Limited Transport of Organic Carbon T E T S U K, Chicago, Illinois 60637 Costly disposal of uranium (U) contaminated sediments is motivating research. Introduction Uranium (U) is an important subsurface contaminant at sites associated with its mining

  16. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements Stephen T. Dye, and approved November 16, 2007 (received for review July 11, 2007) Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemi- cal model

  17. EPA Uranium Program Update Loren W. Setlow and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPA Uranium Program Update Loren W. Setlow and Reid J. Rosnick Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) Washington, DC 20460 NMA/NRC Uranium Recovery Workshop April 30, 2008 #12;2 Overview EPA Radiation protection program Uranium reports and abandoned mine lands

  18. Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUREG-1569 Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium Extraction License Applications Final Washington, DC 20555-0001 #12;NUREG-1569 Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium Extraction License OF A STANDARD REVIEW PLAN (NUREG­1569) FOR STAFF REVIEWS FOR IN SITU LEACH URANIUM EXTRACTION LICENSE

  19. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  20. Appendix IV. Risks Associated with Conventional Uranium Milling Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as in situ leaching (ISL) mining operations, to provide a more complete picture of uranium production. While this report focuses on the impacts associated with conventional surface and underground uranium mines Radioactive Materials from Uranium Mining. Volume 1: Mining and Reclamation Background" by U.S. EPA (2006

  1. SANS Measurement of Hydrides in Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spooner, S; Ludtka, G.M.; Bullock, J.S.; Bridges, R.L.; Powell, G.L.

    2001-09-04

    SANS scattering is shown to be an effective method for detecting the presence of hydrogen precipitates in uranium. High purity polycrystalline samples of depleted uranium were given several hydriding treatments which included extended exposures to hydrogen gas at two different pressures at 630 C as well as a furnace anneal at 850 C followed by slow cooling in the near absence hydrogen gas. All samples exhibited neutron scattering that was in proportion to the expected levels of hydrogen content. While the scattering signal was strong, the shape of the scattering curve indicated that the scattering objects were large sized objects. Only by use of a very high angular resolution SANS technique was it possible to make estimates of the major diameter of the scattering objects. This analysis permits an estimate of the volume fraction and means size of the hydride precipitates in uranium.

  2. U. S. forms uranium enrichment corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltzer, R.

    1993-07-12

    After almost 40 years of operation, the federal government is withdrawing from the uranium enrichment business. On July 1, the Department of Energy turned over to a new government-owned entity--the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC)--both the DOE enrichment plants at Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio, and domestic and international marketing of enriched uranium from them. Pushed by the inability of DOE's enrichment operations to meet foreign competition, Congress established USEC under the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, envisioning the new corporation as the first step to full privatization. With gross revenues of $1.5 billion in fiscal 1992, USEC would rank 275th on the Fortune 500 list of top US companies. USEC will lease from DOE the Paducah and Portsmouth facilities, built in the early 1950s, which use the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. USEC's stock is held by the US Treasury, to which it will pay annual dividends. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, which has operated Paducah since 1984 and Portsmouth since 1986 for DOE, will continue to operate both plants for USEC. Closing one of the two facilities will be studied, especially in light of a 40% world surplus of capacity over demand. USEC also will consider other nuclear-fuel-related ventures. USEC will produce only low-enriched uranium, not weapons-grade material. Indeed, USEC will implement a contract now being completed under which the US will purchase weapons-grade uranium from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons and convert it into low-enriched uranium for power reactor fuel.

  3. Aseismic design criteria for uranium enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavers, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper technological, economical, and safety issues of aseismic design of uranium enrichment plants are presented. The role of management in the decision making process surrounding these issues is also discussed. The resolution of the issues and the decisions made by management are controlling factors in developing aseismic design criteria for any facility. Based on past experience in developing aseismic design criteria for the GCEP various recommendations are made for future enrichment facilities, and since uranium enrichment plants are members of the nuclear fuel cycle the discussion and recommendations presented herein are applicable to other nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  4. Simplifying strong electronic correlations in uranium: Localized uranium heavy-fermion UM2Zn20 (M=Co,Rh) compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Jon

    Simplifying strong electronic correlations in uranium: Localized uranium heavy-fermion UM2Zn20 (M Atómica, 8400 Bariloche, Argentina 6 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware-field effects corroborate an ionic-like uranium electronic configura- tion in UM2Zn20. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.78

  5. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies associated with spent fuel oxidation (Section 5).

  6. Possibility of nuclear pumped laser experiment using low enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obara, Toru; Takezawa, Hiroki [Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2012-06-06

    Possibility to perform experiments for nuclear pumped laser oscillation by using low enriched uranium is investigated. Kinetic analyses are performed for two types of reactor design, one is using highly enriched uranium and the other is using low enriched uranium. The reactor design is based on the experiment reactor in IPPE. The results show the oscillation of nuclear pumped laser in the case of low enriched uranium reactor is also possible. The use of low enriched uranium in the experiment will make experiment easier.

  7. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Teslich, N. E.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U??Ga??, (UC)??Ga?? and U??Cs?, (UC)??Cs??, respectively.

  8. Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-15

    Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

  9. Competing retention pathways of uranium upon reaction with Fe(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massey, Michael S.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Jones, Morris; Ilton, Eugene S.; Cerrato, Jose M.; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott

    2014-10-01

    Biogeochemical retention processes, including adsorption, reductive precipitation, and incorporation into host minerals, are important in contaminant transport, remediation, and geologic deposition of uranium. Recent work has shown that U can become incorporated into iron (hydr)oxide minerals, with a key pathway arising from Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite, (Fe(OH)3•nH2O) to goethite (?-FeO(OH)); this is a possible U retention mechanism in soils and sediments. Several key questions, however, remain unanswered regarding U incorporation into iron (hydr)oxides and this pathway’s contribution to U retention, including: (i) the competitiveness of U incorporation versus reduction to U(IV) and subsequent precipitation of UO2; (ii) the oxidation state of incorporated U; (iii) the effects of uranyl aqueous speciation on U incorporation; and, (iv) the mechanism of U incorporation. Here we use a series of batch reactions conducted at pH ~7, [U(VI)] from 1 to 170 ?M, [Fe(II)] from 0 to 3 mM, and [Ca] at 0 or 4 mM) coupled with spectroscopic examination of reaction products of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation to address these outstanding questions. Uranium retention pathways were identified and quantified using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of EXAFS spectra showed that 14 to 89% of total U was incorporated into goethite, upon reaction with Fe(II) and ferrihydrite. Uranium incorporation was a particularly dominant retention pathway at U concentrations ? 50 ?M when either uranyl-carbonato or calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes were dominant, accounting for 64 to 89% of total U. With increasing U(VI) and Fe(II) concentrations, U(VI) reduction to U(IV) became more prevalent, but U incorporation remained a functioning retention pathway. These findings highlight the potential importance of U(V) incorporation within iron oxides as a retention process of U across a wide range of biogeochemical environments and the sensitivity of uranium retention processes to operative (bio)geochemical conditions.

  10. Yang, M.C. and Kara, L.B., "Sketching and pen-based design interaction," (Guest Editorial) AI EDAM-Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 26 (3): 241-243, 2012.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Maria

    - Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 26 (3): 241-243, 2012. AIEDAM-based design interaction," (Guest Editorial) AI EDAM- Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, AnalysisYang, M.C. and Kara, L.B., "Sketching and pen-based design interaction," (Guest Editorial) AI EDAM

  11. The Uranium Institute 24th Annual Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    -239 for use in subsequent reactors. A fast neutron reactor is capable of producing more plutonium fuel than the uranium fuel it burns, leading to a breeder reactor. In addition, if the reactor is a fast with half lives of 30 years or less. The fast neutron reactor of preference was to be cooled with liquid

  12. The Quest for the Heaviest Uranium Isotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schramm; D. Gridnev; D. V. Tarasov; V. N. Tarasov; W. Greiner

    2012-01-17

    We study Uranium isotopes and surrounding elements at very large neutron number excess. Relativistic mean field and Skyrme-type approaches with different parametrizations are used in the study. Most models show clear indications for isotopes that are stable with respect to neutron emission far beyond N=184 up to the range of around N=258.

  13. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; et al

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L?-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulatingmore »the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.« less

  14. Newly recognized hosts for uranium in the Hanford Site vadose zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbs, Joanne E.; Veblen, Linda A.; Elbert, David; Zachara, John M.; Davis, James A.; Veblen, David R.

    2009-03-15

    Uranium contaminated sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site have been investigated using electron microscopy. Six classes of solid hosts for uranium were identified. Preliminary sediment characterization was carried out using optical petrography, and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) was used to locate materials that host uranium. All of the hosts are fine-grained and intergrown with other materials at spatial scales smaller than the analytical volume of the electron microprobe. A focused ion beam (FIB) was used to prepare electron-transparent specimens of each host for the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The hosts were identified as: 1) metatorbernite [Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2·8H2O]; 2) coatings comprised mainly of phyllosilicates on sediment clasts; 3) an amorphous zirconium (oxyhydr)oxide found in clast coatings; 4) amorphous and poorly crystalline materials that line voids within basalt lithic fragments; 5) amorphous palagonite surrounding fragments of basaltic glass; and 6) Fe- and Mnoxides. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of combining EMPA, FIB, and TEM to identify solid-phase contaminant hosts. Furthermore, they highlight the complexity of U geochemistry in the Hanford vadose zone, and illustrate the importance of microscopic transport in controlling the fate of contaminant metals in the environment.

  15. Uranium vacancy mobility at the ?5 symmetric tilt and ?5 twist grain boundaries in UO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Andersson, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Ionic transport at grain boundaries in oxides dictates a number of important phenomena, from ionic conductivity to sintering to creep. For nuclear fuels, it also influences fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. Here, using a combination of atomistic calculations and object kinetic Monte Carlo (okMC) simulations, we examine the kinetic pathways associated with uranium vacancies at two model grain boundaries in UO2. The barriers for vacancy motion were calculated using the nudged elastic band method at all uranium sites at each grain boundary and were used as the basis of the okMC simulations. For both boundaries considered – a simplemore »tilt and a simple twist boundary – the mobility of uranium vacancies is significantly higher than in the bulk. For the tilt boundary, there is clearly preferred migration along the tilt axis as opposed to in the perpendicular direction while, for the twist boundary, migration is essentially isotropic within the boundary plane. These results show that cation defect mobility in fluorite-structured materials is enhanced at certain types of grain boundaries and is dependent on the boundary structure with the tilt boundary exhibiting higher rates of migration than the twist boundary.« less

  16. From Nanowires to Biofilms: An Exploration of Novel Mechanisms of Uranium Transformation Mediated by Geobacter Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REGUERA, GEMMA [Michigan State University

    2014-01-16

    One promising strategy for the in situ bioremediation of radioactive groundwater contaminants that has been identified by the SBR Program is to stimulate the activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms to reductively precipitate uranium and other soluble toxic metals. The reduction of U(VI) and other soluble contaminants by Geobacteraceae is directly dependent on the reduction of Fe(III) oxides, their natural electron acceptor, a process that requires the expression of Geobacter’s conductive pili (pilus nanowires). Expression of conductive pili by Geobacter cells leads to biofilm development on surfaces and to the formation of suspended biogranules, which may be physiological closer to biofilms than to planktonic cells. Biofilm development is often assumed in the subsurface, particularly at the matrix-well screen interface, but evidence of biofilms in the bulk aquifer matrix is scarce. Our preliminary results suggest, however, that biofilms develop in the subsurface and contribute to uranium transformations via sorption and reductive mechanisms. In this project we elucidated the mechanism(s) for uranium immobilization mediated by Geobacter biofilms and identified molecular markers to investigate if biofilm development is happening in the contaminated subsurface. The results provided novel insights needed in order to understand the metabolic potential and physiology of microorganisms with a known role in contaminant transformation in situ, thus having a significant positive impact in the SBR Program and providing novel concept to monitor, model, and predict biological behavior during in situ treatments.

  17. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isselhardt, Brett Hallen

    2011-01-01

    4.5 Uranium Isotope Ratio Measurements . . . . . .4.32 Uranium sputtered from three U-rich materials of varying uranium isotopic

  18. Control of structure and reactivity by ligand design : applications to small molecule activation by low-valent uranium complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Oanh Phi

    2010-01-01

    of a Charge- Separated Uranium Benzophenone Ketyl Radical3. Charge-Separation in Uranium Diazomethane ComplexesRelated Small Molecules by Uranium Coordination Complexes”,

  19. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

  20. Material property correlations for uranium mononitride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Steven Lowe

    1989-01-01

    the dilatometer method. The Taylor and McMurtry (1961) experiments were conducted in an inert atmosphere; the other two were conducted in air. As a result, specimen oxidation occurred during testing. Corrections for the oxidation of the specimens were...

  1. Thermal NF3 fluorination/oxidation of cobalt, yttrium, zirconium, and selected lanthanide oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Neiner, Doinita

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of our continuing investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as a fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by exploiting the different volatilities of the constituent fission product and actinide fluorides. This article focuses on fission products that do not have volatile fluorides or oxyfluorides at expected operations temperatures. Our thermodynamic calculations show that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to completely fluorinate fission product oxides to their fluorides. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show that the oxides of cobalt, zirconium, and the lanthanides are fluorinated but do not form volatile fluorides when treated with nitrogen trifluoride at temperatures up to 550°C. Our studies of gadolinium-doped commercial nuclear fuel indicate that nitrogen trifluoride can extract uranium from the non-volatile gadolinium.

  2. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  3. Destruction of plutonium using non-uranium fuels in pressurized water reactor peripheral assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chodak, P. III

    1996-05-01

    This thesis examines and confirms the feasibility of using non-uranium fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) radial blanket to eliminate plutonium of both weapons and civilian origin. In the equilibrium cycle, the periphery of the PWR is loaded with alternating fresh and once burned non-uranium fuel assemblies, with the interior of the core comprised of conventional three batch UO{sub 2} assemblies. Plutonium throughput is such that there is no net plutonium production: production in the interior is offset by destruction in the periphery. Using this approach a 50 MT WGPu inventory could be eliminated in approximately 400 reactor years of operation. Assuming all other existing constraints were removed, the 72 operating US PWRs could disposition 50 MT of WGPu in 5.6 years. Use of a low fissile loading plutonium-erbium inert-oxide-matrix composition in the peripheral assemblies essentially destroys 100% of the {sup 239}Pu and {ge}90% {sub total}Pu over two 18 month fuel cycles. Core radial power peaking, reactivity vs EFPD profiles and core average reactivity coefficients were found to be comparable to standard PWR values. Hence, minimal impact on reload licensing is anticipated. Examination of potential candidate fuel matrices based on the existing experience base and thermo-physical properties resulted in the recommendation of three inert fuel matrix compositions for further study: zirconia, alumina and TRISO particle fuels. Objective metrics for quantifying the inherent proliferation resistance of plutonium host waste and fuel forms are proposed and were applied to compare the proposed spent WGPu non-uranium fuel to spent WGPu MOX fuels and WGPu borosilicate glass logs. The elimination disposition option spent non-uranium fuel product was found to present significantly greater barriers to proliferation than other plutonium disposal products.

  4. Electrodic voltages accompanying stimulated bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Druhan, J.; Long, P.E.; Hubbard, S.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Banfield, J.F.

    2009-11-15

    The inability to track the products of subsurface microbial activity during stimulated bioremediation has limited its implementation. We used spatiotemporal changes in electrodic potentials (EP) to track the onset and persistence of stimulated sulfate-reducing bacteria in a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing acetate amendment. Following acetate injection, anomalous voltages approaching -900 mV were measured between copper electrodes within the aquifer sediments and a single reference electrode at the ground surface. Onset of EP anomalies correlated in time with both the accumulation of dissolved sulfide and the removal of uranium from groundwater. The anomalies persisted for 45 days after halting acetate injection. Current-voltage and current-power relationships between measurement and reference electrodes exhibited a galvanic response, with a maximum power density of 10 mW/m{sup 2} during sulfate reduction. We infer that the EP anomalies resulted from electrochemical differences between geochemically reduced regions and areas having higher oxidation potential. Following the period of sulfate reduction, EP values ranged from -500 to -600 mV and were associated with elevated concentrations of ferrous iron. Within 10 days of the voltage decrease, uranium concentrations rebounded from 0.2 to 0.8 {mu}M, a level still below the background value of 1.5 {mu}M. These findings demonstrate that EP measurements provide an inexpensive and minimally invasive means for monitoring the products of stimulated microbial activity within aquifer sediments and are capable of verifying maintenance of redox conditions favorable for the stability of bioreduced contaminants, such as uranium.

  5. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  6. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Weimin; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduction discussed. Then, the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and uranium reduction has been further explored and the important role played by hydrogenase in uranium(VI) and iron(III) reduction bymore »clostridia demonstrated. When hydrogen was provided as the headspace gas, uranium(VI) reduction occurred in the presence of whole cells of clostridia. This is in contrast to that of nitrogen as the headspace gas. Without clostridia cells, hydrogen alone could not result in uranium(VI) reduction. In alignment with this observation, it was also found that either copper(II) addition or iron depletion in the medium could compromise uranium reduction by clostridia. In the end, a comprehensive model was proposed to explain uranium reduction by clostridia and its relationship to the overall metabolism especially hydrogen (H 2 ) production. « less

  7. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  8. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isselhardt, B H

    2011-09-06

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.

  9. In-Well Sediment Incubators to Evaluate Microbial Community Stability and Dynamics following Bioimmobilization of Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Gan, M.; Resch, Charles T.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Smithgall, A. N.; Pfiffner, S.; Freifeld, Barry M.; White, D. C.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-09-23

    An in-situ incubation device (ISI) was developed in order to investigate the stability and dynamics of sediment associated microbial communities to prevailing subsurface oxidizing or reducing conditions. Here we describe the use of these devices at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site. During the 7 month deployment oxidized Rifle aquifer background sediments (RABS) were deployed in previously biostimulated wells under iron reducing conditions, cell densities of known iron reducing bacteria including Geobacteraceae increased significantly showing the microbial community response to local subsurface conditions. PLFA profiles of RABS following in situ deployment were strikingly similar to those of adjacent sediment cores suggesting ISI results could be extrapolated to the native material of the test plots. Results for ISI deployed reduced sediments showed only slight changes in community composition and pointed toward the ability of the ISIs to monitor microbial community stability and response to subsurface conditions.

  10. Greater solubility usually = greater toxicity Chromium (Cr) Six oxidation states, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    inhibitor · Migration into water supply Metals andMetals and radionuclidesradionuclides #12;Radionuclides (depleted uranium) · 4 oxidation states (+4, +6 most common) · U(VI) water-soluble, U(IV) in-soluble Metals andMetals and radionuclidesradionuclides #12;Bioremediation Bioremediation strategies for metals

  11. Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

    2013-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

  12. Contents of environmental assessments prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This document presents two versions of the outline for the environmental assessments (EAS) to be prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The first displays the basic structure of the assessments; it lists only the titles of sections. The second is a guide to the contents of the assessments which provides, under each title, a brief summary of contents. The outline is intended to comply with the planning requirements (40 CFR Part 1501) and the definitions of terms (40-' CFR Part 1508) established by the Council on Environmental Quality as well as DOE order 5440.lB (Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act), and compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR Part 1022). These requirements and definitions are implicitly part of the outline. The outline presented in this document will guide the preparation of EAs. The UMTRA Project EAs will be used in determining whether the DOE should prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact for the actions at each of the sites. If no impact statement is necessary, the environmental assessment for that site will aid the DOE in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act before beginning remedial actions. If an impact statement is needed, the assessment will aid its preparation. These purposes, established by the Council on Environmental Quality in 40 CFR Part 1508.9(a), have guided the construction of the outline presented in this document. Remedial actions at each site will include the cleanup of properties in the vicinity of the tailings sites that have been contaminated by the tailings.

  13. Contents of environmental assessments prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This document presents two versions of the outline for the environmental assessments (EAS) to be prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The first displays the basic structure of the assessments; it lists only the titles of sections. The second is a guide to the contents of the assessments which provides, under each title, a brief summary of contents. The outline is intended to comply with the planning requirements (40 CFR Part 1501) and the definitions of terms (40-` CFR Part 1508) established by the Council on Environmental Quality as well as DOE order 5440.lB (Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act), and compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR Part 1022). These requirements and definitions are implicitly part of the outline. The outline presented in this document will guide the preparation of EAs. The UMTRA Project EAs will be used in determining whether the DOE should prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact for the actions at each of the sites. If no impact statement is necessary, the environmental assessment for that site will aid the DOE in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act before beginning remedial actions. If an impact statement is needed, the assessment will aid its preparation. These purposes, established by the Council on Environmental Quality in 40 CFR Part 1508.9(a), have guided the construction of the outline presented in this document. Remedial actions at each site will include the cleanup of properties in the vicinity of the tailings sites that have been contaminated by the tailings.

  14. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} or U0{sub 3}) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250{degree}C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U0{sub 3} powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm{sup 3} and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm{sup 3}, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U0{sub 3} was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm{sup 3}, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm{sup 3} (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U0{sub 3} showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U0{sub 2} and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U0{sub 3} could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting.

  15. Uranium-Loaded Water Treatment Resins: 'Equivalent Feed' at NRC and Agreement State-Licensed Uranium Recovery Facilities - 12094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camper, Larry W.; Michalak, Paul; Cohen, Stephen; Carter, Ted [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Community Water Systems (CWSs) are required to remove uranium from drinking water to meet EPA standards. Similarly, mining operations are required to remove uranium from their dewatering discharges to meet permitted surface water discharge limits. Ion exchange (IX) is the primary treatment strategy used by these operations, which loads uranium onto resin beads. Presently, uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be disposed as a waste product or processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities if that licensed facility has applied for and received permission to process 'alternate feed'. The disposal of uranium-loaded resin is costly and the cost to amend a uranium recovery license to accept alternate feed can be a strong disincentive to commercial uranium recovery facilities. In response to this issue, the NRC issued a Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) to clarify the agency's policy that uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities without the need for an alternate feed license amendment when these resins are essentially the same, chemically and physically, to resins that licensed uranium recovery facilities currently use (i.e., equivalent feed). NRC staff is clarifying its current alternate feed policy to declare IX resins as equivalent feed. This clarification is necessary to alleviate a regulatory and financial burden on facilities that filter uranium using IX resin, such as CWSs and mine dewatering operations. Disposing of those resins in a licensed facility could be 40 to 50 percent of the total operations and maintenance (O and M) cost for a CWS. Allowing uranium recovery facilities to treat these resins without requiring a license amendment lowers O and M costs and captures a valuable natural resource. (authors)

  16. The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Marlow, Johnna B; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; Iwamoto, Tomonori; Tamura, Takayuki; Aiuchi, Syun

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

  17. In-line assay monitor for uranium hexafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, S.A.

    1980-03-21

    An in-line assay monitor for determining the content of uranium-235 in a uranium hexafluoride gas isotopic separation system is provided which removes the necessity of complete access to the operating parameters of the system for determining the uranium-235 content. The method and monitor for carrying out the method involve cooling of a radiation pervious chamber connected in fluid communication with the selected point in the system to withdraw a specimen and solidify the specimen in the chamber. The specimen is irradiated by means of an ionizing radiation source of energy different from that of the 185 keV gamma emissions from uranium-235. The uranium-235 content of the specimen is determined from comparison of the accumulated 185 keV energy counts and reference energy counts. The latter is used to measure the total uranium isotopic content of the specimen.

  18. Uranium accountancy in Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carver, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The AVLIS program pioneers the large scale industrial application of lasers to produce low cost enriched uranium fuel for light water reactors. In the process developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, normal uranium is vaporized by an electron beam, and a precisely tuned laser beam selectively photo-ionizes the uranium-235 isotopes. These ions are moved in an electromagnetic field to be condensed on the product collector. All other uranium isotopes remain uncharged and pass through the collector section to condense as tails. Tracking the three types of uranium through the process presents special problems in accountancy. After demonstration runs, the uranium on the collector was analyzed for isotopic content by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Their results were checked at LLNL by analysis of parallel samples. The differences in isotopic composition as reported by the two laboratories were not significant.

  19. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.

  20. Fayans functional for deformed nuclei. Uranium region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Tolokonnikov; I. N. Borzov; M. Kortelainen; Yu. S. Lutostansky; E. E. Saperstein

    2015-08-03

    Fayans energy density functional (EDF) FaNDF^0 has been applied to the nuclei around uranium region. Ground state characteristics of the Th, U and Pu isotopic chains, up to the two-neutron drip line, are found and compared with predictions from several Skyrme EDFs. The two-neutron drip line is found for FaNDF^0, SLy4 and SkM^* EDFs for a set of elements with even proton number, from Pb up to Fm.

  1. Fayans functional for deformed nuclei. Uranium region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolokonnikov, S V; Kortelainen, M; Lutostansky, Yu S; Saperstein, E E

    2015-01-01

    Fayans energy density functional (EDF) FaNDF^0 has been applied to the nuclei around uranium region. Ground state characteristics of the Th, U and Pu isotopic chains, up to the two-neutron drip line, are found and compared with predictions from several Skyrme EDFs. The two-neutron drip line is found for FaNDF^0, SLy4 and SkM^* EDFs for a set of elements with even proton number, from Pb up to Fm.

  2. Magnetic Exchange Coupling and Single-Molecule Magnetism in Uranium Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Jeffrey Dennis

    2010-01-01

    in molecular uranium cluster chemistry. 13 Compound 2 ischemistry and small-molecule reactivity of uranium. AmongUranium Complexes by Jeffrey Dennis Rinehart Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry

  3. Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Linfeng

    2011-01-01

    Uranium and Rare Earth Elements Using Biomass of Algae, Bioinorganic Chemistry andRecovery of uranium from sea water. Chemistry & Industry (of uranium from seawater. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 17 (

  4. CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF HYDRIDOTIS (BIS(TRIMETHYLSILYL)AMIDO]URANIUM(IV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    BIS(TRIMETHYLSILYL)AMIDO]URANIUM(IV) Richard A. Andersen,BIS(TRIMETHYLSILYL)AMIDO]URANIUM(IV) Richard A. Andersen,of thorium (IV) and uranium (IV), HM[N(SiMe ) 2] 3 , have

  5. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of phosphate on uranium(VI) adsorption to goethite-and ionic strength upon uranium(VI) sorption onto alumina asD. R. , Leslie, B. W. , Uranium sorption on a-alumina:

  6. Investigation of the electronic structure of mono(1,1?- diamidoferrocene) uranium(IV) complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duhovi?, S; Oria, JV; Odoh, SO; Schreckenbach, G; Batista, ER; Diaconescu, PL

    2013-01-01

    1,1’- Diamidoferrocene) Uranium(IV) Complexes Selma Duhovi?,mono(1,1’- diamidoferrocene) uranium complexes (NN R )UX 2 (as actinides. 17-19 For uranium, we have observed a wide

  7. Uranium Recovery from Seawater: Development of Fiber Adsorbents Prepared via Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Kim, Jungseung; Tsouris, Constantinos; Mayes, Richard; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary A.; Oyola, Yatsandra; Janke, C.; Dai, Sheng

    2014-07-09

    Uranium exists uniformly at a concentration of ~3.3 ppb in seawater. The extraction of uranium from seawater presents a very attractive alternative source of uranium for nuclear fuel needs.

  8. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints.

  9. Equation of State of Uranium and Plutonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barroso, Dalton Ellery Girão

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to define the parameters of the three-term equation of state for uranium and plutonium, appropriate for conditions in which these materials are subjected to strong shock compressions, as in cylindrical and spherical implosions. The three-term equation of state takes into account the three components of the pressure that resist to compression in the solid: the elastic or "cold" pressure (coulombian repulsion between atoms), the thermal pressure due to vibratory motion of atoms in the lattice of the solid and the thermal pressure of electrons thermally excited. The equation of state defined here permits also to take into account the variation of the specific heat with the transition of the solid to the liquid or gaseous state due to continued growth of temperature in strong shock compressions. In the definition of uranium equation of state, experimental data on the uranium compression, available in the open scientific literature, are used. In the plutonium case, this element was co...

  10. Equation of State of Uranium and Plutonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalton Ellery Girão Barroso

    2015-07-13

    The objective of this work is to define the parameters of the three-term equation of state for uranium and plutonium, appropriate for conditions in which these materials are subjected to strong shock compressions, as in cylindrical and spherical implosions. The three-term equation of state takes into account the three components of the pressure that resist to compression in the solid: the elastic or "cold" pressure (coulombian repulsion between atoms), the thermal pressure due to vibratory motion of atoms in the lattice of the solid and the thermal pressure of electrons thermally excited. The equation of state defined here permits also to take into account the variation of the specific heat with the transition of the solid to the liquid or gaseous state due to continued growth of temperature in strong shock compressions. In the definition of uranium equation of state, experimental data on the uranium compression, available in the open scientific literature, are used. In the plutonium case, this element was considered initially in the alpha-phase or stabilized in the delta-phase. In the last case, an abrupt and instantaneous transition to the alpha-phase was considered when the delta-phase plutonium is submitted to strong compressions.

  11. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, H. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  12. Chapter 3. Volume and Characteristics of Uranium Mine Wastes Uranium has been found and mined in a wide variety of rocks, including sandstone, carbonates1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3-1 Chapter 3. Volume and Characteristics of Uranium Mine Wastes Uranium has been found and mined conventional mining, solution extraction, and milling of uranium, a principal focus of this report is TENORM, or which may need future reclamation. When uranium mining first started, most of the ores were recovered

  13. Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-01

    For nuclear energy to remain sustainable in the United States, economically viable sources of uranium beyond terrestrial ores must be developed. The goal of this program is to develop advanced adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater at twice the capacity of the best adsorbent developed by researchers at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1.5 mg U/g adsorbent. A multidisciplinary team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of Texas at Austin was assembled to address this challenging problem. Polymeric adsorbents, based on the radiation grafting of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid onto high surface-area polyethylene fibers followed by conversion of the nitriles to amidoximes, have been developed. These poly(acrylamidoxime-co-methacrylic acid) fibers showed uranium adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. The essence of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area trunk material that considerably increases the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. This technology received an R&D100 Award in 2012. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Simultaneously, de novo structure-based computational design methods are being used to design more selective and stable ligands and the most promising candidates are being synthesized, tested and evaluated for incorporation onto a support matrix. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic studies are being carried out to improve the adsorption efficiency, the selectivity of uranium over other metals, and the stability of the adsorbents. Understanding the rate-limiting step of uranium uptake from seawater is also essential in designing an effective uranium recovery system. Finally, economic analyses have been used to guide these studies and highlight what parameters, such as capacity, recyclability, and stability, have the largest impact on the cost of extraction of uranium from seawater. Initially, the cost estimates by the JAEA for extraction of uranium from seawater with braided polymeric fibers functionalized with amidoxime ligands were evaluated and updated. The economic analyses were subsequently updated to reflect the results of this project while providing insight for cost reductions in the adsorbent development through “cradle-to-grave” case studies for the extraction process. This report highlights the progress made over the last three years on the design, synthesis, and testing of new materials to extract uranium for seawater. This report is organized into sections that highlight the major research activities in this project: (1) Chelate Design and Modeling, (2) Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Structure, (3) Advanced Polymeric Adsorbents by Radiation Induced Grafting, (4) Advanced Nanomaterial Adsorbents, (5) Adsorbent Screening and Modeling, (6) Marine Testing, and (7) Cost and Energy Assessment. At the end of each section, future research directions are briefly discussed to highlight the challenges that still remain to reduce the cost of extractions of uranium for seawater. Finally, contributions from the Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), which complement this research program, are included at the end of this report.

  14. The radioactive Substances (Prepared Uranium Thorium Compounds) Exemption Order 1962 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Keith

    1962-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1962 No. 2711 ATOMIC ENERGY AND RADIOACI1VE SUBSTANCES The Radioactive Substances (prepared Uranium and Thorium Compounds) Exemption Order 1962

  15. High grade uranium resources in the United States : an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Richard E.

    1974-01-01

    A time analysis of uranium exploration, production and known reserves in the United States is employed to reveal industry trends. The

  16. The Hydrogen Corrosion of Uranium: Identification of Underlying...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Hydrogen Corrosion of Uranium: Identification of Underlying Causes and Proposed Mitigation Strategies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Hydrogen Corrosion of...

  17. Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munyungano, Brodrick; Feather, Angus; Virnig, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  18. Basic characterization of highly enriched uranium by gamma spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong Tam Nguyen; Jozsef Zsigrai

    2005-08-25

    Gamma-spectrometric methods suitable for the characterization of highly enriched uranium samples encountered in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials are presented. In particular, procedures for determining the 234U, 235U, 238U, 232U and 236U contents and the age of highly enriched uranium are described. Consequently, the total uranium content and isotopic composition can be calculated. For determining the 238U and 232U contents a low background chamber was used. In addition, age dating of uranium was also performed using low-background spectrometry.

  19. Basic characterization of highly enriched uranium by gamma spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, C T

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-spectrometric methods suitable for the characterization of highly enriched uranium samples encountered in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials are presented. In particular, procedures for determining the 234U, 235U, 238U, 232U and 236U contents and the age of highly enriched uranium are described. Consequently, the total uranium content and isotopic composition can be calculated. For determining the 238U and 232U contents a low background chamber was used. In addition, age dating of uranium was also performed using low-background spectrometry.

  20. EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three locations within the Paducah site; transportation of...

  1. DOE Evaluates Environmental Impacts of Uranium Mining on Government...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    JUNCTION, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that the Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) is available to...

  2. Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into Mesoporous Silica Friday, February 27, 2015 Figure 1 Figure 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of (A)...

  3. Abandoned Uranium Mine Technical Services and Cleanup Industry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abandoned Uranium Mine Technical Services and Cleanup Industry Day In January 2015, the United States (U.S.) and the Anadarko Litigation Trust ("Litigation Trust") entered into a...

  4. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

    1995-01-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

  5. Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Toxic Substance Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (TSCA-UE- FFCA), February 20, 1992 State Kentucky Agreement Type Compliance Agreement Legal...

  6. The Uranium Processing Facility Finite Element Meshing Discussion

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) Finite Element Meshing Discussion ...Need picture of Building... October 25, 2011 Department of Energy - Natural Phenomenon Hazard Workshop 1...

  7. Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility, Major Design Changes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    440 Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF) Major Design Changes Late Lessons Learned Report Apr 2010.pdf More Documents & Publications EIS-0387: Draft Site-Wide...

  8. Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Toxic Substance Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (TSCA-UE- FFCA), February 20, 1992 State Ohio Agreement Type Compliance Agreement Legal...

  9. Method of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gooch, Jackie G. (Seymour, TN); DeMint, Amy L. (Kingston, TN)

    2012-04-24

    Methods of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil are described. The foil may be substantially pure uranium, or may be a uranium alloy such as a uranium-molybdenum alloy. The method typically includes a series of hot rolling operations on a cast plate material to form a thin sheet. These hot rolling operations are typically performed using a process where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant percentage. The sheet is typically then annealed and then cooled. The process typically concludes with a series of cold rolling passes where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant thickness amount to form the foil.

  10. President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  11. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of uranium U(VI) phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release andor...

  12. Oxidative alteration of spent fuel in a silica-rich environment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NUCLEAR FACILITIES; DISSOLUTION; HYDRATES; PERFORMANCE; SILICATES; SPENT FUELS; THERMODYNAMICS; URANINITES; URANIUM CARBONATES; URANIUM DEPOSITS; URANIUM ORES; URANYL SILICATES;...

  13. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  14. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  15. Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A K Wertsching

    2012-09-01

    As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970’s. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to provide additional confidence with the results. The actual corrosion rates of UMo fuel is very likely to be lower than assumed within this report which can be confirmed with additional testing.

  16. Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, P.

    2009-01-01

    and geochronology of the Nopal I uranium deposit, Mexico:with hydrothermally altered Nopal Formation rhyolitic tuff.uranium mineralization at the Nopal deposit include Calas (

  17. CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF HYDRIDOTIS (BIS(TRIMETHYLSILYL)AMIDO]URANIUM(IV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry University of California Berkeley, California 94720 New hydride derivatives of thorium (IV) and uranium (Chemistry CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF HYDRIDOTRIS[BIS(TRIMETHYLSILYL)AMIDO]URANIUM(

  18. Novel Transformations using Uranium and Group 5 Metal Complexes Supported by 1,1'-diamidoferrocene Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Michael Joseph

    2013-01-01

    chemistry has grown significantly in the past decade. 1 UraniumChemistry by Michael Joseph Lopez ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS Novel Transformations using Uranium

  19. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  20. EA-1172: Sale of Surplus Natural and Low Enriched Uranium, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to sell uranium for subsequent enrichment and fabrication into commercial nuclear power reactor fuel.  The uranium is currently stored...

  1. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to...

  2. Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Linfeng

    2011-01-01

    Poletiko, S. Prabhakar, P. K. Tewari, Extraction of uranium1982) 145-150. 27. P. K. Tewari, Recovery of Uranium from

  3. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  4. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOE’s efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

  5. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented.

  6. Mixed uranium dicarbide and uranium dioxide microspheres and process of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel microspheres are made by sintering microspheres containing uranium dioxide and uncombined carbon in a 1 mole percent carbon monoxide/99 mole percent argon atmosphere at 1550.degree. C. and then sintering the microspheres in a 3 mole percent carbon monoxide/97 mole percent argon atmosphere at the same temperature.

  7. Spectroscopic Evidence for Uranium Bearing Precipitates in Vadose Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of past nuclear fuel fabrication processes, uranium (U) has been recognized as one of the most widespreadHanfordsitesthatreceivedU-containingwastesduring its mission of Pu production between 1940 and 1990. Unirradiated fuel rod wastes were disposed to the 300 Area that included copper-uranium-nitric acid solutions and dissolved aluminum cladding (basic

  8. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

  9. Uranium and cesium diffusion in fuel cladding of electrogenerating channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasil’ev, I. V. Ivanov, A. S.; Churin, V. A.

    2014-12-15

    The results of reactor tests of a carbonitride fuel in a single-crystal cladding from a molybdenum-based alloy can be used in substantiating the operational reliability of fuels in developing a project of a megawatt space nuclear power plant. The results of experimental studies of uranium and cesium penetration into the single-crystal cladding of fuel elements with a carbonitride fuel are interpreted. Those fuel elements passed nuclear power tests in the Ya-82 pilot plant for 8300 h at a temperature of about 1500°C. It is shown that the diffusion coefficients for uranium diffusion into the cladding are virtually coincident with the diffusion coefficients measured earlier for uranium diffusion into polycrystalline molybdenum. It is found that the penetration of uranium into the cladding is likely to occur only in the case of a direct contact between the cladding and fuel. The experimentally observed nonmonotonic uranium-concentration profiles are explained in terms of predominant uranium diffusion along grain boundaries. It is shown that a substantially nonmonotonic behavior observed in our experiment for the uranium-concentration profile may be explained by the presence of a polycrystalline structure of the cladding in the surface region from its inner side. The diffusion coefficient is estimated for the grain-boundary diffusion of uranium. The diffusion coefficients for cesium are estimated on the basis of experimental data obtained in the present study.

  10. Case Study/ Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case Study/ Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium: Central Valley, California, USA Abstract Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge

  11. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN); Creech, Edward T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Northcutt, Walter G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-Molybdenum-Zirconium Alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woolum, Connor

    2014-12-12

    As part of a global effort to convert reactors that require highly enriched uranium to instead operate with low enriched uranium, monolithic fuel plates consisting of a U-Mo fuel meat with a zirconium foil barrier layer and clad in aluminum...

  13. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  14. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  15. Preserving Ultra-Pure Uranium-233

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-10-01

    Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium ({sup 232}Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference material for accurately quantifying and characterizing uranium-bearing materials assays and isotopic distributions for domestic and international nuclear safeguards. Separated, high purity {sup 233}U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These materials represent a broad spectrum of {sup 233}U from the standpoint of isotopic purity - the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All {sup 233}U at ORNL is currently scheduled to be disposed of by down-blending with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. This will reduce safety concerns and security costs associated with storage. Down-blending this material will permanently destroy its potential value as a certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no credible options exist for replacing {sup 233}U due to the lack of operating production capability and the high cost of restarting currently shut down capabilities. A study was commissioned to determine the need for preserving high-purity {sup 233}U. This study looked at the current supply and the historical and continuing domestic need for this crucial isotope. It examined the gap in supplies and uses to meet domestic needs and extrapolated them in the context of international safeguards and security activities - superimposed on the recognition that existing supplies are being depleted while candidate replacement material is being prepared for disposal. This study found that the total worldwide need by this projection is at least 850 g of certified {sup 233}U reference material over the next 50 years. This amount also includes a strategic reserve. To meet this need, 18 individual items totaling 959 g of {sup 233}U were identified as candidates for establishing a lasting supply of certified reference materials (CRM), all having an isotopic purity of at least 99.4% {sup 233}U and including materials up to 99.996% purity. Current plans include rescuing the purest {sup 233}U materials during a 3-year project beginning in FY 2012 in three phases involving preparations, handling preserved materials, and cleanup. The first year will involve preparations for handling the rescued material for sampling, analysis, distribution, and storage. Such preparations involve modifying or developing work control documents and physical preparations in the laboratory, which include preparing space for new material-handling equipment and procuring and (in some cases) refurbishing equipment needed for handling {sup 233}U or qualifying candidate CRM. Once preparations are complete, an evaluation of readiness will be conducted by independent reviewers to verify that the equipment, work controls, and personnel are ready for operations involving handling radioactive materials with nuclear criticality safety as well as radiological control requirements. The material-handling phase will begin in FY 2013 and be completed early in FY 2014, as currently scheduled. Material handling involves retrieving candidate CRM items from the ORNL storage facility and shipping them to another laboratory at ORNL; receiving and handling rescued items at the laboratory (including any needed initial processing, acquisition and analysis of samples from each item, and preparation for shipment); and shipping bulk material to destination labs or to a yet-to-be-designated storage location. There are seven groups of {sup 233}U identified for handling based on isotopic purity that require the utmost care to prevent cross-contamination. The last phase, cleanup, also will be completed in 2014. It involves cleaning and removing the equipment and material-handling boxes and characterizing, documenting, and disposing of waste. As part of initial planning, the cost of rescuing candidate {sup 233}U items was estimated roughly. The annualized costs were found to be $1,228K in FY 2012, $1,375K in FY 2013,

  16. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Astasia [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA and MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2011-06-28

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  18. VANE Uranium One JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZUtility Rates API Version 2(RECP)VANE Uranium One

  19. Manhattan Project: More Uranium Research, 1942

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy ofArticle)SciTechNorris Bradbury,Cubes of uranium metal, Los

  20. Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled | National Nuclear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWyko NT33004. Uranium4.

  1. Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailable forSite |n t e OfficeResearch andFacts: Uranium

  2. Uranium Marketing Annual Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasolinemonthlysummer gasolineall Uranium

  3. Subsurface microbial community structure correlates with uranium redox phases during in situ field manipulation in a contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Green, Stefan [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    Long-term field manipulation experiments investigating the effects of subsurface redox conditions on the fate and transport of soluble uranium(VI) were conducted over a 3 year period at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. In the highly contaminated source zone, introduction of ethanol to the subsurface stimulated native denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, iron-reducing and fermentative microorganisms and reduced U to below 0.03 mg/L. Subsequently, oxygen and nitrate were experimentally re-introduced into the subsurface to examine the potential for re-oxidation and re-mobilization of U(IV). Introduction of oxygen or nitrate caused changes in subsurface geochemistry and re-oxidation of U. After reoxidation, the subsurface experienced several months of starvation conditions before ethanol injection was restored to reduce the treatment zone. Subsurface microorganisms were characterized by community fingerprinting, targeted population analyses, and quantitative PCR of key functional groups in 50 samples taken during multiple phases of field manipulation. Statistical analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the microbial community would co-vary with the shifts in the subsurface geochemistry. The level of hydraulic connectivity of sampling wells to the injection well was readily tracked by microbial community analysis. We demonstrate quantitatively that specific populations, especially Desulfosporosinus, are heavily influenced by geochemical conditions and positively correlate with the immobilization of uranium. Following nitrate reoxidation, populations of Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate reducing organisms (Thiobacillus) showed an increase in relative abundance.

  4. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wai, Chien; Tian, Guoxin; Janke, Christopher

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium removal from the sorbent reaches only 80% after 10 hours of leaching. Some information regarding coordination of vanadium with amidoxime molecules and elution of vanadium from amidoxime- based sorbents is also given in the report.

  5. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  6. Electrorefining process and apparatus for recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    An electrorefining process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuel using an electrolytic cell having a lower molten cadmium pool containing spent nuclear fuel, an intermediate electrolyte pool, an anode basket containing spent fuel, and two cathodes, the first cathode composed of either a solid alloy or molten cadmium and the second cathode composed of molten cadmium. Using this cell, additional amounts of uranium and plutonium from the anode basket are dissolved in the lower molten cadmium pool, and then substantially pure uranium is electrolytically transported and deposited on the first alloy or molten cadmium cathode. Subsequently, a mixture of uranium and plutonium is electrotransported and deposited on the second molten cadmium cathode.

  7. Electrorefining process and apparatus for recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Miller, W.E.

    1987-11-05

    An electrorefining process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium from spent fuels is disclosed using an electrolytic cell having a lower molten cadmium pool containing spent nuclear fuel, an intermediate electrolyte pool, an anode basket containing spent fuels, two cathodes and electrical power means connected to the anode basket, cathodes and lower molten cadmium pool for providing electrical power to the cell. Using this cell, additional amounts of uranium and plutonium from the anode basket are dissolved in the lower molten cadmium pool, and then purified uranium is electrolytically transported and deposited on a first molten cadmium cathode. Subsequently, a mixture of uranium and plutonium is electrotransported and deposited on a second cathode. 3 figs.

  8. Potential remediation approach for uranium-contaminated groundwaters through potassium uranyl vanadate precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokunaga, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium solution-mineral equilibria at low temperatures with applications to sedimentary ore deposits.

  9. DETECTION OF ULTRA-TRACE LEVELS OF URANIUM IN AQUEOUS SAMPLES BY LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dale L.

    2012-01-01

    deposits (especially around nuclear waste repositories) requires rapid, high sensitive analytical techniques. Hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium

  10. Standard practice for the ion exchange separation of uranium and plutonium prior to isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    Standard practice for the ion exchange separation of uranium and plutonium prior to isotopic analysis

  11. Method for removing adhering or dust-like deposits in systems handling uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacher, W.; Jacob, E.

    1984-02-28

    A process is claimed for removing adhering or dust-like deposits in an apparatus which handles uranium hexafluoride. The process includes the steps of: (a) reacting the deposits with a gaseous boron halogenide other than boron trifluoride, to form at least one uranium halogenide; and (b) reacting the at least one uranium halogenide with a fluorine containing substance to form uranium hexafluoride.

  12. Complexation of Gluconate with Uranium(VI) in Acidic Solutions: Thermodynamic Study with Structural Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhicheng

    2009-01-01

    uranium is approximately one order of magnitude lower than expected, suggesting that the coordination chemistry

  13. MODELING ANISOTROPIC STRESS-STRAIN RESPONSE AND TEXTURE EVOLUTION OF -URANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihaila, Bogdan

    MODELING ANISOTROPIC STRESS-STRAIN RESPONSE AND TEXTURE EVOLUTION OF -URANIUM Marko Knezevic Metz, France, laurent.capolungo@me.gatech.edu ABSTRACT The deformation behavior of wrought -uranium, and their role on strain hardening and texture evolution in -uranium. INTRODUCTION: At room temperature -uranium

  14. Some effects of data base variations on numerical simulations of uranium migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1987-12-01

    Numerical simulations of migration of chemicals in the geosphere depend on knowledge of identities of chemical species and on values of chemical equilibrium constants supplied to the simulators. In this work, some effects of variability in assumed speciation and in equilibrium constants were examined, using migration of uranium as an example. Various simulations were done of uranium migration in systems with varying oxidation potential, pH, and mator component content. A simulation including formation of aqueous species UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/, UO/sub 2/CO/sub 3//sup 0/, UO/sub 2/(CO/sub 3/)/sub 2//sup 2 -/, UO/sub 2/(CO/sub 3/)/sub 3//sup 4 -/, (UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/CO/sub 3/(OH)/sub 3//sup -/, UO/sub 2//sup +/, U(OH)/sub 4//sup 0/, and U(OH)/sub 5//sup -/ is compared to simulation excluding formation of UO/sub 2//sup +/ and U(OH)/sub 5//sup -/. These simulations relied on older data bases, and they are compared to a further simulation using recently published data on formation of U(OH)/sub 4//sup 0/, (UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/CO/sub 3/(OH)/sub 3//sup -/, UO/sub 2/(CO/sub 3/)/sub 5//sup 5 -/, and U(CO/sub 3/)/sub 5//sup 6 -/. Significant differences in dissolved uranium concentrations are noted among the simulations. Differences are noted also in precipitation of two solids, USiO/sub 4/(c) (coffinite) and CaUO/sub 4/(c) (calcium uranate), although the solubility products of the solids were not varied in the simulations. 18 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Low temperature route to uranium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Darien, IL); Yeamans, Charles (Berkeley, CA); Hartmann, Thomas (Idaho Falls, ID); Silva, G. W. Chinthaka (Las Vegas, NV); Cerefice, Gary (Henderson, NV); Czerwinski, Kenneth R. (Henderson, NV)

    2009-09-01

    A method of preparing an actinide nitride fuel for nuclear reactors is provided. The method comprises the steps of a) providing at least one actinide oxide and optionally zirconium oxide; b) mixing the oxide with a source of hydrogen fluoride for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the oxide to a fluoride salt; c) heating the fluoride salt to remove water; d) heating the fluoride salt in a nitrogen atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the fluorides to nitrides; and e) heating the nitrides under vacuum and/or inert atmosphere for a period of time sufficient to convert the nitrides to mononitrides.

  16. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  17. RETENTION AND CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF URANIUM IN A WETLAND ON THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; CHANG, H.: SEAMAN, J.; Jaffe, P.; Groos, P.; Jiang, D.; Chen, N.; Lin, J.; Arthur, Z.; Scheckel, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2013-06-17

    Uranium speciation and retention mechanism onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction desorption tests and U L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of contaminated wetland sediments. U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH <4 and pH >8. Sequential extraction tests indicated that the U(VI) species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and NOM fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3- edge XANES spectra of the U-retained sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. The primary oxidation state of U in these sediments was as U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high U retention in the SRS wetland sediments is likely related to the chemical bonding of U to organic carbon.

  18. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  19. Heavy Ion Beam in Resolution of the Critical Point Problem for Uranium and Uranium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iosilevskiy, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Important advantages of heavy ion beam (HIB) irradiation of matter are discussed in comparison with traditional sources - laser heating, electron beam, electrical discharge etc. High penetration length (~ 10 mm) is of primary importance for investigation of dense matter properties. This gives an extraordinary chance to reach the uniform heating regime when HIB irradiation is being used for thermophysical property measurements. Advantages of HIB heating of highly-dispersive samples are claimed for providing free and relatively slow quasi-isobaric heating without fast hydrodynamic expansion of heated sample. Perspective of such HIB application are revised for resolution of long-time thermophysical problems for uranium and uranium-bearing compounds (UO2). The priorities in such HIB development are stressed: preferable energy levels, beam-time duration, beam focusing, deposition of the sample etc.

  20. Heavy Ion Beam in Resolution of the Critical Point Problem for Uranium and Uranium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Iosilevskiy; Victor Gryaznov

    2010-05-23

    Important advantages of heavy ion beam (HIB) irradiation of matter are discussed in comparison with traditional sources - laser heating, electron beam, electrical discharge etc. High penetration length (~ 10 mm) is of primary importance for investigation of dense matter properties. This gives an extraordinary chance to reach the uniform heating regime when HIB irradiation is being used for thermophysical property measurements. Advantages of HIB heating of highly-dispersive samples are claimed for providing free and relatively slow quasi-isobaric heating without fast hydrodynamic expansion of heated sample. Perspective of such HIB application are revised for resolution of long-time thermophysical problems for uranium and uranium-bearing compounds (UO2). The priorities in such HIB development are stressed: preferable energy levels, beam-time duration, beam focusing, deposition of the sample etc.

  1. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    map of the Nopal I uranium deposit, indicating the locationflow at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Peña Blanca,Chihuahua, Mexico. In: Uranium Deposits in Volcanic Rocks,

  2. Uranium and other heavy metals in the plant-animal-human food chain near abandoned mining sites and structures in an American Indian community in northwestern New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel-Nakamura, Christine

    2013-01-01

    environment of uranium deposits of the Grants region, Newan area with large uranium deposits. The area was initiallyepigenetic sandstone uranium ore deposits, the predominant

  3. Uranium and other heavy metals in the plant-animal-human food chain near abandoned mining sites and structures in an American Indian community in northwestern New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel-Nakamura, Christine

    2013-01-01

    of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the NavajoThe Navajo people and uranium mining. Albuquerque, NM:toxicity of natural uranium: A review. Reviews on

  4. Uranium 238U/235U isotope ratios as indicators of reduction: Results from an in situ biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bopp IV, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Series Geochemistry; In Uranium-Series Geochemistry; BernardIsotopic Fractionation of Uranium. Earth and Planetaryand precipitation of uranium and vanadium at low

  5. Uranium Track Team | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWyko NT33004. Uranium4. UraniumUraniumTrack

  6. TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

    2010-02-25

    The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is warranted to resolve the remaining discrepancies between the predicted mechanisms and experimental observations.

  7. Uranium-series constraints on radionuclide transport and groundwater flow at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, S.J.; Abdel-Fattah, A.I.; Murrell, M.T.; Dobson, P.F.; Norman, D.E.; Amato, R.S.; Nunn, A. J.

    2009-10-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the Nopal I uranium ore deposit were obtained to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes for a nuclear waste repository located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 are consistent with a simple physical mixing model that indicates that groundwater velocities are low ({approx}10 m/y). Uranium isotopic constraints, well productivities, and radon systematics also suggest limited groundwater mixing and slow flow in the saturated zone. Uranium isotopic systematics for seepage water collected in the mine adit show a spatial dependence which is consistent with longer water-rock interaction times and higher uranium dissolution inputs at the front adit where the deposit is located. Uranium-series disequilibria measurements for mostly unsaturated zone samples indicate that {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.005-0.48 and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.006-113. {sup 239}Pu/{sup 238}U mass ratios for the saturated zone are <2 x 10{sup -14}, and Pu mobility in the saturated zone is >1000 times lower than the U mobility. Saturated zone mobility decreases in the order {sup 238}U{approx}{sup 226}Ra > {sup 230}Th{approx}{sup 239}Pu. Radium and thorium appear to have higher mobility in the unsaturated zone based on U-series data from fractures and seepage water near the deposit.

  8. Analysis of uranium urinalysis and in vivo measurement results from eleven participating uranium mills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitz, H.B.; Simpson, J.C.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1984-05-01

    Uranium urinalysis and in vivo examination results obtained from workers at eleven uranium mills between 1978 and 1980 were evaluated. The main purpose was to determine the degree of the mills' compliance with bioassay monitoring recommendations given in the draft NRC Regulatory Guide 8.22 (USNRC 1978). The effect of anticipated changes in the draft regulatory guidance, as expressed to PNL in May 1982, was also studied. Statistical analyses of the data showed that the bioassay results did not reliably meet the limited performance criteria given in the draft regulatory guide. Furthermore, quality control measurements of uranium in urine indicated that detection limits at ..cap alpha.. = ..beta.. = 0.05 ranged from 13 ..mu..g/l to 29 ..mu..g/l, whereas the draft regulatory guidance suggests 5 ..mu..g/l as the detection limit. Recommendations for monitoring frequencies given in the draft guide were not followed consistently from mill to mill. The results of these statistical analyses indicate a need to include performance criteria for accuracy, precision, and confidence in revisions of the draft Regulatory Guide 8.22. Revised guidance should also emphasize the need for each mill to continually test the laboratory performing urinalyses by submitting quality control samples (i.e., blank and spiked urine samples as open and blind test) to insure that the performance criteria are being met. Recommendations for a bioassay audit program are also given. 25 references, 15 figures, 17 tables.

  9. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatfield, Kirk

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under controlled field conditions. In the third and fourth year a suite of larger field studies were conducted. For these studies, the uranium flux sensor was used with uranium speciation measurements and molecular-biological tools to characterize microbial community and active biomass at synonymous wells distributed in a large grid. These field efforts quantified spatial changes in uranium flux and field-scale rates of uranium attenuation (ambient and stimulated), uranium stability, and quantitatively assessed how fluxes and effective reaction rates were coupled to spatial variations in microbial community and active biomass. Analyses of data from these field experiments were used to generate estimates of Monod kinetic parameters that are ‘effective’ in nature and optimal for modeling uranium fate and transport at the field-scale. This project provided the opportunity to develop the first sensor that provides direct measures of both uranium (VI) and groundwater flux. A multidisciplinary team was assembled to include two geochemists, a microbiologist, and two quantitative contaminant hydrologists. Now that the project is complete, the sensor can be deployed at DOE sites to evaluate field-scale uranium attenuation, source behavior, the efficacy of remediation, and off-site risk. Because the sensor requires no power, it can be deployed at remote sites for periods of days to months. The fundamental science derived from this project can be used to advance the development of predictive models for various transport and attenuation processes in aquifers. Proper development of these models is critical for long-term stewardship of contaminated sites in the context of predicting uranium source behavior, remediation performance, and off-site risk.

  10. Studies of the mobility of uranium and thorium in Nevada Test Site tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.; Smith, A.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Hydro-geochemical processes must be understood if the movement of radionuclides away from a breached radioactive waste canister is to be modeled and predicted. In this respect, occurrences of uranium and thorium in hydrothermal systems are under investigation in tuff and in rhyolitic tuff that was heated to simulate the effects of introduction of radioactive waste. In these studies, high-resolution gamma spectrometry and fission-track radiography are coupled with observations of alteration mineralogy and thermal history to deduce the evidence of, or potential for movement of, U and Th in response to the thermal environment. Observations to date suggest that U was mobile in the vicinity of the heater but that localized reducing environments provided by Fe-Ti-Mn-oxide minerals concentrated U and thus attenuated its migration.

  11. US developments in technology for uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, W.J. Jr.; McGill, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review recent progress and the status of the work in the United States on that part of the fuel cycle concerned with uranium enrichment. The United States has one enrichment process, gaseous diffusion, which has been continuously operated in large-scale production for the past 37 years; another process, gas centrifugation, which is now in the construction phase; and three new processes, molecular laser isotope separation, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, plasma separation process, in which the US has also invested sizable research and development efforts over the last few years. The emphasis in this paper is on the technical aspects of the various processes, but the important economic factors which will define the technological mix which may be applied in the next two decades are also discussed.

  12. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  13. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  14. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  15. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore »melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  16. Investigation on Microbial Dissolution of Uranium (VI) from Autunite Mineral - 13421

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepulveda, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University. 10555 West Flagler St. Suite 2100, Miami Fl 33175 (United States)] [Applied Research Center, Florida International University. 10555 West Flagler St. Suite 2100, Miami Fl 33175 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Precipitating autunite minerals by polyphosphate injection was identified as a feasible remediation strategy for sequestering uranium in contaminated groundwater and soil in situ at the Hanford Site. Autunite stability under vadose and saturated zone environmental conditions can help to determine the long-term effectiveness of this remediation strategy. The Arthrobacter bacteria are one of the most common groups in soils and are found in large numbers in Hanford soil as well as other subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. Ubiquitous in subsurface microbial communities, these bacteria can play a significant role in the dissolution of minerals and the formation of secondary minerals. The main objective of this investigation was to study the bacterial interactions under oxidizing conditions with uranium (VI); study the potential role of bicarbonate, which is an integral complexing ligand for U(VI) and a major ion in groundwater compositions; and present data from autunite dissolution experiments using Arthrobacter strain G968, a less U(VI)-tolerant strain. Sterile 100 mL glass mixed reactors served as the major bioreactor for initial experimentation. These autunite-containing bioreactors were injected with bacterial cells after the autunite equilibrated with the media solution amended with 0 mM, 3 mM 5 mM and 10 mM concentrations of bicarbonate. G968 Arthrobacter cells in the amount of 10{sup 6} cells/mL were injected into the reactors after 27 days, giving time for the autunite to reach steady state. Abiotic non-carbonate controls were kept without bacterial inoculation to provide a control for the biotic samples. Samples of the solution were analyzed for dissolved U(VI) by means of kinetic phosphorescence analyzer KPA-11 (Chemcheck Instruments, Richland, WA). Analysis showed that as [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}] increases, a diminishing trend on the effect of bacteria on autunite leaching is observed. Viability of cells was conducted after 24 hours of cell incubation with the appropriate uranium and bicarbonate concentration treatment. As expected, the cells started to reduce after day 41 due to the nutritional exhaustion of the media. Moreover, viable bacteria accounted for more than 94% in the presence of 10 mM bicarbonate. Experiments showed that despite differences between the G975 and the G968 bacterial strains resistance to U(VI), in the presence of bicarbonate ions they are able to dissolute uranium from autunite mineral at the same capacity. The effect of both bacterial strains on autunite dissolution is reduced as the concentration of bicarbonate increases while the increase in soluble U(VI) concentration induced by G968 and G975 is dwarfed, for larger [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}]. (authors)

  17. Use of the UNCLE Facility to Assess Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversions at Uranium Conversion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewji, Shaheen A; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Lee, Denise L; Rauch, Eric; Hertel, Nolan

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the approach to safeguarding nuclear material in the front end of the fuel cycle was implemented only at the stage when UF6 was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. Recent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) circulars and policy papers have sought to implement safeguards when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exist. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions for a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process conducted in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP) operating at 6000 MTU/year. Monitoring instruments, including the 3He passive neutron detector developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Endress+Hauser Promass 83F Coriolis meter, have been tested at UNCLE and field tested at Springfields. The field trials demonstrated the need to perform full-scale equipment testing under controlled conditions prior to field deployment of operations and safeguards monitoring at additional plants. Currently, UNCLE is testing neutron-based monitoring for detection of noncompliant activities; however, gamma-ray source term monitoring is currently being explored complementary to the neutron detector in order to detect undeclared activities in a more timely manner. The preliminary results of gamma-ray source term modeling and monitoring at UNCLE are being analyzed as part of a comprehensive source term and detector benchmarking effort. Based on neutron source term detection capabilities, alternative gamma-based detection and monitoring methods will be proposed to more effectively monitor NUCP operations in verifying or detecting deviations from declared conversion activities.

  18. Systems studies on the extraction of uranium from seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done at MIT during FY 1981 on the overall system design of a uranium-from-seawater facility. It consists of a sequence of seven major chapters, each of which was originally prepared as a ...

  19. Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments A multi-rate expression for uranyl U(VI) surface complexation reactions has been proposed to describe diffusion-limited...

  20. Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzler, Donald R. (DeBeque, CO); Morrison, Stanley (Grand Junction, CO)

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.