Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

REVIEWS FOR IN SITU LEACH URANIUM EXTRACTION LICENSE APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review Plan (NUREG–1569) which provides guidance for staff reviews of applications to develop and operate uranium in situ leach facilities. Under the provisions of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 40 (10 CFR Part 40), Domestic Licensing of Source Material, an NRC Materials License is required to conduct uranium recovery by in situ leach extraction techniques. Applicants for a new license and operators seeking an amendment or renewal of an existing license are required to provided detailed information on the facilities, equipment, and procedures used in the proposed activities. In addition, the applicant for a new license also provides an Environmental Report that discusses the effects of proposed operations on the health and safety of the public and assesses impacts to the environment. For amendment or renewal of an existing license, the original Environmental Report is supplemented, as necessary. This information is used by the NRC staff to determine whether the proposed activities will be protective of public health and safety and the environment and to fulfill NRC responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The purpose of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG–1569) is to provide the NRC staff with guidance on performing reviews of information provided by the applicant, and to ensure a consistent quality and

In Situ; Leach Uranium; In Situ; Leach Uranium; J. Lusher

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN URANIUM RESOURCES AND PRODUCTION WITH EMPHASIS ON IN SITU LEACH MINING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resources and production with emphasis on in situ leach mining Proceedings of a technical meeting organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the

unknown authors

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. U.S. uranium concentrate production, shipments, and sales, 2003-2012" "Activity at U.S. Mills and In-Situ-Leach Plants",2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012...

4

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012" 5. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012" "In-Situ-Leach Plant Owner","In-Situ-Leach Plant Name","County, State (existing and planned locations)","Production Capacity (pounds U3O8 per year)","Operating Status at End of the Year" ,,,,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012 "Cameco","Crow Butte Operation","Dawes, Nebraska",1000000,"Operating","Operating","Operating","Operating","Operating" "Hydro Resources, Inc.","Church Rock","McKinley, New Mexico",1000000,"Partially Permitted And Licensed","Partially Permitted And Licensed","Partially Permitted And Licensed","Partially Permitted And Licensed","Partially Permitted And Licensed"

5

Total production of uranium concentrate in the United States  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status 4. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status Operating Status at the End of In-Situ-Leach Plant Owner In-Situ-Leach Plant Name County, State (existing and planned locations) Production Capacity (pounds U3O8 per year) 2012 1st Quarter 2013 2nd Quarter 2013 3rd Quarter 2013 Cameco Crow Butte Operation Dawes, Nebraska 1,000,000 Operating Operating Operating Operating Hydro Resources, Inc. Church Rock McKinley, New Mexico 1,000,000 Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Hydro Resources, Inc. Crownpoint McKinley, New Mexico 1,000,000 Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed

6

3rd Quarter 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status" 4. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status" "In-Situ-Leach Plant Owner","In-Situ-Leach Plant Name","County, State (existing and planned locations)","Production Capacity (pounds U3O8 per year)","Operating Status at End of" ,,,,2012,"1st Quarter 2013","2nd Quarter 2013","3rd Quarter 2013" "Cameco","Crow Butte Operation","Dawes, Nebraska",1000000,"Operating","Operating","Operating","Operating" "Hydro Resources, Inc.","Church Rock","McKinley, New Mexico",1000000,"Partially Permitted And Licensed","Partially Permitted And Licensed","Partially Permitted And Licensed","Partially Permitted And Licensed"

7

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012 5. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012 In-Situ-Leach Plant Owner In-Situ-Leach Plant Name County, State (existing and planned locations) Production Capacity (pounds U3O8 per year) Operating Status at End of the Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Cameco Crow Butte Operation Dawes, Nebraska 1,000,000 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Hydro Resources, Inc. Crownpoint McKinley, New Mexico 1,000,000 Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Hydro Resources,Inc. Church Rock McKinley, New Mexico 1,000,000 Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed

8

3rd Quarter 2011 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

3rd Quarter 2011 Domestic Uranium Production Report Subject: U.S ... drilling, employment, exploration, in situ leach, inventory, mill, mine, nuclear, ...

9

3rd Quarter 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 3rd Quarter 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: October 31, 2013 Next Release Date: February 2014 Mills - conventional milling 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 Mills - other operations 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 In-Situ-Leach Plants 3 5 6 6 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 5 5 6 3 4 5 5 5 Byproduct Recovery Plants 4 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 9 11 9 7 6 4 3 2 3 4 6 6 7 4 5 6 6 6 End of 2005 End of 2006 End of 2007 End of 2008 End of 2009 3 Not including in-situ-leach plants that only produced uranium concentrate from restoration. 4 Uranium concentrate as a byproduct from phosphate production. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A and Form EIA-851Q, "Domestic Uranium Production Report." End of 2010 End of 2011 End of 2012 End of 3rd Quarter 2013 1 Milling uranium-bearing ore. 2 Not milling ore, but producing uranium concentrate from other (non-ore) materials.

10

3rd Quarter 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Number of uranium mills and plants producing uranium concentrate in the United States" 2. Number of uranium mills and plants producing uranium concentrate in the United States" "Uranium Concentrate Processing Facilities","End of 1996","End of 1997","End of 1998","End of 1999","End of 2000","End of 2001","End of 2002","End of 2003","End of 2004","End of 2005","End of 2006","End of 2007","End of 2008","End of 2009","End of 2010","End of 2011","End of 2012","End of 3rd Quarter 2013" "Mills - conventional milling 1",0,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,1,0 "Mills - other operations 2",2,3,2,2,2,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,1 "In-Situ-Leach Plants 3",5,6,6,4,3,3,2,2,3,3,5,5,6,3,4,5,5,5

11

Appendix IV. Risks Associated with Conventional Uranium Milling Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as in situ leaching (ISL) mining operations, to provide a more complete picture of uranium production. While this report focuses on the impacts associated with conventional surface and underground uranium mines Radioactive Materials from Uranium Mining. Volume 1: Mining and Reclamation Background" by U.S. EPA (2006

12

Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, June-September 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents progress for the following major research projects: stabilization, engineering, and monitoring alternatives assessment for improving regulation of uranium recovery operations and waste management; attenuation of radon emission from uranium tailings; assessment of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings; and methods of minimizing ground-water contaminants from in-situ leach uranium mining.

Foley, M.G.; Deutsch, W.J.; Gee, G.W.; Hartley, J.N.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.; Nelson, R.W.; Opitz, B.E.; Peterson, S.R.; Serne, R.J.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

REFERENCES CITED IN: Draft Technical Report: Considerations Related to Post-Closure Monitoring Of Uranium In-Situ  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 2008, Cogema Mining, Inc, and Petrotek Engineering Corp. ML081060131. http://www.wise- uranium://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/ Crow Butte 2000. Mine Unit 1 Restoration Report, Crow Butte Uranium Project. Submitted to NRC January Of Uranium In-Situ Leach/In-Situ Recovery (ISL/ISR) Sites. How to obtain the references: Most

14

Total production of uranium concentrate in the United States  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Number of uranium mills and plants producing uranium concentrate in the United States 2. Number of uranium mills and plants producing uranium concentrate in the United States Uranium Concentrate Processing Facilities End of 1996 End of 1997 End of 1998 End of 1999 End of 2000 End of 2001 End of 2002 End of 2003 End of 2004 End of 2005 End of 2006 End of 2007 End of 2008 End of 2009 End of 2010 End of 2011 End of 2012 End of 3rd Quarter 2013 Mills - conventional milling1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 Mills - other operators2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 In-Situ-Leach Plants3 5 6 6 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 5 5 6 3 4 5 5 5 Byproduct Recovery Plants4 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 9 11 9 7 6 4 3 2 3 4 6 6 7 4 5 6 6 6

15

Soil to plant transfer of 238 Th on a uranium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil to plant transfer of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed The radioactive waste (e.g. tailings) produced by uranium mining activities contains a series of long

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

16

A PILOT PLANT FOR THE REDUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE TO URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE WITH TRICHLOROETHYLENE  

SciTech Connect

Pilot plant experiments are described in which trichloroethylene was used for the reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride. After unsatisfactory preliminary results with liquid phase reduction, satisfactory results were obtained with a vapor phase reduction system. It was found that vapor phase reduction at approximately 450 deg F, produced a low density product which contained only small quantities of uranium(VI); sintering the uranium tetrafluoride in a hydrogen fluoride atmosphere increased the product density to approximately 3 g/cc. The reduction was essentially complete, and the effluent gas contained less than 1 ppm of uranium hexafluoride. The purity of the uranium tetrafluoride produced was equivalent to that of the uranium hexafluoride used as feed. A complete discussion is given of the operation of the various parts of the system. (auth)

Baker, J.E.; Klaus, H.V.; Schmidt, R.A.; Smiley, S.H.

1956-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwamoto, Tomonori [JNFL; Tamura, Takayuki [JNFL; Aiuchi, Syun [JNFL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Uranium Production Report Domestic Uranium Production Report 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 Activity at U.S. Mills and In-Situ-Leach Plants 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Ore from Underground Mines and Stockpiles Fed to Mills 1 0 W W W 0 W W W W W Other Feed Materials 2 W W W W W W W W W W Total Mill Feed W W W W W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W W W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W W W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) E2,000 2,282 2,689 4,106 4,534 3,902 3,708 4,228 3,991 4,146 (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) E1,600 2,280 2,702 3,838 4,050 4,130 3,620 5,137 4,000 3,911 Deliveries (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W 3,786 3,602 3,656 2,044 2,684 2,870 3,630 Weighted-Average Price (dollars per pound U 3 O 8 ) W W W 28.98 42.11 43.81 36.61 37.59 52.36 49.63 Notes: The 2003 annual amounts were estimated by rounding to the nearest 200,000 pounds to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Totals may not equal sum of components

19

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012 2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012 Production / Mining Method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Underground (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W Open Pit (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching (thousand pounds U3O8) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W Other1 (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W Total Mine Production (thousand pounds U3O8) E2,200 2,452 3,045 4,692 4,541 3,879 4,145 4,237 4,114 4,335 Number of Operating Mines Underground 1 2 4 5 6 10 14 4 5 6 Open Pit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching 2 3 4 5 5 6 4 4 5 5 Other Sources1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1

20

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 Production / Mining Method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 (estimated contained thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W W W W W W W W (estimated contained thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W W W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) E2,200 2,452 3,045 4,692 4,541 3,879 4,145 4,237 4,114 4,335 Underground 1 2 4 5 6 10 14 4 5 6 Open Pit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching 2 3 4 5 5 6 4 4 5 5 Other Sources 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Total Mines and Sources 4 6 10 11 12 17 20 9 11 12 Other 1 Number of Operating Mines Table 2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012 Underground Open Pit In-Situ Leaching Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A, "Domestic Uranium Production Report" (2003-2012).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2012" 10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2012" "million pounds U3O8" "Uranium Reserve Estimates1 by Mine and Property Status, Mining Method, and State(s)","Forward Cost 2" ,"$0 to $30 per pound","$0 to $50 per pound","$0 to $100 per pound" "Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work","W","W",101.956759 "Properties Under Development for Production","W","W","W" "Mines in Production","W",21.40601,"W" "Mines Closed Temporarily and Closed Permanently","W","W",133.139239 "In-Situ Leach Mining","W","W",128.576534

22

ESTIMATING HISTORICAL TRICHLOROETHYLENE EXPOSURE IN A URANIUM ENRICHMENT, GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Previous studies at two uranium enrichment plants have looked at radiation exposures, but not an extensive list of chemical exposures, limiting evaluation of potential interactions.… (more)

MOSER, ADRIANE

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2012 10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2012 million pounds U3O8 Forward Cost2 Uranium Reserve Estimates1 by Mine and Property Status, Mining Method, and State(s) $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 102.0 Properties Under Development for Production W W W Mines in Production W 21.4 W Mines Closed Temporarily and Closed Permanently W W 133.1 In-Situ Leach Mining W W 128.6 Underground and Open Pit Mining W W 175.4 Arizona, New Mexico and Utah 0 W 164.7 Colorado, Nebraska and Texas W W 40.8 Wyoming W W 98.5 Total 51.8 W 304.0 1 Sixteen respondents reported reserve estimates on 71 mines and properties. These uranium reserve estimates cannot be compared with the much larger historical data set of uranium reserves that were published in the July 2010 report U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates at http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/reserves/ures.html. Reserves, as reported here, do not necessarily imply compliance with U.S. or Canadian government definitions for purposes of investment disclosure.

24

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012" 2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012" "Production / Mining Method",2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012 "Underground" "(estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8)","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W" "Open Pit" "(estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8)",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 "In-Situ Leaching" "(thousand pounds U3O8)","W","W",2681,4259,"W","W","W","W","W","W" "Other1" "(thousand pounds U3O8)","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W"

25

Uranium industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

CRITICALITY CONTROL DURING THE DISMANTLING OF A URANIUM CONVERSION PLANT  

SciTech Connect

Within the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in the Cadarache Research Center in southern France, the production at the Enriched Uranium Treatment Workshops started in 1965 and ended in 1995. The dismantling is in progress and will last until 2006. The decommissioning is planned in 2007. Since the authorized enrichment in 235U was 10% in some parts of the plant, and unlimited in others, the equipment and procedures were designed for criticality control during the operating period. Despite the best previous removing of the uranium in the inner parts of the equipment, evaluation of the mass of remaining fissile material by in site gamma spectrometry measurement shows that the safety of the ''clean up'' operations requires specific criticality control procedures, this mass being higher than the safe mass. The chosen method is therefore based on the mapping of fissile material in the contaminated parts of the equipment and on the respect of particular rules set for meeting the criticality control standards through mass control. The process equipment is partitioned in separated campaign, and for each campaign the equipment dismantling is conducted with a precise traceability of the pieces, from the equipment to the drum of waste, and the best final evaluation of the mass of fissile material in the drum. The first results show that the mass of uranium found in the dismantled equipment is less than the previous evaluation, and they enable us to confirm that the criticality was safely controlled during the operations. The mass of fissile material remaining in the equipment can be then carefully calculated, when it is lower than the minimal critical mass, and on the basis of a safety analysis, we will be free of any constraints regarding criticality control, this allowing to make procedures easier, and to speed up the operations.

LADURELLE, Laurent; LISBONNE, Pierre

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Containment and storage of uranium hexafluoride at US Department of Energy uranium enrichment plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isotopically depleted UF{sub 6} (uranium hexafluoride) accumulates at a rate five to ten times greater than the enriched product and is stored in steel vessels at the enrichment plant sites. There are approximately 55,000 large cylinders now in storage at Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Most of them contain a nominal 14 tons of depleted UF{sub 6}. Some of these cylinders have been in the unprotected outdoor storage environment for periods approaching 40 years. Storage experience, supplemented by limited corrosion data, suggests a service life of about 70 years under optimum conditions for the 48-in. diameter, 5/16-in.-wall pressure vessels (100 psi working pressure), using a conservative industry-established 1/4-in.-wall thickness as the service limit. In the past few years, however, factors other than atmospheric corrosion have become apparent that adversely affect the serviceability of small numbers of the storage containers and that indicate the need for a managed program to ensure maintenance ofcontainment integrity for all the cylinders in storage. The program includes periodic visual inspections of cylinders and storage yards with documentation for comparison with other inspections, a group of corrosion test programs to permit cylinder life forecasts, and identification of (and scheduling for remedial action) situations in which defects, due to handling damage or accelerated corrosion, can seriously shorten the storage life or compromise the containment integrity of individual cylinders. The program also includes rupture testing to assess the effects of certain classes of damage on overall cylinder strength, aswell as ongoing reviews of specifications, procedures, practices, and inspection results to effect improvements in handling safety, containment integrity, and storage life.

Barlow, C.R.; Alderson, J.H.; Blue, S.C.; Boelens, R.A.; Conkel, M.E.; Dorning, R.E.; Ecklund, C.D.; Halicks, W.G.; Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Philpot, H.E.; Taylor, M.S.; Vournazos, J.P. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States). UEO Enrichment Technical Operations Div.; Russell, J.R. [USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Melting characteristics of the stainless steel generated from the uranium conversion plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The partition ratio of cerium (Ce) and uranium (U) in the ingot, slag and dust phases has been investigated for the effect of the slag type, slag concentration and basicity in an electric arc melting process. An electric arc furnace (EAF) was used to melt the stainless steel wastes, simulated by uranium oxide and the real wastes from the uranium conversion plant in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The composition of the slag former used to capture the contaminants such as uranium, cerium, and cesium during the melt decontamination process generally consisted of silica (SiO{sub 2}), calcium oxide (CaO) and aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Also, Calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2} ), nickel oxide (NiO), and ferric oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were added to provide an increase in the slag fluidity and oxidative potential. Cerium was used as a surrogate for the uranium because the thermochemical and physical properties of cerium are very similar to those of uranium. Cerium was removed from the ingot phase to slag phase by up to 99% in this study. The absorption ratio of cerium was increased with an increase of the amount of the slag former. And the maximum removal of cerium occurred when the basicity index of the slag former was 0.82. The natural uranium (UO{sub 2}) was partitioned from the ingot phase to the slag phase by up to 95%. The absorption of the natural uranium was considerably dependent on the basicity index of the slag former and the composition of the slag former. The optimum condition for the removal of the uranium was about 1.5 for the basicity index and 15 wt% of the slag former. According to the increase of the amount of slag former, the absorption of uranium oxide in the slag phase was linearly increased due to an increase of its capacity to capture uranium oxide within the slag phase. Through experiments with various slag formers, we verified that the slag formers containing calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) and a high amount of silica were more effective for a melt decontamination of stainless steel wastes contaminated with uranium. During the melting tests with stainless steel wastes from the uranium conversion plant(UCP ) in KAERI, we found that the results of the uranium decontamination were very similar to those of the uranium oxide from the melting of stimulated metal wastes. (authors)

Choi, W.K.; Song, P.S.; Oh, W.Z.; Jung, C.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Min, B.Y. [Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yusung-Gu Taejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Criteria for the safe storage of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

Uranium storage practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have evolved over a period spanning five decades of programmatic work in support of the nuclear deterrent mission. During this period, the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee has served as the principal enriched uranium facility for fabrication, chemical processing, metallurgical processing and storage. Recent curtailment of new nuclear weapons production and stockpile reduction has created significant amounts of enriched uranium available as a strategic resource which must be properly and safely stored. This standard specifies criteria associated with the safe storage of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant. Because programmatic needs, compliance regulations and desirable materials of construction change with time, it is recommended that these standards be reviewed and amended periodically to ensure that they continue to serve their intended purpose.

Cox, S.O.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Position paper Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant storage of uranium in plastics  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the end of the Cold War, the United States nuclear weapon stockpile is being reduced from approximately 20,000 warheads to fewer than 10,000 by the end of the century. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is the Department of Energy (DOE) site charged with the responsibility of providing safe, secure storage for the uranium recovered from these weapons. In addition to weapons material, Y-12 has traditionally processed and stored uranium from nonweapon programs and presumably will continue to do so. The purpose of this document is to evaluate the suitability of plastics for use in the containment of uranium.

Duerksen, W.K.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Uranium Production Report Domestic Uranium Production Report 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 million pounds U 3 O 8 $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 102.0 Properties Under Development for Production W W W Mines in Production W 21.4 W Mines Closed Temporarily and Closed Permanently W W 133.1 In-Situ Leach Mining W W 128.6 Underground and Open Pit Mining W W 175.4 Arizona, New Mexico and Utah 0 W 164.7 Colorado, Nebraska and Texas W W 40.8 Wyoming W W 98.5 Total 51.8 W 304.0 W = Data withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A, "Domestic Uranium Production Report"

32

Surface Decontamination of System Components in Uranium Conversion Plant at KAERI  

SciTech Connect

A chemical decontamination process using nitric acid solution was selected as in-situ technology for recycle or release with authorization of a large amount of metallic waste including process system components such as tanks, piping, etc., which is generated by dismantling a retired uranium conversion plant at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The applicability of nitric acid solution for surface decontamination of metallic wastes contaminated with uranium compounds was evaluated through the basic research on the dissolution of UO2 and ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) powder. Decontamination performance was verified by using the specimens contaminated with such uranium compounds as UO2 and AUC taken from the uranium conversion plant. Dissolution rate of UO2 powder is notably enhanced by the addition of H2O2 as an oxidant even in the condition of a low concentration of nitric acid and low temperature compared with those in a nitric acid solution without H2O2. AUC powders dissolve easily in nitric acid solutions until the solution pH attains about 2.5 {approx} 3. Above that solution pH, however, the uranium concentration in the solution is lowered drastically by precipitation as a form of U3(NH3)4O9 . 5H2O. Decontamination performance tests for the specimens contaminated with UO2 and AUC were quite successful with the application of decontamination conditions obtained through the basic studies on the dissolution of UO2 and AUC powders.

Choi, W. K.; Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Oh, W. Z.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

A major assessment was made of the uranium resources in seawater. Several concepts for moving seawater to recover the uranium were investigated, including pumping the seawater and using natural ocean currents or tides directly. The optimal site chosen was on the southeastern Puerto Rico coast, with the south U.S. Atlantic coast as an alternate. The various processes for extracting uranium from seawater were reviewed, with the adsorption process being the most promising at the present time. Of the possible adsorbents, hydrous titanium oxide was found to have the best properties. A uranium extraction plant was conceptually designed. Of the possible methods for contacting the seawater with the adsorbent, a continuous fluidized bed concept was chosen as most practical for a pumped system. A plant recovering 500 tonnes of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ per year requires 5900 cubic meters per second of seawater to be pumped through the adsorbent beds for a 70% overall recovery efficiency. Total cost of the plant was estimated to be about $6.2 billion. A computer model for the process was used for parametric sensitivity studies and economic projections. Several design case variations were developed. Other topics addressed were the impact of co-product recovery, environmental considerations, etc.

Campbell, M.H.; Frame, J.M.; Dudey, N.D.; Kiel, G.R.; Mesec, V.; Woodfield, F.W.; Binney, S.E.; Jante, M.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Clark, G.T.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

International safeguards at the feed and withdrawal area of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at a model gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant designed for the production of low-enriched uranium; particular emphasis is placed upon the verification by the IAEA of the facility material balance accounting. After reviewing the IAEA safeguards objectives and concerns at such a plant, the paper describes the material accountancy performed by the facility operator, and discusses strategies by which the operator might attempt to divert a portion of the declared nuclear materials. Finally, the paper discusses the verification of the declared material balance, including sampling strategies, attributes and variables measurements, and nondestructive measurements to improve the efficiency of the inspection measures.

Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cost update technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to update the cost estimates developed in a previous report, NUREG/CR-1757 (Elder 1980) for decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant from the original mid-1981 dollars to values representative of January 1993. The cost updates were performed by using escalation factors derived from cost index trends over the past 11.5 years. Contemporary price quotes wee used for costs that have increased drastically or for which is is difficult to find a cost trend. No changes were made in the decommissioning procedures or cost element requirements assumed in NUREG/CR-1757. This report includes only information that was changed from NUREG/CR-1757. Thus, for those interested in detailed descriptions and associated information for the reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant, a copy of NUREG/CR-1757 will be needed.

Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OFFICE OF DEPLETED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE MANAGEMENT Issuance Of Final Report On Preconceptual Designs For Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants The Department of Energy...

38

What is Depleted Uranium?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What is Uranium? What is Uranium? Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects What is Uranium? Physical and chemical properties, origin, and uses of uranium. Properties of Uranium Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in varying but small amounts in soil, rocks, water, plants, animals and all human beings. It is the heaviest naturally occurring element, with an atomic number of 92. In its pure form, uranium is a silver-colored heavy metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead. In nature, uranium atoms exist as several isotopes, which are identified by the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus: uranium-238, uranium-235, and uranium-234. (Isotopes of an element have the

39

Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants  

SciTech Connect

One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on the conversion process, preconceptual plant description, rough capital and operating costs, and preliminary project schedule.

Jones, E

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

BIO-MONITORING FOR URANIUM USING STREAM-SIDE TERRESTRIAL PLANTS AND MACROPHYTES  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the abilities of various plant species to act as bio-monitors for environmental uranium (U) contamination. Vegetation and soil samples were collected from a U processing facility. The water-way fed from facility storm and processing effluents was the focal sample site as it represented a primary U transport mechanism. Soils and sediments from areas exposed to contamination possessed U concentrations that averaged 630 mg U kg{sup -1}. Aquatic mosses proved to be exceptional accumulators of U with dry weight (dw) concentrations measuring as high as 12500 mg U kg{sup -1} (approximately 1% of the dw mass was attributable to U). The macrophytes (Phragmites communis, Scripus fontinalis and Sagittaria latifolia) were also effective accumulators of U. In general, plant roots possessed higher concentrations of U than associated upper portions of plants. For terrestrial plants, the roots of Impatiens capensis had the highest observed levels of U accumulation (1030 mg kg{sup -1}), followed by the roots of Cyperus esculentus and Solidago speciosa. The concentration ratio (CR) characterized dry weight (dw) vegetative U levels relative to that in associated dw soil. The plant species that accumulated U at levels in excess of that found in the soil were: P. communis root (CR, 17.4), I. capensis root (CR, 3.1) and S. fontinalis whole plant (CR, 1.4). Seven of the highest ten CR values were found in the roots. Correlations with concentrations of other metals with U were performed, which revealed that U concentrations in the plant were strongly correlated with nickel (Ni) concentrations (correlation: 0.992; r-squared: 0.984). Uranium in plant tissue was also strongly correlated with strontium (Sr) (correlation: 0.948; r-squared: 0.899). Strontium is chemically and physically similar to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), which were also positively-correlated with U. The correlation with U and these plant nutrient minerals, including iron (Fe), suggests that active uptake mechanisms may influence plant U accumulation.

Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Hicks, T.; Coughlin, D.; Hicks, R.; Dixon, E.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

42

History of Uranium-233(sup233U)Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant. In support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the processing of Uranium-233 at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site). The information may be used to meet Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)and for determining potential Uranium-233 content in applicable residue waste streams.

Moment, R.L.; Gibbs, F.E.; Freiboth, C.J.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio, is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched uranium than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the is documented in Reference 4.

Becker, D.L.; Green, D.J.; Lindquist, M.R.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0.88 million, the annual maintenance and surveillance cost is estimated to be about $0.095 million, and deferred decontamination is estimated to cost about $6.50 million. Therefore, passive SAFSTOR for 10 years is estimated to cost $8.33 million in nondiscounted 1981 dollars. DECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to cost about $4.59 million, with an annual cost of $0.011 million for long-term care. All of these estimates include a 25% contingency. Waste management costs for DECON, including the net cost of disposal of the solvent extraction lagoon wastes by shipping those wastes to a uranium mill for recovery of residual uranium, comprise about 38% of the total decommissioning cost. Disposal of lagoon waste at a commercial low-level waste burial ground is estimated to add $10.01 million to decommissioning costs. Safety analyses indicate that radiological and nonradiological safety impacts from decommissioning activities should be small. The 50-year committed dose equivalent to members of the public from airborne releases during normal decommissioning activities is estimated to 'Je about 4.0 man-rem. Radiation doses to the public from accidents are found to be very low for all phases of decommissioning. Occupational radiation doses from normal decommissioning operations (excluding transport operations) are estimated to be about 79 man-rem for DECON and about 80 man-rem for passive SAFSTOR with 10 years of safe storage. Doses from DECON with lagoon waste stabilization are about the same as for DECON except there is less dose resulting from transportation of radioactive waste. The number of fatalities and serious lost-time injuries not related to radiation is found to be very small for all decommissioning alternatives. Comparison of the cost estimates shows that DECON with lagoon waste stabilization is the least expensive method. However, this alternative does not allow unrestricted release of the site. The cumulative cost of maintenance and surveillance and the higher cost of deferred decontamination makes passive SAFSTOR more expensive than DECON. Seve

Elder, H. K.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

FAQ 6-What is depleted uranium?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depleted uranium? What is depleted uranium? Depleted uranium is created during the processing that is done to make natural uranium suitable for use as fuel in nuclear power plants...

47

Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants  

SciTech Connect

Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

Swindle, D.W.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES: EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPROVING SAFEGUARDS AT GAS-CENTRIFUGE URANIUM-ENRICHMENT PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) have engendered a growing interest among international safeguards experts. Potentially, RFIDs could reduce inspection work, viz. the number of inspections, number of samples, and duration of the visits, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards. This study systematically examined the applications of RFIDs for IAEA safeguards at large gas-centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). These analyses are expected to help identify the requirements and desirable properties for RFIDs, to provide insights into which vulnerabilities matter most, and help formulate the required assurance tests. This work, specifically assesses the application of RFIDs for the ''Option 4'' safeguards approach, proposed by Bruce Moran, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for large gas-centrifuge uranium-enrichment plants. The features of ''Option 4'' safeguards include placing RFIDs on all feed, product and tails (F/P/T) cylinders, along with WID readers in all FP/T stations and accountability scales. Other features of Moran's ''Option 4'' are Mailbox declarations, monitoring of load-cell-based weighing systems at the F/P/T stations and accountability scales, and continuous enrichment monitors. Relevant diversion paths were explored to evaluate how RFIDs improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards. Additionally, the analysis addresses the use of RFIDs in conjunction with video monitoring and neutron detectors in a perimeter-monitoring approach to show that RFIDs can help to detect unidentified cylinders.

JOE,J.

2007-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

49

Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

50

Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

51

Uranium from phosphate ores  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

Hurst, F.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

RADIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR LICENSE TERMINATION OF URANIUM RECOVERY FACILITIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiological criteria for building surfaces and radionuclides other than radium in soil, for termination of uranium recovery licenses. SUMMARY: In a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) on SECY-98-084, dated August 11, 1998 (Attachment 1), the Commission indicated that it did not object to the staff's recommendation to use the radium benchmark dose in developing a final rule applicable to uranium recovery licensees. The final rule addresses radiological criteria for decommissioning land and buildings required for license termination for uranium recovery facilities, e.g., uranium mills and in situ leach facilities (ISLs). The final rule will provide a clear and consistent regulatory basis for determining the extent to which lands and structures can be considered to be decommissioned. BACKGROUND: On August 22, 1994 (59 FR 43200), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published a proposed rule for comment in the Federal Register, to amend 10 CFR Part 20, "Standards for Protection Against Radiation, " to include radiological criteria for decommissioning as subpart E. The proposed rule applied to uranium mill facilities and other NRC licensees, but did not apply to mill tailings disposal or to soil radium cleanup at mills because the radiological criteria for these activities are regulated under 10 CFR Part 40, Appendix A. Some commenters recommended that the rule exempt conventional thorium and uranium mill facilities and ISLs. In SECY-97-046A, dated March 28, 1997, entitled "Final Rule on Radiological Criteria for License Termination, " the staff recommended that the final rule indicate that for uranium and thorium mill facilities the cleanup of radionuclides other than radium from soil and buildings must result in a dose no greater than the dose resulting from the cleanup of radium-contaminated soil (benchmark

William D. Travers /s

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Uranium Enrichment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enrichment Depleted Uranium line line Uranium Enrichment Depleted Uranium Health Effects Uranium Enrichment A description of the uranium enrichment process, including gaseous...

54

Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect

For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Nuclear criticality safety controls for uranium deposits during D and D at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management has issued a challenge to complete DOE environmental cleanup within a decade. The response for Oak Ridge facilities is in accordance with the DOE ten-year plan which calls for completion of > 95% of environmental management work by the year 2006. This will result in a 99% risk reduction and in a significant savings in base line costs in waste management (legacy waste); remedial action (groundwater, soil, etc.); and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). It is assumed that there will be long-term institutional control of cascade equipment, i.e., there will be no walk away from sites, and that there will be firm radioactivity release limits by 1999 for recycle metals. An integral part of these plants is the removal of uranium deposits which pose nuclear criticality safety concerns in the shut down of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. DOE has initiated the Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program to improve nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger uranium deposits from unfavorable geometry equipment. Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements have identified the location of these deposits. The objective of the K-25 Site Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program is to remove and place uranium deposits into safe geometry storage containers to meet the double contingency principle. Each step of the removal process results in safer conditions where multiple controls are present. Upon completion of the Program, nuclear criticality risks will be greatly reduced.

Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jollay, L.J. III; Dahl, T.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Signatures and Methods for the Automated Nondestructive Assay of UF6 Cylinders at Uranium Enrichment Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of manpower and assay accuracy. Such a station would use sensors that can be operated in an unattended mode at an industrial facility: medium-resolution scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy (e.g., NaI(Tl)) and moderated He-3 neutron detectors. This sensor combination allows the exploitation of additional, more-penetrating signatures beyond the traditional 185-keV emission from U-235: neutrons produced from F-19(?,n) reactions (spawned primarily from U 234 alpha emission) and high-energy gamma rays (extending up to 8 MeV) induced by neutrons interacting in the steel cylinder. This paper describes a study of these non-traditional signatures for the purposes of cylinder enrichment verification. The signatures and the radiation sensors designed to collect them are described, as are proof-of-principle cylinder measurements and analyses. Key sources of systematic uncertainty in the non-traditional signatures are discussed, and the potential benefits of utilizing these non-traditional signatures, in concert with an automated form of the traditional 185-keV-based assay, are discussed.

Smith, Leon E.; Mace, Emily K.; Misner, Alex C.; Shaver, Mark W.

2010-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

58

Uranium Purchases Report  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Final issue. This report details natural and enriched uranium purchases as reported by owners and operators of commercial nuclear power plants. 1996 represents the most recent publication year.

Douglas Bonnar

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

An assessment of plant biointrusion at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project rock-covered disposal cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is one of a number of special studies that have been conducted regarding various aspects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This special study was proposed following routine surveillance and maintenance surveys and observations reported in a special study of vegetative covers (DOE, 1988), in which plants were observed growing up through the rock erosion layer at recently completed disposal cells. Some of the plants observed were deep-rooted woody species, and questions concerning root intrusion into disposal cells and the need to control plant growth were raised. The special study discussed in this report was designed to address some of the ramifications of plant growth on disposal cells that have rock covers. The NRC has chosen rock covers over vegetative covers in the arid western United States because licenses cannot substantiate that the vegetative covers will be significantly greater than 30 percent and preferably 70 percent,'' which is the amount of vegetation required to reduce flow to a point of stability.'' The potential impacts of vegetation growing in rock covers are not addressed by the NRC (1990). The objectives, then, of this study were to determine the species of plants growing on two rock-covered disposal cells, study the rooting pattern of plants on these cells, and identify possible impacts of plant root penetration on these and other UMTRA Project rock-covered cells.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Remediation and Recovery of Uranium from Contaminated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uranium containing the mixture of isotopes occurring in nature; uranium depleted in the isotope 235; Depleted uranium 1000 kilograms; and Thorium 1000 kilograms. #12;INFCIRC/254/Rev.9/Part.1 November 2007 Annex B, section 4.); 2.5. Plants for the separation of isotopes of natural uranium, depleted uranium

Lovley, Derek

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depleted Uranium Depleted Uranium Depleted Uranium line line Uranium Enrichment Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Depleted uranium is uranium that has had some of its U-235 content removed. Over the last four decades, large quantities of uranium were processed by gaseous diffusion to produce uranium having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the 0.72% that occurs naturally (called "enriched" uranium) for use in U.S. national defense and civilian applications. "Depleted" uranium is also a product of the enrichment process. However, depleted uranium has been stripped of some of its natural uranium-235 content. Most of the Department of Energy's (DOE) depleted uranium inventory contains between 0.2 to 0.4 weight-percent uranium-235, well

62

Nuclear & Uranium  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel ... nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy. Comprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections ...

63

Evaluation of a RF-Based Approach for Tracking UF6 Cylinders at a Uranium Enrichment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally to handle and store uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming physical inspections to verify operator declarations and detect possible diversion of UF{sub 6}. Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant system for near real-time tracking and monitoring UF{sub 6} cylinders (as they move within an enrichment facility) would greatly improve the inspector function. This type of system can reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a proof-of-concept approach that was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using radio frequency (RF)-based technologies to track individual UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout a portion of their life cycle, and thus demonstrate the potential for improved domestic accountability of materials, and a more effective and efficient method for application of site-level IAEA safeguards. The evaluation system incorporates RF-based identification devices (RFID) which provide a foundation for establishing a reliable, automated, and near real-time tracking system that can be set up to utilize site-specific, rules-based detection algorithms. This paper will report results from a proof-of-concept demonstration at a real enrichment facility that is specifically designed to evaluate both the feasibility of using RF to track cylinders and the durability of the RF equipment to survive the rigors of operational processing and handling. The paper also discusses methods for securely attaching RF devices and describes how the technology can effectively be layered with other safeguard systems and approaches to build a robust system for detecting cylinder diversion. Additionally, concepts for off-site tracking of cylinders are described.

Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL; Kovacic, Donald N [ORNL; Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; Hines, Jairus B [ORNL; Boyer, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Martinez, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead May 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. The depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant in Paducah. The depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant in Paducah. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. The operating room at a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant. The operating room at a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant. Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. The depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant in Paducah. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride.

66

Criticality prevention specifications thorium--uranium-233 separations in the Purex Plant  

SciTech Connect

The specifications in this document define the limits or restrictions required to maintain an acceptably low probability of the occurrence of a nuclear chain reaction in the Purex Plant while processing irradiated thoria targets. These criticality prevention specifications do not stipulate the system, procedures, or mechanisms to permit operation within the limits or restrictions. (LK)

Matheison, W.E.; Oberg, G.C.; Ritter, G.L.

1970-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Assessment of the Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office Conduct of Operations Oversight of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants, May 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assessment of the Assessment of the Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office Conduct of Operations Oversight of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants May 2012 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

68

Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Assessment of the Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office Conduct of Operations Oversight of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants, May 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment of the Assessment of the Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office Conduct of Operations Oversight of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants May 2012 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

70

Risk Perceptions of Adults in the Town of Unicoi, Tennessee, Regarding the Possible Building of a Uranium Enrichment Plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A prolonged siting controversy for a uranium enrichment facility has occurred in the Town of Unicoi, Tennessee. One hundred-seventy residents of Unicoi were interviewed using… (more)

Sellards, Shannon Kathleen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

recycled_uranium.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Recycled Uranium and Transuranics: Recycled Uranium and Transuranics: Their Relationship to Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Introduction Historical Perspective On August 8, 1999, Energy Secretary Bill Richardson announced a comprehensive set of actions to address issues raised at the Paducah, Kentucky, Gaseous Diffusion Plant that may have had the potential to affect the health of the workers. One of the issues addressed the need to determine the extent and significance of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements in the uranium feed and waste products throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national complex. Subsequently, a DOE agency-wide Recycled Uranium Mass Balance Project (RUMBP) was initiated. For the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant (WSUFMP or later referred to as Weldon Spring),

72

Measurement of the enrichment of uranium in the pipework of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant  

SciTech Connect

The US and UK have been separately working on the development of a NDA instrument to determine the enrichment of gaseous UF/sub 6/ at low pressures in cascade header pipework in line with the conclusions of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project viz. the instrument is capable of making a ''go/no go'' decision of whether the enrichment is less than/greater than 20%. Recently, there has been a series of very useful technical exchanges of ideas and information between the two countries. This has led to a technical formulation for such an instrumentation based on ..gamma..-ray spectrometry which, although plant-specific in certain features, nevertheless is based on the same physical principles. Experimental results from commercially operating enrichment plants are very encouraging and indicate that a complete measurement including set up time on the pipe should be attainable in about 30 minutes when measuring pipes of diameter around 110 mm. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Packer, T.W.; Lees, E.W.; Close, D.; Nixon, K.V.; Pratt, J.C.; Strittmatter, R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Feasibility studies to establish at the Kazakhstan Ulba metallurgical plant the manufacturing capability to produce low-enriched uranium certified reference materials  

SciTech Connect

One of the salient features of the transition plan that the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is presently implementing in the Former Soviet Union countries is the availability of uranium certified reference materials for calibration of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement equipment. To address this challenge, DOE/NNSA and U.S. national laboratories have focused their cooperative efforts on establishing a reliable source for manufacturing, certifying, and supplying of such standards. The Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP), Kazakhstan, which processes large quantities of low-enriched uranium to produce ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear-powered reactors, is well situated to become a key supplier of low-enriched uranium certified reference materials for the country and Central Asia region. We have recently completed Phase I of a feasibility study to establish at UMP capabilities of manufacturing these standards. In this paper we will discuss details of a proposed methodology for uranium down-blending, material selection and characterization, and a proposed methodology of measurement by destructive (DA) and non-destructive (NDA) analysis to form a database for material certification by the competent State authorities in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, we will discuss the prospect for manufacturing of such standards at UMP.

Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nesuhoff, J [NBL; Cratto, P [NBL; Pfennigwerth, G [Y12 NATIONAL SEC. COMPLEX; Mikhailenko, A [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Maliutina, I [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Nations, J [GREGG PROTECTION SERVICES

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Uranium from phosphate ores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phosphate rock, the major raw material for phosphate fertilizers, contains uranium that can be recovered when the rock is processed. This makes it possible to produce uranium in a country that has no uranium ore deposits. The author briefly describes the way that phosphate fertilizers are made, how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry, and how to detect uranium recovery operations in a phosphate plant. Uranium recovery from the wet-process phosphoric acid involves three unit operations: (1) pretreatment to prepare the acid; (2) solvent extraction to concentrate the uranium; (3) post treatment to insure that the acid returning to the acid plant will not be harmful downstream. There are 3 extractants that are capable of extracting uranium from phosphoric acid. The pyro or OPPA process uses a pyrophosphoric acid that is prepared on site by reacting an organic alcohol (usually capryl alcohol) with phosphorous pentoxide. The DEPA-TOPO process uses a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO). The components can be bought separately or as a mixture. The OPAP process uses octylphenyl acid phosphate, a commercially available mixture of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids. All three extractants are dissolved in kerosene-type diluents for process use.

Hurst, F.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Long-term biobarriers to plant and animal intrusions of uranium tailings. [24% trifluralin, 18% carbon black, and 58% polymer  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of physical and chemical barriers designed to prevent plant and animal breachment of uranium mill tailings containment systems for an extended period of time. A polymeric carrier/biocide delivery system was developed and tested in the laboratory, greenhouse and field. A continuous flow technique was established to determine the release rates of the biocides from the PCD systems; polymeric carrier specifications were established. Studies were conducted to determine effective biocide concentrations required to produce a phytotoxic response and the relative rates of phytotoxin degradation resulting from chemical and biological breakdown in soils. The final PCD system developed was a pelletized system containing 24% trifluralin, 18% carbon black and 58% polymer. Pellets were placed in the soil at the Grand Junction U-tailings site at one in. and two in. intervals. Data obtained in the field determined that the pellets released enough herbicide to the soil layer to stop root elongation past the barrier. Physical barriers to subsurface movement of burrowing animals were investigated. Small crushed stone (1 to 1 1/2 in. diameter) placed over asphalt emulsion and multilayer soil seals proved effective as barriers to a small mammal (ground squirrels) but were not of sufficient size to stop a larger animal (the prairie dog). No penetrations were made through the asphalt emulsion or the clay layer of the multilayer soil seals by either of the two mammals tested. A literature survey was prepared and published on the burrowing habits of the animals that may be found at U-tailings sites.

Cline, J.F.; Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Gano, K.A.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Uranium Management and Policy | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium Management and Policy Uranium Management and Policy The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant is located 3 miles south of the Ohio River and is 12 miles west of Paducah,...

78

Uranium and Its Compounds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Its Compounds Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects...

79

India's Worsening Uranium Shortage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

Curtis, Michael M.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Distribution of uranium-bearing phases in soils from Fernald  

SciTech Connect

Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils and the Fernald Site, Ohio. Uranium particulates have been deposited on the soil through chemical spills and from the operation of an incinerator plant on the site. The major uranium phases have been identified by electron microscopy as uraninite, autunite, and uranium phosphite [U(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}]. Some of the uranium has undergone weathering resulting in the redistribution of uranium within the soil.

Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

URANIUM ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A uranium alloy is reported containing from 0.1 to 5 per cent by weight of molybdenum and from 0.1 to 5 per cent by weight of silicon, the balance being uranium.

Colbeck, E.W.

1959-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

82

The U.S. relies on foreign uranium, enrichment services to fuel ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The U.S. relies on foreign uranium, enrichment services to fuel its nuclear power plants. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Uranium Marketing Annual Report.

83

Pyrolitic Uranium Compound (PYRUC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pyrolitic Uranium Compound Pyrolitic Uranium Compound (PYRUC) PYRolitic Uranium Compound (PYRUC) is a shielding material consisting of depleted uranium UO2 or UC in either pellet...

84

Executive Director for Operations STATUS OF EFFORTS TO FINALIZE REGULATIONS FOR RADIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR LICENSE TERMINATION:URANIUM RECOVERY FACILITIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides information to the Commission and requests approval by negative consent of the staff's proposed alternative for proceeding with final rulemaking to amend criterion 6 of 10 CFR Part 40, Appendix A in order to provide radiological criteria for termination of uranium recovery licenses. SUMMARY: In a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) on SECY-97-046A, dated May 21, 1997, the Commission instructed staff to develop a rule that addresses radiological criteria (decommissioning land and buildings) for license termination for uranium recovery facilities, i.e., uranium mills and in-situ leach facilities (ISLs), on an expedited basis. The staff has requested additional public comment on this issue, and is preparing a final rule for Commission approval. If the Commission approves the staff's recommended approach, the final rulemaking package will be forwarded to the Commission within 5 months after receiving approval. If the Commission selects an alternative approach, an additional opportunity for public comment may be necessary. A discussion of the alternatives considered is in Attachment 1. Attachment 2 is a differing viewpoint (as allowed under Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards Policy and Procedures Letter 1-8, Revision 4, December 1996) on the approach delineated in this Commission Paper, submitted by a staff member on April 8, 1998. A differing viewpoint is an allowed alternative to a Differing Professional View (DPV) or a Differing Professional Opinion (DPO). This alternative allows employees to document their differing professional views and attach these views to proposed staff positions or other documents, to be forwarded as the document moves through the management chain. Attachment 3 contains the dose modeling assumptions and results that support the staff's recommended approach. CONTACT:

L. Joseph Callan /s; Elaine Brummett Nmss/dwm

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Uranium Stocks in Slovenia for Nuclear Power Author: Matic Suhodolcan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seminar Uranium Stocks in Slovenia for Nuclear Power Plant NEK Author: Matic Suhodolcan Supervisor and that reopening would make sense. We try to calculate the years of operating NEK only with uranium ore for reprocessing fuel. #12;Uranium Stocks in Slovenia for Slovenian Nuclear Power Plant NEK Matic Suhodolcan FMF 2

Prosen, TomaÂ?

86

Automated instruments for in-line accounting of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

Two automated nondestructive assay instruments developed at Los Alamos in support of nuclear materials accounting needs are currently operating in-line at the Oak Ridge Y-12 facility for recovery of highly enriched uranium (HEU). One instrument provides the HEU inventory in the secondary solvent extraction system, and the other monitors HEU concentration in the secondary intermediate evaporator. Both instruments were installed in December 1982. Operational evaluation of these instruments was a joint effort of Y-12 and Los Alamos personnel. This evaluation included comparison of the solvent extraction system inventories with direct measurements performed on the dumped solution components of the solvent extraction system and comparison of concentration assay results with the external assays of samples withdrawn from the process. The function and design of the instruments and detailed results of the operational evaluation are reported.

Russo, P.A.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Sandford, E.L.; Stephens, M.M.; Brumfield, T.L.; Smith, S.E.; McCullough, E.E.; Jeter, I.W.; Bowers, G.L.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination  

SciTech Connect

The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort.

Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

1994-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

Prospects for the recovery of uranium from seawater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A computer program entitled URPE (Uranium Recovery Performance and Economics) has been developed to simulate the engineering performance and provide an economic analysis O of a plant recovering uranium from seawater. The ...

Best, F. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

URANIUM COMPOSITIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to high purity uranium alloys characterized by improved stability to thermal cycling and low thermal neutron absorption. The high purity uranium alloy contains less than 0.1 per cent by weight in total amount of any ore or more of the elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, tin, lead, bismuth, niobium, and zinc.

Allen, N.P.; Grogan, J.D.

1959-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

90

Results from a "Proof-of-Concept" Demonstration of RF-Based Tracking of UF6 Cylinders during a Processing Operation at a Uranium Enrichment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally for processing, storing, and transporting uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at uranium enrichment plants. To ensure that cylinder movements at enrichment facilities occur as declared, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must conduct time-consuming periodic physical inspections to validate facility records, cylinder identity, and containment. By using a robust system design that includes the capability for real-time unattended monitoring (of cylinder movements), site-specific rules-based event detection algorithms, and the capability to integrate with other types of monitoring technologies, one can build a system that will improve overall inspector effectiveness. This type of monitoring system can provide timely detection of safeguard events that could be used to ensure more timely and appropriate responses by the IAEA. It also could reduce reliance on facility records and have the additional benefit of enhancing domestic safeguards at the installed facilities. This paper will discuss the installation and evaluation of a radio-frequency- (RF-) based cylinder tracking system that was installed at a United States Enrichment Corporation Centrifuge Facility. This system was installed primarily to evaluate the feasibility of using RF technology at a site and the operational durability of the components under harsh processing conditions. The installation included a basic system that is designed to support layering with other safeguard system technologies and that applies fundamental rules-based event processing methodologies. This paper will discuss the fundamental elements of the system design, the results from this site installation, and future efforts needed to make this technology ready for IAEA consideration.

Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Kovacic, Donald N [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL; Hines, Jairus B [ORNL; Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; Morgan, Jim [Innovative Solutions; Carrick, Bernie [USEC; Boyer, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Whittle, K. [USEC

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Depleted Uranium and Uranium Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Naturally occurring uranium makes up 0.0004% of the crust of the Earth; it is 40 times more plentiful than silver, and 800 times more plentiful than gold. Natural uranium contains approximately 0.7% fissionable U 235 and 99.3%

93

Standard specification for uranium metal enriched to more than 15 % and less Than 20 % 235U  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This specification covers nuclear grade uranium metal that has either been processed through an enrichment plant, or has been produced by the blending of highly enriched uranium with other uranium, to obtain uranium of any 235U concentration below 20 % (and greater than 15 %) and that is intended for research reactor fuel fabrication. The scope of this specification includes specifications for enriched uranium metal derived from commercial natural uranium, recovered uranium, or highly enriched uranium. Commercial natural uranium, recovered uranium and highly enriched uranium are defined in Section 3. The objectives of this specification are to define the impurity and uranium isotope limits for commercial grade enriched uranium metal. 1.2 This specification is intended to provide the nuclear industry with a standard for enriched uranium metal which is to be used in the production of research reactor fuel. In addition to this specification, the parties concerned may agree to other appropriate conditions. ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Uranium industry annual 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report provides statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Nuclear & Uranium  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 21. Foreign sales of uranium from U.S. suppliers and owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by origin and delivery year, 2008-2012

96

Verification experiment on the downblending of high enriched uranium (HEU) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Digital video surveillance of the HEU feed stations  

SciTech Connect

As part of a Safeguards Agreement between the US and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio, was added to the list of facilities eligible for the application of IAEA safeguards. Currently, the facility is in the process of downblending excess inventory of HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) from US defense related programs for commercial use. An agreement was reached between the US and the IAEA that would allow the IAEA to conduct an independent verification experiment at the Portsmouth facility, resulting in the confirmation that the HEU was in fact downblended. The experiment provided an opportunity for the DOE laboratories to recommend solutions/measures for new IAEA safeguards applications. One of the measures recommended by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and selected by the IAEA, was a digital video surveillance system for monitoring activity at the HEU feed stations. This paper describes the SNL implementation of the digital video system and its integration with the Load Cell Based Weighing System (LCBWS) from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The implementation was based on commercially available technology that also satisfied IAEA criteria for tamper protection and data authentication. The core of the Portsmouth digital video surveillance system was based on two Digital Camera Modules (DMC-14) from Neumann Consultants, Germany.

Martinez, R.L.; Tolk, K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whiting, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Castleberry, K.; Lenarduzzi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

An assessment of the radiological doses resulting from accidental uranium aerosol releases and fission product releases from a postulated criticality accident at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dose assessment for two separate normalized source terms was conducted for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The first source term consisted of the noble gas and iodine fission products emanating from a postulated criticality with a magnitude of 10{sup 19} fissions. The second postulated source term was 1 kg of respirable highly enriched uranium. The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) (beta test) computer code was used for this assessment. Both fixed weather (e.g., constant weather assumed throughout the accident) and sampled weather cases were performed using MACCS2. The results of the analysis are summarized in terms of the effective dose equivalent as a function of distance along the downwind centerline of the plume. In addition, population doses for the workers and the public are presented. A brief code comparison between the MACCS2 and MESORAD computer codes is also presented. Modeling differences for the cloudshine and groundshine dose pathways are discussed. Finally, the dose results are summarized, and recommendations are provided that enable the reader to make quick estimates of downwind doses for different source terms that are scalable.

Fisher, S.E.; Lenox, K.E.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combine to indicate uranium enrichment of an alkaline magma.uranium, the Ilfmaussaq intrusion contains an unusually high enrichment

Murphy, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The End of Cheap Uranium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historic data from many countries demonstrate that on average no more than 50-70% of the uranium in a deposit could be mined. An analysis of more recent data from Canada and Australia leads to a mining model with an average deposit extraction lifetime of 10+- 2 years. This simple model provides an accurate description of the extractable amount of uranium for the recent mining operations. Using this model for all larger existing and planned uranium mines up to 2030, a global uranium mining peak of at most 58 +- 4 ktons around the year 2015 is obtained. Thereafter we predict that uranium mine production will decline to at most 54 +- 5 ktons by 2025 and, with the decline steepening, to at most 41 +- 5 ktons around 2030. This amount will not be sufficient to fuel the existing and planned nuclear power plants during the next 10-20 years. In fact, we find that it will be difficult to avoid supply shortages even under a slow 1%/year worldwide nuclear energy phase-out scenario up to 2025. We thus suggest that a worldwide nuclear energy phase-out is in order. If such a slow global phase-out is not voluntarily effected, the end of the present cheap uranium supply situation will be unavoidable. The result will be that some countries will simply be unable to afford sufficient uranium fuel at that point, which implies involuntary and perhaps chaotic nuclear phase-outs in those countries involving brownouts, blackouts, and worse.

Michael Dittmar

2011-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

100

The Uranium Availability and Uptake in the Vegetables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research of a potted experiment ruling uranium availability and uptake by four kinds of vegetables (lettuce,carrot , potatoes , peas) are described. Four kinds of vegetables spiked with the different uranium concentration in the aqueous and different ... Keywords: vegetables, uranium, Soil-liquid distribution, Uptake, Soil-to-plant transfer

Zhang Jing; Chen Diyun; Liu Juan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Uranium Mining and Enrichment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview Presentation » Uranium Mining and Enrichment Overview Presentation » Uranium Mining and Enrichment Uranium Mining and Enrichment Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in the earth's surface. Uranium is used as a fuel for nuclear reactors. Uranium-bearing ores are mined, and the uranium is processed to make reactor fuel. In nature, uranium atoms exist in several forms called isotopes - primarily uranium-238, or U-238, and uranium-235, or U-235. In a typical sample of natural uranium, most of the mass (99.3%) would consist of atoms of U-238, and a very small portion of the total mass (0.7%) would consist of atoms of U-235. Uranium Isotopes Isotopes of Uranium Using uranium as a fuel in the types of nuclear reactors common in the United States requires that the uranium be enriched so that the percentage of U-235 is increased, typically to 3 to 5%.

102

Nuclear & Uranium - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy. ... Nuclear power plants generate approximately 20 percent of U.S. electricity, ...

103

Nuclear & Uranium - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The U.S. relies on foreign uranium, enrichment services to fuel its nuclear power plants August 28, 2013. See all new releases in EIA ...

104

Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

Munyungano, Brodrick [Roessing Uranium Ltd, Private Bag 5005, Swakopmund (Namibia); Feather, Angus [Cognis, P. O. Box 361, Honeydew, 2040 (South Africa); Virnig, Michael [Cognis Corporation, 2430 N. Huachuca Dr, Tucson, Az (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a legal document. As such, it is written in a legalese that is understood by specialists in international law and treaties, but not by most outside of this field, including designers of nuclear facilities. For this reason, many of the requirements have been simplified and restated. However, in all cases, the relevant source document and passage is noted so that readers may trace the requirement to the source. This is a helpful living guide, since some of these requirements are subject to revision over time. More importantly, the practices by which the requirements are met are continuously modernized by the IAEA and nuclear facility operators to improve not only the effectiveness of international nuclear safeguards, but also the efficiency. As these improvements are made, the following guidelines should be updated and revised accordingly.

Robert Bean; Casey Durst

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Uranium (U)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 63   Properties of unstable uranium isotopes with α-particle emission...Table 63 Properties of unstable uranium isotopes with α-particle emission Isotope Abundance, % Half-life ( t 1/2 ), years Energy, MeV 234 U 0.0055 2.47 � 10 5 4.77, 4.72, 4.58, 4.47, 235 U 0.720 7.1 � 10 6 4.40, 4.2 238 U 99.274 4.51 � 10 9 4.18...

107

Remediation of Uranium-Contaminated Ground Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The shallow alluvial aquifer at Fry Canyon, Utah, is contaminated with up to 17 mgL uranium leached from processed tailings at an ore upgrader processing plant that was operated...

108

Slurry calcination process for conversion of aqueous uranium and plutonium to a mixed oxide powder  

SciTech Connect

Pilot plant studies indicate that a slurry calcination process for conversion of uranium and plutonium solutions to a mixed oxide powder can be operated at a plant scale.

Jones, M K; Jenkins, W J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminate or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. The objective was to selectively extract uranium using a soil washing/extraction process without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating a secondary waste form that would be difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. One of the soils is from near the Plant 1 storage pad and the other soil was taken from near a waste incinerator used to burn low-level contaminated trash. The third soil was a surface soil from an area formally used as a landfarm for the treatment of spent oils at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The sediment sample was material sampled from a storm sewer sediment trap at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Uranium concentrations in the Fernald soils ranged from 450 to 550 {mu}g U/g of soil while the samples from the Y-12 Plant ranged from 150 to 200 {mu}g U/g of soil.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Elless, M.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Uranium-234  

SciTech Connect

Translation of Uran-234 by J. Sehmorak. The following subjects are discussed: /sup 234/U and other natural radioactive isotopes, fractionation of heavy radioactive elements in nature, fractionation of radioactive isotopes, /sup 234/U in nuclear geochemistry, /sup 234/U in uranium minerals, /sup 234/U in continental waters and in quaternary deposits, and /sup 234/U in the ocean. (LK)

Cherdyntsev, V.V.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

EPA Review of Standards for Uranium and Thorium Milling Facilities @ 40 CFR Parts 61 and 192.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diversity in industrial effluent and sewage contaminated soils. 2008, in prep. New test for depleted uranium A new test to detect depleted uranium in Gulf War veterans has unexpectedly uncovered high levels uranium. But depleted uranium showed up in a related study by the team near a former munitions plant

112

Depleted Uranium Health Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium line line Uranium Enrichment Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Health Effects Discussion of health effects of external exposure, ingestion, and inhalation of depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is not a significant health hazard unless it is taken into the body. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper. Also, the uranium-235 that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs

113

Uranium industry annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Properties of Uranium Compounds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Triuranium Octaoxide (U3O8) Uranium Dioxide (UO2) Uranium Tetrafluoride (U4) Uranyl Fluoride (UO2F2) The physical properties of the pertinent chemical forms of uranium are...

115

Uranium Quick Facts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium Quick Facts Uranium Quick Facts A collection of facts about uranium, DUF6, and DOEs DUF6 inventory. Over the years, the Department of Energy has received numerous...

116

PREPARATION OF URANIUM MONOSULFIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for preparing uranium monosulfide from uranium tetrafluoride dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride. A hydrogen-hydrogen sulfide gas mixture passed through the solution precipitates uranium monosulfide. (AEC)

Yoshioka, K.

1964-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

117

URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1977. "Geology of Brazil's Uranium and Thorium Occurrences,"A tantalo-niobate of uranium, near pyrochlore. Isometric,niobate and tantalate of uranium, with ferrous iron and rare

Murphy, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Nuclear & Uranium - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nuclear & Uranium Nuclear & Uranium Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Uranium & Nuclear Fuel Nuclear Power Plants Radioactive Waste International All Nuclear Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Nuclear Plants and Reactors Projections Uranium All Reports EIA's latest Short-Term Energy Outlook for electricity › chart showing U.S. electricity generation by fuel, all sectors Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, released monthly. Quarterly uranium production data › image chart of Quarterly uranium production as described in linked report Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly, 3rd Quarter 2013, October 31, 2013. Uprates can increase U.S. nuclear capacity substantially without building

119

Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques  

SciTech Connect

Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF{sub 6} gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques.

Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Derived enriched uranium market  

SciTech Connect

The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

Rutkowski, E.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Uranium Oxide Semiconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of semiconductors, it would consume the annual production rate of depleted uranium from uranium enrichment facilities. For more information: PDF Semiconductive Properties of...

122

COPPER COATED URANIUM ARTICLE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Various techniques and methods for obtaining coppercoated uranium are given. Specifically disclosed are a group of complex uranium coatings having successive layers of nickel, copper, lead, and tin.

Gray, A.G.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Nuclear > Domestic Uranium Production Report Domestic Uranium Production Report Data for: 2005 Release Date: May 15, 2006 Next Release: May 15, 2007

124

Manhattan Project: Uranium cubes  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cubes of uranium metal, Los Alamos, 1945 Events > Difficult Choices, 1942 > More Uranium Research, 1942 Events > Bringing It All Together, 1942-1945 > Basic Research at Los Alamos,...

125

Uranium Industry Annual, 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

Not Available

1993-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

The End of Cheap Uranium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historic data from many countries demonstrate that on average no more than 50-70% of the uranium in a deposit could be mined. An analysis of more recent data from Canada and Australia leads to a mining model with an average deposit extraction lifetime of 10+- 2 years. This simple model provides an accurate description of the extractable amount of uranium for the recent mining operations. Using this model for all larger existing and planned uranium mines up to 2030, a global uranium mining peak of at most 58 +- 4 ktons around the year 2015 is obtained. Thereafter we predict that uranium mine production will decline to at most 54 +- 5 ktons by 2025 and, with the decline steepening, to at most 41 +- 5 ktons around 2030. This amount will not be sufficient to fuel the existing and planned nuclear power plants during the next 10-20 years. In fact, we find that it will be difficult to avoid supply shortages even under a slow 1%/year worldwide nuclear energy phase-out scenario up to 2025. We thus suggest that a world...

Dittmar, Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

Calkins, V.P.

1958-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

128

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM MONOCARBIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making essentially stoichiometric uranium monocarbide by pelletizing a mixture of uranium tetrafluoride, silicon, and carbon and reacting the mixture at a temperature of approximately 1500 to 1700 deg C until the reaction goes to completion, forming uranium monocarbide powder and volatile silicon tetrafluoride, is described. The powder is then melted to produce uranium monocarbide in massive form. (AEC)

Powers, R.M.

1962-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

130

FAQ 23-How much depleted uranium -- including depleted uranium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is stored in the United States? How much depleted uranium -- including depleted uranium hexafluoride -- is stored in the United States? In addition to the depleted uranium stored...

131

Cost of transporting coal to power plants rose almost 50% in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, ... The average cost of shipping coal by railroad to power plants increased almost 50% in the United ... National numbers can be ...

132

DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent deals with the separation of rare earth and other fission products from neutron bombarded uranium. This is accomplished by melting the uranium in contact with either thorium oxide, maguesium oxide, alumnum oxide, beryllium oxide, or uranium dioxide. The melting is preferably carried out at from 1150 deg to 1400 deg C in an inert atmosphere, such as argon or helium. During this treatment a scale of uranium dioxide forms on the uranium whtch contains most of the fission products.

Feder, H.M.; Chellew, N.R.

1958-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Nuclear & Uranium - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S.  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium Nuclear & Uranium Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Uranium & Nuclear Fuel Nuclear Power Plants Radioactive Waste International All Nuclear Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Nuclear Plants and Reactors Projections Uranium All Reports Uranium Mill Sites Under the UMTRA Project Remediation of UMTRCA Title I Uranium Mill Sites Under the UMTRA Project Summary Table: Uranium Ore Processed, Disposal Cell Material, and Cost for Remediation as of December 31, 1999 Uranium Ore Processed Remediation Project Cost Remediation Project (Mill Site Name, State) Ore (Million Short Tons) Uranium Production (Million Pounds U3O8) Disposal Cell Remediated Material Volume (Million Cubic Yards) Total Cost A (Thousand U.S. Dollars)02/09 Per Pound Produced (Dollars per Pound U3O8) Per Unit of Remediated Material

134

NUCLEAR BOMBS FROM LOW- ENRICHED URANIUM OR “SPENT ” FUEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says that low-enriched uranium is not suitable for making nuclear weapons. However, an article in USA Today claims that “rogue ” states and terrorists have discovered that this is untrue. Not only that, but terrorists could separate plutonium from irradiated fuel (often called “spent fuel”) more easily than previously thought. (584.5495) WISE Amsterdam – Lowenriched uranium (LEU) is uranium containing up to 20 % uranium-235. Uranium with higher enrichment levels is classified as high-enriched, and is subject to international safeguards because it can be used to make nuclear weapons. However, a USA Today article claims that “rogue countries and terrorists” have discovered that it is possible to make nuclear weapons with uranium of lower enrichment, according to classified nuclear threat reports (1). The information is not entirely new. Back in 1996, a standard book on nuclear weapons material stated, “a self-sustaining chain reaction in a nuclear weapon cannot occur in depleted or natural or low-enriched uranium and is only theoretically IN THIS ISSUE: possible in LEU of roughly 10 percent or greater ” (2). Fuel for nuclear power reactors would not be suitable – this is typically enriched to 3-5 % uranium-235. However, for a “rogue state” wanting to make high-enriched uranium, it would take less work to start with nuclear fuel than with natural uranium. It could be done in a “small and easy to hide ” uranium enrichment plant – perhaps similar to the plant which has recently been discovered in Iran (3). Nevertheless, it would still require a substantial operation, since the fuel would need to be converted to uranium hexafluoride, enriched and then reconverted to uranium metal. More significantly, many research reactors use uranium of just under

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hexafluoride (UF6) Hexafluoride (UF6) Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) line line Properties of UF6 UF6 Health Effects Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) Physical and chemical properties of UF6, and its use in uranium processing. Uranium Hexafluoride and Its Properties Uranium hexafluoride is a chemical compound consisting of one atom of uranium combined with six atoms of fluorine. It is the chemical form of uranium that is used during the uranium enrichment process. Within a reasonable range of temperature and pressure, it can be a solid, liquid, or gas. Solid UF6 is a white, dense, crystalline material that resembles rock salt. UF6 crystals in a glass vial image UF6 crystals in a glass vial. Uranium hexafluoride does not react with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or dry air, but it does react with water or water vapor. For this reason,

136

Uranium industry annual 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

NONE

1999-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

137

Uranium industry annual 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

138

Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

1975-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

139

Manhattan Project: K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 > Working K-25 into the Mix, Oak Ridge:...

140

SOLDERING OF URANIUM  

SciTech Connect

One of Its Monograph Series, The Industrial Atom.'' The joining of uranium to uranium has been done successfully using a number of commercial soft solders and fusible alloys. Soldering by using an ultrasonic soldering iron has proved the best method for making sound soldered joints of uranium to uranium and of uranium to other metals, such as stainless steel. Other method of soldering have shown some promise but did not give reliable joints all the time. The soldering characteristics of uranium may best be compared to those of aluminum. (auth)

Hanks, G.S.; Doll, D.T.; Taub, J.M.; Brundige, E.L.

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

1959-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

142

PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

1960-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

143

EPA Update: NESHAP Uranium Activities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurements have been performed on high-enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium metal

144

Method of recovering uranium hexafluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering uranium hexafluoride from gaseous mixtures which comprises adsorbing said uranium hexafluoride on activated carbon is described.

Schuman, S.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Atomic Data for Uranium (U )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Uranium (U) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Uranium (U). ...

146

Status of domestic uranium industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The domestic uranium industry continues to operate at a reduced level, due to low prices and increased foreign competition. For four years (1984-1987) the Secretary of Energy declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected for 1988. Exploration and development drilling, at the rate of 2 million ft/year, continue in areas of producing mines and recent discoveries, especially in northwestern Arizona, northwestern Nebraska, south Texas, Wyoming, and the Paradox basin of Colorado and Utah. Production of uranium concentrate continues at a rate of 13 to 15 million lb of uranium oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) per year. Conventional mining in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Texas accounts for approximately 55% of the production. The remaining 45% comes from solution (in situ) mining, from mine water recovery, and as by-products from copper production and the manufacture of phosphoric acid. Solution mining is an important technique in Wyoming, Nebraska, and Texas. By-product production comes from phosphate plants in Florida and Louisiana and a copper mine in Utah. Unmined deposits in areas such as the Grants, New Mexico, district are being investigated for their application to solution mining technology. The discovered uranium resources in the US are quite large, and the potential to discover additional resources is excellent. However, higher prices and a strong market will be necessary for their exploitation.

Chenoweth, W.L.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Uranium Health Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

For inhalation or ingestion of soluble or moderately soluble compounds such as uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) or uranium tetrafluoride (UF4), the uranium enters the bloodstream and...

148

METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for purifying a uranium-base nuclear material. The nuclear material is dissolved in zinc or a zinc-magnesium alloy and the concentration of magnesium is increased until uranium precipitates.

Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

1960-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

149

Uranium Quick Facts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium Quick Facts A collection of facts about uranium, DUF6, and DOEs DUF6 inventory. Over the years, the Department of Energy has received numerous inquiries from the...

150

Cathodoluminescence of uranium oxides  

SciTech Connect

The cathodoluminescence of uranium oxide surfaces prepared in-situ from clean uranium exposed to dry oxygen was studied. The broad asymmetric peak observed at 470 nm is attributed to F-center excitation.

Winer, K.; Colmenares, C.; Wooten, F.

1984-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

151

Dissolving uranium oxide--aluminum fuel  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of aluminum-clad uranium oxide-aluminum fuel was studied to provide basic data for dissolving this type of enriched uranium fuel at the Savannah River Plant. The studies also included the dissolution of a similar material prepared from scrap uranium oxides that were to be recycled through the solvent extraction process. The dissolving behavior of uranium oxide-aluminum core material is similar to that of U-Al alloy. Dissolving rates are rapid in HNO/sub 3/-Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions. Irradiation reduce s the dissolving rate and increases mechanical strength. A dissolution model for use in nuclear safety analyses is developed, . based on the observed dissolving characteristics. (auth)

Perkins, W.C.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Bicarbonate leaching of uranium  

SciTech Connect

The alkaline leach process for extracting uranium from uranium ores is reviewed. This process is dependent on the chemistry of uranium and so is independent on the type of mining system (conventional, heap or in-situ) used. Particular reference is made to the geochemical conditions at Crownpoint. Some supporting data from studies using alkaline leach for remediation of uranium-contaminated sites is presented.

Mason, C.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Uranium industry annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for producing uranium tetrafluoride from the gaseous hexafluoride by feeding the hexafluoride into a high temperature zone obtained by the recombination of molecularly dissociated hydrogen. The molal ratio of hydrogen to uranium hexnfluoride is preferably about 3 to 1. Uranium tetrafluoride is obtained in a finely divided, anhydrous state.

Shaw, W.E.; Spenceley, R.M.; Teetzel, F.M.

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages an inventory of depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), and low-enriched uranium (LEU) that is currently stored in large cylinders as depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6), natural uranium hexafluoride (NUF6), and low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (LEUF6) at the DOE Paducah site in western Kentucky (DOE Paducah) and the DOE Portsmouth site near Piketon in south-central Ohio (DOE Portsmouth)1. This inventory exceeds DOE's current and projected energy and defense program needs. On March 11, 2008, the Secretary of Energy issued a policy statement (the

157

Overview: A Legacy of Uranium Enrichment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Legacy of Uranium Enrichment Depleted Uranium is a Legacy of Uranium Enrichment Cylinders Photo Next Screen Management Responsibilities...

158

NUREG/CR-6870 Consideration of Geochemical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mining and milling of uranium ore. Nonetheless, the use of leaching fluids to mine uranium contaminatesNUREG/CR-6870 Consideration of Geochemical Issues in Groundwater Restoration at Uranium In in Groundwater Restoration at Uranium In-Situ Leach Mining Facilities Manuscript Completed: December 2006 Date

159

Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants | National Nuclear Security Administra...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants In naval nuclear propulsion plants, fissioning of uranium atoms in the reactor core produces heat. Because the fission process also produces...

160

FAQ 10-Why is uranium hexafluoride used?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

uranium hexafluoride used? Why is uranium hexafluoride used? Uranium hexafluoride is used in uranium processing because its unique properties make it very convenient. It can...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

Yeager, J.H.

1958-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

162

URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium from a mixture of uranium and thorium by organic solvent extraction from an aqueous solution is described. The uranium is separrted from an aqueous mixture of uranium and thorium nitrates 3 N in nitric acid and containing salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate, so as to bring ihe total nitrate ion concentration to a maximum of about 8 N by contacting the mixture with an immiscible aliphatic oxygen containing organic solvent such as diethyl carbinol, hexone, n-amyl acetate and the like. The uranium values may be recovered from the organic phase by back extraction with water.

Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

1959-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

163

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The production of uranium metal by the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is described. Massive uranium metal of high purily is produced by reacting uranium tetrafluoride with 2 to 20% stoichiometric excess of magnesium at a temperature sufficient to promote the reaction and then mantaining the reaction mass in a sealed vessel at temperature in the range of 1150 to 2000 d C, under a superatomospheric pressure of magnesium for a period of time sufficient 10 allow separation of liquid uranium and liquid magnesium fluoride into separate layers.

Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

1958-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixtures is then cooled to a temperature less than -100/sup 0/C in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, W.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

FAQ 1-What is uranium?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What is uranium? What is uranium? What is uranium? Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock, and surface and groundwater. It is the heaviest naturally occurring element, with an atomic number of 92. Uranium in its pure form is a silver-colored heavy metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead. In nature, uranium atoms exist as several isotopes: primarily uranium-238, uranium-235, and a very small amount of uranium-234. (Isotopes are different forms of an element that have the same number of protons in the nucleus, but a different number of neutrons.) In a typical sample of natural uranium, most of the mass (99.27%) consists of atoms of uranium-238. About 0.72% of the mass consists of atoms of uranium-235, and a very small amount (0.0055% by mass) is uranium-234.

168

URANIUM RECOVERY, URANIUM GEOCHEMISTRY, THERMOLUMINESCENCE AND RELATED STUDIES. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of urantum at the mine with portable equipment was shown to be feasible, using a process which involves grinding the ore, leaching with nitric acid, extracting with tributyl phosphate and kerosene, and precipitation with ammonia gas. The system is more expensive than a stationary plant but couid be used in an emergency or in difficulty accessible locations. The distribution of uranium was studied in various geographical locations and in several different materials including limestones, granites, clays, rivers and underground water, lignites, and volcanic ash and lavas. Geochemical studies, based on thermoluminescence, including stratigraphy, age determinations of limestones, and aragonite-calcite relations in calcium csrbonate are presented along with thermoluminescence studies of lithium fluoride, alkali halides, aluminum oxides, sulfates, and other inorganic salts and minerals. Radiation damage to lithium fluoride and metamixed minerals was studied, and apparatus was developed for measuring thermoluminescence of crystals exposed to gamma radiation, scintillameters for measuring alpha particle activity in materials containing a trace of uranium, and an analytical method for determining less than 1 part per million uranium. (J.R.D.)

Daniels, F.

1957-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Uranium hexafluoride public risk  

SciTech Connect

The limiting value for uranium toxicity in a human being should be based on the concentration of uranium (U) in the kidneys. The threshold for nephrotoxicity appears to lie very near 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. There does not appear to be strong scientific support for any other improved estimate, either higher or lower than this, of the threshold for uranium nephrotoxicity in a human being. The value 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney is the concentration that results from a single intake of about 30 mg soluble uranium by inhalation (assuming the metabolism of a standard person). The concentration of uranium continues to increase in the kidneys after long-term, continuous (or chronic) exposure. After chronic intakes of soluble uranium by workers at the rate of 10 mg U per week, the concentration of uranium in the kidneys approaches and may even exceed the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. Precise values of the kidney concentration depend on the biokinetic model and model parameters assumed for such a calculation. Since it is possible for the concentration of uranium in the kidneys to exceed 3 {mu}g per gram tissue at an intake rate of 10 mg U per week over long periods of time, we believe that the kidneys are protected from injury when intakes of soluble uranium at the rate of 10 mg U per week do not continue for more than two consecutive weeks. For long-term, continuous occupational exposure to low-level, soluble uranium, we recommend a reduced weekly intake limit of 5 mg uranium to prevent nephrotoxicity in workers. Our analysis shows that the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissues is not exceeded after long-term, continuous uranium intake at the intake rate of 5 mg soluble uranium per week.

Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; Yurconic, M.; Johnson, J.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Uranium sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2010-2012 2010 2011 2012 4. Uranium sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2010-2012 2010 2011 2012 American Fuel Resources, LLC Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. (was Uranium Asset Management) Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. (was Uranium Asset Management) AREVA NC, Inc. (was COGEMA, Inc.) American Fuel Resources, LLC American Fuel Resources, LLC BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty Ltd AREVA NC, Inc. AREVA NC, Inc. CAMECO BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty Ltd BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty Ltd ConverDyn CAMECO CAMECO Denison Mines Corp. ConverDyn ConverDyn Energy Resources of Australia Ltd. Denison Mines Corp. Energy Fuels Resources Energy USA, Inc. Effective Energy N.V. Energy Resources of Australia Ltd.

172

Preparation of uranium compounds  

SciTech Connect

UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

First Principles Calculations of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, First Principles Calculations of Uranium and Uranium- Zirconium Alloys. Author(s), Benjamin Good, Benjamin Beeler, Chaitanya Deo, Sergey ...

174

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

175

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A, "Domestic Uranium Production Report"...

177

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. U.S. uranium drilling activities, 2003-2012 Exploration Drilling Development Drilling Exploration and Development Drilling Year Number of Holes Feet (thousand) Number of Holes...

178

Uranium 'pearls' before slime  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

harm to themselves, scientists have wondered how on Earth these microbes do it. For Shewanella oneidensis, a microbe that modifies uranium chemistry, the pieces are coming...

179

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process is described for the magnesium reduction of UF/sub 4/ to produce uranium metal. In the past, there have been undesirable premature reactions between the Mg and the bomb liner or the UF/sub 4/ before the actual ignition of the bomb reaction. Since these premature reactions impair the yield of uranium metal, they have been inhibited by forming a protective film upon the particles of Mg by reacting it with hydrated uranium tetrafluoride, sodium bifluoride, uranyl fluoride, or uranium trioxide. This may be accomplished by adding about 0.5 to 2% of the additive to the bomb charge.

Ruehle, A.E.; Stevenson, J.W.

1957-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

180

Uranium Purchases Report 1995  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA–0570(95) Distribution Category UC–950 Uranium Purchases Report 1995 June 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

udrilling 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Next Release Date: May 2014 Table 1. U.S. uranium drilling activities, 2003-2012 Year Exploration Drilling

182

URANIUM LEACHING AND RECOVERY PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for recovering uranium from carbonate leach solutions by precipitating uranium as a mixed oxidation state compound. Uranium is recovered by adding a quadrivalent uranium carbon;te solution to the carbonate solution, adjusting the pH to 13 or greater, and precipitating the uranium as a filterable mixed oxidation state compound. In the event vanadium occurs with the uranium, the vanadium is unaffected by the uranium precipitation step and remains in the carbonate solution. The uranium-free solution is electrolyzed in the cathode compartment of a mercury cathode diaphragm cell to reduce and precipitate the vanadium.

McClaine, L.A.

1959-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

183

PROCESS FOR MAKING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing uranium hexafluoride by reacting uranium hexachloride with hydrogen fluoride at a temperature below about 150 deg C, under anhydrous conditions.

Rosen, R.

1959-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

184

URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium from an aqueous solution containing a water soluble uranyl salt is described. The process involves adding an alkali thiocyanate to the aqueous solution, contacting the resulting solution with methyl isobutyl ketons and separating the resulting aqueous and organic phase. The uranium is extracted in the organic phase as UO/sub 2/(SCN)/sub/.

McVey, W.H.; Reas, W.H.

1959-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

185

DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for separating fission products from uranium by extracting the former into molten aluminum. Phase isolation can be accomplished by selectively hydriding the uranium at between 200 and 300 deg C and separating the hydride powder from coarse particles of fissionproduct-containing aluminum. (AEC)

Spedding, F.H.; Butler, T.A.

1962-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

U. S. forms uranium enrichment corporation  

SciTech Connect

After almost 40 years of operation, the federal government is withdrawing from the uranium enrichment business. On July 1, the Department of Energy turned over to a new government-owned entity--the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC)--both the DOE enrichment plants at Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio, and domestic and international marketing of enriched uranium from them. Pushed by the inability of DOE's enrichment operations to meet foreign competition, Congress established USEC under the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, envisioning the new corporation as the first step to full privatization. With gross revenues of $1.5 billion in fiscal 1992, USEC would rank 275th on the Fortune 500 list of top US companies. USEC will lease from DOE the Paducah and Portsmouth facilities, built in the early 1950s, which use the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. USEC's stock is held by the US Treasury, to which it will pay annual dividends. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, which has operated Paducah since 1984 and Portsmouth since 1986 for DOE, will continue to operate both plants for USEC. Closing one of the two facilities will be studied, especially in light of a 40% world surplus of capacity over demand. USEC also will consider other nuclear-fuel-related ventures. USEC will produce only low-enriched uranium, not weapons-grade material. Indeed, USEC will implement a contract now being completed under which the US will purchase weapons-grade uranium from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons and convert it into low-enriched uranium for power reactor fuel.

Seltzer, R.

1993-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

187

Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Uranium Marketing Uranium Marketing Annual Report May 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2010 Uranium Marketing Annual Report ii Contacts This report was prepared by the staff of the Renewables and Uranium Statistics Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables, and Uranium Statistics. Questions about the preparation and content of this report may be directed to Michele Simmons, Team Leader,

188

URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine in the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected amine dissolved in a nonpolar water-immiscible organic solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely exiracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by waters and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

Brown, K.B.; Crouse, D.J. Jr.; Moore, J.G.

1959-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

190

Depleted uranium management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Video: The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Story  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depleted UF6 Story The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Story An overview of Uranium, its isotopes, the need and history of diffusive separation, the handling of the Depleted Uranium...

192

BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

Yang, Rosa L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012 4. U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012 Mill Owner Mill Name County, State (existing and planned locations) Milling Capacity (short tons of ore per day) Operating Status at End of the Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Cotter Corporation Canon City Mill Fremont, Colorado 0 Standby Standby Standby Reclamation Demolished Denison White Mesa LLC White Mesa Mill San Juan, Utah 2,000 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Energy Fuels Resources Corporation Piñon Ridge Mill Montrose, Colorado 500 Developing Developing Developing Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Kennecott Uranium Company/Wyoming Coal Resource Company Sweetwater Uranium Project Sweetwater, Wyoming 3,000 Standby Standby Standby Standby Standby

194

Uranium-Based Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium-Based Catalysts S. H. Overbury, Cyrus Riahi-Nezhad, Zongtao Zhang, Sheng Dai, and Jonathan Haire Oak Ridge National Laboratory* P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

195

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

6. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by category, 2003-2012 person-years Year Exploration Mining Milling Processing Reclamation Total 2003 W W W W 117 321 2004 18...

196

Uranium Management and Policy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of Uranium Management and Policy (NE-54), as part of the Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5), supports the Department of Energy (DOE) by assuring domestic supplies of fuel for...

197

Chemical Forms of Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

such as water vapor in the air, the UF6 and water react, forming corrosive hydrogen fluoride (HF) and a uranium-fluoride compound called uranyl fluoride (UO2F2). For this reason,...

198

300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

{sm_bullet} Uranium fuel production {sm_bullet} Test reactor and separations experiments {sm_bullet} Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex {sm_bullet} .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

BORGHESE JV

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Depleted uranium valuation  

SciTech Connect

The following uses for depleted uranium were examined to determine its value: a substitute for lead in shielding applications, feed material in gaseous diffusion enrichment facilities, feed material for an advanced enrichment concept, Mixed Oxide (MOx) diluent and blanket material in LMFBRs, and fertile material in LMFBR systems. A range of depleted uranium values was calculated for each of these applications. The sensitivity of these values to analysis assumptions is discussed. 9 tables.

Lewallen, M.A.; White, M.K.; Jenquin, U.P.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Uranium purchases report 1994  

SciTech Connect

US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

Lyon, W.L.

1962-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

203

Uranium tailings bibliography  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination. (JSR)

Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

1958-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

205

Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

Kreuzmann, A.B.

1982-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

206

Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs-2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, whereas HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel for nuclear reactors to generate electricity. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear reactor fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is not diverted or enriched to HEU. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 56 million kilogram separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22.5 million in gaseous diffusion and more than 33 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 34 million SWU/year of capacity is under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future but has yet to be demonstrated commercially. In the early 1980s, six countries developing gas centrifuge technology (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, and Australia) along with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Atomic Energy Community began developing effective safeguards techniques for GCEPs. This effort was known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP). The HSP had the goal of maximizing safeguards effectiveness while minimizing the cost to the operator and inspectorate, and adopted several recommendations, such as the acceptance of limited-frequency unannounced access inspections in cascade halls, and the use of nondestructive assay measurements and tamper-indicating seals. While only the HSP participants initially committed to implementing all the measures of the approach, it has been used as a model for the safeguards applied to GCEPs in additional states. Uranium enrichment capacity has continued to expand on all fronts in the last few years. GCEP capacity is expanding in anticipation of the eventual shutdown of the less-efficient GDPs, the termination of the U.S.-Russia HEU blend-down program slated for 2013, and the possible resurgence of nuclear reactor construction as part of an expected 'Nuclear Renaissance'. Overall, a clear trend in the world profile of uranium enrichment plant operation is the continued movement towards multinational projects driven by commercial and economic interests. Along this vein, the safeguards community is continuing to develop new safeguards techniques and technologies that are not overly burdensome to enrichment plant operators while delivering more effective and efficient results. This report provides a snapshot overview of world enrichment capacity in 2009, including profiles of the uranium enrichment programs of individual states. It is a revision of a 2007 report on the same topic; significant changes in world enrichment programs between the previous and current reports are emphasized. It is based entirely on open-source information, which is dependent on published sources and may theref

Laughter, Mark D [ORNL

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

FAQ 5-Is uranium radioactive?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is uranium radioactive? Is uranium radioactive? Is uranium radioactive? All isotopes of uranium are radioactive, with most having extremely long half-lives. Half-life is a measure of the time it takes for one half of the atoms of a particular radionuclide to disintegrate (or decay) into another nuclear form. Each radionuclide has a characteristic half-life. Half-lives vary from millionths of a second to billions of years. Because radioactivity is a measure of the rate at which a radionuclide decays (for example, decays per second), the longer the half-life of a radionuclide, the less radioactive it is for a given mass. The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.5 billion years, uranium-235 about 700 million years, and uranium-234 about 25 thousand years. Uranium atoms decay into other atoms, or radionuclides, that are also radioactive and commonly called "decay products." Uranium and its decay products primarily emit alpha radiation, however, lower levels of both beta and gamma radiation are also emitted. The total activity level of uranium depends on the isotopic composition and processing history. A sample of natural uranium (as mined) is composed of 99.3% uranium-238, 0.7% uranium-235, and a negligible amount of uranium-234 (by weight), as well as a number of radioactive decay products.

209

Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities  

SciTech Connect

From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities  

SciTech Connect

The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M. M. [Dept Ciencias do Ambiente, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda 1399-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Tag: uranium | Y-12 National Security Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

uranium Tag: uranium Displaying 1 - 10 of 23... Category: News The Nation's Expert in All Things Uranium Y-12 serves the nation and the world as a center of excellence for uranium...

212

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HALIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process amd associated apparatus for producing UF/sub 4/ from U/sub 3/ O/sub 8/ by a fluidized'' technique are reported. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is first reduced to UO/sub 2/ by reaction with hydrogen, and the lower oxide of uranium is then reacted with gaseous HF to produce UF/sub 4/. In each case the reactant gas is used, alone or in combination with inert gases, to fluidize'' the finely divided reactant solid. The complete setup of the plant equipment including bins, reactor and the associated piping and valving, is described. An auxiliary fluorination reactor allows for the direct production of UF/sub 6/ from UF/sub 4/ and fluorine gas, or if desired, UF/sub 4/ may be collected as the product.

Murphree, E.V.

1957-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

213

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONTINUOUS METHOD FOR THE REDUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH HYDROGEN-PROCESS DEVELOPMENT. HOT WALL REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

>A continuous process for the reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride was developed and proved on a pilot-plant scale. Complete conversion to uranium tetrafluoride was realized by contacting gaseous uranium hexafluoride with hydrogen in a heated, vertical, open-tube reactor. The purity and density of the solid product met metal grade uranium tetrafluoride specifications. Some difficulty with the accumulation of fused uranium fluorides in the tower was encountered, however, and it was necessary to stop and desing the unit about every 8 to 24 hours. The reaction of uranium hexafluoride with gaseous trichloroethylene was stadied before the tests with hydrogen were made. Although the reduction to uranium tetrafluoride was complete, the solid product was highly contaminated with the organic by-products of the reaction and was quite low in density. Tests of this method were discontinued when promising results were obtained with hydrogen as the reductant. (auth)

Smiley, S H; Brater, D C

1958-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

214

The Nature of Vibrational Softening in ? - Uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Nature of Vibrational Softening in ? - Uranium. The standard textbook ... B / atom. All experiments used uranium powder. High ...

215

Education: Digital Resource Center - WEB: Uranium Information ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 24, 2007 ... Uranium, Electricity and the Greenhouse Effect ... Educational Resource Papers," Australian Uranium Association Ltd. Site updated weekly.

216

Energy Levels of Neutral Uranium ( U I )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Data, Uranium (U) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. ... Version Energy Levels of Neutral Uranium ( U I ). ...

217

Domestic Uranium Production Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, ... with currently proven mining and processing technology and under current law and regulations.

218

Domestic Uranium Production Report 2004 -2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy. Comprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections ...

219

Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of uranium and uranium-zirconium alloys in the alpha phase were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding/dehydriding process. The size distribution and morphology of the uranium powder produced by this method were determined by digital optical microscopy. Once the characteristics of the source uranium powder were known, uranium and uranium-zirconium pellets were pressed using a dual-action punch and die. The majority of these pellets were sintered isothermally, first in the alpha phase near 650°C, then in the gamma phase near 800°C. In addition, a few pellets were sintered using more exotic temperature profiles. Pellet shrinkage was continuously measured in situ during sintering. The isothermal shrinkage rates and sintering temperatures for each pellet were fit to a simple model for the initial phase of sintering of spherical powders. The material specific constants required by this model, including the activation energy of the process, were determined for both uranium and uranium-zirconium. Following sintering, pellets were sectioned, mounted, and polished for imaging by electron microscopy. Based on these results, the porosity and microstructure of the sintered pellets were analyzed. The porosity of the uranium-zirconium pellets was consistently lower than that of the pure uranium pellets. In addition, some formation of an alloyed phase of uranium and zirconium was observed. The research presented within this thesis is a continuation of a previous project; however, this research has produced many new results not previously seen. In addition, a number of issues left unresolved by the previous project have been addressed and solved. Most notably, the low original output of the hydride/dehydride powder production system has been increased by an order of magnitude, the actual characteristics of the powder have been measured and determined, shrinkage data was successfully converted into a sintering model, an alloyed phase of uranium and zirconium was produced, and pellet cracking due to delamination has been eliminated.

Helmreich, Grant

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

Lucchini, Jean-francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

GENERIC ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expects to receive a number of new license applications for uranium milling at sites in the states of Nebraska, South Dakota, Wyoming and New Mexico over the next several years. NRC anticipates that most of these potential license applications will involve uranium milling facilities that would use the in-situ leach (ISL) process.

In-situ Leach; Uranium Milling Facilities

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ converted to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such as CoF/sub 3/. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reac tion chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. After nitrogen gas is used to sweep out the hydrogen and the water vapor formed, and while continuing to inaintain the temperature between 400 deg C and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion of UO/sub 2/ to UF/sub 4/ the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to about 400 deg C or less, the UF/sub 4/ is mixed with the requisite quantity of CoF/sub 3/, and after evacuating the chamber, the mixture is heated to 300 to 400 deg C, and the resulting UF/sub 6/ is led off and delivered to a condenser.

Fowler, R.D.

1957-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

224

Uranium resources: Issues and facts  

SciTech Connect

Although there are several secondary issues, the most important uranium resource issue is, ``will there be enough uranium available at a cost which will allow nuclear power to be competitive in the future?`` This paper will attempt to answer this question by discussing uranium supply, demand, and economics from the perspective of the United States. The paper will discuss: how much uranium is available; the sensitivity of nuclear power costs to uranium price; the potential future demand for uranium in the Unites States, some of the options available to reduce this demand, the potential role of the Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) in reducing uranium demand; and potential alternative uranium sources and technologies.

Delene, J.G.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

Poirier, R.H.

1957-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

226

METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

Uranium-titanium-niobium alloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A uranium alloy having small additions of Ti and Nb shows improved strength and ductility in cross section of greater than one inch over prior uranium alloy having only Ti as an alloying element.

Ludtka, Gail M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

It's Elemental - The Element Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

into uranium-233, also through beta decay. If completely fissioned, one pound (0.45 kilograms) of uranium-233 will provide the same amount of energy as burning 1,500 tons...

229

1.0 MAJOR STUDIES SUPPORTING THIS SCOPING RISK The most important period of past U.S. uranium production spanned from approximately 1948  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of abandoned uranium mines. The major studies supporting this scoping analysis include EPA's 1983 Report plants (U.S. DOE/EIA 2003a, 2003b, 2006). Uranium exploration, mining, and ore processing left a legacy to Congress on the Potential Health and Environmental Hazards of Uranium Mine Wastes (U.S. EPA 1983a, b, c

230

The utilization of uranium industry technology and relevant chemistry to leach uranium from mixed-waste solids  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the chemical extraction of uranium from a number of refractory uranium-containing minerals found in nature have been in place and employed by the uranium mining and milling industry for nearly half a century. These same methods, in conjunction with the principles of relevant uranium chemistry, have been employed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to chemically leach depleted uranium from mixed-waste sludge and soil. The removal of uranium from what is now classified as mixed waste may result in the reclassification of the waste as hazardous, which may then be delisted. The delisted waste might eventually be disposed of in commercial landfill sites. This paper generally discusses the application of chemical extractive methods to remove depleted uranium from a biodenitrification sludge and a storm sewer soil sediment from the Y-12 weapons plant in Oak Ridge. Some select data obtained from scoping leach tests on these materials are presented along with associated limitations and observations which might be useful to others performing such test work. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

EXTRACTION OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process is presented for recovering uranium from a carnotite ore. In the improved process U/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is added to the comminuted ore along with the usual amount of NaCl prior to roasting. The amount of U/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is dependent on the amount of free calcium oxide and the uranium in the ore. Specifically, the desirable amount of U/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is 3.2% for each 1% of CaO, and 5 to 6% for each 1% of uranium. The mixture is roasted at about 1560 deg C for about 30 min and then leached with a 3 to 9% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate.

Kesler, R.D.; Rabb, D.D.

1959-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species.

Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

PROCESS OF PREPARING URANIUM CARBIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing uranium monocarbide is de scribed. Uranium metal is dissolved in cadmium, zinc, cadmium-- zinc, or magnesium-- zinc alloy and a small quantity of alkali metal is added. Addition of stoichiometric amounts of carbon at 500 to 820 deg C then precipitates uranium monocarbide. (AEC)

Miller, W.E.; Stethers, H.L.; Johnson, T.R.

1964-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

234

Improved Uranium Recovery from the Process Streams in an Electroplating Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses results of testing to improve uranium recovery from the process streams in an electroplating facility. Cylindrical uranium slugs are used as irradiation targets in the production reactors at the Savannah River Plant. These slugs are first chemically etched, nickel plated, encased in aluminum, inspected, and individually pressure tested. An improved process was developed to recover the uranium from the acidic etching streams for controlling pH and the PO4 to U ratio so that the precipitation of the uranium as hydrogen uranyl phosphate was maximized.

Pickett, J.B.

1984-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

235

PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved precipitation method is described for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. After removal of all but small amounts of Ni or Cu, and after complexing any iron present, the uranium is separated as the peroxide by adding H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The improvement lies in the fact that the addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and consequent precipitation are carried out at a temperature below the freezing; point of the solution, so that minute crystals of solvent are present as seed crystals for the precipitation.

Price, T.D.; Jeung, N.M.

1958-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

236

TREATMENT OF URANIUM SURFACES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process is presented for prcparation of uranium surfaces prior to electroplating. The surfacc of the uranium to be electroplated is anodized in a bath comprising a solution of approximately 20 to 602 by weight of phosphoric acid which contains about 20 cc per liter of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Anodization is carried out for approximately 20 minutes at a current density of about 0.5 amperes per square inch at a temperature of about 35 to 45 C. The oxidic film produced by anodization is removed by dipping in strong nitric acid, followed by rinsing with water just prior to electroplating.

Slunder, C.J.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007  

SciTech Connect

It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future, but has yet to be demonstrated commercially. In the early 1980s, six countries developing gas centrifuge technology (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, and Australia) along with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) began developing effective safeguards techniques for GCEPs. This effort was known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP). The HSP had the goal of maximizing safeguards effectiveness while minimizing the cost to the operator and inspectorate, and adopted several recommendations, such as the acceptance of limited-frequency unannounced access (LFUA) inspections in cascade halls, and the use of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements and tamper-indicating seals. While only the HSP participants initially committed to implementing all the measures of the approach, it has been used as a model for the safeguards applied to GCEPs in additional states. This report provides a snapshot overview of world enrichment capacity in 2007, including profiles of the uranium enrichment programs of individual states. It is based on open-source information, which is dependent on unclassified sources and may therefore not reflect the most recent developments. In addition, it briefly describes some of the safeguards techniques being used at various enrichment plants, including implementation of HSP recommendations.

Laughter, Mark D [ORNL

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Production and Handling Slide 21: Melting Points of Uranium and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Points of Uranium and Uranium Compounds Skip Presentation Navigation First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents Melting Points of Uranium and Uranium...

239

FAQ 26-Are there any uses for depleted uranium?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

uses for depleted uranium? Are there any uses for depleted uranium? Several current and potential uses exist for depleted uranium. Depleted uranium could be mixed with highly...

240

Sorption of Np and Tc in Underground Waters by Uranium Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

worldwide. As a rule DUF 6 is stored in steel cylinders near power stations 1,2 in Russia, and at uranium en- richment plants in the U.S. It is desirable to convert the UF 6 to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

High loading uranium fuel plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

STRIPPING OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC EXTRACTANTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from uranium-containing solutions. Uranium is removed from a uranium-containing organic solution by contacting said organic solution with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution substantially saturated in uranium values. A uranium- containing precipitate is thereby formed which is separated from the organic and aqueous phases. Uranium values are recovered from this separated precipitate. (AE C)

Crouse, D.J. Jr.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Depleted Uranium Technical Brief  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This Technical Brief specifically addresses DU in an environmental contamination setting and specifically does.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other govern ment sources. DU occurs in a number of different compounds airborne releases of uranium at one DOE facility amounted to 310,000 kg between 1951 and 1988, which

244

URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.

Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Nuclear & Uranium - Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Find statistics on nuclear operable units, nuclear electricity net Find statistics on nuclear operable units, nuclear electricity net generation, nuclear share of electricity net generation, and capacity factor. + EXPAND ALL Summary Additional Formats Nuclear Overview: PDF CSV XLS Monthly statistics on nuclear operable units, nuclear electricity net generation, nuclear share of electricity net generation, and capacity factor. PDFXLS Annual statistics on nuclear generating units, power plants operations, and uranium. › Nuclear Generating Units, 1955-2010 › PDF XLS Nuclear Power Plant Operations, 1957-2010 › PDF XLS Uranium Overview, 1949-2010 › PDF XLS Uranium & Nuclear Fuel Additional Formats U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates › Release Date: July 2010 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has updated its estimates of uranium reserves for year-end 2008. This represents the first revision of the estimates since 2004. PDF

246

Consent Order, Uranium Disposition Services, LLC - NCO-2010-01 | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Uranium Disposition Services, LLC - NCO-2010-01 Uranium Disposition Services, LLC - NCO-2010-01 Consent Order, Uranium Disposition Services, LLC - NCO-2010-01 March 26, 2010 Consent Order issued to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC related to Construction Deficiencies at the DUF6 Conversion Buildings at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plants The Office of Health, Safety and Security's Office of Enforcement has completed its investigation into the facts and circumstances associated with construction deficiencies at the DUF6 Conversion Buildings located at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plants. The investigation reports, dated January 22, 2009, and April 23, 2009, were provided to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (DDS), and addressed specific areas of potential noncompliance with DOE nuclear safety requirements established in

247

Manhattan Project: The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Alpha Racetrack, Y-12 Electromagnetic Plant, Oak Ridge THE URANIUM PATH TO THE BOMB Alpha Racetrack, Y-12 Electromagnetic Plant, Oak Ridge THE URANIUM PATH TO THE BOMB (1942-1944) Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Y-12: Design, 1942-1943 Y-12: Construction, 1943 Y-12: Operation, 1943-1944 Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944 The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944 The uranium path to the atomic bomb ran through Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Only if the new plants built at Oak Ridge produced enough enriched uranium-235 would a uranium bomb be possible. General Groves placed two methods into production: 1) electromagnetic, based on the principle that charged particles of the lighter isotope would be deflected more when passing through a magnetic field; and 2) gaseous diffusion, based on the principle that molecules of the lighter isotope, uranium-235, would pass more readily through a porous barrier. Full-scale electromagnetic and gaseous diffusion production plants were built at Oak Ridge at sites designated as "Y-12" and "K-25", respectively.

248

Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Uranium Management and Uranium Management and Policy » Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium has the highest atomic weight (19 kg m) of all naturally occurring elements. Uranium occurs naturally in low concentrations in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite. Uranium ore can be mined from open pits or underground excavations. The ore can then be crushed and treated at a mill to separate the valuable uranium from the ore. Uranium may also be dissolved directly from the ore deposits

249

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM METAL BY CARBON REDUCTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preparation of uranium metal by the carbon reduction of an oxide of uranium is described. In a preferred embodiment of the invention a charge composed of carbon and uranium oxide is heated to a solid mass after which it is further heated under vacuum to a temperature of about 2000 deg C to produce a fused uranium metal. Slowly ccoling the fused mass produces a dendritic structure of uranium carbide in uranium metal. Reacting the solidified charge with deionized water hydrolyzes the uranium carbide to finely divide uranium dioxide which can be separated from the coarser uranium metal by ordinary filtration methods.

Holden, R.B.; Powers, R.M.; Blaber, O.J.

1959-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

250

Method of preparation of uranium nitride  

SciTech Connect

Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

251

Method of preparing uranium nitride or uranium carbonitride bodies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sintered uranium nitride or uranium carbonitride bodies having a controlled final carbon-to-uranium ratio are prepared, in an essentially continuous process, from U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and carbon by varying the weight ratio of carbon to U.sub.3 O.sub.8 in the feed mixture, which is compressed into a green body and sintered in a continuous heating process under various controlled atmospheric conditions to prepare the sintered bodies.

Wilhelm, Harley A. (Ames, IA); McClusky, James K. (Valparaiso, IN)

1976-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

252

Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

Hofman, Gerard L. (Downers Grove, IL); Meyer, Mitchell K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knighton, Gaven C. (Moore, ID); Clark, Curtis R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

253

METHOD OF PRODUCING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modified process is described for the production of uranium metal by means of a bomb reduction of UF/sub 4/. Difficulty is sometimes experienced in obtaining complete separation of the uranium from the slag when the process is carried out on a snnall scale, i.e., for the production of 10 grams of U or less. Complete separation may be obtained by incorporating in the reaction mixture a quantity of MnCl/sub 2/, so that this compound is reduced along with the UF/sub 4/ . As a result a U--Mn alloy is formed which has a melting point lower than that of pure U, and consequently the metal remains molten for a longer period allowing more complete separation from the slag.

Foster, L.S.; Magel, T.T.

1958-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

254

Exploration for uranium deposits, Grants mineral belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uranium ore deposits in the Grants mineral belt, New Mexico, occur in fluvial sandstones in the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). Uranium mineralization is concentrated by a dark-gray to black substance that has been identified as humate, which is derived from decaying vegetation. Black ore is truncated by overlying sandstone in at least three ore deposits, documenting an early age for mineralization. Ore deposits in the Grants mineral belt vary greatly in size and shape, tend to occur in clusters, and often present difficult drill targets. Current exploration is largely a matter of drilling in stages to distinguish favorable from unfavorable ground on a wide spacing, to seek mineralization in favorable ground, and to conduct close-spaced drilling in mineralized areas. Criteria for favorability differ among exploration groups but generally include 1) presence of a host sandstone, 2) anomalous mineralization, 3) color of the host rock, 4) presence of carbonaceous matter, and 5) position of the area relative to mineralized trends. A description of the drilling sequence, from ore discovery to the development of a mine at the Johnny M deposit (in the east part of the Ambrosia Lake district), exemplifies the problem of predicting where orebodies may occur. A study of the drill data at the Johnny M indicates the uranium ore is not related to specific geologic features other than humate, which is commonly associated with coalified plant fragments in mudstone-rich parts of the host sandstone.

Fitch, D.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Uncertainty clouds uranium enrichment corporation's plans  

SciTech Connect

An expected windfall to the US Treasury from the sale of the Energy Dept.'s commercial fuel enrichment facilities may evaporate in the next few weeks when the Clinton administration submits its fiscal 1994 budget proposal to Congress, according to congressional and administration officials. Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, DOE is required to lease two uranium enrichment facilities, Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, KY., to the government-owned US Enrichment Corp. (USEC) by July 1. Estimates by OMB and Treasury indicate a potential yearly payoff of $300 million from the government-owned company's sale of fuel for commercial reactors. Those two facilities use a process of gaseous diffusion to enrich uranium to about 3 percent for use as fuel in commercial power plants. DOE has contracts through at least 1996 to provide about 12 million separative work units (SWUs) yearly to US utilities and others world-wide. But under an agreement signed between the US and Russia last August, at least 10 metric tons, or 1.5 million SWUs, of low-enriched uranium (LEU) blended down from Russia warheads is expected to be delivered to the US starting in 1994. It could be sold at $50 to $60 per SWU, far below what DOE currently charges for its SWUs - $135 per SWU for 70 percent of the contract price and $90 per SWU for the remaining 30 percent.

Lane, E.

1993-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

256

New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilities—in this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVA—hybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

Brim, Cornelia P.

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

257

ELECTROLYSIS OF THORIUM AND URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic method is given for obtaining pure thorium, uranium, and thorium-uranium alloys. The electrolytic cell comprises a cathode composed of a metal selected from the class consisting of zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth, an anode composed of at least one of the metals selected from the group consisting of thorium and uranium in an impure state, and an electrolyte composed of a fused salt containing at least one of the salts of the metals selected from the class consisting of thorium, uranium. zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth. Electrolysis of the fused salt while the cathode is maintained in the molten condition deposits thorium, uranium, or thorium-uranium alloys in pure form in the molten cathode which thereafter may be separated from the molten cathode product by distillation.

Hansen, W.N.

1960-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2012 9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2012 Item 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 E2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Exploration and Development Surface Drilling (million feet) 1.1 0.7 1.3 3.0 4.9 4.6 2.5 1.0 0.7 W W 1.2 1.7 2.7 5.1 5.1 3.7 4.9 6.3 7.2 Drilling Expenditures (million dollars)1 5.7 1.1 2.6 7.2 20.0 18.1 7.9 5.6 2.7 W W 10.6 18.1 40.1 67.5 81.9 35.4 44.6 53.6 66.6 Mine Production of Uranium (million pounds U3O8) 2.1 2.5 3.5 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.5 3.1 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.5 3.0 4.7 4.5 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.3 Uranium Concentrate Production (million pounds U3O8) 3.1 3.4 6.0 6.3 5.6 4.7 4.6 4.0 2.6 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.7 4.1 4.5 3.9 3.7 4.2 4.0 4.1

259

WELDED JACKETED URANIUM BODY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel element is presented for a neutronic reactor and is comprised of a uranium body, a non-fissionable jacket surrounding sald body, thu jacket including a portion sealed by a weld, and an inclusion in said sealed jacket at said weld of a fiux having a low neutron capture cross-section. The flux is provided by combining chlorine gas and hydrogen in the intense heat of-the arc, in a "Heliarc" welding muthod, to form dry hydrochloric acid gas.

Gurinsky, D.H.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

260

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8. U.S. uranium expenditures, 2003-2012 8. U.S. uranium expenditures, 2003-2012 million dollars Year Drilling Production Land and Other Total Expenditures Total Land and Other Land Exploration Reclamation 2003 W W 31.3 NA NA NA W 2004 10.6 27.8 48.4 NA NA NA 86.9 2005 18.1 58.2 59.7 NA NA NA 136.0 2006 40.1 65.9 115.2 41.0 23.3 50.9 221.2 2007 67.5 90.4 178.2 77.7 50.3 50.2 336.2 2008 81.9 221.2 164.4 65.2 50.2 49.1 467.6 2009 35.4 141.0 104.0 17.3 24.2 62.4 280.5 2010 44.6 133.3 99.5 20.2 34.5 44.7 277.3 2011 53.6 168.8 96.8 19.6 43.5 33.7 319.2 2012 66.6 186.9 99.4 16.8 33.3 49.3 352.9 Drilling: All expenditures directly associated with exploration and development drilling. Production: All expenditures for mining, milling, processing of uranium, and facility expense.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

BASIC STUDIES OF THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM MIXTURES CONTAINING CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE AND HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect

Processes for the conversion of uranium compounds or uranium metal to uranium hexafluoride ordinarily involve the use of a powerful fluorinating agent. Elemental fluorine is used when the scale of operations justifies the construction of a fluorine generating plant, but for smaller operation the use of the interhalogens of fluorine has definite advantages. These compounds provide a high concentration of fluorinating power at moderate temperatures and pressures and are more easily stored and transported than fluorine. In addition, fluorinations in the liquid phase often proceed more smoothly than those with gaseous fluorine. However, the use of . the interhalogens introduces the problem of separating the uranium hexafluoride from the unreacted reagent and from any by-products which may have been formed. The present work is concerned with the determination of the phase equilibrai among the materials uranium hexafluoride, chlorine trifluoride, and hydrogen fluoride. metal with chlorine trifluoride-hydrogen fluoride solutions or as a result of treating many uranium compounds and ores with chlorine trifluoride. These phase equilibria define the physical conditions necessary for separating the components by the processes of crystallization or distillation and have made possinle the successful Operation of a pilot plant for the direct recovery of uranium hexafluoride from spent metallic uranium fuel elements. (auth)

Bernhardt, H.A.; Barber, E.J.; Davis, W. Jr.; McGill, R.M.

1958-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

METHOD OF JACKETING URANIUM BODIES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process is presented for providing uranium slugs with thin walled aluminum jackets. Since aluminum has a slightiy higher coefficient of thermal expansion than does uraaium, both uranium slugs and aluminum cans are heated to an elevated temperature of about 180 C, and the slug are inserted in the cans at that temperature. During the subsequent cooling of the assembly, the aluminum contracts more than does the uranium and a tight shrink fit is thus assured.

Maloney, J.O.; Haines, E.B.; Tepe, J.B.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

263

PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for producing oxygen-free uranium metal comprising contacting iodine vapor with crude uranium in a reaction zone maintained at 400 to 800 C to produce a vaporous mixture of UI/sub 4/ and iodine. Also disposed within the maction zone is a tungsten filament which is heated to about 1600 C. The UI/sub 4/, upon contacting the hot filament, is decomposed to molten uranium substantially free of oxygen.

Prescott, C.H. Jr.; Reynolds, F.L.

1959-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

264

FAQ 2-Where does uranium come from?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

come from? Where does uranium come from? Small amounts of uranium are found almost everywhere in soil, rock, and water. However, concentrated deposits of uranium ores are found in...

265

IMPROVED PROCESSES FOR RECOVERING AND PURIFYING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for reclaiming metallic uranium enriched with uranium-235 from the collector of a calutron upon which the enriched metallic uranium is Editor please delete 22166.

Price, T.D.; Henrickson, A.V.

1959-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

266

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Reoxidation of Bioreduced Uranium Under Reducing Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial reduction of uranium. Nature 350, 413-416 (1991).C. Enzymatic iron and uranium reduction by sulfate-reducingS. Reduction of hexavalent uranium from organic complexes by

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

PROCESS FOR REMOVING NOBLE METALS FROM URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrometallurgical method is given for purifying uranium containing ruthenium and palladium. The uranium is disintegrated and oxidized by exposure to air and then the ruthenium and palladium are extracted from the uranium with molten zinc.

Knighton, J.B.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Y-12 and uranium history  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

German chemists, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman, successfully described a new term, nuclear fission, for their experiment that resulted in the first splitting of the uranium atom....

270

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Climate Research Center for Geospatial Analysis Program Highlights Index Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program EVS staff members helped to implement transparency and...

271

ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to electrolytic methods for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. According to the present invention a process for the production of uranium tetrafluoride comprises submitting to electrolysis an aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride containing free hydrofluoric acid. Advantageously the aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride is obtained by dissolving uranium hexafluoride in water. On electrolysis, the uranyl ions are reduced to uranous tons at the cathode and immediately combine with the fluoride ions in solution to form the insoluble uranium tetrafluoride which is precipitated.

Lofthouse, E.

1954-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF URANIUM COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented of preparing uranium metal of high purity consisting contacting impure U metal with halogen vapor at between 450 and 550 C to form uranium halide vapor, contacting the uranium halide vapor in the presence of H/sub 2/ with a refractory surface at about 1400 C to thermally decompose the uranium halides and deposit molten U on the refractory surface and collecting the molten U dripping from the surface. The entire operation is carried on at a sub-atmospheric pressure of below 1 mm mercury.

Magel, T.T.; Brewer, L.

1959-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

273

SEPARATION OF THORIUM FROM URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A description is given for the separation of thorium from uranium by forming an aqueous acidic solution containing ionic species of thorium, uranyl uranium, and hydroxylamine, flowing the solution through a column containing the phenol-formaldehyde type cation exchange resin to selectively adsorb substantially all the thorium values and a portion of the uranium values, flowing a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid through the column to desorb the uranium values, and then flowing a dilute aqueous acidic solution containing an ion, such as bisulfate, which has a complexing effect upon thortum through the column to desorb substantially all of the thorium.

Bane, R.W.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

Not Available

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

PREPARATION OF URANIUM(IV) NITRATE SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

A procedure was developed for the preparation of uranium(IV) nitrate solutions in dilute nitric acid. Zinc metal was used as a reducing agent for uranium(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid. The uranium(IV) was precipitated as the hydrated oxide and dissolved in nitric acid. Uranium(IV) nitrate solutions were prepared at a maximum concentration of 100 g/l. The uranium(VI) content was less than 2% of the uranium(IV). (auth)

Ondrejcin, R.S.

1961-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

Gooch, L.H.

1959-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

Expansion capacity of an SX unit in uranium process pilot tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rising price of uranium has led uranium producers to increase their plant capacity. The new project proposed to increase capacity is based on processing low-grade uranium by heap leaching. It is necessary to modify the plant, particularly the solvent extraction unit, to handle the increased flow. The goal of our study is to determine the minimal changes necessary to process the whole flow. Several stages have been carried out (i) thermodynamic modelling of the solvent extraction process to determine the capacities of the SX plant and the impact of the modification and (ii) pilot tests at the plant of the different configurations proposed by modelling. This paper presents results of the pilot tests performed at the plant. (authors)

Courtaud, B.; Auger, F.; Morel, P. [AREVA-NC/SEPA, Bessines sur Gartempe (France); Sanoussi, M. [SOMAIR, Arlit (Niger)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Uranium Compounds and Other Natural Radioactivities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Science Division XSD Groups Industry Argonne Home Advanced Photon Source Uranium Compounds and Other Natural Radioactivities Uranium containing compounds and other...

280

Uranium Downblending and Disposition Project Technology Readiness...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Uranium Downblending and Disposition Project Technology Readiness Assessment Uranium...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Uranium Mining Tax (Nebraska) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Savings Uranium Mining Tax (Nebraska) Uranium Mining Tax (Nebraska) Eligibility Agricultural...

282

Microsoft Word - UraniumBioreductionV3  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Highlight - March 2013 Biotic-Abiotic Pathways: A New Paradigm for Uranium Reduction in Sediments Uranium, one of the most common radioactive elements on Earth, makes its...

283

Uranium Leasing Program | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium Leasing Program Uranium Leasing Program Abandoned Mine Reclamation, Uravan Mineral Belt, Colorado Abandoned Mine Reclamation, Uravan Mineral Belt, Colorado LM currently...

284

Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project CEUSP Inventory11-6-13Finalprint-ready.pdf CEUSPtimelinefinalprint-ready...

285

PROCESS OF PRODUCING REFRACTORY URANIUM OXIDE ARTICLES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for fabricating uranium oxide into a shaped refractory article by introducing a uranium halide fluxing reagent into the uranium oxide, and then mixing and compressing the materials into a shaped composite mass. The shaped mass of uranium oxide and uranium halide is then fired at an elevated temperature so as to form a refractory sintered article. It was found in the present invention that the introduction of a uraninm halide fluxing agent afforded a fluxing action with the uranium oxide particles and that excellent cohesion between these oxide particles was obtained. Approximately 90% of uranium dioxide and 10% of uranium tetrafluoride represent a preferred composition.

Hamilton, N.E.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund's...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund's Fiscal Year 2008 and 2007 Financial Statement Audit, OAS-FS-10-05 Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and...

287

Understanding How Uranium Changes in Subsurface Environments...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

whether it is immobilized or moves out of a contaminated area, potentially into water supplies. The Impact New research on the transformation of uranium (VI) to uranium...

288

Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total anticipated uranium market requirements at U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors are 50 million pounds for 2013. 2. 1 2012 Uranium Marketing ...

289

Conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to a solid uranium compound  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for converting UF.sub.6 to a solid uranium compound such as UO.sub.2 and CaF. The UF.sub.6 vapor form is contacted with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH at a pH greater than 7 to precipitate at least some solid uranium values as a solid leaving an aqueous solution containing NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values. The solid uranium values are separated from the aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values which is then diluted with additional water precipitating more uranium values as a solid leaving trace quantities of uranium in a dilute aqueous solution. The dilute aqueous solution is contacted with an ion-exchange resin to remove substantially all the uranium values from the dilute aqueous solution. The dilute solution being contacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to precipitate CaF.sub.2 leaving dilute NH.sub.4 OH.

Rothman, Alan B. (Willowbrook, IL); Graczyk, Donald G. (Lemont, IL); Essling, Alice M. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

FLAME DENITRATION AND REDUCTION OF URANIUM NITRATE TO URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution to uranium dioxide. The process comprises spraying fine droplets of aqueous uranyl nitrate solution into a hightemperature hydrocarbon flame, said flame being deficient in oxygen approximately 30%, retaining the feed in the flame for a sufficient length of time to reduce the nitrate to the dioxide, and recovering uranium dioxide. (AEC)

Hedley, W.H.; Roehrs, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.

1962-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Pulsed CO laser for isotope separation of uranium  

SciTech Connect

This article proposes a technical solution for using a CO laser facility for the industrial separation of uranium used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants, employing a method of laser isotope separation of uranium with condensation repression in a free jet. The laser operation with nanosecond pulse irradiation can provide an acceptable efficiency in the separating unit and a high efficiency of the laser with the wavelength of 5.3 {mu}m. In the present work we also introduce a calculation model and define the parameters of a mode-locked CO laser with a RF discharge in the supersonic stream. The average pulsed CO laser power of 3 kW is sufficient for efficient industrial isotope separation of uranium in one stage.

Baranov, Igor Y.; Koptev, Andrey V. [Rocket-Space Technics Department, Baltic State Technical University, 1, 1st Krasnoarmeyskaya st.,St. Petersburg, 190005 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Aluminosilicate Precipitation Impact on Uranium  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been conducted to examine the fate of uranium during the formation of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) when wastes containing high aluminate concentrations are mixed with wastes of high silicate concentration. Testing was conducted at varying degrees of uranium saturation. Testing examined typical tank conditions, e.g., stagnant, slightly elevated temperature (50 C). The results showed that under sub-saturated conditions uranium is not removed from solution to any large extent in both simulant testing and actual tank waste testing. This aspect was not thoroughly understood prior to this work and was necessary to avoid criticality issues when actual tank wastes were aggregated. There are data supporting a small removal due to sorption of uranium on sites in the NAS. Above the solubility limit the data are clear that a reduction in uranium concentration occurs concomitant with the formation of aluminosilicate. This uranium precipitation is fairly rapid and ceases when uranium reaches its solubility limit. At the solubility limit, it appears that uranium is not affected, but further testing might be warranted.

WILMARTH, WILLIAM

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

296

METHOD OF SEPARATING URANIUM SUSPENSIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for separating colloidally dissed uranium oxides from the heavy water medium in upwhich they are contained. The method consists in treating such dispersions with hydrogen peroxide, thereby converting the uranium to non-colloidal UO/sub 4/, and separating the UO/sub 4/ sfter its rapid settling.

Wigner, E.P.; McAdams, W.A.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

297

IN-LINE MEASUREMENTS BY COLORIMETRY. PART I. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORPTION SPECTRA FOR THE DIRECT COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF URANIUM.  

SciTech Connect

The absorption spectra of uranium (VI) and uranium (IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions and in 30% TBP/Shellsol-T solutions were established. The absorbance of the various solutions was measured as a function of the wavelength, uranium concentration and nitric acid concentration. Most of the results obtained are presented in the form of diagrams. On the basis of the present investigation the possibility of using a direct in-line colorimetric determination of uranium in plant solutions can be assessed at each individual measuring point. (auth)

Markl, P.; Humblet, L.; Wichmann, H.; Eschrich, H.

1966-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 Milling Capacity (short tons of ore per day) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Cotter Corporation Canon City Mill Fremont, Colorado 0 Standby Standby Standby Reclamation Demolished EFR White Mesa LLC White Mesa Mill San Juan, Utah 2,000 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Energy Fuels Resources Corporation Piñon Ridge Mill Montrose, Colorado 500 Developing Developing Developing Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Kennecott Uranium Company/Wyoming Coal Resource Company Sweetwater Uranium Project Sweetwater, Wyoming 3,000 Standby Standby Standby Standby Standby Uranium One Americas, Inc. Shootaring Canyon Uranium Mill Garfield, Utah 750 Changing License To Operational Standby

299

METHOD OF ELECTROPLATING ON URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a preparation of metallic uranium surfaces for receiving coatings, particularly in order to secure adherent electroplated coatings upon uranium metal. In accordance with the invention the uranium surface is pretreated by degreasing in trichloroethylene, followed by immersion in 25 to 50% nitric acid for several minutes, and then rinsed with running water, prior to pickling in trichloroacetic acid. The last treatment is best accomplished by making the uranium the anode in an aqueous solution of 50 per cent by weight trichloroacetic acid until work-distorted crystals or oxide present on the metal surface have been removed and the basic crystalline structure of the base metal has been exposed. Following these initial steps the metallic uranium is rinsed in dilute nitric acid and then electroplated with nickel. Adnerent firmly-bonded coatings of nickel are obtained.

Rebol, E.W.; Wehrmann, R.F.

1959-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

300

Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Russian Federation has on the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Operation of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant 2008 Information Date: December 31, 2008 1 Introduction The Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation Concerning the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted from Nuclear Weapons (HEU Agreement) was signed on February 18, 1993. The HEU Agreement provides for the purchase over a 20-year period (1994-2013) of 500 metric tons (MT) of weapons-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) from the Russian Federation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

FAQ 7-How is depleted uranium produced?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? Depleted uranium is produced during the uranium enrichment process. In the United States, uranium is enriched through the gaseous diffusion process in which the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is heated and converted from a solid to a gas. The gas is then forced through a series of compressors and converters that contain porous barriers. Because uranium-235 has a slightly lighter isotopic mass than uranium-238, UF6 molecules made with uranium-235 diffuse through the barriers at a slightly higher rate than the molecules containing uranium-238. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, with one stream having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the other. The stream having the greater uranium-235 concentration is referred to as enriched UF6, while the stream that is reduced in its concentration of uranium-235 is referred to as depleted UF6. The depleted UF6 can be converted to other chemical forms, such as depleted uranium oxide or depleted uranium metal.

302

THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM GAS MIXTURE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating uranium from a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and other gases is described that comprises bringing the mixture into contact with anhydrous calcium sulfate to preferentially absorb the uranium hexafluoride on the sulfate. The calcium sulfate is then leached with a selective solvent for the adsorbed uranium. (AEC)

Jury, S.H.

1964-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

303

Process for removing carbon from uranium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon contamination is removed from uranium and uranium alloys by heating in inert atmosphere to 700.degree.-1900.degree.C in effective contact with yttrium to cause carbon in the uranium to react with the yttrium. The yttrium is either in direct contact with the contaminated uranium or in indirect contact by means of an intermediate transport medium.

Powell, George L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium #12;Appendix J Partition Coefficients For Uranium J.1.0 Background The review of uranium Kd values obtained for a number of soils, crushed rock and their effects on uranium adsorption on soils are discussed below. The solution pH was also used as the basis

305

ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM  

SciTech Connect

Electrodeposited nickel coatings on uranium for protection from destructive corrosion in boiling water wns investigated. Correlation between the pretreatment of the uranium and subsequent protection by thin nickel coatings was established. Thin electrodeposited nickel coatings provide better protection when applied to a matte surface produced by blasting with an aqueous suspension of silica (100 mesh) followed by a cathodic treatment in 35 wt% sulfuric acid than when applied to the rough surfaces produced on uranium by anodic pretreatments and acid pickling. Blistering of nickel electrodeposits arising from hydrogen was encountered and eliminated. (auth)

Beard, A.P.; Crooks, D.D.

1954-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for separating uranium from thorium wherein the ratio of thorium to uranium is between 100 to 10,000. According to the invention the thoriumuranium mixture is dissolved in nitric acid, and the solution is prepared so as to obtain the desired concentration within a critical range of from 4 to 8 N with regard to the total nitrate due to thorium nitrate, with or without nitric acid or any nitrate salting out agent. The solution is then contacted with an ether, such as diethyl ether, whereby uranium is extracted into ihe organic phase while thorium remains in the aqueous phase.

Hellman, N.N.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Uranium Lease Tracts Location Map | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Uranium Lease Tracts Location Map Uranium Lease Tracts Location Map Uranium Lease Tracts...

308

FAQ 11-What are the properties of uranium hexafluoride?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

properties of uranium hexafluoride? What are the properties of uranium hexafluoride? Uranium hexafluoride can be a solid, liquid, or gas, depending on its temperature and pressure....

309

THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soubbaramayer, (1979) in "Uranium Enrichment", S. Villani,and Davies, E. (1973) "Uranium Enrichment by Gas Centrifuge"THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE

Olander, Donald R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Production and Handling Slide 43: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description Enriched uranium hexafluoride, generally containing 3 to 5% uranium-235, is sent...

311

Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility | Y-12 National Security...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highly Enriched Uranium ... Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility HEUMF The Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility is our nation's central repository for highly enriched...

312

Summary Production Statistics of the U.S. Uranium Industry ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Domestic Uranium Production Report presents information Operating Status of U.S. Uranium Expenditures, 2003-2005. ... Mine Production of Uranium

313

FLUX COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR TREATING URANIUM-CONTAINING METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flux composition is preseated for use with molten uranium and uranium alloys. It consists of about 60% calcium fluoride, 30% calcium chloride and 10% uranium tetrafluoride.

Foote, F.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

314

THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soubbaramayer, (1979) in "Uranium Enrichment", S. Villani,and Davies, E. (1973) "Uranium Enrichment by Gas Centrifuge"Nuclear Energy THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS

Olander, Donald R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Proteogenomic monitoring of Geobacter physiology during stimulated uranium bioremediation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phillips.  1992.  Bioremediation of  uranium contamination with  enzymatic uranium reduction.  Environ.  Sci.  Microbial  reduction  of  uranium.  Nature 350:413?416.  

Wilkins, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

CALIFORNIUM ISOTOPES FROM BOMBARDMENT OF URANIUM WITH CARBON IONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isotopes from Bombardment of Uranium with Carbon Ions A.ISOTOPES FROM BOMBARDMENT OF URANIUM WITH CARBON IONS A.the irradiations, the uranium was dissolved in dilute

Ghiorso, A.; Thompson, S.G.; Street, K. Jr.; Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

Yang, Rosa Lu.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel Pins,"Ingots Formed in Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Irradiated in EBR-Roake, "Fission Products and Plutonium Migration in Uranium-

Yang, Rosa Lu.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio [Gerencia Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for for DUF 6 Conversion Project Environmental Impact Statement Scoping Meetings November/December 2001 Overview Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) Management Program DUF 6 EIS Scoping Briefing 2 DUF 6 Management Program Organizational Chart DUF 6 Management Program Organizational Chart EM-10 Policy EM-40 Project Completion EM-20 Integration EM-50 Science and Technology EM-31 Ohio DUF6 Management Program EM-32 Oak Ridge EM-33 Rocky Flats EM-34 Small Sites EM-30 Office of Site Closure Office of Environmental Management EM-1 DUF 6 EIS Scoping Briefing 3 DUF 6 Management Program DUF 6 Management Program * Mission: Safely and efficiently manage the DOE inventory of DUF 6 in a way that protects the health and safety of workers and the public, and protects the environment DUF 6 EIS Scoping Briefing 4 DUF 6 Inventory Distribution

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Uranium Domestic Uranium Production Report June 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report ii Contacts This report was prepared by the staff of the Renewables and Uranium Statistics Team, Office of Electricity,

322

2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Uranium Marketing Annual Uranium Marketing Annual Report May 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 May 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. May 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report ii

323

Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fill Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill DU dioxide in the form of sand may be used to fill the void spaces in the waste package after the package is loaded with SNF. This...

324

Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table 2 (ref. 1). The content of 235 U in DU is dependent on economics. If the cost of natural uranium feed is high relative to the cost of enrichment services, then a low 235 U...

325

LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

Teitel, R.J.

1959-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

326

METHOD OF DEHYDRATING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Drying and dehydration of aqueous-precipitated uranium tetrafluoride are described. The UF/sub 4/ which normally contains 3 to 4% water, is dispersed into the reaction zone of an operating reactor wherein uranium hexafluoride is being reduced to UF/sub 4/ with hydrogen. The water-containing UF/sub 4/ is dried and blended with the UF/sub 4/ produced in the reactor without interfering with the reduction reaction. (AEC)

Davis, J.O.; Fogel, C.C.; Palmer, W.E.

1962-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

327

SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The treatment of metallic uranium to provide a surface to which adherent electroplates can be applied is described. Metallic uranium is subjected to an etchant treatment in aqueous concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the etched metal is then treated to dissolve the resulting black oxide and/or chloride film without destroying the etched metal surface. The oxide or chloride removal is effected by means of moderately concentrated nitric acid in 3 to 20 seconds.

Gray, A.G.; Schweikher, E.W.

1958-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

328

Laser induced phosphorescence uranium analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for measuring the uranium content of aqueous solutions wherein a uranyl phosphate complex is irradiated with a 5 nanosecond pulse of 425 nanometer laser light and resultant 520 nanometer emissions are observed for a period of 50 to 400 microseconds after the pulse. Plotting the natural logarithm of emission intensity as a function of time yields an intercept value which is proportional to uranium concentration.

Bushaw, B.A.

1983-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

329

Rescuing a Treasure Uranium-233  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-233 (233U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium (232Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference for accurately quantifying and characterizing natural uranium isotopes for domestic and international safeguards. Separated 233U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These materials represent a broad spectrum of 233U from the standpoint isotopic purity the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All 233U at ORNL currently is scheduled to be down blended with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. Such down blending will permanently destroy the potential value of pure 233U samples as certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no replacement 233U stocks are expected to be produced in the future due to a lack of operating production capability and the high cost of returning to operation this currently shut down capability. This paper will describe the efforts to rescue the purest of the 233U materials arguably national treasures from their destruction by down blending.

Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ convented to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reaction chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. The oven is then swept clean of hydrogen and the water vapor formed by means of nitrogen and then while continuing to maintain the temperature between 400 and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion to uranium tetrafluoride, the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to ahout 400 deg C, and elemental fluorine is used as the fluorinating agent for the conversion of UF/sub 4/ into UF/sub 6/. The fluorine gas is passed into the chamber, and the UF/sub 6/ formed passes out and is delivered to a condenser.

Fowler, R.D.

1957-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

331

Uranium Resources Inc URI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Uranium Resources Inc URI Uranium Resources Inc URI Jump to: navigation, search Name Uranium Resources, Inc. (URI) Place Lewisville, Texas Zip 75067 Product Uranium Resources, Inc. (URI) is primarily engaged in the business of acquiring, exploring, developing and mining uranium properties using the in situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining process. References Uranium Resources, Inc. (URI)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Uranium Resources, Inc. (URI) is a company located in Lewisville, Texas . References ↑ "Uranium Resources, Inc. (URI)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Uranium_Resources_Inc_URI&oldid=352580" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

332

Investigation on the Benefits of Safety Margin Improvement in CANDU Nuclear Power Plant Using an FPGA-based Shutdown System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The relationship between response time and safety margin of CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear power plant (NPP) is investigated in this thesis. Implementation of safety… (more)

She, Jingke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

1958-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

334

Process for alloying uranium and niobium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uranium sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

Holcombe, C.E.; Northcutt, W.G.; Masters, D.R.; Chapman, L.R.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund  

SciTech Connect

One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Available Technologies: Cost-effective Recovery of Uranium ...  

Uranium contamination of groundwater is an environmental problem at many DOE facilities and at uranium mining/processing sites.

337

U.S. Uranium Expenditures, 2003-2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Domestic Uranium Production Report presents information Operating Status of U.S. Uranium Expenditures, 2003-2005

338

U.S. mine production of uranium, 1993-2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. ... Privacy/Security Copyright & Reuse Accessibility. Related Sites ...

339

Analysis of HEU samples from the ULBA Metallurgical Plant  

SciTech Connect

In early March 1994, eight highly enriched uranium (HEU) samples were collected from materials stored at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant in Oskamen (Ust Kamenogorsk), Kazakhstan. While at the plant site, portions of four samples were dissolved and analyzed by mass spectrograph at the Ulba analytical laboratory by Ulba analysts. Three of these mass spectrograph solutions and the eight HEU samples were subsequently delivered to the Y-12 Plant for complete chemical and isotopic analyses. Chemical forms of the eight samples were uranium metal chips, U0{sub 2} powder, uranium/beryllium oxide powder, and uranium/beryllium alloy rods. All were declared by the Ulba plant to have a uranium assay of {approximately}90 wt % {sup 235}U. The uranium/beryllium powder and alloy samples were also declared to range from about 8 to 28 wt % uranium. The chemical and uranium isotopic analyses done at the Y-12 Plant confirm the Ulba plant declarations. All samples appear to have been enriched using some reprocessed uranium, probably from recovery of uranium from plutonium production reactors. As a result, all samples contain some {sup 236}U and {sup 232}U and have small but measurable quantities of plutonium. This plutonium could be the result of either contamination carried over from the enrichment process or cross-contamination from weapons material. It is not the result of direct reactor exposure. Neither the {sup 232}U nor the plutonium concentrations are sufficiently high to provide a significant industrial health hazard. Both are well within established or proposed acceptance criteria for storage at Y-12. The trace metal analyses showed that, with the exception of beryllium, there are no trace metals in any of these HEU samples that pose a significant health hazard.

Gift, E.H.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Polyethylene Encapsulated Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poly DU Poly DU Polyethylene Encapsulated Depleted Uranium Technology Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has completed preliminary work to investigate the feasibility of encapsulating DU in low density polyethylene to form a stable, dense product. DU loadings as high as 90 wt% were achieved. A maximum product density of 4.2 g/cm3 was achieved using UO3, but increased product density using UO2 is estimated at 6.1 g/cm3. Additional product density improvements up to about 7.2 g/cm3 were projected using DU aggregate in a hybrid technique known as micro/macroencapsulation.[1] A U.S. patent for this process has been received.[2] Figure 1 Figure 1: DU Encapsulated in polyethylene samples produced at BNL containing 80 wt % depleted UO3 A recent DU market study by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. for DOE thoroughly identified and rated potential applications and markets for DU metal and oxide materials.[3] Because of its workability and high DU loading capability, the polyethylene encapsulated DU could readily be fabricated as counterweights/ballast (for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships and missiles), flywheels, armor, and projectiles. Also, polyethylene encapsulated DU is an effective shielding material for both gamma and neutron radiation, with potential application for shielding high activity waste (e.g., ion exchange resins, glass gems), spent fuel dry storage casks, and high energy experimental facilities (e.g., accelerator targets) to reduce radiation exposures to workers and the public.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Simultaneous measurements of plutonium and uranium in spent-fuel dissolver solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have studied the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique for simultaneous measurements of elemental concentrations and isotopic compositions for both plutonium and uranium in input spent-fuel dissolver solutions at a reprocessing plant. The technique under development includes both sample preparation and analysis methods. For simultaneous measurements of both plutonium and uranium, a critical issue is to develop a new method to keep both plutonium and uranium in the sample after they are separated from fission products. Furthermore, it is equally important to improve the analysis method so that the precision and accuracy of the plutonium analysis remain unaffected while uranium is retained in the sample. To keep both plutonium and uranium in the sample for simultaneous measurements, extraction chromatography is being studied and shows promise to achieve the goal of cosegregation of the plutonium and uranium. The technique uses U/TEVA{center_dot}Spec resin to separate fission products and recover both uranium and plutonium in the resin from dissolver solutions for subsequent measuring using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Owing to the fact that the U/Pu ratio is altered during the fission product separation phase, it is necessary to develop a method which could accurately correct for this effect. Such a method was developed using the unique decay properties of {sup 241}Pu to {sup 237}U and shows considerable promise in allowing for accurate determination of the {sup 235}U concentrations before the chemical extraction.

Li, T.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kuno, T.; Kitagawa, O.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Kuno, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Long-term criticality control in radioactive waste disposal facilities using depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

Plant photosynthesis has created a unique planetary-wide geochemistry - an oxidizing atmosphere with oxidizing surface waters on a planetary body with chemically reducing conditions near or at some distance below the surface. Uranium is four orders of magnitude more soluble under chemically oxidizing conditions than it is under chemically reducing conditions. Thus, uranium tends to leach from surface rock and disposal sites, move with groundwater, and concentrate where chemically reducing conditions appear. Earth`s geochemistry concentrates uranium and can separate uranium from all other elements except oxygen, hydrogen (in water), and silicon (silicates, etc). Fissile isotopes include {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U, and many higher actinides that eventually decay to one of these two uranium isotopes. The potential for nuclear criticality exists if the precipitated uranium from disposal sites has a significant fissile enrichment, mass, and volume. The earth`s geochemistry suggests that isotopic dilution of fissile materials in waste with {sup 238}U is a preferred strategy to prevent long-term nuclear criticality in and beyond the boundaries of waste disposal facilities because the {sup 238}U does not separate from the fissile uranium isotopes. Geological, laboratory, and theoretical data indicate that the potential for nuclear criticality can be minimized by diluting fissile materials with-{sup 238}U to 1 wt % {sup 235}U equivalent.

Forsberg, C.W.

1997-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

343

Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium(III)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium-mail: kmeyer@ucsd.edu Abstract: The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of the mononuclear uranium complex [((ArO)3tacn)UIII (NCCH3)] is reported. The uranium(III) complex reacts with organic azides

Meyer, Karsten

344

Evidence of uranium biomineralization in sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium deposits, northwestern China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evidence of uranium biomineralization in sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium deposits, northwestern Available online 25 January 2005 Abstract We show evidence that the primary uranium minerals, uraninite-front uranium deposits, Xinjiang, northwestern China were biogenically precipitated and psuedomorphically

Fayek, Mostafa

345

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Uranium Production Report Domestic Uranium Production Report 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 State(s) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Wyoming 134 139 181 195 245 301 308 348 424 512 Colorado and Texas 48 140 269 263 557 696 340 292 331 248 Nebraska and New Mexico 92 102 123 160 149 160 159 134 127 W Arizona, Utah, and Washington 47 40 75 120 245 360 273 281 W W Alaska, Michigan, Nevada, and South Dakota 0 0 0 16 25 30 W W W W California, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Virginia 0 0 0 0 9 17 W W W W Total 321 420 648 755 1,231 1,563 1,096 1,073 1,191 1,196 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A, "Domestic Uranium Production Report" (2003-2012). Table 7. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by state, 2003-2012 person-years

346

Domestic Uranium Production Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual With Data for 2012 | Release Date: June 06, 2013 | Next Release Date: May 2014 |full report Previous domestic uranium production reports Year: 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Go Drilling Figure 1. U.S. Uranium drilling by number of holes, 2004-2012 U.S. uranium exploration drilling was 5,112 holes covering 3.4 million feet in 2012. Development drilling was 5,970 holes and 3.7 million feet. Combined, total uranium drilling was 11,082 holes covering 7.2 million feet, 5 percent more holes than in 2011. Expenditures for uranium drilling in the United States were $67 million in 2012, an increase of 24 percent compared with 2011. Mining, production, shipments, and sales U.S. uranium mines produced 4.3 million pounds U3O8 in 2012, 5 percent more

347

Uranium Metal: Potential for Discovering Commercial Uses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium Metal Uranium Metal Potential for Discovering Commercial Uses Steven M. Baker, Ph.D. Knoxville Tn 5 August 1998 Summary Uranium Metal is a Valuable Resource 3 Large Inventory of "Depleted Uranium" 3 Need Commercial Uses for Inventory  Avoid Disposal Cost  Real Added Value to Society 3 Uranium Metal Has Valuable Properties  Density  Strength 3 Market will Come if Story is Told Background The Nature of Uranium Background 3 Natural Uranium: 99.3% U238; 0.7% U 235 3 U235 Fissile  Nuclear Weapons  Nuclear Reactors 3 U238 Fertile  Neutron Irradiation of U238 Produces Pu239  Neutrons Come From U235 Fission  Pu239 is Fissile (Weapons, Reactors, etc.) Post World War II Legacy Background 3 "Enriched" Uranium Product  Weapons Program 

348

COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF URANIUM(IV)  

SciTech Connect

A colorimetric method was developed for the determination of uranium(IV) in the presence of uranium(VI), nitric acid, hydroxylamine sulfate, and hydrazine. A coefficient of variation of 2.4% (n = 25) was obtained. (auth)

Dorsett, R.S.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Draft Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

five times the uranium concentration; this ratio was selected on the basis of the mining production rate of vanadium versus that of uranium. The RfCs used in the calculation were...

350

INHERENTLY SAFE IN SITU URANIUM RE OVERY  

Nuclear power and waste opportunities contact us at Mining operations Increased safety of uranium removal Environmentally friendly process

351

Molecular Mechanisms of Uranium Reduction by Clostridia  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to elucidate systematically the molecular mechanisms involved in the reduction of uranium by Clostridia.

Francis, A.J.; Matin, A.C.; Gao, W.; Chidambaram, D.; Barak, Y.; Dodge, C.J.

2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

352

PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a process for the recovery of uranium from impure uranium tetrafluoride. The process consists essentially of the steps of dissolving the impure uranium tetrafluoride in excess dilute sulfuric acid in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide, precipitating ammonium uranate from the solution so formed by adding an excess of aqueous ammonia, dissolving the precipitate in sulfuric acid and adding hydrogen peroxide to precipitate uranium peroxdde.

Morris, G.O.

1955-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy. ... Privacy/Security Copyright & Reuse Accessibility. Related Sites U.S. ...

354

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program | National Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

355

Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled | National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

356

T Plant, Chemical Separation Building | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manhattan Project » Signature Manhattan Project » Signature Facilities » T Plant, Chemical Separation Building T Plant, Chemical Separation Building Photos of T-plant's construction and T-Plant's Chemical Separation Building Photos of T-plant's construction and T-Plant's Chemical Separation Building Completed in December 1944, T Plant was the world's first large-scale plutonium separation facility. Only about one atom in every 4,000 within the uranium slugs was converted to plutonium in the three Hanford production reactors, and these atoms had to be separated from the remaining uranium and other fission products that had been created. The highly radioactive uranium slugs were dropped into water pools behind the piles and then moved by remote-controlled rail cars to a storage facility five miles away. When short-lived radioactivity had sufficiently

357

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Uranium Production Report Domestic Uranium Production Report 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Cameco Crow Butte Operation Dawes, Nebraska 1,000,000 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Hydro Resources, Inc. Church Rock McKinley, New Mexico 1,000,000 Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Hydro Resources, Inc. Crownpoint McKinley, New Mexico 1,000,000 Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Lost Creek ISR LLC Lost Creek Project Sweetwater, Wyoming 2,000,000 Developing

358

Safe Operating Procedure SAFETY PROTOCOL: URANIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bodies depleted by uranium solution extraction and which remain underground do not constitute byproductEPA Update: NESHAP Uranium Activities Reid J. Rosnick Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Protection Division (6608J) Washington, DC 20460 NMA/NRC Uranium Recovery Workshop July 2, 2009 #12

Farritor, Shane

359

Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Redistribution of depleted uranium (DU soils and water at two US Army proving grounds. Ann. M Health Phys. SocRemediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction ElizabethJ.P.Phillips, Edward R. Landa and DerekR. Lovley Key words: Bioremediation; Uranium; Mill tailings

Meyer, Karsten

360

The Uranium Institute 24th Annual Symposium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

:same as iron. 3.2 Preparation A standard analysis of the depleted uranium,provided by COGEMA, is given-sur-Tille, France Abstract : After reviewing briefly the influence of the incorporationof vanadium in the uranium,nickel and iron, on the properties of the uranium-0.2%vanadium alloys. Tensile tests at both ambient and elevated

Laughlin, Robert B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Sustained Removal of Uranium From Contaminated Groundwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approximately 5 mm in diameter by 5 mm tal/. Compositions measured ranged from depleted uranium oxide to mixtures of plutonium and depleted uranium oxide (MOX) and mixed oxides with small percentages of minor.1943 - - - Title: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy Measurements of the Elastic Properties of Uranium

Lovley, Derek

362

PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The removal of fission products such as strontium, barium, cesium, rubidium, or iodine from neutronirradiated uranium is described. Uranium halide or elemental halogen is added to melted irradiated uranium to convert the fission products to either more volatile compositions which vaporize from the melt or to higher melting point compositions which separate as solids.

Spedding, F.H.; Butler, T.A.; Johns, I.B.

1959-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

High strength uranium-tungsten alloys  

SciTech Connect

Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Hogan, Billy M. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Homer D. (Bayfield, CO); Dickinson, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

High strength uranium-tungsten alloy process  

SciTech Connect

Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Hogan, Billy M. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Homer D. (Bayfield, CO); Dickinson, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

METHOD AND FLUX COMPOSITION FOR TREATING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

ABS>A flux composition is described fer use with molten uranium or uranium alloys. The flux consists of about 46 weight per cent calcium fiuoride, 46 weight per cent magnesium fluoride and about 8 weight per cent of uranium tetrafiuoride.

Foote, F.

1958-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

366

CATALYZED OXIDATION OF URANIUM IN CARBONATE SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given wherein carbonate solutions are employed to leach uranium from ores and the like containing lower valent uranium species by utilizing catalytic amounts of copper in the presence of ammonia therein and simultaneously supplying an oxidizing agent thereto. The catalysis accelerates rate of dissolution and increases recovery of uranium from the ore. (AEC)

Clifford, W.E.

1962-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

367

Clean Air Act Requirements: Uranium Mill Tailings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPA'S Clean Air Act Requirements: Uranium Mill Tailings Radon Emissions Rulemaking Reid J. Rosnick Presentation to Environmental Protection Agency Uranium Contamination Radiation Protection Division (6608J requirements for operating uranium mill tailings (Subpart W) Status update on Subpart W activities Outreach

368

URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIĂ?ON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium

369

Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uranium reduction in uranium mine sediment. Appl Environspp. can be stimulated in uranium mine sediments (Suzuki et

Hwang, Chiachi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012" 4. U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012" "Mill Owner","Mill Name","County, State (existing and planned locations)","Milling Capacity","Operating Status at End of the Year" ,,,"(short tons of ore per day)",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012 "Cotter Corporation","Canon City Mill","Fremont, Colorado",0,"Standby","Standby","Standby","Reclamation","Demolished" "EFR White Mesa LLC","White Mesa Mill","San Juan, Utah",2000,"Operating","Operating","Operating","Operating","Operating"

371

PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of uranium by the autothermic reduction of an anhydrous uranium halide with an alkaline earth metal, preferably magnesium One feature is the initial reduction step which is brought about by locally bringing to reaction temperature a portion of a mixture of the reactants in an open reaction vessel having in contact with the mixture a lining of substantial thickness composed of calcium fluoride. The lining is prepared by coating the interior surface with a plastic mixture of calcium fluoride and water and subsequently heating the coating in situ until at last the exposed surface is substantially anhydrous.

Crawford, J.W.C.

1959-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

372

METHOD OF PROTECTIVELY COATING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for protectively coating uranium with zine comprising cleaning the U for coating by pickling in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, dipping the cleaned U into a bath of molten zinc between 430 to 600 C and containing less than 0 01% each of Fe and Pb, and withdrawing and cooling to solidify the coating. The zinccoated uranium may be given a; econd coating with another metal niore resistant to the corrosive influences particularly concerned. A coating of Pb containing small proportions of Ag or Sn, or Al containing small proportions of Si may be applied over the zinc coatings by dipping in molten baths of these metals.

Eubank, L.D.; Boller, E.R.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) Characterization of Uranium and Uranium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to examine the microstructures of unalloyed uranium, U-6Nb, U-10Mo, and U-0.75Ti. For unalloyed uranium, we used EBSD to examine the effects of various processes on microstructures including casting, rolling and forming, recrystallization, welding, and quasi-static and shock deformation. For U-6Nb we used EBSD to examine the microstructural evolution during shape memory loading. EBSD was used to study chemical homogenization in U-10Mo, and for U-0.75Ti, we used EBSD to study the microstructure and texture evolution during thermal cycling and deformation. The studied uranium alloys have significant microstructural and chemical differences and each of these alloys presents unique preparation challenges. Each of the alloys is prepared by a sequence of mechanical grinding and polishing followed by electropolishing with subtle differences between the alloys. U-6Nb and U-0.75Ti both have martensitic microstructures and both require special care in order to avoid mechanical polishing artifacts. Unalloyed uranium has a tendency to rapidly oxidize when exposed to air and a two-step electropolish is employed, the first step to remove the damaged surface layer resulting from the mechanical preparation and the second step to passivate the surface. All of the alloying additions provide a level of surface passivation and different one and two step electropolishes are employed to create good EBSD surfaces. Because of its low symmetry crystal structure, uranium exhibits complex deformation behavior including operation of multiple deformation twinning modes. EBSD was used to observe and quantify twinning contributions to deformation and to examine the fracture behavior. Figure 1 shows a cross section of two mating fracture surfaces in cast uranium showing the propensity of deformation twinning and intergranular fracture largely between dissimilarly oriented grains. Deformation of U-6Nb in the shape memory regime occurs by the motion of twin boundaries formed during the martensitic transformation. Deformation actually results in a coarsening of the microstructure making EBSD more practical following a limited amount of strain. Figure 2 shows the microstructure resulting from 6% compression. Casting of U-10Mo results in considerable chemical segregation as is apparent in Figure 2a. The segregation subsists through rolling and heat treatment processes as shown in Figure 2b. EBSD was used to study the effects of homogenization time and temperature on chemical heterogeneity. It was found that times and temperatures that result in a chemically homogeneous microstructure also result in a significant increase in grain size. U-0.75Ti forms an acicular martinsite as shown in Figure 4. This microstructure prevails through cycling into the higher temperature solid uranium phases.

McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Ann Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Amy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wenk, H. R. [University of California, Berkeley

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

374

Uranium mill monitoring for natural fission reactors  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic monitoring of the product stream from operating uranium mills is proposed for discovering other possible natural fission reactors; aspects of their occurrence and discovery are considered. Uranium mill operating characteristics are formulated in terms of the total uranium capacity, the uranium throughput, and the dilution half-time of the mill. The requirements for detection of milled reactor-zone uranium are expressed in terms of the dilution half-time and the sampling frequency. Detection of different amounts of reactor ore with varying degrees of /sup 235/U depletion is considered.

Apt, K.E.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Process for alloying uranium and niobium  

SciTech Connect

Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uraniun sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Northcutt, Jr., Walter G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Chapman, Lloyd R. (Knoxville, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

Pulley, Howard (West Paducah, KY); Seltzer, Steven F. (Paducah, KY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Method for producing uranium atomic beam source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms is obtained by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM.sub.x heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared to that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe.sub.2. An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced.

Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA)

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separating the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

Pulley, H.; Seltzer, S.F.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

379

Use of solvent extraction technique in Brazilian uranium mills - an overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solvent extraction has been applied to uranium-concentrate production in Brazil. At the first plant, uranium minerals associated with Zr and Mo were acid leached. Extraction was carried out by a mixture of Alamine 336 and Alamine 304, followed by selective Zr, U, and Mo stripping. At the currently operating facilities, a single U mineral is processed by acid heap leaching. Uranium is extracted with Alamine 336 and stripped with NaCl solution. As all water is recycled, chloride contents in the liquor have increased, causing detrimental effects to the extraction process. The current plant operating conditions and the improvements arisen from the research developed to solve these problems are presented. (authors)

Gomiero, Luiz A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A-INB, Unidade de Caetite, P.0. Box 7, 46400-000, Caetite, BA (Brazil); Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Rua Mario Werneck, s/n, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply  

SciTech Connect

The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Uranium Production Report Domestic Uranium Production Report 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 Number of Holes Feet (thousand) Number of Holes Feet (thousand) Number of Holes Feet (thousand) 2003 NA NA NA NA W W 2004 W W W W 2,185 1,249 2005 W W W W 3,143 1,668 2006 1,473 821 3,430 1,892 4,903 2,713 2007 4,351 2,200 4,996 2,946 9,347 5,146 2008 5,198 2,543 4,157 2,551 9,355 5,093 2009 1,790 1,051 3,889 2,691 5,679 3,742 2010 2,439 1,460 4,770 3,444 7,209 4,904 2011 5,441 3,322 5,156 3,003 10,597 6,325 2012 5,112 3,447 5,970 3,709 11,082 7,156 NA = Not available. W = Data withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A, "Domestic Uranium Production Report" (2003-

382

METHOD OF PURIFYING URANIUM METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The removal of lmpurities from uranlum metal can be done by a process conslstlng of contacting the metal with liquid mercury at 300 icient laborato C, separating the impunitycontalnlng slag formed, cooling the slag-free liquld substantlally below the point at which uranlum mercurlde sollds form, removlng the mercury from the solids, and recovering metallic uranium by heating the solids.

Blanco, R.E.; Morrison, B.H.

1958-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

383

Uranium Trace Elements Erik Hunter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be made. The electroscope relied upon the ability of the gamma radiation emitted by the sample to ionize that prove anomalous in the field can be subjected to more accurate tests in the lab that will determine #12;associated with the device was reported to be +/- 4% of the actual uranium content in the sample

384

Uranium: Prices, rise, then fall  

SciTech Connect

Uranium prices hit eight-year highs in both market tiers, $16.60/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for non-former Soviet Union (FSU) origin and $15.50 for FSU origin during mid 1996. However, they declined to $14.70 and $13.90, respectively, by the end of the year. Increased uranium prices continue to encourage new production and restarts of production facilities presently on standby. Australia scrapped its {open_quotes}three-mine{close_quotes} policy following the ouster of the Labor party in a March election. The move opens the way for increasing competition with Canada`s low-cost producers. Other events in the industry during 1996 that have current or potential impacts on the market include: approval of legislation outlining the ground rules for privatization of the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC) and the subsequent sales of converted Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) from its nuclear weapons program, announcement of sales plans for converted US HEU and other surplus material through either the Department of Energy or USEC, and continuation of quotas for uranium from the FSU in the United States and Europe. In Canada, permitting activities continued on the Cigar Lake and McArthur River projects; and construction commenced on the McClean Lake mill.

Pool, T.C.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2012" 9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2012" "Item",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,"E2003",2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012 "Exploration and Development" "Surface Drilling (million feet)",1.1,0.7,1.3,3,4.9,4.6,2.5,1,0.7,"W","W",1.2,1.7,2.7,5.1,5.1,3.7,4.9,6.3,7.2 "Drilling Expenditures (million dollars)1",5.7,1.1,2.6,7.2,20,18.1,7.9,5.6,2.7,"W","W",10.6,18.1,40.1,67.5,81.9,35.4,44.6,53.6,66.6 "Mine Production of Uranium" "(million pounds U3O8)",2.1,2.5,3.5,4.7,4.7,4.8,4.5,3.1,2.6,2.4,2.2,2.5,3,4.7,4.5,3.9,4.1,4.2,4.1,4.3 "Uranium Concentrate Production" "(million pounds U3O8)",3.1,3.4,6,6.3,5.6,4.7,4.6,4,2.6,2.3,2,2.3,2.7,4.1,4.5,3.9,3.7,4.2,4,4.1

386

Uranium control in phosphogypsum. [In wet-process phosphoric acid production  

SciTech Connect

In wet-process phosphoric acid plants, both previous and recent test results show that uranium dissolution from phosphate rock is significantly higher when the rock is acidulated under oxidizing conditions than under reducing conditions. Excess sulfate and excess fluoride further enhance the distribution of uranium to the cake. Apparently the U(IV) present in the crystal lattice of the apatite plus that formed by reduction of U(IV) by FE(II) during acidulation is trapped or carried into the crystal lattice of the calcium sulfate crystals as they form and grow. The amount of uranium that distributes to hemihydrate filter cake is up to seven times higher than the amount that distributes to the dihydrate cake. About 60% of the uranium in hemihydrate cakes can be readily leached after hydration of the cake, but the residual uranium (20 to 30%) is very difficult to remove economically. Much additional research is needed to develop methods for minimizing uranium losses to calcium filter cakes.

Hurst, F.J.; Arnold, W.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Standard specification for uranium hexafluoride enriched to less than 5 % 235U  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This specification covers nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride (UF6) that either has been processed through an enrichment plant, or has been produced by the blending of Highly Enriched Uranium with other uranium to obtain uranium of any 235U concentration below 5 % and that is intended for fuel fabrication. The objectives of this specification are twofold: (1) To define the impurity and uranium isotope limits for Enriched Commercial Grade UF6 so that, with respect to fuel design and manufacture, it is essentially equivalent to enriched uranium made from natural UF6; and (2) To define limits for Enriched Reprocessed UF6 to be expected if Reprocessed UF6 is to be enriched without dilution with Commercial Natural UF6. For such UF6, special provisions, not defined herein, may be needed to ensure fuel performance and to protect the work force, process equipment, and the environment. 1.2 This specification is intended to provide the nuclear industry with a standard for enriched UF6 that is to be used in the pro...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Segregation of Uranium Metal from K Basin Sludge: Results from Vendor Testing  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to Fluor Hanford, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory directed laboratory, bench-scale, and pilot-scale vendor testing to evaluate the use of commercial gravity mineral concentration technology to remove and concentrate uranium metal from Hanford K Basin sludge. Uranium metal in the sludge corrodes by reacting with water to generate heat and hydrogen gas, and may constrain shipment and disposal of the sludge to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as remote-handled transuranic waste. Separating uranium metal from the K Basin sludge is expected to be similar to some gold recovery operations. Consequently, the capabilities of commercial gravity mineral concentration technologies were assessed for their applicability to K Basin sludge streams. Overall, the vendor testing demonstrated the technical feasibility of using gravity concentration equipment to separate the K Basin sludge into a high-volume uranium metal-depleted stream and a low-volume uranium metal-rich stream. I n test systems, more than 96% of the uranium metal surrogate was concentrated into 10 to 30% of the sludge mass (7 to 24% of the sludge volume). With more prototypical equipment and stream recycle, higher recoveries may be achieved.

Schmidt, Andrew J.; Elmore, Monte R.; Delegard, Calvin H.

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.  

SciTech Connect

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.  

SciTech Connect

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Verification of Uranium Mass and Enrichments of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Using the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS), developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, was used to verify the mass and enrichment of hundreds of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) metal items in storage at the Y-12 Plant. The verifications had a relative spread of {+-}5% (3 sigma) with relative mean deviations from their declared values of +0.2% for mass and {minus}0.2% for enrichment. NMIS's capability to perform quantification of HEU enabled the Y-12 Plant to meet their nuclear material control and accountability (NMC and A) requirements. These verifications were performed in the storage vault in a very time and cost effective manner with as many as 55 verifications in one shift of operation.

Chiang, L.G.; Mattingly, J.K.; Ramsey, J.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.

2000-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

392

Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves Plant's Uranium Enrichment Legacy Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves Plant's Uranium Enrichment Legacy May 21, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis An online museum on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant went live earlier this year. An online museum on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant went live earlier this year. PIKETON, Ohio - Do you wonder what the interior of a uranium enrichment plant looks like without ever stepping foot in the facility? Now, the public can view photos, watch interviews with current and former workers who share historical accounts and browse old newsletters on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant from as far back as the early 1950s with

393

Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves Plant's Uranium Enrichment Legacy Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves Plant's Uranium Enrichment Legacy May 21, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis An online museum on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant went live earlier this year. An online museum on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant went live earlier this year. PIKETON, Ohio - Do you wonder what the interior of a uranium enrichment plant looks like without ever stepping foot in the facility? Now, the public can view photos, watch interviews with current and former workers who share historical accounts and browse old newsletters on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant from as far back as the early 1950s with

394

Table 4.10 Uranium Reserves, 2008 (Million Pounds Uranium Oxide)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

money. The forward costs used to estimate U.S. uranium ore reserves are independent of the price at which uranium produced from the estimated reserves might be sold ...

395

Global terrestrial uranium supply and its policy implications : a probabilistic projection of future uranium costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accurate outlook on long-term uranium resources is critical in forecasting uranium costresource relationships, and for energy policy planning as regards the development and deployment of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. ...

Matthews, Isaac A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Semiconductive Properties of Uranium Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEMICONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF URANIUM OXIDES SEMICONDUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF URANIUM OXIDES Thomas Meek Materials Science Engineering Department University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37931 Michael Hu and M. Jonathan Haire Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6179 August 2000 For the Waste Management 2001 Symposium Tucson, Arizona February 25-March 1, 2001 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. _________________________ * Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy

397

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by state, 2003-2012" 7. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by state, 2003-2012" "person-years" "State(s)",2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012 "Wyoming",134,139,181,195,245,301,308,348,424,512 "Colorado and Texas",48,140,269,263,557,696,340,292,331,248 "Nebraska and New Mexico",92,102,123,160,149,160,159,134,127,"W" "Arizona, Utah, and Washington",47,40,75,120,245,360,273,281,"W","W" "Alaska, Michigan, Nevada, and South Dakota",0,0,0,16,25,30,"W","W","W","W" "California, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Virginia",0,0,0,0,9,17,"W","W","W","W"

398

:- : DRILLING URANIUM BILLETS ON A  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

'Xxy";^ ...... ' '. .- -- Metals, Ceramics, and Materials. : . - ,.. ; - . _ : , , ' z . , -, .- . >. ; . .. :- : DRILLING URANIUM BILLETS ON A .-... r .. .. i ' LEBLOND-CARLSTEDT RAPID BORER 4 r . _.i'- ' ...... ' -'".. :-'' ,' :... : , '.- ' ;BY R.' J. ' ANSEN .AEC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT PERSONAL PROPERTY OF J. F. Schlltz .:- DECLASSIFIED - PER AUTHORITY OF (DAlE) (NhTI L (DATE)UE) FEED MATERIALS PRODUCTION CENTER NATIONAL LFE A COMPANY OF OHIO 26 1 3967 3035406 NLCO - 886 Metals, Ceramics and Materials (TID-4500, 22nd Ed.) DRILLING URANIUM BILLETS ON A LEBLOND-CARLSTEDT RAPID BORER By R. J. Jansen* TECHNICAL DIVISION NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO Date of Issuance: September 13, 1963 Approved By: Approved By: Technical Director Head, Metallurgical Department *Mr. Jansen is presently

399

Potential Uses of Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POTENTIAL USES OF DEPLETED URANIUM POTENTIAL USES OF DEPLETED URANIUM Robert R. Price U.S. Department of Energy Germantown, Maryland 20874 M. Jonathan Haire and Allen G. Croff Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6180 June 2000 For American Nuclear Society 2000 International Winter and Embedded Topical Meetings Washington, D.C. November 12B16, 2000 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. _________________________

400

Measurement of Trace Uranium Isotopes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The extent to which thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) can measure trace quantities of 233U and 236U in the presence of a huge excess of natural uranium is evaluated. This is an important nuclear non-proliferation measurement. Four ion production methods were evaluated with three mass spectrometer combinations. The most favorable combinations are not limited by abundance sensitivity; rather, the limitations are the ability to generate a uranium ion beam of sufficient intensity to obtain the required number of counts on the minor isotopes in relationship to detector background. The most favorable situations can measure isotope ratios in the range of E10 if sufficient sample intensity is available. These are the triple sector mass spectrometer with porous ion emitters (PIE) and the single sector mass spectrometer with energy filtering.

Matthew G. Watrous; James E. Delmore

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Background Fact Sheet Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions At the direction of Energy Secretary Steven Chu, over many months, the Energy Department (DOE) has been working closely with Energy Northwest (ENW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and USEC Inc. (USEC) to develop a plan to address the challenges at USEC's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) that advances America's national security interests, protects taxpayers, and provides benefits for TVA and the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) electric ratepayers and business operations. BPA is ENW's sole customer, purchasing 100 percent of ENW's Columbia Generating Station's electric power as part of BPA's overall

403

Depleted Uranium (DU) Cermet Waste Package  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Package Package Depleted Uranium (DU) Cermet Waste Package The steel components of the waste package could be replaced with a uranium cermet. The cermet contains uranium dioxide particulates, which are embedded in steel. Cermets are made with outer layers of clean steel; thus, there is no radiation-contamination hazard in handling the waste packages. Because cermets are made of the same materials that would normally be found in the YM repository (uranium dioxide and steel), there are no chemical compatibility issues. From half to all of the DU inventory in the United States could be used for this application. Depleted Uranium Dioxide Steel Cermet Cross Section of a Depleted Uranium Dioxide Steel Cermet Follow the link below for more information on Cermets:

404

Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DU Uses DU Uses Depleted Uranium Uses Research & Development A Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Program was initiated to explore beneficial uses of depleted uranium (DU) and other materials resulting from conversion of depleted UF6. A Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Program was initiated to explore the safe, beneficial use of depleted uranium and other materials resulting from conversion of depleted UF6 (e.g., fluorine and empty carbon steel cylinders) for the purposes of resource conservation and cost savings compared with disposal. This program explored the risks and benefits of several depleted uranium uses, including uses as a radiation shielding material, a catalyst, and a semi-conductor material in electronic devices.

405

Uranium Metal Analysis via Selective Dissolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Uranium metal, which is present in sludge held in the Hanford Site K West Basin, can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during sludge handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage operations by its oxidation/corrosion in water. A thorough knowledge of the uranium metal concentration in sludge therefore is essential to successful sludge management and waste process design. The goal of this work was to establish a rapid routine analytical method to determine uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of up to 1000-fold higher total uranium concentrations (i.e., up to 30 wt% and more uranium) for samples to be taken during the upcoming sludge characterization campaign and in future analyses for sludge handling and processing. This report describes the experiments and results obtained in developing the selective dissolution technique to determine uranium metal concentration in K Basin sludge.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

406

BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no commercial outlet available, the DOE is evaluating treatment and disposal as the ultimate disposition path for these materials. This paper will describe an innovative program that will provide a solution to DOE that will allow disposition of these materials at a cost that will be competitive with treatment and disposal at the NTS, while at the same time recycling the material to recover a valuable energy resource (yellowcake) for reintroduction into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUSA) and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) have entered into a commercial relationship to pursue the development of this program. The program involves the design of a process and construction of a plant at NFS' site in Erwin, Tennessee, for the blending of contaminated LEU with depleted uranium (DU) to produce a uranium source material ore (USM Ore{trademark}). The USM Ore{trademark} will then be further processed at IUC's White Mesa Mill, located near Blanding, Utah, to produce conventional yellowcake, which can be delivered to conversion facilities, in the same manner as yellowcake that is produced from natural ores or other alternate feed materials. The primary source of feed for the business will be the significant sources of trace contaminated materials within the DOE complex. NFS has developed a dry blending process (DRYSM Process) to blend the surplus LEU material with DU at its Part 70 licensed facility, to produce USM Ore{trademark} with a U235 content within the range of U235 concentrations for source material. By reducing the U235 content to source material levels in this manner, the material will be suitable for processing at a conventional uranium mill under its existing Part 40 license to remove contaminants and enable the product to re-enter the commercial fuel cycle. The tailings from processing the USM Ore{trademark} at the mill will be permanently disposed of in the mill's tailings impoundment as 11e.(2) byproduct material. Blending LEU with DU to make a uranium source material ore that can be returned to the nuclear fuel cycle for processing to produce yellowcake, has never been accomplished before. This program will allow DOE to disposition its surplus LEU and DU in a cost effective manner, and at the same time provide for the recovery of valuable energy resources that would be lost through processing and disposal of the materials. This paper will discuss the nature of the surplus LEU and DU materials, the manner in which the LEU will be blended with DU to form a uranium source material ore, and the legal means by which this blending can be accomplished at a facility licensed under 10 CFR Part 70 to produce ore that can be processed at a conventional uranium mill licensed under 10 CFR Part 40.

Schutt, Stephen M.; Hochstein, Ron F.; Frydenlund, David C.; Thompson, Anthony J.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

407

PRETREATING URANIUM FOR METAL PLATING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for anodically treating the surface of uranium articles, prior to metal plating. The metal is electrolyzed in an aqueous solution of about 10% polycarboxylic acid, preferably oxalic acid, from 1 to 5% by weight of glycerine and from 1 to 5% by weight of hydrochloric acid at from 20 to 75 deg C for from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. A current density of from 60 to 100 amperes per square foot is used.

Wehrmann, R.F.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE FROM URANIUM RAW MATERIAL  

SciTech Connect

This process consists oi the following steps: dissolving and leaching uranium raw material with sulfuric acid, adding a tetravalent uranium solution obtained by electrolytic reduction to the leach, subjecting the leach exuded by suifuric acid to an extraction with an organic solvent to refine and concentrate uranium, converting the extract to a tetravalent uranous solution by electrolytic reduction, and reacting hydrogen fluoride with the uranous solution to produce uranium tetrafluoride. (R.J.S.)

Ito, C.; Okuda, T.; Hamabe, N.

1962-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

409

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 Year Exploration Mining Milling Processing Reclamation Total 2003 W W W W 117 321 2004 18 108 W W 121 420 2005 79 149 142 154 124 648 2006 188 121 W W 155 755 2007 375 378 107 216 155 1,231 2008 457 558 W W 154 1,563 2009 175 441 W W 162 1,096 2010 211 400 W W 125 1,073 2011 208 462 W W 102 1,191 2012 161 462 W W 179 1,196 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A, "Domestic Uranium Production Report" (2003-2012). Table 6. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by category, 2003-2012 person-years W = Data withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

410

METHOD OF PRODUCING URANIUM METAL BY ELECTROLYSIS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for making uranium metal from oxidic material by electrolytic deposition on the cathode. The oxidic material admixed with two moles of carbon per one mole of uranium dioxide forms the anode, and the electrolyte is a mixture of from 40 to 75% of calcium fluoride or barium fluoride, 15 to 45% of uranium tetrafluoride, and from 10 to 20% of lithium fluoride or magnesium fluoride; the temperature of the electrolyte is between 1150 and 1175 deg C. (AEC)

Piper, R.D.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;PROJECT OVERVIEW ·Site Location·Site Location ·Fremont , Wyoming ·Existing Uranium Mine Permit 381C·Existing Uranium Mine Permit 381C ·Historical Operation ·Western Nuclear Crooks Gap Project ·Mined 1956 ­ 1988 and Open Pit Mining ·Current Mine Permit (381C) ·Updating POO, Reclamation Plan & Bond ·Uranium Recovery

412

METHOD FOR THE REDUCTION OF URANIUM COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved technique of preparing massive metallic uranium by the reaction at elevated temperature between an excess of alkali in alkaline earth metal and a uranium halide, such ss uranium tetrafluoride is presented. The improvement comprises employing a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen or the like, such as coal gas, in the vessel during the reduction stage and then replacing the reducing atmosphere with argon gas prior to cooling to ambient temperature.

Cooke, W.H.; Crawford, J.W.C.

1959-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

413

PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the manufacture of uranium bexafluoride which consists in contacting an oxide of uranium simultaneously with elemental carbon and elemental fluorine at an elevated temperature, using a proportion of the carbon to the oxide about 50% in excess of that theoretically required to combine with f the oxygen as C0/.sub 2/. The process has the advantage that the uranium oxide is reduced by tbe carbon aad converted to the hexafluoride in a single operation.

Fowler, R.D.

1958-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

ELECTROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION AND RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process is described for separating uranium from fission products. The method comprises subjecting the mass of uranium to anodic dissolution in an electrolytic cell containing aqueous alkali bicarbonate solution as its electrolyte, thereby promoting a settling from the solution of a solid sludge from about the electrodes and separating the resulting electrolyte solution containing the anodically dissolved uranium from the sludge which contains the rare earth fission products.

McLaren, J.A.; Goode, J.H.

1958-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

415

2011 Uranium Marketing Annual Report - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Uranium Feed, Enrichment Services, Uranium Loaded In 2011, COOs delivered 51 million pounds U 3 O 8 e of natural uranium feed to U.S. and foreign enrichers. Fifty-

416

Production and Handling Slide 23: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description The fourth major step in the uranium fuel cycle is uranium enrichment. Slide 23...

417

FAQ 9-Where does uranium hexafluoride come from?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

hexafluoride come from? Where does uranium hexafluoride come from? The gaseous diffusion process used to enrich uranium requires uranium in the form of UF6. In the first step of...

418

Health Effects Associated with Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hexafluoride (UF6) UF6 Health Effects Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) line line Properties of UF6 UF6 Health Effects Health Effects Associated with Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) Uranium...

419

Think Uranium. Think Y-12 | Y-12 National Security Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Think Uranium. Think Y-12 Think Uranium. Think Y-12 Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:12pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 Uranium fever: Much like the California gold rush of...

420

Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Hexavalent uranium supports growth of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and Geobacter spp.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hexavalent uranium supports growth of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and Geobacter spp. with lower cultures, there are problems associated with absolute quantification due to the presence of uranium (FRC) near Oak Ridge, TN, and several isolates have recently been obtained from uranium

Löffler, Frank E.

422

Plutonium Decontamination of Uranium using CO2 Cleaning  

SciTech Connect

A concern of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) and Defense Programs (DP), and of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is the disposition of thousands of legacy and recently generated plutonium (Pu)-contaminated, highly enriched uranium (HEU) parts. These parts take up needed vault space. This presents a serious problem for LLNL, as site limit could result in the stoppage of future weapons work. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (NN-60) will also face a similar problem as thousands of HEU parts will be created with the disassembly of site-return pits for plutonium recovery when the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) becomes operational. To send HEU to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant for disposition, the contamination for metal must be less than 20 disintegrations per minute (dpm) of swipable transuranic per 100 cm{sup 2} of surface area or the Pu bulk contamination for oxide must be less than 210 parts per billion (ppb). LANL has used the electrolytic process on Pu-contaminated HEU weapon parts with some success. However, this process requires that a different fixture be used for every configuration; each fixture cost approximately $10K. Moreover, electrolytic decontamination leaches the uranium metal substrate (no uranium or plutonium oxide) from the HEU part. The leaching rate at the uranium metal grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains and depends on the thickness of the uranium oxide layer. As the leaching liquid flows past the HEU part, it carries away plutonium oxide contamination and uranium oxide. The uneven uranium metal surface created by the leaching becomes a trap for plutonium oxide contamination. In addition, other DOE sites have used CO{sub 2} cleaning for Pu decontamination successfully. In the 1990's, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory investigated this technology and showed that CO{sub 2} pellet blasting (or CO{sub 2} cleaning) reduced both fixed and smearable contamination on tools. In 1997, LLNL proved that even tritium contamination could be removed from a variety of different matrices using CO{sub 2}cleaning. CO{sub 2} cleaning is a non-toxic, nonconductive, nonabrasive decontamination process whose primary cleaning mechanisms are: (1) Impact of the CO{sub 2} pellets loosens the bond between the contaminant and the substrate. (2) CO{sub 2} pellets shatter and sublimate into a gaseous state with large expansion ({approx}800 times). The expanding CO{sub 2} gas forms a layer between the contaminant and the substrate that acts as a spatula and peels off the contaminant. (3) Cooling of the contaminant assists in breaking its bond with the substrate. Thus, LLNL conducted feasibility testing to determine if CO{sub 2} pellet blasting could remove Pu contamination (e.g., uranium oxide) from uranium metal without abrading the metal matrix. This report contains a summary of events and the results of this test.

Blau, M

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Plutonium Decontamination of Uranium using CO2 Cleaning  

SciTech Connect

A concern of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) and Defense Programs (DP), and of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is the disposition of thousands of legacy and recently generated plutonium (Pu)-contaminated, highly enriched uranium (HEU) parts. These parts take up needed vault space. This presents a serious problem for LLNL, as site limit could result in the stoppage of future weapons work. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (NN-60) will also face a similar problem as thousands of HEU parts will be created with the disassembly of site-return pits for plutonium recovery when the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) becomes operational. To send HEU to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant for disposition, the contamination for metal must be less than 20 disintegrations per minute (dpm) of swipable transuranic per 100 cm{sup 2} of surface area or the Pu bulk contamination for oxide must be less than 210 parts per billion (ppb). LANL has used the electrolytic process on Pu-contaminated HEU weapon parts with some success. However, this process requires that a different fixture be used for every configuration; each fixture cost approximately $10K. Moreover, electrolytic decontamination leaches the uranium metal substrate (no uranium or plutonium oxide) from the HEU part. The leaching rate at the uranium metal grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains and depends on the thickness of the uranium oxide layer. As the leaching liquid flows past the HEU part, it carries away plutonium oxide contamination and uranium oxide. The uneven uranium metal surface created by the leaching becomes a trap for plutonium oxide contamination. In addition, other DOE sites have used CO{sub 2} cleaning for Pu decontamination successfully. In the 1990's, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory investigated this technology and showed that CO{sub 2} pellet blasting (or CO{sub 2} cleaning) reduced both fixed and smearable contamination on tools. In 1997, LLNL proved that even tritium contamination could be removed from a variety of different matrices using CO{sub 2}cleaning. CO{sub 2} cleaning is a non-toxic, nonconductive, nonabrasive decontamination process whose primary cleaning mechanisms are: (1) Impact of the CO{sub 2} pellets loosens the bond between the contaminant and the substrate. (2) CO{sub 2} pellets shatter and sublimate into a gaseous state with large expansion ({approx}800 times). The expanding CO{sub 2} gas forms a layer between the contaminant and the substrate that acts as a spatula and peels off the contaminant. (3) Cooling of the contaminant assists in breaking its bond with the substrate. Thus, LLNL conducted feasibility testing to determine if CO{sub 2} pellet blasting could remove Pu contamination (e.g., uranium oxide) from uranium metal without abrading the metal matrix. This report contains a summary of events and the results of this test.

Blau, M

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NEUTRON- BOMBARDED URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for removing plutonium and/or fission products from uranium fuel. The fuel is dissolved in molten zinc--magnesium (10 to 18% Mg) alloy, more magnesium is added to obtain eutectic composition whereby uranium precipitates, and the uranium are separated from the Plutoniumand fission-product- containing eutectic. (AEC)

Martin, A.E.; Johnson, I.; Burris, L. Jr.; Winsch, I.O.; Feder, H.M.

1962-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

425

Correlation of External Exposure and Dose Equivalent Rates with Uranium Surface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

This report provides both calculated estimates and measured values of exposure in air and tissue dose from external penetrating radiation at a distance of 1 m from uranium contamination on surfaces at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, in support of the Y-12 Site Radiological Characterization Study. Calculated values are based on the total energy from gamma rays and X rays emitted by uranium and its shordaughters at secular equilibrium. Results of a small number of measurements are provided for comparison. Dose rate values derived here are limited to those of external penetrating radiation from distributed sources with limited surface area and from point sources.

Ashley, J.C.; Bogard, J.S.; Brown, K.S.; England, C.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

1959-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

427

Uranium Certified Reference Materials Price List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Safety & Health spacer Office of Science Chicago Office - New Brunswick Laboratory Uranium Certified Reference Materials Price List Return to Price List Page NOTE: These costs...

428

Structural Sequestration of Uranium in Bacteriogenic Manganese...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highlightsbanner Structural Sequestration of Uranium in Bacteriogenic Manganese Oxides Samuel M. Webb (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory), Bradley M. Tebo (Oregon Health...

429

SORPTION OF URANIUM ON ZIRCONIUM OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of the ions of uranium, copper, and nickel on hydrous zirconium oxide was investigated at temperatures from 25 to 250 deg C. The experiments were performed by equilibrating 5 ml of the test solution with 0.5 g of zirconium oxide in a titanium autoclave, which was heated by means of a rocking furnace. The sorption of uranium was affected by characteristics of the zirconium oxide, temperatare of equilibration, and concentrations of uranium and of free acid in the uranyl sulfate solutions. Conclusions are drawn concerning the relationship between each of these factors and uranium sorption. (auth)

Goldstein, G.

1961-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

430

Unique Uranium Source in Naturally Bioreduced Sediment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed Unique Uranium Source in Naturally Bioreduced Sediment DECEMBER 2, 2009 Bookmark and Share Scanning...

431

Roadmap to the Project: Uranium Miners Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

suggested revisions of criteria for the compensation of lung cancer among underground uranium miners from the eligible regions of the U.S. Radioactive radon (more specifically...

432

WEB RESOURCE: Some Physics of Uranium - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 19, 2007 ... This online primer offers a general overview of the chemistry of uranium, with particular reference to nuclear reactors. Graphs and images are ...

433

Uranium Downblending and Disposition Project Technology Readiness...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Simulated Operational Environment Environment that uses a range of waste simulants for testing of a virtual prototype. iv 233 Uranium Downblending and Disposition Project...

434

Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > Uranium Weapons Components Successfully...

435

Domestic Uranium Production Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook › Annual Energy Outlook ... The EIA data covered approximately 200 uranium properties with reserve estimates, collected from 1984 through ...

436

Colorimetric detection of uranium in water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

DeVol, Timothy A. (Clemson, SC); Hixon, Amy E. (Piedmont, SC); DiPrete, David P. (Evans, GA)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

437

High strength and density tungsten-uranium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alloys of tungsten and uranium and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 55 vol % to about 85 vol %. A porous preform is made by sintering consolidated tungsten powder. The preform is impregnated with molten uranium such that (1) uranium fills the pores of the preform to form uranium in a tungsten matrix or (2) uranium dissolves portions of the preform to form a continuous uranium phase containing tungsten particles.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

The OPPA process offers three potential advantages over the DEPA-TOPO process. The OPPA extractant is much less expensive and has a higher extraction power for uranium than the DEPA-TOPO solvent. In addition it extracts U(IV), the prevailing oxidation state of uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid and this eliminates the liquor oxidation step required in the DEPA-TOPO process. However, the DEPA-TOPO solvent is known to be extremely stable and this process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-plant scale at phosphate plants. It is understood that several companies are planning to commercialize this process in the near future. On the other hand, the potentially more attractive OPPA process has not been proven in a pilot plant operation and some questions about the solubility and stability of the OPPA need to be answered. Because of the wide spread interest in this process, a program was started in cooperation with Mobil and Allied Chemical companies to study this extractant, to identify and isolate the material that solubilizes the mono- and diacids, and to determine the optimum concentration and ratios for uranium extraction. In addition, a long-term cyclic test is planned to better define solubility losses and stability of the extractant. Consideration will also be given to improving the recovery of uranium lost to the gypsum during calcination. 12 figures. (auth)

Hurst, F.J.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Audit Report on "Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion," DOE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Audit Report on "Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion," DOEIG-0642 Audit Report on "Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride...

440

Uranium Leasing Program Draft PEIS Public Comment Period Extended...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Uranium Leasing Program Draft PEIS Public Comment Period Extended to May 31, 2013 Uranium...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

DOE Extends Public Comment Period for Uranium Program Environmental...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home DOE Extends Public Comment Period for Uranium Program Environmental Impact Statement DOE Extends Public Comment Period for Uranium...

442

Follow-up of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion, IG-0751...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Follow-up of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion, IG-0751 Follow-up of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride...

443

Mined Land Reclamation on DOE's Uranium Lease Tracts, Southwestern...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Mined Land Reclamation on DOE's Uranium Lease Tracts, Southwestern Colorado Mined Land Reclamation on DOE's Uranium Lease...

444

Depleted Uranium Operations at the Y-12 National Security Complex...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Depleted Uranium Operations at the Y-12 National Security Complex, G-0570 Depleted Uranium Operations...

445

Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here Home Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium Deposits (1967) Borehole Logging Methods for Exploration and Evaluation of Uranium...

446

SALE OF ENRICHED URANIUM AT THE FERNALD ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home SALE OF ENRICHED URANIUM AT THE FERNALD ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT, IG-0496 SALE OF ENRICHED URANIUM AT...

447

Secretarial Determination for the Sale or Transfer of Uranium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agencies You are here Home Secretarial Determination for the Sale or Transfer of Uranium Secretarial Determination for the Sale or Transfer of Uranium Secretarial...

448

EIS-0472: Uranium Leasing Program, Mesa, Montrose, and San Miguel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home EIS-0472: Uranium Leasing Program, Mesa, Montrose, and San Miguel Counties, Colorado EIS-0472: Uranium...

449

Production and Handling Slide 37: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description The enrichment process generates two streams of uranium hexafluoride, one enriched in...

450

FAQ 12-What are the hazards associated with uranium hexafluoride...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

hazards associated with uranium hexafluoride? What are the hazards associated with uranium hexafluoride? The characteristics of UF6 pose potential health risks, and the material is...

451

uranium hexafluoride - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy. ... UF 6 is the form of uranium required for the enrichment process. Thank You.

452

Decommissioning of U.S. Uranium Production Facilities  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report analyzes the uranium production facility decommissioning process and its potential impact on uranium supply and prices. 1995 represents the most recent publication year.

Information Center

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Production and Handling Slide 1: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Handling The Uranium Fuel Cycle Skip Presentation Navigation Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image...

454

FAQ 14-What does a depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder look...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder look like? What does a depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder look like? A picture is worth a thousand words The pictures below show typical...

455

Production and Handling Slide 5: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refer to caption below for image description The third step in the uranium fuel cycle involves the conversion of "yellowcake" to uranium hexafluoride (UF6), the chemical form...

456

Production and Handling Slide 2: Natural Uranium and its Ores...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium and its Ores* Skip Presentation Navigation First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents Natural Uranium and its Ores* Refer to caption below...

457

CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix...

458

CRAD, Safety Basis - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Safety Basis - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to...

459

CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE...

460

CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of...

462

CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of...

463

CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to...

464

CRAD, Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of...

465

CRAD, Radiological Controls - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Radiological Controls - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of...

466

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Falls City Uranium Ore Stockpile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranium Ore Stockpile - TX 04A FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Falls City Uranium Ore Stockpile (TX.04A ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations:...

467

Legacy Management Work Progresses on Defense-Related Uranium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Legacy Management Work Progresses on Defense-Related Uranium Mines Report to Congress Legacy Management Work Progresses on Defense-Related Uranium Mines Report to Congress October...

468

Y-12 uranium storage facility?a Ťdream come true?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ranks and actually provides the first impedance for the just finished highly enriched uranium storage facility. Recently the Highly Enriched Uranium Material Facility was...

469

Researchers use light to create rare uranium molecule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to create rare uranium molecule Uranium nitride materials show promise as advanced nuclear fuels due to their high density, high stability, and high thermal conductivity. July...

470

CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January...

471

Advanced reactor design study. Assessing nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in light water reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Advanced Reactor Design Study (ARDS) is to identify and evaluate nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in light water reactors (LWRs). The results of this study provide a basis for selecting and demonstrating specific nonbackfittable concepts that have good potential for implementation. Lead responsibility for managing the study was assigned to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Nonbackfittable concepts for improving uranium utilization in LWRs on the once-through fuel cycle were selected separately for PWRs and BWRs due to basic differences in the way specific concepts apply to those plants. Nonbackfittable concepts are those that are too costly to incorporate in existing plants, and thus, could only be economically incorporated in new reactor designs or plants in very early stages of construction. Essential results of the Advanced Reactor Design Study are summarized.

Fleischman, R.M.; Goldsmith, S.; Newman, D.F.; Trapp, T.J.; Spinrad, B.I.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Uranium and Aluminosilicate Surface Precipitation Tests  

SciTech Connect

The 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site has been used to treat an aluminum-rich waste stream from canyon operations and a silicon-rich waste stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The formation of aluminosilicate scale in the evaporator has caused significant operational problems. Because uranium has been found to accumulate in the aluminosilicate solids, the scale deposition has introduced criticality concerns as well. The objective of the tests described in this report is to determine possible causes of the uranium incorporation in the evaporator scale materials. The scope of this task is to perform laboratory experiments with simulant solutions to determine if (1) uranium can be deposited on the surfaces of various sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) forms and (2) aluminosilicates can form on the surfaces of uranium-containing solids. Batch experiments with simulant solutions of three types were conducted: (1) contact of uranium solutions/sols with NAS coatings on stainless steel surfaces, (2) contact of uranium solutions with NAS particles, and (3) contact of precipitated uranium-containing particles with solutions containing aluminum and silicon. The results show that uranium can be incorporated in NAS solids through encapsulation in bulk agglomerated NAS particles of different phases (amorphous, zeolite A, sodalite, and cancrinite) as well as through heterogeneous deposition on the surfaces of NAS coatings (amorphous and cancrinite) grown on stainless steel. The results also indicate that NAS particles can grow on the surfaces of precipitated uranium solids. Particularly notable for evaporator operations is the finding that uranium solids can form on existing NAS scale, including cancrinite solids. If NAS scale is present, and uranium is in sufficient concentration in solution to precipitate, a portion of the uranium can be expected to become associated with the scale. The data obtained to date on uranium-NAS affinity are qualitative. A necessary next step is to quantitatively determine the amounts of uranium that may be incorporated into NAS scale solids under differing conditions e.g., varying silicon/aluminum ratio, uranium concentration, temperature, and deposition time.

Hu, M.Z.

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

473

Final report: Research project chemical milling of counterbore recesses in the uranium wall of Zircaloy-2 clad uranium tubes  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development of an etchant composition to chemically mill counterbore recesses in each end of the uranium walls of Zircaloy-2 clad uranium tubes.

Atkins, D.C. [United States Chemical Milling Corp., Manhattan Beach, CA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

HIGH-DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE S.G. Ermichev, V.I. Shapovalov, N.V.Sviridov (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Russia) V.K. Orlov, V.M. Sergeev, A. G. Semyenov, A.M. Visik, A.A. Maslov, A. V. Demin, D.D. Petrov, V.V. Noskov, V. I. Sorokin, O. I. Uferov (VNIINM, Moscow, Russia) L. Dole (ORNL, Oak Ridge, USA) Abstract - Russia is researching the production and testing of concretes with ceramic aggregate based on depleted uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). These DU concretes are to be used as structural and radiation-shielded material for casks for A-plant spent nuclear fuel transportation and storage. This paper presents the results of studies aimed at selection of ceramics and concrete composition, justification of their production technology, investigation of mechanical properties, and chemical stability.

475

Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the terrestrial food-chain pathway  

SciTech Connect

One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the terrestrial food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210 in plants and animals. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. Data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk contaminated by the tailings. This dose estimate from this technologically enhanced source is compared with that from average normal dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources.

Rayno, D.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

MECHANISMS AND KINETICS OF URANIUM CORROSION AND URANIUM CORE FUEL ELEMENT RUPTURES IN WATER AND STEAM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mechanisms and kinetics of uranium corrosion and fuel element ruptures were investigated in water and steam at 170 to 500 deg C and at 100 to 2800 psig. The fuel element samples were coextruded Zircaloy-clad uranium-core rods and tubes which were defected prior to exposure. Uranium corrosion was found to be the sum of two processes; direct oxidation by water, and oxidation of uranium hydride intermediate. Fuel element ruptures occur in two stages; an initial induction period followed by an accelerating corrosion of the core causing the cladding to blister, swell, and fracture. Uranium corrosion and fuel element ruptures were examined with respect to temperature, pressure, steam versus liquid water, heat treatment, carbon content of uranium, zirconium content of uranium, cladding thickness, fuel geometry, annular spacings, defect geometry and size, coolant flow, hydriding of Zircaloy components, and irradiation effects. (auth)

Troutner, V.H.

1960-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

477

Forage uptake of uranium series radionuclides in the vicinity of the anaconda uranium mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiochemical analysis was performed on samples of soil and eight species of common vegetation growing on the Anaconda uranium mill site, located in New Mexico. The concentrations of the long-lived radionuclides U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210 in these forage plants were determined. The sampling procedures and analytical laboratory methods used are described. The highest radionuclide concentration found in a forage species was 130 pCi of Ra-226 per gram dry weight for grass growing on the main tailings pile at Anaconda, where the surface soil activity of Ra-226 was 236 pCi/g. A comparison of shoots activity with that of roots and soil was used to determine a distribution index and uptake coefficient for each species. The distribution index, the ratio of root activity to shoot activity, ranged from 0.30 (Th-230) in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii) to 38.0 (Ra-226) in Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides). In nearly all instances, the roots contained higher radionuclide concentrations. The uptake coefficient, the ratio of vegetation activity to soil activity, ranged from 0.69 (U-238) in Indian ricegrass roots to 0.01 (U-238) in four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescans) shoots. The range of radionuclide concentrations in plants growing on the Anaconda mill site is compared to that in vegetation from a control site 20 km away.

Rayno, D.R.; Momeni, M.H.; Sabau, C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

Francis, A.J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium  

SciTech Connect

The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Uranium Exploration Report 2007 Cottonwood District, Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, undertook several field trips to determine the state of the uranium mining industry in Colorado and Utah. These field trips included active mines, abandoned mines, and active mills. Samples from some of the minesMNGN 599 Uranium Exploration Report 2007 Cottonwood District, Utah Erik Hunter Colorado School

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uranium in-situ-leach plants" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481