National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for uranium hexafluoride cylinder

  1. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  2. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  3. Criticality concerns in cleaning large uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    Cleaning large cylinders used to transport low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) presents several challenges to nuclear criticality safety. This paper presents a brief overview of the cleaning process, the criticality controls typically employed and their bases. Potential shortfalls in implementing these controls are highlighted, and a simple example to illustrate the difficulties in complying with the Double Contingency Principle is discussed. Finally, a summary of recommended criticality controls for large cylinder cleaning operations is presented.

  4. A review of the Model 5A uranium hexafluoride cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorning, R.E. II

    1989-05-23

    Both the Model 5A (Monel 400) and 5A (Monel 400) Modified five-inch cylinders have been used at the Portsmouth GDP to withdraw, store, and ship highly enriched uranium hexafluoride. As a result of a generic cracking problem with Monel 400 valve-boss material, a cylinder modification was implemented in the mid 1970s. This modification resulted in the violation of the ASME ''Code'' stamp status of the Model 5A Modified cylinder. Hydrostatic testing-to- rupture data indicated that the Model 5A Modified cylinders had ruptured strengths equivalent to that of the original Model 5A cylinders. An independent consultant reviewed the available information and confirmed that the Model 5A Modified cylinders ''will with proper maintenance continue to perform satisfactorily for many additional years of service.'' Based on the test data and consultant's review, DOE approved continued use of the 5A Modified cylinder and also requested procurement of replacement 5B cylinders be expedited. Currently, the 5A modified cylinders are in the production, storage, shipment cycle, and a sufficient number of 5B cylinders has been ordered to accommodate the projected product shipping requirements for the Navy flow. 3 tabs.

  5. Correlation of heat transfer in a cylinder containing uranium hexafluoride engulfed in a fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    Transient heat transfer/stress analysis models are currently being developed to evaluate the response of cylinders containing uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) to fire accident scenarios. In order to accurately predict temperatures within the cylinder, and ultimately elapsed time to failure, the heat transfer to and within the cylinder must be well characterized. This report contains a complete set of heat transfer correlations required for such a model. Correlations are presented for predicting heat transfer rates over the cylinder exterior (radiative exchange and natural convection), from the cylinder interior to the various phases of UF{sub 6} (solid, liquid, and vapor) in the cylinder, between UF{sub 6} phases in the cylinder, and during UF{sub 6} liquid boiling. The heat transfer coefficients predicted by these correlations were chosen based on best engineering judgement and have not yet been compared to data from actual cylinder fire tests.

  6. A concept of a nonfissile uranium hexafluoride overpack for storage, transport, and processing of corroded cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, R.B.; Cash, J.M.; Singletary, B.H.

    1996-06-01

    There is a need to develop a means of safely transporting breached 48-in. cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) from current storage locations to locations where the contents can be safely removed. There is also a need to provide a method of safely and easily transporting degraded cylinders that no longer meet the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American National Standards Institute, Inc., (ANSI) requirements for shipments of depleted UF{sub 6}. A study has shown that an overpack can be designed and fabricated to satisfy these needs. The envisioned overpack will handle cylinder models 48G, 48X, and 48Y and will also comply with the ANSI N14.1 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Sect. 8 requirements.

  7. Results of the remote sensing feasibility study for the uranium hexafluoride storage cylinder yard program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balick, L.K.; Bowman, D.R.; Bounds, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The US DOE manages the safe storage of approximately 650,000 tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride remaining from the Cold War. This slightly radioactive, but chemically active, material is contained in more than 46,000 steel storage cylinders that are located at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Some of the cylinders are more than 40 years old, and approximately 17,500 are considered problem cylinders because their physical integrity is questionable. These cylinders require an annual visual inspection. The remainder of the 46,000-plus cylinders must be visually inspected every four years. Currently, the cylinder inspection program is extremely labor intensive. Because these inspections are accomplished visually, they may not be effective in the early detection of leaking cylinders. The inspection program requires approximately 12--14 full-time-equivalent (FTE) employees. At the cost of approximately $125K per FTE, this translates to $1,500K per annum just for cylinder inspection. As part of the technology-development portion of the DOE Cylinder Management Program, the DOE Office of Facility Management requested the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to evaluate remote sensing techniques that have potential to increase the effectiveness of the inspection program and, at the same time, reduce inspection costs and personnel radiation exposure. During two site visits (March and May 1996) to the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, TN, RSL personnel tested and characterized seven different operating systems believed to detect leakage, surface contamination, thickness and corrosion of cylinder walls, and general area contamination resulting from breached cylinders. The following techniques were used and their performances are discussed: Laser-induced fluorescent imaging; Long-range alpha detection; Neutron activation analysis; Differential gamma-ray attenuation; Compton scatterometry; Active infrared inspection; and Passive thermal infrared imaging.

  8. Method of recovering uranium hexafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuman, S.

    1975-12-01

    A method of recovering uranium hexafluoride from gaseous mixtures which comprises adsorbing said uranium hexafluoride on activated carbon is described.

  9. FIREPLUME model for plume dispersion from fires: Application to uranium hexafluoride cylinder fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.F.; Dunn, W.E.; Policastro, A.J.; Maloney, D.

    1997-06-01

    This report provides basic documentation of the FIREPLUME model and discusses its application to the prediction of health impacts resulting from releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in fires. The model application outlined in this report was conducted for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted UF{sub 6}. The FIREPLUME model is an advanced stochastic model for atmospheric plume dispersion that predicts the downwind consequences of a release of toxic materials from an explosion or a fire. The model is based on the nonbuoyant atmospheric dispersion model MCLDM (Monte Carlo Lagrangian Dispersion Model), which has been shown to be consistent with available laboratory and field data. The inclusion of buoyancy and the addition of a postprocessor to evaluate time-varying concentrations lead to the current model. The FIREPLUME model, as applied to fire-related UF{sub 6} cylinder releases, accounts for three phases of release and dispersion. The first phase of release involves the hydraulic rupture of the cylinder due to heating of the UF{sub 6} in the fire. The second phase involves the emission of material into the burning fire, and the third phase involves the emission of material after the fire has died during the cool-down period. The model predicts the downwind concentration of the material as a function of time at any point downwind at or above the ground. All together, five fire-related release scenarios are examined in this report. For each scenario, downwind concentrations of the UF{sub 6} reaction products, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride, are provided for two meteorological conditions: (1) D stability with a 4-m/s wind speed, and (2) F stability with a 1-m/s wind speed.

  10. PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1959-10-01

    A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

  11. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  12. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. PROCESS FOR MAKING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, R.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for producing uranium hexafluoride by reacting uranium hexachloride with hydrogen fluoride at a temperature below about 150 deg C, under anhydrous conditions.

  14. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-08-27

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ converted to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such as CoF/sub 3/. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reac tion chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. After nitrogen gas is used to sweep out the hydrogen and the water vapor formed, and while continuing to inaintain the temperature between 400 deg C and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion of UO/sub 2/ to UF/sub 4/ the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to about 400 deg C or less, the UF/sub 4/ is mixed with the requisite quantity of CoF/sub 3/, and after evacuating the chamber, the mixture is heated to 300 to 400 deg C, and the resulting UF/sub 6/ is led off and delivered to a condenser.

  15. Uranium hexafluoride bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports written about the transportation, handling, safety, and processing of uranium hexafluoride. An on-line literature search was executed using the DOE Energy files and the Nuclear Science Abstracts file to identify pertinent reports. The DOE Energy files contain unclassified information that is processed at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information of the US Department of Energy. The reports selected from these files were published between 1974 and 1983. Nuclear Science Abstracts contains unclassified international nuclear science and technology literature published from 1948 to 1976. In addition, scientific and technical reports published by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the US Energy Research and Development Administration, as well as those published by other agencies, universities, and industrial and research organizations, are included in the Nuclear Science Abstracts file. An alphabetical listing of the acronyms used to denote the corporate sponsors follows the bibliography.

  16. Rupture of Model 48Y UF/sub 6/ cylinder and release of uranium hexafluoride. Cylinder overfill, March 12-13, 1986. Investigation of a failed UF/sub 6/ shipping container. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    NUREG-1179, Volume 1, reported on the rupture of a Model 48Y uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) cylinder and the subsequent release of UF/sub 6/. At the time of publication, a detailed metallurgical examination of the damaged cylinder was under way and results were not available. Subsequent to the publication of Volume 1, a second incident occurred at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility. On March 13, 1986, a Model 48X cylinder was overfilled during a special one-time draining procedure; however, no release of UF/sub 6/ occurred. An Augmented Investigation Team investigated this second incident. This report, NUREG-1179, Volume 2, presents the findings made by the Augmented Investigation Team of the March 13 incident and the report of the detailed metallurgical examination conducted by Battelle Columbus Division of the cylinder damaged on January 4, 1986.

  17. Rupture of Model 48Y UF/sub 6/ cylinder and release of uranium hexafluoride, Sequoyah Fuels Facility, Gore, Oklahoma, January 4, 1986. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    At 11:30 a.m. on January 4, 1986, a Model 48Y UF/sub 6/ cylinder filled with uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) ruptured while it was being heated in a steam chest at the Sequoyah Fuels Conversion Facility near Gore, Oklahoma. One worker died because he inhaled hydrogen fluoride fumes, a reaction product of UF/sub 6/ and airborne moisture. Several other workers were injured by the fumes, but none seriously. Much of the facility complex and some offsite areas to the south were contaminated with hydrogen fluoride and a second reaction product, uranyl fluoride. The interval of release was approximately 40 minutes. The cylinder, which had been overfilled, ruptured while it was being heated because of the expansion of UF/sub 6/ as it changed from the solid to the liquid phase. The maximum safe capacity for the cylinder is 27,560 pounds of product. Evidence indicates that it was filled with an amount exceeding this limit. 18 figs.

  18. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants December 24, 2015 - ...

  19. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-10-22

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ convented to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reaction chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. The oven is then swept clean of hydrogen and the water vapor formed by means of nitrogen and then while continuing to maintain the temperature between 400 and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion to uranium tetrafluoride, the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to ahout 400 deg C, and elemental fluorine is used as the fluorinating agent for the conversion of UF/sub 4/ into UF/sub 6/. The fluorine gas is passed into the chamber, and the UF/sub 6/ formed passes out and is delivered to a condenser.

  20. EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Site | Department of Energy 59: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky Site EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky Site Summary This site-specific EIS considers the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three locations within the Paducah site; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste

  1. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants | Department of Energy Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants December 24, 2015 - 10:00am Addthis Media Contact Brad Mitzelfelt, 859-219-4035 brad.mitzelfelt@lex.doe.gov LEXINGTON, Ky. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) today announced it is extending its contract for Operations of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities

  2. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites October 20, 2011 - 9:16am Addthis When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion ...

  3. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UFsub 6) shipping containers and handling procedures. ...

  4. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  5. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at the two DUF6 conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. A cost plus award fee contract with firm-fixed-price ...

  6. Moderation control in low enriched {sup 235}U uranium hexafluoride packaging operations and transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.H.; Kovac, F.M.; Pryor, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Moderation control is the basic parameter for ensuring nuclear criticality safety during the packaging and transport of low {sup 235}U enriched uranium hexafluoride before its conversion to nuclear power reactor fuel. Moderation control has permitted the shipment of bulk quantities in large cylinders instead of in many smaller cylinders and, therefore, has resulted in economies without compromising safety. Overall safety and uranium accountability have been enhanced through the use of the moderation control. This paper discusses moderation control and the operating procedures to ensure that moderation control is maintained during packaging operations and transportation.

  7. The solubility of uranium hexafluoride in perfluoroethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.

    1984-07-15

    The polyperfluoroethers are compatible with uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) and are suitable for use in diffusion pumps and in mechanical vacuum pumps which rely on oil as both the lubricant and the seal. The UF/sub 6/ is soluble in all fluids with which it is compatible. Because a number of vacuum pumps in the BOP facilities of the GCEP plant employ these perfluoroether oils as the working fluid and have oil chambers which are large, questions have been raised as to the relationships governing the solubility of UF/sub 6/ in these materials and the maximum quantities of UF/sub 6/ which could be dissolved in these oils under credible accident conditions. This report summarizes these solubility relations and the interaction of the UF/sub 6/ solubility and the pumping capability of this type of vacuum pump. It will be shown that, whereas the solubility of UF/sub 6/ in Fomblin Y25 fluoroether fluid under a UF/sub 6/ pressure of 760 torr and at the pump operating temperature of 160/sup 0/F is about 500 g of UF/sub 6/ per liter of oil, the system controls are such as to isolate the system from the pumps before the quantity of UF/sub 6/ dissolved in the perfluoroether exceeds about 10 g of UF/sub 6/ per liter of oil. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  9. TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

    2010-02-25

    The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is

  10. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Fire Protection Program – September 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Targeted Review of the Fire Protection Program at the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility

  11. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF{sub 6} handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF{sub 6} handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF{sub 6} are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF{sub 6} presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF{sub 6}. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF{sub 6} may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical.

  12. In-line assay monitor for uranium hexafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, S.A.

    1980-03-21

    An in-line assay monitor for determining the content of uranium-235 in a uranium hexafluoride gas isotopic separation system is provided which removes the necessity of complete access to the operating parameters of the system for determining the uranium-235 content. The method and monitor for carrying out the method involve cooling of a radiation pervious chamber connected in fluid communication with the selected point in the system to withdraw a specimen and solidify the specimen in the chamber. The specimen is irradiated by means of an ionizing radiation source of energy different from that of the 185 keV gamma emissions from uranium-235. The uranium-235 content of the specimen is determined from comparison of the accumulated 185 keV energy counts and reference energy counts. The latter is used to measure the total uranium isotopic content of the specimen.

  13. EIS-0329: Proposed Construction, Operation, Decontamination/Decommissioning of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6) conversion facilities, at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky.

  14. In-line assay monitor for uranium hexafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Steven A.

    1981-01-01

    An in-line assay monitor for determining the content of uranium-235 in a uranium hexafluoride gas isotopic separation system is provided which removes the necessity of complete access to the operating parameters of the system for determining the uranium-235 content. The monitor is intended for uses such as safeguard applications to assure that weapons grade uranium is not being produced in an enrichment cascade. The method and monitor for carrying out the method involve cooling of a radiation pervious chamber connected in fluid communication with the selected point in the system to withdraw a specimen and solidify the specimen in the chamber. The specimen is irradiated by means of an ionizing radiation source of energy different from that of the 185 keV gamma emissions from the uranium-235 present in the specimen. Simultaneously, the gamma emissions from the uranium-235 of the specimen and the source emissions transmitted through the sample are counted and stored in a multiple channel analyzer. The uranium-235 content of the specimen is determined from the comparison of the accumulated 185 keV energy counts and the reference energy counts. The latter is used to measure the total uranium isotopic content of the specimen. The process eliminates the necessity of knowing the system operating conditions and yet obtains the necessary data without need for large scintillation crystals and sophisticated mechanical designs.

  15. Uranium hexafluoride: Safe handling, processing, and transporting: Conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, W.D.; Thornton, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    This conference seeks to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas of the safety aspects and technical issue related to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. By allowing operators, engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and others to meet and share experiences of mutual concern, the conference is also intended to provide the participants with a more complete knowledge of technical and operational issues. The topics for the papers in the proceedings are widely varied and include the results of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical, thermal, and analytical investigations, as well as the developed philosophies of operational, managerial, and regulatory guidelines. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. Design and calibration of the AWCC for measuring uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenz, T.R.; Menlove, H.O.; WSalton, G.; Baca, J.

    1995-08-01

    An Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) has been modified to measure variable enrichment uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage bottles. An active assay technique was used to measure the {sup 235}U content because of the small quantity (nominal loading of 2 kg UF{sub 6}) and nonuniform distribution of UF{sub 6} in the storage bottles. A new insert was designed for the AWCC composed of graphite containing four americium-lithium sources. Monte Carlo calculations were used to design the insert and to calibrate the detector. Benchmark measurements and calculations were performed using uranium oxide resulted in assay values that agreed within 2 to 3% of destructive assay values. In addition to UF{sub 6}, the detector was also calibrated for HEU ingots, billets, and alloy scrap using the standard Mode 1 end-plug configuration.

  17. Conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to a solid uranium compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Alan B.; Graczyk, Donald G.; Essling, Alice M.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2001-01-01

    A process for converting UF.sub.6 to a solid uranium compound such as UO.sub.2 and CaF. The UF.sub.6 vapor form is contacted with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH at a pH greater than 7 to precipitate at least some solid uranium values as a solid leaving an aqueous solution containing NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values. The solid uranium values are separated from the aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values which is then diluted with additional water precipitating more uranium values as a solid leaving trace quantities of uranium in a dilute aqueous solution. The dilute aqueous solution is contacted with an ion-exchange resin to remove substantially all the uranium values from the dilute aqueous solution. The dilute solution being contacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to precipitate CaF.sub.2 leaving dilute NH.sub.4 OH.

  18. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; Green, D.J.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio, is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched uranium than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the is documented in Reference 4.

  19. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ohio and Kentucky Facilities | Department of Energy DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities April 1, 2015 - 3:30pm Addthis Media Contact: Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Draft Request for Proposal (RFP) seeking a contractor to perform

  20. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E

    1999-07-26

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on

  1. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF[sub 6]). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent [sup 235]U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF[sub 6] cylinders/overpacks (Reference 3). Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF[sub 6] packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a tram of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4.

  2. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks (Reference 3). Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a tram of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4.

  3. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A.

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation.

  4. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A.

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation. These Appendices contain the Federal Register Notice, comments on evaluation factors, independent technical reviewers resumes, independent technical reviewers manual, and technology information packages.

  5. GLOBAL MONITORING OF URANIUM HEXIFLORIDE CYLINDERS NEXT STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTION PLAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanks, D.

    2010-06-09

    Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF{sub 6} is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF{sub 6} transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF{sub 6} cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and accounting.

  6. DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Technical Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cincinnati – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) for engineering and operations technical services to support the Portsmouth Paducah Project Office and the oversight of operations of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project located in Paducah KY, and Portsmouth OH.

  7. The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Marlow, Johnna B; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; Iwamoto, Tomonori; Tamura, Takayuki; Aiuchi, Syun

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth site in Ohio (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Portsmouth to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. The facility would also convert the DUF{sub 6} from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2001 (Federal Register, Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (United States Code, Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a Federal Register Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; from the transportation of all ETTP cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF6

  9. Draft Supplement Analysis for Location(s) to Dispose of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product Generated from DOE'S Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR LOCATION(S) TO DISPOSE OF DEPLETED URANIUM OXIDE CONVERSION PRODUCT GENERATED FROM DOE'S INVENTORY OF DEPLETED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE (DOE/EIS-0359-SA1 AND DOE/EIS-0360-SA1) March 2007 March 2007 i CONTENTS NOTATION........................................................................................................................... iv 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ................................................................. 1 1.1 Why DOE Has Prepared This

  10. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah site in northwestern Kentucky (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Paducah to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the ''Federal Register'' (FR) on September 18, 2001 (''Federal Register'', Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (''United States Code'', Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (''Code of Federal Regulations'', Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a ''Federal Register'' Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride

  11. TRANSITION STATE FOR THE GAS-PHASE REACTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, S; James Becnel, J

    2008-03-18

    Density Functional Theory and small-core, relativistic pseudopotentials were used to look for symmetric and asymmetric transitions states of the gas-phase hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride, UF{sub 6}, with water. At the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)/SDD level, an asymmetric transition state leading to the formation of a uranium hydroxyl fluoride, U(OH)F{sub 5}, and hydrogen fluoride was found with an energy barrier of +77.3 kJ/mol and an enthalpy of reaction of +63.0 kJ/mol (both including zero-point energy corrections). Addition of diffuse functions to all atoms except uranium led to only minor changes in the structure and relative energies of the reacting complex and transition state. However, a significant change in the product complex structure was found, significantly reducing the enthalpy of reaction to +31.9 kJ/mol. Similar structures and values were found for PBE0 and MP2 calculations with this larger basis set, supporting the B3LYP results. No symmetric transition state leading to the direct formation of uranium oxide tetrafluoride, UOF{sub 4}, was found, indicating that the reaction under ambient conditions likely includes several more steps than the mechanisms commonly mentioned. The transition state presented here appears to be the first published transition state for the important gas-phase reaction of UF{sub 6} with water.

  12. Evaluation of a RF-Based Approach for Tracking UF6 Cylinders at a Uranium Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Chris A; Younkin, James R; Kovacic, Donald N; Laughter, Mark D; Hines, Jairus B; Boyer, Brian; Martinez, B.

    2008-01-01

    Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally to handle and store uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming physical inspections to verify operator declarations and detect possible diversion of UF{sub 6}. Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant system for near real-time tracking and monitoring UF{sub 6} cylinders (as they move within an enrichment facility) would greatly improve the inspector function. This type of system can reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a proof-of-concept approach that was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using radio frequency (RF)-based technologies to track individual UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout a portion of their life cycle, and thus demonstrate the potential for improved domestic accountability of materials, and a more effective and efficient method for application of site-level IAEA safeguards. The evaluation system incorporates RF-based identification devices (RFID) which provide a foundation for establishing a reliable, automated, and near real-time tracking system that can be set up to utilize site-specific, rules-based detection algorithms. This paper will report results from a proof-of-concept demonstration at a real enrichment facility that is specifically designed to evaluate both the feasibility of using RF to track cylinders and the durability of the RF equipment to survive the rigors of operational processing and handling. The paper also discusses methods for securely attaching RF devices and describes how the technology can effectively be layered with other safeguard systems and approaches to build a robust system for detecting cylinder diversion. Additionally

  13. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF6 inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site.

  14. Uranium hexafluoride liquid thermal expansion, elusive eutectic with hydrogen fluoride, and very first production using chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutledge, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    Three unusual incidents and case histories involving uranium hexafluoride in the enrichment facilities of the USA in the late 1940`s and early 1950`s are presented. The history of the measurements of the thermal expansion of liquids containing fluorine atoms within the molecule is reviewed with special emphasis upon uranium hexafluoride. A comparison is made between fluorinated esters, fluorocarbons, and uranium hexafluoride. The quantitative relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient, a, of liquids and the critical temperature, T{sub c} is presented. Uranium hexafluoride has an a that is very high in a temperature range that is used by laboratory and production workers - much higher than any other liquid measured. This physical property of UF{sub 6} has resulted in accidents involving filling the UF{sub 6} containers too full and then heating with a resulting rupture of the container. Such an incident at a uranium gaseous diffusion plant is presented. Production workers seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} uranium hexafluoride. The movement of UF{sub 6} from one container to another is usually trailed by weight, not sight. Even laboratory scientists seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} solid or liquid UF{sub 6} and this can be a problem at times. This inability to {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} the UF{sub 6}-HF mixtures in the 61.2{degrees}C to 101{degrees}C temperature range caused a delay in the understanding of the phase diagram of UF{sub 6}-HF which has a liquid - liquid immiscible region that made the eutectic composition somewhat elusive. Transparent fluorothene tubes solved the problem both for the UF{sub 6}-HF phase diagram as well as the UF{sub 6}-HF-CIF{sub 3} phase diagram with a miscibility gap starting at 53{degrees}C. The historical background leading to the first use of CIF{sub 3} to produce UF{sub 6} in both the laboratory and plant at K-25 is presented.

  15. Study of the hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.P.

    1982-08-01

    The reaction of uranium hexafluoride with water has been studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Several different methods for accomplishing this task have been carried out. In addition, interpretatins of the results have been made. These interpretations have been based on literature values for the reactants and for compounds analogous to possible products. It was shown that classical matrix-isolation techniques proved to be unsatisfactory for studying this reaction. Other methods were developed in order to obtain results. They were: (1) the codeposition of pure UF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/O on a cold window at 16/sup 0/K, (2) the codeposition of argon matrix to sample ratios of 10:1 to 2:1 of UF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/O at 16/sup 0/K, and (3) the annealing of the samples produced by (1) and (2) while they were being scanned with FT-IR. 78 refs., 86 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Cylinder monitoring program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderson, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage at the Department of Energy (DOE) gaseous diffusion plants, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are being evaluated to determine their expected storage life. Cylinders evaluated recently have been in storage service for 30 to 40 years. In the present environment, the remaining life for these storage cylinders is estimated to be 30 years or greater. The group of cylinders involved in recent tests will continue to be monitored on a periodic basis, and other storage cylinders will be observed as on a statistical sample population. The program has been extended to all types of large capacity UF{sub 6} cylinders.

  17. Benchmark Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Uranium Hexafluoride in Aluminmum Pipe with a Sodium Iodide Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March-Leuba, Jose A; Uckan, Taner; Gunning, John E; Brukiewa, Patrick D; Upadhyaya, Belle R; Revis, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The expected increased demand in fuel for nuclear power plants, combined with the fact that a significant portion of the current supply from the blend down of weapons-source material will soon be coming to an end, has led to the need for new sources of enriched uranium for nuclear fuel. As a result, a number of countries have announced plans, or are currently building, gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) to supply this material. GCEPs have the potential to produce uranium at enrichments above the level necessary for nuclear fuel purposes-enrichments that make the uranium potentially usable for nuclear weapons. As a result, there is a critical need to monitor these facilities to ensure that nuclear material is not inappropriately enriched or diverted for unintended use. Significant advances have been made in instrument capability since the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) monitoring methods were developed. In numerous cases, advances have been made in other fields that have the potential, with modest development, to be applied in safeguards applications at enrichment facilities. A particular example of one of these advances is the flow and enrichment monitor (FEMO). (See Gunning, J. E. et al., 'FEMO: A Flow and Enrichment Monitor for Verifying Compliance with International Safeguards Requirements at a Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Facility,' Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Facility Operations - Safeguards Interface. Portland, Oregon, March 30-April 4th, 2008.) The FEMO is a conceptual instrument capable of continuously measuring, unattended, the enrichment and mass flow of {sup 235}U in pipes at a GCEP, and consequently increase the probability that the potential production of HEU and/or diversion of fissile material will be detected. The FEMO requires no piping penetrations and can be installed on pipes containing the flow of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at a GCEP. This FEMO consists of separate parts, a flow monitor (FM

  18. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good practice ORO 651 revision 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.H.

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy publishes a document containing UF{sub 6} handling procedures and descriptions of the approved UF{sub 6} cylinders. Since its initial publication in 1966, it has been frequently revised to provide more and better information. The principle additions to the sixth revision which will be discussed are: (1) more detail on the physical and chemical properties of UF{sub 6}; (2) cold trap description and operation; (3) cylinder emptying and filling concepts; (4) basis for cylinder fill limits; (5) short- and long-term cylinder storage; and (6) cylinder photographs and drawings showing major dimensions.

  19. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  20. Overseas shipments of 48Y cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, R.T.; Furlan, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes experiences with two incidents of overseas shipments of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The first incident involved nine empty UF{sub 6} cylinders in enclosed sea containers. Three UF{sub 6} cylinders broke free from their tie-downs and damaged and contaminated several sea containers. This paper describes briefly how decontamination was carried out. The second incident involved a shipment of 14 full UF{sub 6} cylinders. Although the incident did not cause an accident, the potential hazard was significant. The investigation of the cause of the near accident is recounted. Recommendations to alleviate future similar incidents for both cases are presented.

  1. Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorning, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

  2. Floodplain/wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation ofa depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky,site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This floodplain/wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11988 (''Floodplain Management''), Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and DOE regulations for implementing these Executive Orders as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [''Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements'']), to evaluate potential impacts to floodplains and wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site. Reconstruction of the bridge crossing Bayou Creek would occur within the Bayou Creek 100-year floodplain. Replacement of bridge components, including the bridge supports, however, would not be expected to

  3. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of adepleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio,site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. The Indiana bat is known to occur in the area of the Portsmouth site and may potentially occur on the site during spring or summer. Evaluations of the Portsmouth site indicated that most of the site was found to have poor summer habitat for the Indiana bat because of the small size, isolation, and insufficient maturity of the few woodlands on the site. Potential summer habitat for the Indiana bat was identified outside the developed area bounded by

  4. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hortel, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  5. Results from a "Proof-of-Concept" Demonstration of RF-Based Tracking of UF6 Cylinders during a Processing Operation at a Uranium Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Chris A; Kovacic, Donald N; Whitaker, J Michael; Younkin, James R; Hines, Jairus B; Laughter, Mark D; Morgan, Jim; Carrick, Bernie; Boyer, Brian; Whittle, K.

    2008-01-01

    Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally for processing, storing, and transporting uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at uranium enrichment plants. To ensure that cylinder movements at enrichment facilities occur as declared, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must conduct time-consuming periodic physical inspections to validate facility records, cylinder identity, and containment. By using a robust system design that includes the capability for real-time unattended monitoring (of cylinder movements), site-specific rules-based event detection algorithms, and the capability to integrate with other types of monitoring technologies, one can build a system that will improve overall inspector effectiveness. This type of monitoring system can provide timely detection of safeguard events that could be used to ensure more timely and appropriate responses by the IAEA. It also could reduce reliance on facility records and have the additional benefit of enhancing domestic safeguards at the installed facilities. This paper will discuss the installation and evaluation of a radio-frequency- (RF-) based cylinder tracking system that was installed at a United States Enrichment Corporation Centrifuge Facility. This system was installed primarily to evaluate the feasibility of using RF technology at a site and the operational durability of the components under harsh processing conditions. The installation included a basic system that is designed to support layering with other safeguard system technologies and that applies fundamental rules-based event processing methodologies. This paper will discuss the fundamental elements of the system design, the results from this site installation, and future efforts needed to make this technology ready for IAEA consideration.

  6. CONTINUOUS PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR CONVERSION OF URANYL NITRATE TO URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reinhart, G.M.; Collopy, T.J.

    1962-11-13

    A continuous precipitation process is given for converting a uranyl nitrate solution to uranium tetrafluoride. A stream of the uranyl nitrate solution and a stream of an aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution are continuously introduced into an agitated reaction zone maintained at a pH of 5.0 to 6.5. Flow rates are adjusted to provide a mean residence time of the resulting slurry in the reaction zone of at least 30 minutes. After a startup period of two hours the precipitate is recovered from the effluent stream by filtration and is converted to uranium tetrafluoride by reduction to uranium dioxide with hydrogen and reaction of the uranium dioxide with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. (AEC)

  7. Valve studies: Hydrogen fluoride monitoring of UF{sub 6} cylinder valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leedy, R.R.; Ellis, A.R.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Marsh, G.C.

    1996-08-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinder valves have, like the cylinders, been in use and/or storage for periods ranging from 15 to 44 years. Visual inspection of the cylinders has shown that the extent of corrosion and the overall cylinder condition varies widely throughout the storage yards. One area of concern is the integrity of the cylinder valves. Visual inspection has found deposits which have been identified as radioactive material on or near the valves. These deposits suggest leakage of UF{sub 6} and may indicate valve degradation; however, these deposits may simply be residual material from cylinder filling operations.

  8. Characterization of options and their analysis requirements for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rosen, R.S.; Zoller, J.N.; Harri, J.W.; Schwertz, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is examining alternative strategies for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) currently stored at the gaseous diffusion plants at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, and on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the methodology for the comprehensive and ongoing technical analysis of the options being considered. An overview of these options, along with several of the suboptions being considered, is presented. The long-term management strategy alternatives fall into three broad categories: use, storage, or disposal. Conversion of the depleted UF6 to another form such as oxide or metal is needed to implement most of these alternatives. Likewise, transportation of materials is an integral part of constructing the complete pathway between the current storage condition and ultimate disposition. The analysis of options includes development of pre-conceptual designs; estimates of effluents, wastes, and emissions; specification of resource requirements; and preliminary hazards assessments. The results of this analysis will assist DOE in selecting a strategy by providing the engineering information necessary to evaluate the environmental impacts and costs of implementing the management strategy alternatives.

  9. Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friend, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

  10. LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION OF A MULTISENSOR UNATTENDED CYLINDER VERIFICATION STATION FOR URANIUM ENRICHMENT PLANT SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, David I; Rowland, Kelly L; Smith, Sheriden; Miller, Karen A.; Flynn, Eric B.

    2014-01-10

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of the diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear materials, and safeguarding uranium enrichment plants is especially important in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA’s proposed Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS) for UF6 cylinder verification would combine the operator’s accountancy scale with a nondestructive assay system such as the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) and cylinder identification and surveillance systems. In this project, we built a laboratory-scale UCVS and demonstrated its capabilities using mock UF6 cylinders. We developed a signal processing algorithm to automate the data collection and processing from four continuous, unattended sensors. The laboratory demonstration of the system showed that the software could successfully identify cylinders, snip sensor data at the appropriate points in time, determine the relevant characteristics of the cylinder contents, check for consistency among sensors, and output the cylinder data to a file. This paper describes the equipment, algorithm and software development, laboratory demonstration, and recommendations for a full-scale UCVS.

  11. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  12. Compilation of Requirements for Safe Handling of Fluorine and Fluorine-Containing Products of Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2000-04-03

    Public Law (PL) 105-204 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a plan for inclusion in the fiscal year 2000 budget for conversion of the Department's stockpile of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) to a more stable form over an extended period. The conversion process into a more stable form will produce fluorine compounds (e.g., elemental fluorine or hydrofluoric acid) that need to be handled safely. This document compiles the requirements necessary to handle these materials within health and safety standards, which may apply in order to ensure protection of the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. Fluorine is a pale-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. It is the most reactive nonmetal and will react vigorously with most oxidizable substances at room temperature, frequently with ignition. Fluorine is a severe irritant of the eyes, mucous membranes, skin, and lungs. In humans, the inhalation of high concentrations causes laryngeal spasm and broncospasms, followed by the delayed onset of pulmonary edema. At sublethal levels, severe local irritation and laryngeal spasm will preclude voluntary exposure to high concentrations, unless the individual is trapped or incapacitated. A blast of fluorine gas on the shaved skin of a rabbit causes a second degree burn. Lower concentrations cause severe burns of insidious onset, resulting in ulceration, similar to the effects produced by hydrogen fluoride. Hydrofluoric acid is a colorless, fuming liquid or gas with a pungent odor. It is soluble in water with release of heat. Ingestion of an estimated 1.5 grams produced sudden death without gross pathological damage. Repeated ingestion of small amounts resulted in moderately advanced hardening of the bones. Contact of skin with anhydrous liquid produces severe burns. Inhalation of AHA or aqueous hydrofluoric acid mist or vapors can cause severe respiratory tract irritation that may be fatal. Based on the extreme chemical

  13. Signatures and Methods for the Automated Nondestructive Assay of UF6 Cylinders at Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Leon E.; Mace, Emily K.; Misner, Alex C.; Shaver, Mark W.

    2010-08-08

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of manpower and assay accuracy. Such a station would use sensors that can be operated in an unattended mode at an industrial facility: medium-resolution scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy (e.g., NaI(Tl)) and moderated He-3 neutron detectors. This sensor combination allows the exploitation of additional, more-penetrating signatures beyond the traditional 185-keV emission from U-235: neutrons produced from F-19(α,n) reactions (spawned primarily from U 234 alpha emission) and high-energy gamma rays (extending up to 8 MeV) induced by neutrons interacting in the steel cylinder. This paper describes a study of these non-traditional signatures for the purposes of cylinder enrichment verification. The signatures and the radiation sensors designed to collect them are described, as are proof-of-principle cylinder measurements and analyses. Key sources of systematic uncertainty in the non-traditional signatures are discussed, and the potential benefits of utilizing these non-traditional signatures, in concert with an automated form of the traditional 185-keV-based assay, are discussed.

  14. Aspects of uranium chemistry pertaining to UF{sub 6} cylinder handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, R.L.; Barber, E.J.

    1991-12-31

    Under normal conditions, the bulk of UF{sub 6} in storage cylinders will be in the solid state with an overpressure of gaseous UF{sub 6} well below one atmosphere. Corrosion of the interior of the cylinder will be very slow, with formation of a small amount of reduced fluoride, probably U{sub 2}F{sub 9}. The UO{sub 3}-HF-H{sub 2}O phase diagram indicates that reaction of any inleaking water vapor with the solid UF{sub 6} will generate the solid material [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}(U(OH){sub 4}F{sub 4}) in equilibrium with an aqueous HF solution containing only small amounts of uranium. The corrosion of the steel cylinder by these materials may be enhanced over that observed with gaseous anhydrous UF{sub 6}.

  15. Next Generations Safeguards Initiative: The Life of a Cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, James B; White-Horton, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has begun a program based on a five-year plan to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders and their locations throughout the life cycle. A key initial activity in the NGSI program is to understand and document the 'life of a UF6 cylinder' from cradle to grave. This document describes the life of a UF6 cylinder and includes cylinder manufacture and procurement processes as well as cylinder-handling and operational practices at conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, and depleted UF6 conversion facilities. The NGSI multiple-laboratory team is using this document as a building block for subsequent tasks in the five-year plan, including development of the functional requirements for cylinder-tagging and tracking devices.

  16. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Site | Department of Energy 60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and

  17. NGSI: IAEA Verification of UF6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-06-05

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is often ignorant of the location of declared, uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders following verification, because cylinders are not typically tracked onsite or off. This paper will assess various methods the IAEA uses to verify cylinder gross defects, and how the task could be ameliorated through the use of improved identification and monitoring. The assessment will be restricted to current verification methods together with one that has been applied on a trial basis—short-notice random inspections coupled with mailbox declarations. This paper is part of the NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) program to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies and tracks UF6 cylinders.

  18. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  19. Cylinder yard inspections and corrective actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, C.R.; Ziehlke, K.T.; Pryor, W.A.

    1990-07-31

    Inspection of valves on stored uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders was initiated at the three diffusion plant sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio as the result of the discovery of valve defects and evidence of valve leaks at the Oak Ridge K-25 plant. The coordinated inspection culminated in the identification of additional factors related to long-term safe storage of UF{sub 6}, and plans for correction of such deficiencies are presently being developed and implemented. These corrective actions supplement existing programs aimed at assurance of safe storage as summarized in the report.

  20. Rupture testing of UF/sub 6/ transport and storage cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziehlke, K.T.; Barlow, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Large steel cylinders for shipment and storage of uranium hexafluoride have been in production since about 1951, in support of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) programs for nuclear fuel enrichment services. These 48-inch diameter cylinders, in 10- and 14-ton capacities and intended for use with feed, tails, and low enrichment U-235 intermediate product, have been purchased in several minor design variations and comprise about 46,500 cylinders at the present time. In addition, DOE's uranium enrichment operations own a large number of smaller product cylinders: more than 3,000 type 30A steel cylinders, about 1,650 5-, 8-, and 12-inch product cylinders made of nickel and Monel, and about 2,000 small sample cylinders of nickel and Monel. The total number of UF/sub 6/ containers in world-wide distribution is unknown but must number well in excess of 100,000 units. Handling accidents, such as the damaged cylinders from the Monte Louis, the Portsmouth, and Kerr-McGee incidents, and many other handling and transport accidents of lesser consequence, along with governmental policies and industrial practices which have a bearing on long-term storage of feed or processes materials all raise proper concerns about the ability of these cylinders to safely contain uranium hexafluoride. In addition to being designed, built, and maintained to national code standards, the cylinder designs have been subjected to burst tests over the past several years. This paper reviews and updates the results of these tests. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  1. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, W.E.; Spenceley, R.M.; Teetzel, F.M.

    1959-08-01

    A method is presented for producing uranium tetrafluoride from the gaseous hexafluoride by feeding the hexafluoride into a high temperature zone obtained by the recombination of molecularly dissociated hydrogen. The molal ratio of hydrogen to uranium hexnfluoride is preferably about 3 to 1. Uranium tetrafluoride is obtained in a finely divided, anhydrous state.

  2. Preliminary Concept of Operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, J. M.; White-Horton, J. L.; Morgan, J. B.

    2013-08-01

    This report describes a preliminary concept of operations for a Global Cylinder Identification and Monitoring System that could improve the efficiency of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in conducting its current inspection activities and could provide a capability to substantially increase its ability to detect credible diversion scenarios and undeclared production pathways involving UF6 cylinders. There exist concerns that a proliferant State with access to enrichment technology could obtain a cylinder containing natural or low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and produce a significant quantity (SQ)1 of highly enriched uranium in as little as 30 days. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative sponsored a multi-laboratory team to develop an integrated system that provides for detecting scenarios involving 1) diverting an entire declared cylinder for enrichment at a clandestine facility, 2) misusing a declared cylinder at a safeguarded facility, and 3) using an undeclared cylinder at a safeguarded facility. An important objective in developing this integrated system was to improve the timeliness for detecting the cylinder diversion and undeclared production scenarios. Developing this preliminary concept required in-depth analyses of current operational and safeguards practices at conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The analyses evaluated the processing, movement, and storage of cylinders at the facilities; the movement of cylinders between facilities (including cylinder fabrication); and the misuse of safeguarded facilities.

  3. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders - 1998 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently manages the UF, Cylinder Project. The project was formed to maintain and safely manage depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) stored in approximately 50,000 carbon steel cylinders. The cylinders located at three DOE sites: the K-25 site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee (K-25); the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky (PGDP), and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The System Requirements Document (SRD) (LMES 1997a) delineates the requirements of the project. The appropriate actions needed to fulfill these requirements are then specified within the System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) (LMES 1997b). The report presented herein documents activities that in whole or in part satisfy specific requirements and actions stated in the UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project SRD and SEMP with respect to forecasting cylinder conditions. The wall thickness projections made in this report are based on the assumption that the corrosion trends noted will continue. Some activities planned may substantially reduce the rate of corrosion, in which case the results presented here are conservative. The results presented here are intended to supercede and enlarge the scope of those presented previously (Lyon 1995,1996, 1997). In particular, projections are made for thin-walled cylinders (nominal initial thickness 312.5 mils) and thick-walled cylinders (nominal initial thickness 625 mils). In addition, a preliminary analysis is conducted for the minimum thickness at the head/skirt interface for skirted cylinders.

  4. NGSI: FUNCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR A CYLINDER TRACKING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branney, S.

    2012-06-06

    While nuclear suppliers currently track uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders in various ways, for their own purposes, industry practices vary significantly. The NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and International Security's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has begun a 5-year program to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies and tracks UF{sub 6} cylinders. As part of this effort, NGSI's multi-laboratory team has documented the 'life of a UF{sub 6} cylinder' and reviewed IAEA practices related to UF{sub 6} cylinders. Based on this foundation, this paper examines the functional requirements of a system that would uniquely identify and track UF{sub 6} cylinders. There are many considerations for establishing a potential tracking system. Some of these factors include the environmental conditions a cylinder may be expected to be exposed to, where cylinders may be particularly vulnerable to diversion, how such a system may be integrated into the existing flow of commerce, how proprietary data generated in the process may be protected, what a system may require in terms of the existing standard for UF{sub 6} cylinder manufacture or modifications to it and what the limiting technology factors may be. It is desirable that a tracking system should provide benefit to industry while imposing as few additional constraints as possible and still meeting IAEA safeguards objectives. This paper includes recommendations for this system and the analysis that generated them.

  5. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Overview and Policy Context of UF6 Cylinder Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian D; Whitaker, J. Michael; White-Horton, Jessica L.; Durbin, Karyn R.

    2012-07-12

    Thousands of cylinders containing uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) move around the world from conversion plants to enrichment plants to fuel fabrication plants, and their contents could be very useful to a country intent on diverting uranium for clandestine use. Each of these large cylinders can contain close to a significant quantity of natural uranium (48Y cylinder) or low-enriched uranium (LEU) (30B cylinder) defined as 75 kg {sup 235}U which can be further clandestinely enriched to produce 1.5 to 2 significant quantities of high enriched uranium (HEU) within weeks or months depending on the scale of the clandestine facility. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) kicked off a 5-year plan in April 2011 to investigate the concept of a unique identification system for UF{sub 6} cylinders and potentially to develop a cylinder tracking system that could be used by facility operators and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The goal is to design an integrated solution beneficial to both industry and inspectorates that would improve cylinder operations at the facilities and provide enhanced capabilities to deter and detect both diversion of low-enriched uranium and undeclared enriched uranium production. The 5-year plan consists of six separate incremental tasks: (1) define the problem and establish the requirements for a unique identification (UID) and monitoring system; (2) develop a concept of operations for the identification and monitoring system; (3) determine cylinder monitoring devices and technology; (4) develop a registry database to support proof-of-concept demonstration; (5) integrate that system for the demonstration; and (6) demonstrate proof-of-concept. Throughout NNSA's performance of the tasks outlined in this program, the multi-laboratory team emphasizes that extensive engagement with industry stakeholders, regulatory authorities and inspectorates is essential to its success.

  6. U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leich, D., LLNL

    1998-07-27

    The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

  7. PREPARATION OF NEPTUNIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Brown, H.S.

    1961-05-01

    A method is described for preparing neptunium hexafluoride by treating the lower fluorides of neptunium, such as neptunium tetrafluoride and trifluoride, with fluorine at elevated temperatures.

  8. Technology Assessment for Proof-of-Concept UF6 Cylinder Unique Identification Task 3.1.2 Report – Survey and Assessment of Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wylie, Joann; Hockert, John

    2014-04-24

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s (NA-24) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the nuclear industry have begun to develop approaches to identify and monitor uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The NA-24 interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to its interest in supporting the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in deterring and detecting diversion of UF6 (e.g., loss of cylinder in transit) and undeclared excess production at conversion and enrichment facilities. The industry interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to the improvements in operational efficiencies that such a system would provide. This task is part of an effort to survey and assess technologies for a UF6 cylinder to identify candidate technologies for a proof-of-concept demonstration and evaluation for the Cylinder Identification System (CIS).

  9. Benefits of an International Database for UF6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock, R A; Whitaker, J M; Murphy, J; Oakberg, J

    2008-06-30

    A reasonable expectation regarding the nuclear energy renaissance is that the location of fuel cycle nuclear materials throughout the world will be known. We ask--would an international system for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders provide the effective assurances expected for international fuel supply and of the international fuel centers? This paper introduces the question and discusses the potential benefits of tracking UF{sub 6} cylinders through the development of an international database. The nonproliferation benefits of an international database for UF{sub 6} cylinders being used in the fuel cycle include an enhanced capability to reconcile nuclear material imports and exports. Currently, import and export declarations only require the reporting of total 'rolled up' quantities of nuclear materials contained in all items--not the quantities of materials in individual items like individual UF{sub 6} cylinders. The database could provide supplier countries with more assurance on the location of the UF{sub 6} cylinders they export. Additionally, a comprehensive database on all declared cylinders would be a valuable resource in detecting and recognizing undeclared cylinders. The database could potentially be administered by the IAEA and be accessible to authorized countries around the world. During the nuclear renaissance, the general public, as well as the participants will expect transparency and quality information about movement of nuclear fuel cycle nuclear materials. We will discuss the potential benefits of such a database for the suppliers, inspectorates, and general public.

  10. PREPARATION OF DENSE URANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES FROM URANIUM HEXAFLUORI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... A fluid-bed method was developed for the direct preparation from uranium hexafluoride of ...

  11. THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM GAS MIXTURE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jury, S.H.

    1964-03-17

    A method of separating uranium from a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and other gases is described that comprises bringing the mixture into contact with anhydrous calcium sulfate to preferentially absorb the uranium hexafluoride on the sulfate. The calcium sulfate is then leached with a selective solvent for the adsorbed uranium. (AEC)

  12. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  13. Releases of UF{sub 6} to the atmosphere after a potential fire in a cylinder storage yard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Williams, W.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), a toxic material, is stored in just over 6200 cylinders at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The safety analysis report (SAR) for cylinder yard storage operations at the plant required the development of accident scenarios for the potential release of UF{sub 6} to the atmosphere. In accordance with DOE standards and guidance, the general approach taken in this SAR was to examine the functions and contents of the cylinder storage yards to determine whether safety-significant hazards were present for workers in the immediate vicinity, workers on-site, the general public off-site, or the environment. and to evaluate the significance of any hazards that were found. A detailed accident analysis was performed to determine a set of limiting accidents that have potential for off-site consequences. One of the limiting accidents identified in the SAR was the rupture of a cylinder engulfed in a fire.

  14. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  15. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders--2004 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-07-07

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is stored in over 60,000 steel cylinders at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The cylinders range in age from 4 to 53 years. Although when new the cylinders had wall thicknesses specified to within manufacturing tolerances, over the years corrosion has reduced their actual wall thicknesses. The UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project is managed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to safely maintain the UF{sub 6} and the cylinders containing it. This report documents activities that address UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project requirements and actions involving forecasting cylinder wall thicknesses. These requirements are delineated in the System Requirements Document (LMES 1997a), and the actions needed to fulfill them are specified in the System Engineering Management Plan (LMES 1997b). The report documents cylinder wall thickness projections based on models fit to ultrasonic thickness (UT) measurement data. UT data is collected at various locations on randomly sampled cylinders. For each cylinder sampled, the minimum UT measurement approximates the actual minimum thickness of the cylinder. Projections of numbers of cylinders expected to fail various thickness criteria are computed from corrosion models relating minimum wall thickness to cylinder age, initial thickness estimates, and cylinder subpopulations defined in terms of plant site, yard, top or bottom storage positions, nominal thickness, etc. In this report, UT data collected during FY03 is combined with UT data collected in earlier years (FY94-FY02), and all of the data is inventoried chronologically and by various subpopulations. The UT data is used to fit models of maximum pit depth and minimum thickness, and the fitted models are used to extrapolate minimum thickness estimates into the future and in

  16. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF{sub 6} in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF{sub 6} is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF{sub 6} may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF{sub 6} cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail.

  17. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders 2001 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoyer, RLS

    2001-09-17

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently manages the UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project. The project was formed to maintain and safely manage the depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) stored in approximately 50,000 carbon steel cylinders. The cylinders are located at three DOE sites: the ETTP site (K-25) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The System Requirements Document (SRD) (LMES 1997a) delineates the requirements of the project. The appropriate actions needed to fulfill these requirements are then specified within the System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) (LMES 1997b). This report documents activities that in whole or in part satisfy specific requirements and actions stated in the UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project SRD and SEMP with respect to forecasting cylinder conditions. The results presented here supercede those presented previously (Lyon 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000). Many of the wall thickness projections made in this report are conservative, because they are based on the assumption that corrosion trends will continue, despite activities such as improved monitoring, relocations to better storage, and painting.

  18. Minutes: EM SSAB Chairs Budget Conference Call - October 5, 2010

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead May 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. The depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant in Paducah. The depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant in Paducah. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. The operating room at

  19. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.; Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  20. Benchmark Evaluation of Uranium Metal Annuli and Cylinders with Beryllium Reflectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2010-06-01

    An extensive series of delayed critical experiments were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility using enriched uranium metal during the 1960s and 1970s in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. These experiments were designed to evaluate the storage, casting, and handling limits of the Y-12 Plant and to provide data for the verification of cross sections and calculation methods utilized in nuclear criticality safety applications. Many of these experiments have already been evaluated and included in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook: unreflected (HEU-MET-FAST-051), graphite-reflected (HEU-MET-FAST-071), and polyethylene-reflected (HEU-MET-FAST-076). Three of the experiments consisted of highly-enriched uranium (HEU, ~93.2% 235U) metal parts reflected by beryllium metal discs. The first evaluated experiment was constructed from a stack of 7-in.-diameter, 4-1/8-in.-high stack of HEU discs top-reflected by a 7-in.-diameter, 5-9/16-in.-high stack of beryllium discs. The other two experiments were formed from stacks of concentric HEU metal annular rings surrounding a 7-in.diameter beryllium core. The nominal outer diameters were 13 and 15 in. with a nominal stack height of 5 and 4 in., respectively. These experiments have been evaluated for inclusion in the ICSBEP Handbook.

  1. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  2. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, Jr., Howard W.

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  3. A "Proof-of-Concept" Demonstration of RF-Based Technologies for UF6 Cylinder Tracking at Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Chris A; Younkin, James R; Kovacic, Donald N; Dixon, E. T.; Martinez, B.

    2007-01-01

    This effort describes how radio-frequency (RF) technology can be integrated into a uranium enrichment facility's nuclear materials accounting and control program to enhance uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinder tracking and thus provide benefits to both domestic and international safeguards. Approved industry-standard cylinders are used to handle and store UF6 feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. In the international arena, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming manual cylinder inventory and tracking techniques to verify operator declarations and to detect potential diversion of UF6. Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant process for tracking and monitoring UF6 cylinders would greatly reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a "proof-of concept" system that was designed show the feasibility of using RF based technologies to track individual UF6 cylinders throughout their entire life cycle, and thus ensure both increased domestic accountability of materials and a more effective and efficient method for application of IAEA international safeguards at the site level. The proposed system incorporates RF-based identification devices, which provide a mechanism for a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant tracking network. We explore how securely attached RF tags can be integrated with other safeguards technologies to better detect diversion of cylinders. The tracking system could also provide a foundation for integration of other types of safeguards that would further enhance detection of undeclared activities.

  4. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders--2007 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoyer, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) is stored in over 62,000 containment cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. Over 4,800 of the cylinders at Portsmouth were recently moved there from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The cylinders range in age up to 56 years and come in various models, but most are 48-inch diameter 'thin-wall'(312.5 mil) and 'thick-wall' (625 mil) cylinders and 30-inch diameter '30A' (including '30B') cylinders with 1/2-inch (500 mil) walls. Most of the cylinders are carbon steel, and they are subject to corrosion. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) manages the cylinders to maintain them and the DUF{sub 6} they contain. Cylinder management requirements are specified in the System Requirements Document (LMES 1997a), and the activities to fulfill them are specified in the System Engineering Management Plan (LMES 1997b). This report documents activities that address DUF{sub 6} cylinder management requirements involving measuring and forecasting cylinder wall thicknesses. As part of these activities, ultrasonic thickness (UT) measurements are made on samples of cylinders. For each sampled cylinder, multiple measurements are made in an attempt to find, approximately, the minimum wall thickness. Some cylinders have a skirt, which is an extension of the cylinder wall to protect the head (end) and valve. The head/skirt interface crevice is thought to be particularly vulnerable to corrosion, and for some skirted cylinders, in addition to the main body UT measurements, a separate suite of measurements is also made at the head/skirt interface. The main-body and head/skirt minimum thickness data are used to fit models relating minimum thickness to cylinder age, nominal thicknesses, and cylinder functional groups defined in terms of plant site, storage yard, top or bottom row storage positions, etc

  5. Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Marlow, Johnna B.

    2012-05-02

    The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

  6. Prediction of external corrosion for steel cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Application of an empirical method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, B.F.

    1996-02-01

    During the summer of 1995, ultrasonic wall thickness data were collected for 100 steel cylinders containing depleted uranium (DU) hexafluoride located at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The cylinders were selected for measurement to assess the condition of the more vulnerable portion of the cylinder inventory at PGDP. The purpose of this report is to apply the method used in Lyon to estimate the effects of corrosion for larger unsampled populations as a function of time. The scope of this report is limited and is not intended to represent the final analyses of available data. Future efforts will include continuing analyses of available data to investigate defensible deviations from the conservative assumptions made to date. For each cylinder population considered, two basic types of analyses were conducted: (1) estimates were made of the number of cylinders as a function of time that will have a minimum wall thickness of either 0 mils (1 mil = 0.00 1 in.) or 250 mils and (2) the current minimum wall thickness distributions across cylinders were estimated for each cylinder population considered. Additional analyses were also performed investigating comparisons of the results for F and G yards with the results presented in Lyon (1995).

  7. New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2013-04-01

    An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilities—in this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVA—hybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

  8. Strategy for Characterizing Transuranics and Technetium Contamination in Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.

    2000-10-26

    This report summarizes results of a study performed to develop a strategy for characterization of low levels of radioactive contaminants [plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), and technetium (Tc)] in depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) cylinders at the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Piketon, Ohio. In these gaseous diffusion plants, this radioactivity came from enriching recycled uranium (the so-called ''reactor returns'') from Savannah River, South Carolina, and Hanford, Washington, reactors. Results of this study will be used to support a request for proposals to design, build, and operate facilities to convert the DUF{sub 6} to more chemically stable forms. These facilities would need to be designed to handle any transuranic contaminants that might be present in order to (1) protect the workers' health and safety and (2) protect the public and the environment.

  9. RESULTS FROM A DEMONSTRATION OF RF-BASED UF6 CYLINDER ACCOUNTING AND TRACKING SYSTEM INSTALLED AT A USEC FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Chris A; Kovacic, Donald N; Morgan, Jim; Younkin, James R; Carrick, Bernie; Ken, Whittle; Johns, R E

    2008-09-01

    Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally for storing and transporting uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at uranium enrichment plants and processing facilities. To verify that no diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material involving UF{sub 6} cylinders at the facility has occurred, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts periodic, labor-intensive physical inspections to validate facility records, cylinder identities, and cylinder weights. A reliable cylinder monitoring system that would improve overall inspector effectiveness would be a significant improvement to the current international safeguards inspection regime. Such a system could include real-time unattended monitoring of cylinder movements, situation-specific rules-based event detection algorithms, and the capability to integrate with other types of safeguards technologies. This type of system could provide timely detection of abnormal operational activities that may be used to ensure more appropriate and efficient responses by the IAEA. A system of this type can reduce the reliance on paper records and have the additional benefit of facilitating domestic safeguards at the facilities at which it is installed. A radio-frequency (RF)-based system designed to track uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders during processing operations was designed, assembled, and tested at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) facility in Portsmouth, Ohio, to determine the operational feasibility and durability of RF technology. The overall objective of the effort was to validate the robustness of RF technology for potential use as a future international safeguards tool for tracking UF6 cylinders at uranium-processing facilities. The results to date indicate that RF tags represent a feasible technique for tracking UF{sub 6} cylinders in operating facilities. Additional work will be needed to improve the operational robustness of the tags for repeated autoclave processing and to

  10. EA-1290: Disposition of Russian Federation Titled Natural Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to transport up to an average of 9,000 metric tons per year of natural uranium as uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from the United...

  11. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders 2003 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoyer, RLS

    2003-09-24

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is stored in over 60,000 steel cylinders at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The cylinders range in age from six to 52 years. Although when new the cylinders had wall thicknesses specified to within manufacturing tolerances, over the years corrosion has reduced their actual wall thicknesses. The UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project is managed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to safely maintain the UF{sub 6} and the cylinders containing it. The requirements of the Project are delineated in the System Requirements Document (LMES 1997a), and the actions needed to fulfill those requirements are specified in the System Engineering Management Plan (LMES 1997b). This report documents activities that address requirements and actions involving forecasting cylinder wall thicknesses. Wall thickness forecasts are based on models fit to ultrasonic thickness (UT) measurement data. First, UT data collected during FY02 is combined with UT data collected in earlier years (FY92-FY01), and all of the data is inventoried chronologically and by various subpopulations. Next, the data is used to model either maximum pit depth or minimum thickness as a function of cylinder age, subpopulation (e.g., PGDP G-yard, bottom-row cylinders), and initial thickness estimates. The fitted models are then used to extrapolate minimum thickness estimates into the future and to compute estimates of numbers of cylinders expected to fail various thickness criteria. A model evaluation is performed comparing UT measurements made in FY02 with model-fitted projections based only on data collected before FY02. The FY02 UT data, entered into the corrosion model database and not available for the previous edition of this report (Schmoyer and Lyon 2002), consists of thickness measurements of 48

  12. Evaluation of coverage of enriched UF{sub 6} cylinder storage lots by existing criticality accident alarms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.E.; Sutherland, P.J.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is leased from the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government corporation formed in 1993. PORTS is in transition from regulation by DOE to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One regulation is 10 CFR Part 76.89, which requires that criticality alarm systems be provided for the site. PORTS originally installed criticality accident alarm systems in all building for which nuclear criticality accidents were credible. Currently, however, alarm systems are not installed in the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinder storage lots. This report analyzes and documents the extent to which enriched UF{sub 6} cylinder storage lots at PORTS are covered by criticality detectors and alarms currently installed in adjacent buildings. Monte Carlo calculations are performed on simplified models of the cylinder storage lots and adjacent buildings. The storage lots modelled are X-745B, X-745C, X745D, X-745E, and X-745F. The criticality detectors modelled are located in building X-343, the building X-344A/X-342A complex, and portions of building X-330. These criticality detectors are those located closest to the cylinder storage lots. Results of this analysis indicate that the existing criticality detectors currently installed at PORTS are largely ineffective in detecting neutron radiation from criticality accidents in most of the cylinder storage lots at PORTS, except sometimes along portions of their peripheries.

  13. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  14. Release of UF/sub 6/ from a ruptured model 48Y cylinder at Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility: lessons-learned report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) release of January 4, 1986, at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility has been reviewed by a NRC Lessons-Learned Group. A Model 48Y cylinder containing UF/sub 6/ ruptured upon being heated after it was grossly overfilled. The UF/sub 6/ released upon rupture of the cylinder reacted with airborne moisture to produce hydrofluoric acid (HF) and uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/). One individual died from exposure to airborne HF and several others were injured. There were no significant immediate effects from exposure to uranyl fluoride. This supplement report contains NRC's response to the recommendations made in NUREG-1198 by the Lessons Learned Group. In developing a response to each of the recommendations, the staff considered actions that should be taken: (1) for the restart of the Sequoyah Fuels Facility; (2) to make near-term improvement; and (3) to improve the regulatory framework.

  15. uranium

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to prepare surplus plutonium for disposition, and readiness to begin the Second Uranium Cycle, to start processing spent nuclear fuel.

    H Canyon is also being...

  16. Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages an inventory of depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), and low-enriched uranium (LEU) that is currently stored in large cylinders as...

  17. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for the Operation of Depleted Uranium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities | Department of Energy the Operation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for the Operation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities September 8, 2015 - 3:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Final Request for Proposal (RFP), for the Operation of Depleted

  18. DISSOLUTION OF URANIUM FUELS BY MONOOR DIFLUOROPHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, R.; Horn, F.L.; Strickland, G.

    1963-05-01

    A method of dissolving and separating uranium from a uranium matrix fuel element by dissolving the uraniumcontaining matrix in monofluorophosphoric acid and/or difluorophosphoric acid at temperatures ranging from 150 to 275 un. Concent 85% C, thereafter neutralizing the solution to precipitate uranium solids, and converting the solids to uranium hexafluoride by treatment with a halogen trifluoride is presented. (AEC)

  19. A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newvahner, R.L.; Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2 {1/2}-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF{sub 6} cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) slab above a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder, and a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} sphere centered within a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a {open_quotes}safetime{close_quotes}, for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF{sub 6}, along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations.

  20. Assessment of Reusing 14-ton, Thin-Wall, Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders as LLW Disposal Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, D.G.

    2000-11-30

    Approximately 700,000 MT of DUF{sub 6} is stored, or will be produced under a current agreement with the USEC, at the Paducah site in Kentucky, Portsmouth site in Ohio, and ETTP site in Tennessee. On July 21, 1998, the 105th Congress approved Public Law 105-204 (Ref; 1), which directed that facilities be built at the Kentucky and Ohio sites to convert DUF{sub 6} to a stable form for disposition. On July 6, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued the ''Final Plan for the Conversion of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride as Required by Public Law 105-204 (Ref. 2), in which DOE committed to develop a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap''. On September 1, 2000, DOE issued the Draft Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap (Ref. 3) (Roadmap), which provides alternate paths for the long-term storage, beneficial use, and eventual disposition of each product form and material that will result from the DUF{sub 6} conversion activity. One of the paths being considered for DUF{sub 6} cylinders is to reuse the empty cylinders as containers to transport and dispose of LLW, including the converted DU. The Roadmap provides results of the many alternate uses and disposal paths for conversion products and the empty DUF{sub 6} storage cylinders. As a part of the Roadmap, evaluations were conducted of cost savings, technical maturity, barriers to implementation, and other impacts. Results of these evaluations indicate that using the DUF{sub 6} storage cylinders as LLW disposal containers could provide moderate cost savings due to the avoided cost of purchasing LLW packages and the avoided cost of disposing of the cylinders. No significant technical or institutional issues were identified that would make using cylinders as LLW packages less effective than other disposition paths. Over 58,000 cylinders have been used, or will be used, to store DUF{sub 6}. Over 51,000 of those cylinders are 14TTW cylinders with a nominal wall thickness of 5/16-m (0.79 cm). These

  1. Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabelman, J.W.; Chenoweth, W.L.; Ingerson, E.

    1981-10-01

    The uranium production industry is well into its third recession during the nuclear era (since 1945). Exploration is drastically curtailed, and many staffs are being reduced. Historical market price production trends are discussed. A total of 3.07 million acres of land was acquired for exploration; drastic decrease. Surface drilling footage was reduced sharply; an estimated 250 drill rigs were used by the uranium industry during 1980. Land acquisition costs increased 8%. The domestic reserve changes are detailed by cause: exploration, re-evaluation, or production. Two significant discoveries of deposits were made in Mohave County, Arizona. Uranium production during 1980 was 21,850 short tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/; an increase of 17% from 1979. Domestic and foreign exploration highlights were given. Major producing areas for the US are San Juan basin, Wyoming basins, Texas coastal plain, Paradox basin, northeastern Washington, Henry Mountains, Utah, central Colorado, and the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon. 3 figures, 8 tables. (DP)

  2. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  3. ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lofthouse, E.

    1954-08-31

    This patent relates to electrolytic methods for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. According to the present invention a process for the production of uranium tetrafluoride comprises submitting to electrolysis an aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride containing free hydrofluoric acid. Advantageously the aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride is obtained by dissolving uranium hexafluoride in water. On electrolysis, the uranyl ions are reduced to uranous tons at the cathode and immediately combine with the fluoride ions in solution to form the insoluble uranium tetrafluoride which is precipitated.

  4. EIS-0283-SA-03: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Analysis Transportation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride for Conversion to Depleted Uranium Oxide This SA evaluates a proposal to transport cylinders of DUF from the Paducah...

  5. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Addthis Related Articles This cylinder hauler at Paducah's Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services plant delivers the first of DOE's 14-ton depleted uranium cylinders to USEC for ...

  6. Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered

  7. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders--2002 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoyer, RLS

    2002-07-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) manages the UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project. The project was formed to maintain and safely manage the depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) stored in approximately 50,000 carbon steel cylinders. The cylinders are located at three DOE sites: the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The System Requirements Document (SRD) (LMES 1997a) delineates the requirements of the project, and the actions needed to fulfill these requirements are specified in the System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) (LMES 1997b). This report documents activities that in whole or part satisfy specific requirements and actions stated in the UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project SRD and SEMP with respect to forecasting cylinder conditions. The results presented here supercede those presented by Lyon (1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000), and Schmoyer and Lyon (2001). Many of the wall thickness projections made in this report are conservative, because they are based on the assumption that corrosion trends will continue, despite activities such as improved monitoring, relocations to better storage, painting, and other improvements in storage conditions relative to the conditions at the times most of the wall thickness measurements were made. For thin-wall cylinders (design nominal wall thickness 312.5 mils), the critical minimum wall thicknesses criteria used in this report are 0 (breach), 62.5 mils, and 250 mils (1 mil = 0.001 in.). For thick-wall cylinders (design nominal wall thickness 625 mils), the thickness criteria used in this report are 0, 62.5 mils, and 500 mils. The criteria triples are preliminary boundaries identified within the project that indicate (1) loss of material (UF{sub 6}), (2) safe handling and stacking operations, and (3) standards for off-site transport and contents transfer

  8. URANIUM RECOVERY FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, R.C.; Rodger, W.A.

    1962-04-24

    A process of recovering uranium from a UF/sub 4/-NaFZrF/sub 4/ mixture by spraying the molten mixture at about 200 deg C in nitrogen of super- atmospheric pressure into droplets not larger than 100 microns, and contacting the molten droplets with fluorine at about 200 deg C for 0.01 to 10 seconds in a container the walls of which have a temperature below the melting point of the mixture is described. Uranium hexafluoride is formed and volatilized and the uranium-free salt is solidified. (AEC)

  9. Secretarial Determination for the Sale or Transfer of Uranium.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    or Transfer of Low-Enriched Uranium | Department of Energy USEC Privatization Act for the Sale or Transfer of Low-Enriched Uranium Secretarial Determination Pursuant to USEC Privatization Act for the Sale or Transfer of Low-Enriched Uranium Secretarial determination regarding the potential impacts of the transfer by DOE of up to 48 metric tons of low-enriched uranium to USEC Inc. in exchange for DOE receiving approximately 409 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride, the equivalent amount of

  10. SEPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM ORGANIC FLUORO COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Libby, W.F.

    1958-10-01

    A method is presented for removing perfiuoroorganic compounds such as C/ sub 7/F/sub 16/ from UF/sub 6/. The physical and chemical properties of the perfluoro compounds are such as to render their removal from UF/sub 6/ difficulty by conventional techniques. The mixture containing UF/sub 6/ and the perfluoro compounds is pyrolyzed in an inert container at high temperature and pressure. The properties of the products obtained by pyrolysis differ from the properties of UF/sub 6/ to a sufficient degree to render their separation possible by ordinary methods.

  11. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy EO 13563 January 2014 Update Report and Burden Reduction Efforts DOE EO 13563 January 2014 Update Report and Burden Reduction Efforts DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report January 2014 DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report January 2014 FINAL (108.53 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Retrospective Review Plan Report May 2012 DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report July 29, 2013 DOE 13563 and ICR Report

  12. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of 48 inch cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, D.G.; Hayes, T.J.; Livesey, E.; Lomas, J.; Price, M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the current state of the analytical models being developed by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to improve the understanding of the response of Uranium Hexafluoride containers engulfed in a fire. Details are given of the modeling methods used and physical processes simulated, together with some predictions from the models. Explanations for the differences between the predictions are presented as well as an outline for future development of the models.

  13. Release of UF/sub 6/ from a ruptured Model 48Y cylinder at Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility: lessons-learned report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) release of January 4, 1986, at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility has been reviewed by a NRC Lessons-Learned Group. A Model 48Y cylinder containing UF/sub 6/ ruptured upon being heated after it was grossly overfilled. The Uf/sub 6/ released upon rupture of the cylinder reacted with airborne moisture to produce hydrofluoric acid (HF) and uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/). One individual died from exposure to airborne HF and several others were injured. There were no significant immediate effects from exposure to uranyl fluoride. This report of the Lessons-Learned Group presents discussions and recommendations on the process, operation and design of the facility, as well as on the responses of the licensee, NRC, and other local, state and federal agencies to the incident. It also provides recommendations in the areas of NRC licensing and inspection of fuel facility and certain other NMSS licensees. The implementation of some recommendations will depend on decisions to be made regarding the scope of NRC responsibilities with respect to those aspects of the design and operation of such facilities that are not directly related to radiological safety.

  14. FLUORIDE VOLATILITY PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.J.; Hyman, H.H.; Sheft, I.

    1958-04-15

    The separation and recovery of uraniunn from contaminants introduced by neutron irradiation by a halogenation and volatilization method are described. The irradiated uranium is dissolved in bromine trifluoride in the liquid phase. The uranium is converted to the BrF/sub 3/ soluble urmium hexafluoride compound whereas the fluorides of certain contaminating elements are insoluble in liquid BrF/sub 3/, and the reaction rate of the BrF/sub 3/ with certain other solid uranium contamirnnts is sufficiently slower than the reaction rate with uranium that substantial portions of these contaminating elements will remain as solids. These solids are then separated from the solution by a distillation, filtration, or centrifugation step. The uranium hexafluoride is then separated from the balance of the impurities and solvent by one or more distillations.

  15. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  16. DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support March 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 Bill.Taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati ...

  17. Quick release engine cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    A quick release engine cylinder allows optical access to an essentially unaltered combustion chamber, is suitable for use with actual combustion processes, and is amenable to rapid and repeated disassembly and cleaning. A cylinder member, adapted to constrain a piston to a defined path through the cylinder member, sealingly engages a cylinder head to provide a production-like combustion chamber. A support member mounts with the cylinder member. The support-to-cylinder mounting allows two relationships therebetween. In the first mounting relationship, the support engages the cylinder member and restrains the cylinder against the head. In the second mounting relationship, the cylinder member can pass through the support member, moving away from the head and providing access to the piston-top and head.

  18. EIS-0269: Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexaflouride

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this programmatic environmental impact statement to assess the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  19. Electron Ionization Mass Spectrum of Tellurium Hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Richard A.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Peterson, James M.; Govind, Niranjan; Andersen, Amity; Abrecht, David G.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2015-05-18

    The first electron ionization mass spectrum of tellurium hexafluoride (TeF6) is reported. The starting material was produced by direct fluorination of Te metal or TeO2 with nitrogen trifluoride. Formation of TeF6 was confirmed through cryogenic capture of the tellurium fluorination product and analysis through Raman spectroscopy. The eight natural abundance isotopes were observed for each of the set of fragment ions: TeF5+, TeF4+ TeF3+, TeF2+, TeF1+, and Te+, Te2+. A trend in increasing abundance was observed for the even fluoride bearing ions: TeF1+ < TeF3+ < TeF5+, and a decreasing abundance was observed for the even fragment series: Te(0)+ > TeF2+ > TeF4+ > TeF6+, with the molecular ion TeF6+ not observed at all. Density functional theory based electronic structure calculations were used to calculate optimized ground state geometries of these gas phase species and their relative stabilities explain the trends in the data and the lack of observed signal for TeF6+.

  20. CONTINUOUS PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE AND OXYGEN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, J.B.; Bresee, J.C.; Ferris, L.M.

    1961-11-21

    A process for preparing UF/sub 6/ by reacting UF/sub 4/ and oxygen is described. The UF/sub 4/ and oxygen are continuously introduced into a fluidized bed of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ at a temperature of 600 to 900 deg C. The concentration of UF/sub 4/ in the bed is maintained below 25 weight per cent in order to avoid sintering and intermediate compound formation. By-product U0/sub 2/F/sub 2/ is continuously removed from the top of the bed recycled. In an alternative embodiment heat is supplied to the reaction bed by burning carbon monoxide in the bed. The product UF/sub 6/ is filtered to remove entrained particles and is recovered in cold traps and chemical traps. (AEC)

  1. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-10-22

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  2. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  3. Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  4. Engine Cylinder Temperature Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick; Duffy, Kevin Patrick

    2005-09-27

    A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

  5. Field test of short-notice random inspections for inventory-change verification at a low-enriched-uranium fuel-fabrication plant: Preliminary summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G. |; Moussalli, G.; Naegele, G.; Ikonomou, P.; Hosoya, M.; Scott, P.; Fager, J.; Sanders, C.; Colwell, D.; Joyner, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    An approach of short-notice random inspections (SNRIs) for inventory-change verification can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards at natural or low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication plants. According to this approach, the plant operator declares the contents of nuclear material items before knowing if an inspection will occur to verify them. Additionally, items about which declarations are newly made should remain available for verification for an agreed time. This report details a six-month field test of the feasibility of such SNRIs which took place at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division. Westinghouse personnel made daily declarations about both feed and product items, uranium hexafluoride cylinders and finished fuel assemblies, using a custom-designed computer ``mailbox``. Safeguards inspectors from the IAEA conducted eight SNRIs to verify these declarations. Items from both strata were verified during the SNRIs by means of nondestructive assay equipment. The field test demonstrated the feasibility and practicality of key elements of the SNRI approach for a large LEU fuel fabrication plant.

  6. Field test of short-notice random inspections for inventory-change verification at a low-enriched-uranium fuel-fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G. |; Moussalli, G.; Naegele, G.

    1995-05-01

    An approach of short-notice random inspections (SNRIs) for inventory-change verification can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards at natural or low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication plants. According to this approach, the plant operator declares the contents of nuclear material items before knowing if an inspection will occur to verify them. Additionally, items about which declarations are newly made should remain available for verification for an agreed time. Then a statistical inference can be made from verification results for items verified during SNRIs to the entire populations, i.e. the entire strata, even if inspectors were not present when many items were received or produced. A six-month field test of the feasibility of such SNRIs took place at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division during 1993. Westinghouse personnel made daily declarations about both feed and product items, uranium hexafluoride cylinders and finished fuel assemblies, using a custom-designed computer ``mailbox``. Safeguards inspectors from the IAEA conducted eight SNRIs to verify these declarations. They arrived unannounced at the plant, in most cases immediately after travel from Canada, where the IAEA maintains a regional office. Items from both strata were verified during the SNRIs by meant of nondestructive assay equipment.

  7. Enrichment Assay Methods for a UF6 Cylinder Verification Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Leon E.; Jordan, David V.; Misner, Alex C.; Mace, Emily K.; Orton, Christopher R.

    2010-11-30

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These enrichment assay methods interrogate only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume, and are time-consuming and expensive to execute for inspectors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended measurement system capable of automated enrichment measurements over the full volume of Type 30B and Type 48 cylinders. This Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The focus of this paper is the development of nondestructive assay (NDA) methods that combine “traditional” enrichment signatures (e.g. 185-keV emission from U-235) and more-penetrating “non-traditional” signatures (e.g. high-energy neutron-induced gamma rays spawned primarily from U-234 alpha emission) collected by medium-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers (i.e. sodium iodide or lanthanum bromide). The potential of these NDA methods for the automated assay of feed, tail and product cylinders is explored through MCNP modeling and with field measurements on a cylinder population ranging from 0.2% to 5% in U-235 enrichment.

  8. Method for fluorination of uranium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

  9. Cylinder To Cylinder Balancing Using Intake Valve Actuation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Kilkenny, Jonathan P.

    2005-01-18

    A method and apparatus for balancing a combustion phasing between a plurality of cylinders located in an engine. The method and apparatus includes a determining a combustion timing in each cylinder, establishing a baseline parameter for a desired combustion timing, and varying actuation of at least one of a plurality of intake valves, each intake valve being in fluid communication with a corresponding cylinder, such that the combustion timing in each cylinder is substantially equal to the desired combustion timing.

  10. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - 9_Jessica White-Horton_NMMSS_2013.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Global Monitoring of Uranium Hexafluoride Cylinders Jessica White-Horton, Oak Ridge National Laboratory NMMSS Users Annual Training Meeting, May 21, 2013 Outline 2  Project Context & Current Challenges  NNSA 5-year Program Plan  Concept of Operations  Stakeholder Views * Conclusions and Next Steps Model 30B cylinder for low- enriched uranium (LEU) Model 48Y cylinder for natural uranium Context for NNSA UF 6 Project 3 * Approximately 20,000 cylinders are in active circulation at

  12. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Eddie C.; Miller, William E.; Laidler, James J.

    1997-01-01

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two.

  13. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1997-07-22

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two. 12 figs.

  14. Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A.

    2012-05-02

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UF{sub 6} in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from {sup 235}U to determine enrichment. More recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed systems that exploit the passive neutron signal from UF{sub 6} to determine uranium mass and/or enrichment. These include the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM), and the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The purpose of this report is to provide the IAEA with new ideas on technologies that may or may not be under active development but could be useful for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. To begin, we have included two feasibility studies of active interrogation techniques. There is a long history of active interrogation in the field of nuclear safeguards, especially for uranium assay. Both of the active techniques provide a direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The first is an active neutron method based on the existing PNEM design that uses a correlated {sup 252}Cf interrogation source. This technique shows great promise for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay and is based on advanced technology that could be implemented in the field in the near term. The second active technique is nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). In the NRF technique, a bremsstrahlung photon beam could be used to illuminate the cylinder, and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors would detect the characteristic de-excitation photons. The results of the feasibility study show that under certain measurement geometries, NRF is impractical for UF6 cylinder assay, but the 'grazing transmission' and 'secant transmission' geometries have more potential

  15. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colbeck, E.W.

    1959-12-29

    A uranium alloy is reported containing from 0.1 to 5 per cent by weight of molybdenum and from 0.1 to 5 per cent by weight of silicon, the balance being uranium.

  16. Development of a portal monitor for UF6 cylinder verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Leon E.; Curtis, Michael M.; Shaver, Mark W.; Benz, Jacob M.; Misner, Alex C.; Mace, Emily K.; Jordan, David V.; Noss, Daniel; Ford, Herbert

    2009-10-06

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s operations. As additional enrichment plans come online to support the expansion of nuclear power, reducing person-days of inspection will take on greater importance. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100% product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Automated Cylinder Enrichment Verification System (ACEVS) would be located at key measurement points and will positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. Given the potential for reduced inspector presence, the operational and manpower-reduction benefits of the portal concept are clear. However, it is necessary to assess whether the cylinder portal concept can meet, or potentially improve upon, today’s U-235 enrichment assay performance. PNNL’s ACEVS concept utilizes sensors that could be operated in an unattended mode: moderated He-3 neutron detectors and large NaI(Tl) scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy. The medium-resolution NaI(Tl) scintillators are a sacrifice in energy resolution but do provide high collection efficiency for signatures above 1 MeV. The He-3/NaI sensor combination allows the exploitation of additional, more-penetrating signatures than those currently utilized: Neutrons produced from F-19(μ,n) reactions (spawned primarily from U-234 alpha emission) and high-energy gamma rays (extending up to 10 MeV) induced by

  17. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services took over the DUF6 Project on March 29 of this year, the company had one thing in mind: Bring all seven conversion lines at both plants to fully operational status by Sept. 30, 2011.

  18. Evaluation of selected detector systems for products formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.

    1987-03-01

    Sensitive detection of UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products, either by discontinuous sampling or by continuous or near real-time monitoring, is an important safety consideration for DOE contractors handling large quantities of UF/sub 6/. Automated continuous or rapid intermittent remote sensing of these reaction products can provide an alarm signal when a preselected threshold value has been exceeded (absolute response) or when a significant emission excursion has occurred (rate of change of response). This report evaluates the performance of selected devices for the detection of airborne materials formed in the release of liquid UF/sub 6/ (approx. =1.3 g) into an enclosed volume of 6 m/sup 3/; these experiments were initiated on October 23, 1986. The detection principles investigated are: photometric, gas detector tubes, and electrochemical sensor.

  19. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffer, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  20. Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paducah Site | Department of Energy Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at Paducah Site Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at Paducah Site November 27, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Media Contact (202) 586-4940 Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that it will open negotiations with Global

  1. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R.; Ernstberger, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  2. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  3. Perimeter safeguards techniques for uranium-enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Chamber, W.H.

    1981-09-01

    In 1972, a working group of the International Atomic Energy Agency identified a goal to develop and evaluate perimeter safeguards for uranium isotope enrichment plants. As part of the United State's response to that goal, Los Alamos Detection and Verification personnel studied gamma-ray and neutron emissions from uranium hexafluoride. They developed instruments that use the emissions to verify uranium enrichment and to monitor perimeter personnel and shipping portals. Unattended perimeter monitors and hand-held verification instruments were evaluated in field measurements and, when possible, were loaned to enrichment facilities for trials. None of the seven package monitoring techniques that were investigated proved entirely satisfactory for an unattended monitor. They either revealed proprietary information about centrifuge design or were subject to interference by shielding materials that could be present in a package. Further evaluation in a centrifuge facility may help in developing an acceptable attended package monitor. 34 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Prototype Radiation Detector Positioning System For The Automated Nondestructive Assay Of Uf6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.

    2011-08-07

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of efficiency and assay accuracy. This paper describes an approach denoted the Integrated Cylinder Verification Station (ICVS) that supports 100% cylinder verification, provides volume-averaged cylinder enrichment assay, and reduces inspector manpower needs. To allow field measurements to be collected to validate data collection algorithms, a prototype radiation detector positioning system was constructed. The system was designed to accurately position an array of radiation detectors along the length of a cylinder to measure UF6 enrichment. A number of alternative radiation shields for the detectors were included with the system. A collimated gamma-ray spectrometer module that allows translation of the detectors in the surrounding shielding to adjust the field of view, and a collimating plug in the end to further reduce the low-energy field of view, were also developed. Proof-of-principle measurements of neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, using moderated neutron detectors and large-volume spectrometers in a fixed-geometry, portal-like configuration, supported an early assessment of the viability of the concept. The system has been used successfully on two testing campaigns at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant to scan over 30 product cylinders. This paper will describe the overall design of the detector positioning system and

  5. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  6. URANIUM COMPOSITIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, N.P.; Grogan, J.D.

    1959-05-12

    This patent relates to high purity uranium alloys characterized by improved stability to thermal cycling and low thermal neutron absorption. The high purity uranium alloy contains less than 0.1 per cent by weight in total amount of any ore or more of the elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, tin, lead, bismuth, niobium, and zinc.

  7. Automated Nondestructive Assay of UF6 Cylinders: Detector Characterization and Initial Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mace, Emily K.; Smith, Leon E.

    2011-10-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders assumed to be representative of the facility's entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of manpower and assay accuracy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) intended for this purpose and has developed a field prototype of the nondestructive assay (NDA) components of an ICVS. The nondestructive assay methods would combine the 'traditional' enrichment-meter signature (i.e. 186-keV emission from 235U) as well as 'non-traditional' high-energy photon signatures derived from neutrons produced primarily by 19F({alpha},n) reactions. This paper describes the design, calibration and characterization of the NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) spectrometers utilized in the field prototype. An overview of a recent field measurement campaign is then provided, supported by example gamma-ray pulse-height spectra collected on cylinders of known enrichment.

  8. Uranium Processing Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Uranium Processing Facility

  9. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

    2012-09-25

    Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle

  10. Uranium industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This report provides statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing.

  11. The IMCA: A field instrument for uranium enrichment measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, G.H.; Koskelo, M.; Moeslinger, M.; Mayer, R.L. II; McGinnis, B.R.; Wishard, B.

    1996-12-31

    The IMCA (Inspection Multi-Channel Analyzer) is a portable gamma-ray spectrometer designed to measure the enrichment of uranium either in a laboratory or in the field. The IMCA consists of a Canberra InSpector Multi-Channel Analyzer, sodium iodide or a planar germanium detector, and special application software. The system possesses a high degree of automation. The IMCA uses the uranium enrichment meter principle, and is designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for the verification of enriched uranium materials. The IMCA is available with MGA plutonium isotopic analysis software or MGAU uranium analysis software as well. In this paper, the authors present a detailed description of the hardware and software of the IMCA system, as well as results from preliminary measurements testing compliance of IMCA with IAEA requirements using uranium standards and UF6 cylinders. Measurements performed on UF6 cylinders in the field under variable environmental conditions (temperatures ranging from 0 to 35 C) have shown that good results can be achieved. The enrichment of UF6 contained in the cylinder is determined by using calibration constants generated from an instrument calibration, using traceable uranium oxide standards, performed in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. The IMCA software is designed to make the necessary matrix and container corrections to ensure that accurate results are achieved in the field.

  12. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  13. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Development Drilling","Mine Production of Uranium ","Uranium Concentrate Production ","Uranium Concentrate Shipments ","Employment " "Year","Drilling (million feet)"," ...

  14. Uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This book presents the GAO's views on the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to develop a new uranium enrichment technology, the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process (AVLIS). Views are drawn from GAO's ongoing review of AVLIS, in which the technical, program, and market issues that need to be addressed before an AVLIS plant is built are examined.

  15. High-voltage electrical apparatus utilizing an insulating gas of sulfur hexafluoride and helium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wootton, Roy E.

    1980-01-01

    High-voltage electrical apparatus includes an outer housing at low potential, an inner electrode disposed within the outer housing at high potential with respect thereto, and support means for insulatably supporting the inner electrode within the outer housing. Conducting particles contaminate the interior of the outer housing, and an insulating gas electrically insulates the inner electrode from the outer housing even in the presence of the conducting particles. The insulating gas is comprised of sulfur hexafluoride at a partial pressure of from about 2.9 to about 3.4 atmospheres absolute, and helium at a partial pressure from about 1.1 to about 11.4 atmospheres absolute. The sulfur hexafluoride comprises between 20 and 65 volume percent of the insulating gas.

  16. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector.

  18. Microsoft Word - CAMDGasCylinderRequest.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enacted 2014-02-25 CAMD Gas Cylinder Request NOTE: It is the CAMD policy that no cylinders shall be brought to the CAMD facility by any researcher without first going through CAMD. All cylinders will be ordered & moved by CAMD Facility Management ONLY. Send all signed /completed scanned requests directly to davidkleinpeter@lsu.edu First Name Last Name E-mail: Telephone: Supervisor (if applicable) Department Institution: Budget Code: Required Receipt Date: (order at least one week ahead -

  19. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blue, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  20. Coated Conductors Cylinder Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Coated Conductors Cylinder Ltd. Place: Malvern, England, United Kingdom Zip: WR14 3SZ Product: Coated Conductors Consultancy Ltd. (3-Cs)...

  1. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziehlke, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  2. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  3. Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

    2012-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

  4. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2. Maximum anticipated uranium market requirements of owners and operators of U.S. ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  5. COPPER COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Various techniques and methods for obtaining coppercoated uranium are given. Specifically disclosed are a group of complex uranium coatings having successive layers of nickel, copper, lead, and tin.

  6. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  7. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  8. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM MONOCARBIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powers, R.M.

    1962-07-24

    A method of making essentially stoichiometric uranium monocarbide by pelletizing a mixture of uranium tetrafluoride, silicon, and carbon and reacting the mixture at a temperature of approximately 1500 to 1700 deg C until the reaction goes to completion, forming uranium monocarbide powder and volatile silicon tetrafluoride, is described. The powder is then melted to produce uranium monocarbide in massive form. (AEC)

  9. Detection of illicit HEU production in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants using neutron counting techniques on product cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R; Geist, William H

    2010-01-01

    Innovative and novel safeguards approaches are needed for nuclear energy to meet global energy needs without the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Part of these efforts will include creating verification techniques that can monitor uranium enrichment facilities for illicit production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU). Passive nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques will be critical in preventing illicit HEU production because NDA offers the possibility of continuous and unattended monitoring capabilities with limited impact on facility operations. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) are commonly used to produce low-enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel. In a GCEP, gaseous UF{sub 6} spins at high velocities in centrifuges to separate the molecules containing {sup 238}U from those containing the lighter {sup 235}U. Unfortunately, the process for creating LEU is inherently the same as HEU, creating a proliferation concern. Insuring that GCEPs are producing declared enrichments poses many difficult challenges. In a GCEP, large cascade halls operating thousands of centrifuges work together to enrich the uranium which makes effective monitoring of the cascade hall economically prohibitive and invasive to plant operations. However, the enriched uranium exiting the cascade hall fills product cylinders where the UF{sub 6} gas sublimes and condenses for easier storage and transportation. These product cylinders hold large quantities of enriched uranium, offering a strong signal for NDA measurement. Neutrons have a large penetrability through materials making their use advantageous compared to gamma techniques where the signal is easily attenuated. One proposed technique for detecting HEU production in a GCEP is using neutron coincidence counting at the product cylinder take off stations. This paper discusses findings from Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code simulations that examine the feasibility of such a detector.

  10. Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder These slides were presented at the Onboard ...

  11. Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Poster presented at the 16th Directions in ...

  12. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues These slides were presented at the ...

  13. Improvement of magnetic shielding effects: The superposition of a double-magnetic cylinder over a high-Tc superconducting cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohyama, Takashi; Minemoto, Takumi ); Itoh, Mineo ); Hoshino, Kazutomo )

    1993-11-01

    Improvement of magnetic shielding was achieved by superimposing a double-magnetic cylinder over a YBCO (Y-Ba-Cu-0) cylinder. The value of the magnetic shielded field for the superimposed cylinder was 47 times larger than that of the YBCO cylinder. The magnetic shielded field obtained when superimposing a soft iron single-cylinder over a YBCO cylinder was analyzed using the Bean, Wills, and Mager models, with an important criterion being derived for designing an effective shield of the chamber.

  14. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chellew, N.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent deals with the separation of rare earth and other fission products from neutron bombarded uranium. This is accomplished by melting the uranium in contact with either thorium oxide, maguesium oxide, alumnum oxide, beryllium oxide, or uranium dioxide. The melting is preferably carried out at from 1150 deg to 1400 deg C in an inert atmosphere, such as argon or helium. During this treatment a scale of uranium dioxide forms on the uranium whtch contains most of the fission products.

  15. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penrod, S.R.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}, Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  16. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penrod, S.R.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}. Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  17. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.

    1959-12-22

    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  18. Determination of the 235U Mass and Enrichment within Small UF6 Cylinders via a Neutron Coincidence Well Counting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, Robert Dennis; Croft, Dr. Stephen; Young, Brian M; Venkataraman, Ram

    2011-01-01

    The construction of three new uranium enrichment facilities in the United States has sparked renewed interest in the development and enhancement of methods to determine the enrichment and fissile mass content of UF6 cylinders. We describe the design and examine the expected performance of a UF6 bottle counter developed for the assay of Type 5A cylinders. The counter, as designed and subsequently constructed, is a tall passive neutron well counter with a clam-shell configuration and graphite end plugs operated in fast neutron mode. Factory performance against expectation is described. The relatively high detection efficiency and effectively 4 detection geometry provide a near-ideal measurement configuration, making the UF6 bottle counter a valuable tool for the evaluation of the neutron coincidence approach to UF6 cylinder assay. The impacts of non-uniform filling, voids, enrichment, and mixed enrichments are examined

  19. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  20. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Multi-cylinder hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-cylinder hot gas engine having an equal angle, V-shaped engine block in which two banks of parallel, equal length, equally sized cylinders are formed together with annular regenerator/cooler units surrounding each cylinder, and wherein the pistons are connected to a single crankshaft. The hot gas engine further includes an annular heater head disposed around a central circular combustor volume having a new balanced-flow hot-working-fluid manifold assembly that provides optimum balanced flow of the working fluid through the heater head working fluid passageways which are connected between each of the cylinders and their respective associated annular regenerator units. This balanced flow provides even heater head temperatures and, therefore, maximum average working fluid temperature for best operating efficiency with the use of a single crankshaft V-shaped engine block.

  2. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  3. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  4. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  5. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur, Carly W.; Goto, D. M.

    2015-11-30

    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  6. Safeguarding a NWS International Enrichment Center as an Enriched Uranium Store

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2008-03-31

    The operational and regulatory singularities of a multilateral facility designed to provide enriched uranium to a consortium of members may engender a new sub-category of safeguard criteria for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper introduces the contingency of monitoring such a facility as a uranium storage center with cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU) as the principal, and perhaps only, material open to verification. Accountancy and verification techniques will be proffered together with disparate means for maintaining continuity of knowledge (CoK) on verified stock.

  7. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5. Shipments of uranium feed by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  8. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Inventories of uranium by owner as of end of year, 2011-15 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Inventories at the end of the year Owner of uranium inventory 2011 2012 2013 2014 P2015 ...

  9. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2013-15 2013 2014 2015 American Fuel Resources, LLC Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. AREVA ...

  10. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0. Contracted purchases of uranium from suppliers by owners and operators of U.S. civilian ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  11. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    a. Foreign purchases, foreign sales, and uranium inventories owned by U.S. suppliers and ... Foreign sales U.S. supplier owned uranium inventories Owners and operators of U.S. ...

  12. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Uranium in fuel assemblies loaded into U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by year, 2011-15 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Origin of uranium 2011 2012 2013 2014 P2015 ...

  13. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for purifying a uranium-base nuclear material. The nuclear material is dissolved in zinc or a zinc-magnesium alloy and the concentration of magnesium is increased until uranium precipitates.

  14. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  15. PROCESS OF PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Orlemann, E.F.; Jensen, L.H.

    1958-12-23

    A method of obtaining substantially pure uranium from a uranium composition contaminated with light element impurities such as sodium, magnesium, beryllium, and the like is described. An acidic aqueous solution containing tetravalent uranium is treated with a soluble molybdate to form insoluble uranous molybdate which is removed. This material after washing is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid to obtaln a uranyl nitrate solution from which highly purified uranium is obtained by extraction with ether.

  16. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Notice of Availability of a Draft Supplement Analysis for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Produce Generated from DOE's Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    869 Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 63 / Tuesday, April 3, 2007 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION The Historically Black Colleges and Universities Capital Financing Advisory Board AGENCY: The Historically Black Colleges and Universities Capital Financing Board, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of an upcoming open meeting of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities Capital Financing Advisory Board.

  18. Review of consequences of uranium hydride formation in N-Reactor fuel elements stored in the K-Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J.W.

    1994-09-28

    The 105-K Basins on the Hanford site are used to store uranium fuel elements and assemblies irradiated in and discharged from N Reactor. The storage cylinders in KW Basin are known to have some broken N reactor fuel elements in which the exposed uranium is slowly reacting chemically with water in the cylinder. The products of these reactions are uranium oxide, hydrogen, and potentially some uranium hydride. The purpose of this report is to document the results f the latest review of potential, but highly unlikely accidents postulated to occur as closed cylinders containing N reactor fuel assemblies are opened under water in the KW basin and as a fuel assembly is raised from the basin in a shipping cask for transportation to the 327 Building for examination as part of the SNF Characterization Program. The postulated accidents reviews in this report are considered to bound all potential releases of radioactivity and hydrogen. These postulated accidents are: (1) opening and refill of a cylinder containing significant amounts of hydrogen and uranium hydride; and (2) draining of the single element can be used to keep the fuel element submerged in water after the cask containing the can and element is lifted from the KW Basin. Analysis shows the release of radioactivity to the site boundary is significantly less than that allowed by the K Basin Safety Evaluation. Analysis further shows there would be no damage to the K Basin structure nor would there be injury to personnel for credible events.

  19. Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Uranium Leasing ...

  20. UF{sub 6} cylinder fire test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S.H.

    1991-12-31

    With the increasing number of nuclear reactors for power generation, there is a comparable increase in the amount of UF{sub 6} being transported. Likewise, the probability of having an accident involving UF{sub 6}-filled cylinders also increases. Accident scenarios which have been difficult to assess are those involving a filled UF{sub 6} cylinder subjected to fire. A study is underway at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, as part of the US DOE Enrichment Program, to provide empirical data and a computer model that can be used to evaluate various cylinder-in-fire scenarios. It is expected that the results will provide information leading to better handling of possible fire accidents as well as show whether changes should be made to provide different physical protection during shipment. The computer model being developed will be capable of predicting the rupture of various cylinder sizes and designs as well as the amount of UF{sub 6}, its distribution in the cylinder, and the conditions of the fire.

  1. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Major U.S. Uranium Reserves

  2. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1958-04-15

    The production of uranium metal by the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is described. Massive uranium metal of high purily is produced by reacting uranium tetrafluoride with 2 to 20% stoichiometric excess of magnesium at a temperature sufficient to promote the reaction and then mantaining the reaction mass in a sealed vessel at temperature in the range of 1150 to 2000 d C, under a superatomospheric pressure of magnesium for a period of time sufficient 10 allow separation of liquid uranium and liquid magnesium fluoride into separate layers.

  3. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  4. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeager, J.H.

    1958-08-12

    In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

  5. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of uranium from a mixture of uranium and thorium by organic solvent extraction from an aqueous solution is described. The uranium is separrted from an aqueous mixture of uranium and thorium nitrates 3 N in nitric acid and containing salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate, so as to bring ihe total nitrate ion concentration to a maximum of about 8 N by contacting the mixture with an immiscible aliphatic oxygen containing organic solvent such as diethyl carbinol, hexone, n-amyl acetate and the like. The uranium values may be recovered from the organic phase by back extraction with water.

  6. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  7. UF{sub 6} cylinder inspections at PGDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, G.W.; Whinnery, W.N.

    1991-12-31

    Routine inspections of all UF{sub 6} cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant have been mandated by the Department of Energy. A specific UF{sub 6} cylinder inspection procedure for what items to inspect and training for the operators prior to inspection duty are described. The layout of the cylinder yards and the forms used in the inspections are shown. The large number of cylinders (>30,000) to inspect and the schedule for completion on the mandated time table are discussed. Results of the inspections and the actions to correct the deficiencies are explained. Future inspections and movement of cylinders for relocation of certain cylinder yards are defined.

  8. About the Uranium Mine Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uranium Mine Team About the Uranium Mine Team Text coming

  9. Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross-flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross-flow A ...

  10. Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder A China Paper on Type 4 Cylinder, translated and presented by J. P. Hsu, PhD, Smart Chemistry Reason for Defect ...

  11. Fact #725: April 30, 2012 Cylinder Deactivation is More Prevalent...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cylinder deactivation is a fuel-saving technology that allows a vehicle to shut down some of its cylinders when extra power is not needed like when cruising down the highway at a ...

  12. Breached cylinder incident at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boelens, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    On June 16, 1990, during an inspection of valves on partially depleted product storage cylinders, a 14-ton partially depleted product cylinder was discovered breached. The cylinder had been placed in long-term storage in 1977 on the top row of Portsmouth`s (two rows high) storage area. The breach was observed when an inspector noticed a pile of green material along side of the cylinder. The breach was estimated to be approximately 8- inches wide and 16-inches long, and ran under the first stiffening ring of the cylinder. During the continuing inspection of the storage area, a second 14-ton product cylinder was discovered breached. This cylinder was stacked on the bottom row in the storage area in 1986. This breach was also located adjacent to a stiffening ring. This paper will discuss the contributing factors of the breaching of the cylinders, the immediate response, subsequent actions in support of the investigation, and corrective actions.

  13. ORALLOY (93.2 235U) METAL CYLINDER WITH BERYLLIUM TOP REFLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth; Raymond Reed; John T. Mihalczo

    2010-09-01

    A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, one experiment was comprised of a stack of approximately 7-inch-diameter metal discs. The bottom of the stack consisted of uranium with an approximate height of 4-1/8 inches. The top of the stack consisted of beryllium with an approximate height of 5-9/16 inches. This experiment was performed on August 20, 1963 by J. T. Mihalczo and R. G. Taylor (Ref. 1) with accompanying logbook. Both detailed and simplified model specifications are provided in this evaluation. This fast-spectra experiment was determined to represent an acceptable benchmark. The calculated eigenvalues for both the detailed and simple models are within approximately 0.5% of the benchmark values, but significantly greater than 3s from the benchmark value because the uncertainty in the benchmark is very small: 0.0002 (1s). There is significant variability between results using different neutron cross section libraries, the greatest being a ?keff of ~0.65% . Unreflected and unmoderated experiments with the same highly enriched uranium metal parts were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in the 1960s and are evaluated in HEU MET FAST 051. Thin graphite reflected (2 inches or less) experiments also using the same highly enriched uranium metal parts are evaluated in

  14. EIS-0269: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, Paduch, Kentucky; ... Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (Final PEIS) on April 23, ...

  15. GAT-280 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of the Liquid Entropy of the Vapor Free Energy of the Vapor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Uranium Hexafluoride in Hydrogen Fluoride Uranium Hexafluoride in Bromine ...

  16. Microsoft Word - FLYSHEET

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ducting surrounding a uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) pipe had instrument lines in it. ... an instruction for uranium hexafluoride pipe removal used for tapping and venting of ...

  17. Independent Oversight Assessment, Portsmouth/Paducah Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants This report provides the results of an ... of conduct of operations at DOE's depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion plants. ...

  18. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    S2. Uranium feed deliveries, enrichment services, and uranium loaded by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 1994-2015 million pounds U3O8 equivalent million separative work units (SWU) Year Feed deliveries by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors Uranium in fuel assemblies loaded into U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors U.S.-origin enrichment services purchased Foreign-origin enrichment services purchased Total purchased enrichment services

  19. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  20. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  1. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W.; Horton, James A.; Elliott, Guy R. B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  2. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruehle, A.E.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1957-11-12

    An improved process is described for the magnesium reduction of UF/sub 4/ to produce uranium metal. In the past, there have been undesirable premature reactions between the Mg and the bomb liner or the UF/sub 4/ before the actual ignition of the bomb reaction. Since these premature reactions impair the yield of uranium metal, they have been inhibited by forming a protective film upon the particles of Mg by reacting it with hydrated uranium tetrafluoride, sodium bifluoride, uranyl fluoride, or uranium trioxide. This may be accomplished by adding about 0.5 to 2% of the additive to the bomb charge.

  3. COATING URANIUM FROM CARBONYLS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Storrs, S.S.

    1959-07-14

    Methods are described for making adherent corrosion resistant coatings on uranium metal. According to the invention, the uranium metal is heated in the presence of an organometallic compound such as the carbonyls of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, niobium, and tungsten at a temperature sufficient to decompose the metal carbonyl and dry plate the resultant free metal on the surface of the uranium metal body. The metal coated body is then further heated at a higher temperature to thermally diffuse the coating metal within the uranium bcdy.

  4. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  5. Uranium Purchases Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    Final issue. This report details natural and enriched uranium purchases as reported by owners and operators of commercial nuclear power plants. 1996 represents the most recent publication year.

  6. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, D.

    1958-04-15

    A process of recovering uranium from very low-grade ore residues is described. These low-grade uraniumcontaining hydroxide precipitates, which also contain hydrated silica and iron and aluminum hydroxides, are subjected to multiple leachings with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate at a pH of at least 9. This leaching serves to selectively extract the uranium from the precipitate, but to leave the greater part of the silica, iron, and aluminum with the residue. The uranium is then separated from the leach liquor by the addition of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium diuranate.

  7. highly enriched uranium

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and radioisotope supply capabilities of MURR and Nordion with General Atomics' selective gas extraction technology-which allows their low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to remain...

  8. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  9. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Resources, Inc., dba Cameco Resources Smith Ranch-Highland Operation Converse, Wyoming ... Uranium is first processed at the Nichols Ranch plant and then transported to the Smith ...

  10. Summary of Field Measurement on UF6 Cylinders Using Electro-Mechanically Cooled Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, Brent R; Smith, Steven E; Solodov, Alexander A; Whitaker, J Michael; Morgan, James B; MayerII, Richard L.; Montgomery, J. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the enrichment of solid state UF6 stored within large metal cylinders is a task commonly performed by plant operators and inspectors. The measurement technologies typically used range from low-resolution, high-efficiency sodium iodide detectors to high-resolution, moderate-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology used and methods deployed are dependent upon the material being measured, environmental conditions, time constraints, and measurement-precision requirements. Operators and inspectors typically use specially designed, HPGe detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen in situations where high-resolution measurements are required. However, the requirement for periodically refilling the system with liquid nitrogen makes remote usage cumbersome and slow. The task of cooling the detector reduces the available time for the inspector to perform other safeguards activities while on site. If the inspector has to reduce the count time for each selected cylinder to ensure that all preselected cylinders are measured during the inspection, the resulting measurement uncertainties may be increased, making it more difficult to detect and verify potential discrepancies in the operator's declarations. However, recent advances in electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors may provide the inspector with an improved verification tool by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen. This report provides a summary of test results for field measurements performed using electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors on depleted, natural, and low-enriched uranium cylinders. The results of the study provide valuable information to inspectors and operators regarding the capabilities and limitations of electromechanically cooled systems based on true field-measurement conditions.