National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for uranium compounds radioactivity

  1. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  2. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  3. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arden, T.V.; Burstall, F.H.; Linstead, R.P.; Wells, R.A.

    1955-12-27

    Compounds of Th and U are extracted with an organic solvent in the presence of an adsorbent substance which has greater retentivity for impurities present than for the uranium and/or thorium. The preferred adsorbent material is noted as being cellulose. The uranium and thoriumcontaining substances treated are preferably in the form of dissolved nitrates, and the preferred organic solvent is diethyl ether.

  4. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magel, T.T.; Brewer, L.

    1959-02-10

    A method is presented of preparing uranium metal of high purity consisting contacting impure U metal with halogen vapor at between 450 and 550 C to form uranium halide vapor, contacting the uranium halide vapor in the presence of H/sub 2/ with a refractory surface at about 1400 C to thermally decompose the uranium halides and deposit molten U on the refractory surface and collecting the molten U dripping from the surface. The entire operation is carried on at a sub-atmospheric pressure of below 1 mm mercury.

  5. Conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to a solid uranium compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Alan B.; Graczyk, Donald G.; Essling, Alice M.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2001-01-01

    A process for converting UF.sub.6 to a solid uranium compound such as UO.sub.2 and CaF. The UF.sub.6 vapor form is contacted with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH at a pH greater than 7 to precipitate at least some solid uranium values as a solid leaving an aqueous solution containing NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values. The solid uranium values are separated from the aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values which is then diluted with additional water precipitating more uranium values as a solid leaving trace quantities of uranium in a dilute aqueous solution. The dilute aqueous solution is contacted with an ion-exchange resin to remove substantially all the uranium values from the dilute aqueous solution. The dilute solution being contacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to precipitate CaF.sub.2 leaving dilute NH.sub.4 OH.

  6. METHOD FOR THE REDUCTION OF URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, W.H.; Crawford, J.W.C.

    1959-05-12

    An improved technique of preparing massive metallic uranium by the reaction at elevated temperature between an excess of alkali in alkaline earth metal and a uranium halide, such ss uranium tetrafluoride is presented. The improvement comprises employing a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen or the like, such as coal gas, in the vessel during the reduction stage and then replacing the reducing atmosphere with argon gas prior to cooling to ambient temperature.

  7. LANL researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds, candidates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for advanced nuclear fuels Researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds LANL researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds, candidates for advanced nuclear fuels Enhance the ability to develop advanced nuclear fuels in a safer, simpler manner. April 7, 2011 This illustration shows the structures of UI4(1,4-dioxane)2 (left) and the UI3(1,4-dioxane)1.5 complexes. This illustration shows the structures of UI4(1,4-dioxane)2 (left) and the UI3(1,4-dioxane)1.5 complexes.

  8. Magneto-optic properties of uranium-based compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, R.D.; Shen, J.X.; Woollam, J.A.; Sellmyer, D.J. )

    1991-04-15

    Uranium-based compounds often show interesting magnetic properties and large polar Kerr rotations. Because of this, the wavelength and temperature dependencies of the polar Kerr rotation in several uranium-based compounds, including UMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, UFe{sub 2}, and UGa{sub 2}, have been investigated. The Mn moments order ferromagnetically in UMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} below 380 K, and while the U moments do not order ferromagnetically until the temperature is below 150 K. The measurements presented here show that the size of the Kerr rotation increases from 0.05{degree} at room temperature to 0.15{degree} when the U moments are ordered. The wavelength dependence of the Kerr rotation between 500 and 1000 nm is rather weak. UGa{sub 2} orders ferromagnetically at 130 K, and a Kerr rotation of 0.2{degree} at 85 K and 632.8 nm can be measured, with the rotation increasing to 0.4{degree} at 1000 nm. UFe{sub 2} orders ferromagnetically at 180 K, and the Kerr rotation (85 K, 632.8 nm) is 0.17{degree}. These magnetic and optical properties are discussed in terms of the electronic states of uranium.

  9. Conversion of radioactive ferrocyanide compounds to immobile glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Wallace W.; Dressen, A. Louise

    1977-04-26

    Complex radioactive ferrocyanide compounds result from the scavenging of cesium from waste products produced in the chemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel. These ferrocyanides, in accordance with this process, are converted to an immobile glass, resistant to leaching by water, by fusion together with sodium carbonate and a mixture of (a) basalt and boron trioxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3) or (b) silica (SiO.sub.2) and lime (CaO).

  10. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-10-12

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products.

  11. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  12. Conversion of radioactive ferrocyanide compounds to immobile glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, W.W.; Dressen, A.L.

    1975-11-21

    A method is described for converting complex radioactive ferrocyanide compounds of /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs to immobile glass that is resistant to leaching by water. The /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are separated from nuclear waste solutions by precipitation from alkaline solutions by the addition of a soluble Ni/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/, or Mn/sup 2 +/ and K/sub 4/Fe(CN)/sub 6/. The dried, finely ground precipitate is mixed with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and a mixture of (a) basalt and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or (b) SiO/sub 2/ and CaO, melted, and allowed to solidify. (BLM)

  13. COORDINATION COMPOUND-SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reas, W.H.

    1959-03-10

    A method is presented for the separation of uranium from aqueous solutions containing a uranyl salt and thorium. Thc separation is effected by adding to such solutions an organic complexing agent, and then contacting the solution with an organic solvent in which the organic complexing agent is soluble. By use of the proper complexing agent in the proper concentrations uranium will be complexed and subsequently removed in the organic solvent phase, while the thorium remains in the aqueous phase. Mentioned as suitable organic complexing agents are antipyrine, bromoantipyrine, and pyramidon.

  14. Laboratory Enrichment of Radioactive Assemblages and Estimation of Thorium and Uranium Radioactivity in Fractions Separated from Placer Sands in Southeast Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Rajib, Mohammad; Akiyoshi, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Taishi; Takagi, Ikuji; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Zaman, Md. Mashrur

    2015-06-15

    The present study reports the likely first attempt of separating radioactive minerals for estimation of activity concentration in the beach placer sands of Bangladesh. Several sand samples from heavy mineral deposits located at the south-eastern coastal belt of Bangladesh were processed to physically upgrade their radioactivity concentrations using plant and laboratory equipment. Following some modified flow procedure, individual fractions were separated and investigated using gamma-ray spectrometry and powder-XRD analysis. The radioactivity measurements indicated contributions of the thorium and uranium radioactive series and of {sup 40}K. The maximum values of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, estimated from the radioactivity of {sup 208}Tl and {sup 234}Th in secular equilibrium, were found to be 152,000 and 63,300 Bq/kg, respectively. The fraction of the moderately conductive part in electric separation contained thorium predominantly, while that of the non-conductive part was found to be uranium rich. The present arrangement of the pilot plant cascade and the fine tuning of setting parameters were found to be effective and economic separation process of the radioactive minerals from placer sands in Bangladesh. Probable radiological impacts and extraction potentiality of such radioactive materials are also discussed.

  15. Measurement of the Auger parameter and Wagner plot for uranium compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holliday, Kiel S.; Siekhaus, Wigbert; Nelson, Art J.

    2013-05-15

    In this study, the photoemission from the U 4f{sub 7/2} and 4d{sub 5/2} states and the U N{sub 6}O{sub 45}O{sub 45} and N{sub 67}O{sub 45}V x-ray excited Auger transitions were measured for a range of uranium compounds. The data are presented in Wagner plots and the Auger parameter is calculated to determine the utility of this technique in the analysis of uranium materials. It was demonstrated that the equal core-level shift assumption holds for uranium. It was therefore possible to quantify the relative relaxation energies, and uranium was found to have localized core-hole shielding. The position of compounds within the Wagner plot made it possible to infer information on bonding character and local electron density. The relative ionicity of the uranium compounds studied follows the trend UF{sub 4} > UO{sub 3} > U{sub 3}O{sub 8} > U{sub 4}O{sub 9}/U{sub 3}O{sub 7} Almost-Equal-To UO{sub 2} > URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  16. SEPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM ORGANIC FLUORO COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Libby, W.F.

    1958-10-01

    A method is presented for removing perfiuoroorganic compounds such as C/ sub 7/F/sub 16/ from UF/sub 6/. The physical and chemical properties of the perfluoro compounds are such as to render their removal from UF/sub 6/ difficulty by conventional techniques. The mixture containing UF/sub 6/ and the perfluoro compounds is pyrolyzed in an inert container at high temperature and pressure. The properties of the products obtained by pyrolysis differ from the properties of UF/sub 6/ to a sufficient degree to render their separation possible by ordinary methods.

  17. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

  18. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  19. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Middlesex Sampling Plant Site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunning, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site in Middlesex, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. The site became contaminated from operations conducted in support of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1943 and 1967. Activities conducted at the site included sampling, storage, and shipment of uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores and residues. Uranium guidelines for single radioisotopes and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the MSP site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four scenarios were considered for the site. These scenarios vary regarding future land use at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed.

  20. uranium

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to prepare surplus plutonium for disposition, and readiness to begin the Second Uranium Cycle, to start processing spent nuclear fuel.

    H Canyon is also being...

  1. Radioactivity studies. Progress report. Volume I. [An improved model of uranium metabolism in the primate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, N.

    1981-09-01

    A model was developed to be used to calculate the accumulation of uranium in the organs of the human body for different kinds of exposure. The proposed model divides the human body into compartments: red cell, short-term bone, long-term bone, kidney, and urine. The transfer rate between compartments is governed by 1st order kinetics. Transfer from plasma to the other compartments is instantaneous. Feedback from compartments to plasma is taken into account. The division of blood into plasma and red cell compartment is important to the calculations of uranium transport during the first few days after exposure. It was noted that uranium in bone has two different half-lives depending on the site of deposition, a short-term and a long-term bone component. An analytical solution to the model was proposed for any time-dependent exposure to uranium. This methodology is unique to this model and represents a significant change in analytical solutions. Specific analytical solutions for common cases of uranium exposure were derived. These include: single injection dose to the blood; exposure to background levels of natural uranium by ingestion; exposure through inhalation during working hours for uranium workers; single inhalation dose; constant inhalation exposure during a finite interval of time; and single ingestion dose. For model verification five baboons were injected intravenously with uranium nitrate and the partition of uranium between plasma and red cells was studied. The half-life in short-term bone was derived and the distribution in soft tissues four days after injection was studied: the kidney was the main organ for uranium deposition. The concentration in human skeleton was equal to 0.02 ..mu..g U/g ash. For this concentration in skeleton the gastrointestinal absorption factor was calculated as 23% and the daily excretion as 0.24 ..mu..g U/day.

  2. ARSENATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, S.G.; Miller, D.R.; James, R.A.

    1961-06-20

    A process is described for precipitating Pu from an aqueous solution as the arsenate, either per se or on a bismuth arsenate carrier, whereby a separation from uranium and fission products, if present in solution, is accomplished.

  3. Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabelman, J.W.; Chenoweth, W.L.; Ingerson, E.

    1981-10-01

    The uranium production industry is well into its third recession during the nuclear era (since 1945). Exploration is drastically curtailed, and many staffs are being reduced. Historical market price production trends are discussed. A total of 3.07 million acres of land was acquired for exploration; drastic decrease. Surface drilling footage was reduced sharply; an estimated 250 drill rigs were used by the uranium industry during 1980. Land acquisition costs increased 8%. The domestic reserve changes are detailed by cause: exploration, re-evaluation, or production. Two significant discoveries of deposits were made in Mohave County, Arizona. Uranium production during 1980 was 21,850 short tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/; an increase of 17% from 1979. Domestic and foreign exploration highlights were given. Major producing areas for the US are San Juan basin, Wyoming basins, Texas coastal plain, Paradox basin, northeastern Washington, Henry Mountains, Utah, central Colorado, and the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon. 3 figures, 8 tables. (DP)

  4. Oxidation behavior and segregation of uranium in the intermetallic compound UFe/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erbudak, M.; Stucki, F.

    1985-08-15

    Ion scattering and Auger-electron spectroscopies show that there is a large segregation of uranium at the surface of UFe/sub 2/. Adsorbed oxygen reacts only with this uranium and forms a stable oxide layer at the surface, which prevents further oxygen diffusing into the solid. As a result of this process, the iron remains in metallic form even after prolonged oxygen exposures.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-03-31

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

  6. A record of uranium-series transport at Nopal I, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico: Implications for natural uranium deposits and radioactive waste repositories

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Paviet, P.; Nunn, A. J.; Amato, R. S.; Hinrichs, K. A.

    2016-04-10

    Studies of uranium-series (U-series) disequilibria within and around ore deposits provide valuable information on the extent and timing of actinide mobility, via mineral-fluid interaction, over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Such information is useful in studies of analogs of high-level nuclear-waste repositories, as well as for mining and mineral extraction sites, locations of previous nuclear weapons testing, and legacy nuclear waste contamination. In this study we present isotope dilution mass spectrometry U-series measurements for fracture-fill materials (hematite, goethite, kaolinite, calcite, dolomite and quartz) from one such analog; the Nopal I uranium ore deposit situated at Peña Blanca inmore » the Chihuahua region of northern Mexico. The ore deposit is located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff and fracture-fill materials from surface fractures as well as fractures in a vertical drill core have been analyzed. High uranium concentrations in the fracture-fill materials (between 12 and 7700 ppm) indicate uranium mobility and transport from the deposit. Furthermore, uranium concentrations generally decrease with horizontal distance away from the deposit but in this deposit there is no trend with depth below the surface.« less

  7. Lead, Uranium, and Nickel Compound Data from the XAFS Library at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) library at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is intended to be a reference library of XAFS spectra for various lead, uranium, and nickel compounds. Compounds are organized by central atom and all spectra are transmission data. Molecular Environmental Science (MES) research at SSRL focuses on the fundamental interfacial, molecular- and nano-scale processes that control contaminant and nutrient cycling in the biosphere with the goal of elucidating global elemental cycles and anthropogenic influences on the environment. Key areas of investigation include the: (a) Structural chemistry of water and dissolved solutes, (b) Structural chemistry and reactivity of complex natural environmental materials with respect to heavy metals and metalloids (biominerals, Fe- and Mn-oxides, biofilms, and organic materials), (c) Reactions at environmental interfaces, including sorption, precipitation and dissolution processes that affect the bioavailability of heavy metals and other contaminants, and (d) Microbial transformations of metals and anions. SSRL-based MES research utilizes synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), x-ray standing wave (XSW) spectroscopy, and photoemission spectroscopy (PES) because of their unique capabilities to probe structure/composition relationships in complex, non-crystalline, and dilute materials. [copied from http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/mes/index.html

  8. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  9. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamovich, D. [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation)] [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation); Batorshin, G.; Logunov, M.; Musalnikov, A. [FSUE 'PO Mayak', 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)] [FSUE 'PO Mayak', 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  10. Microcalorimetric measurement of reaction enthalpies in solutions of uranium and neptunium compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiner, F.; Friedman, A.M.; Richards, R.R.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of complexes of uranyl and neptunyl(VI) ions with carbonate and hydrogen carbonate has been studied by titration microcalorimetry. The measurements were carried out with a computer-controlled microcalorimeter which is described in detail. Sample volumes are typically in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 ccm, containing about 0.05 millimole of the ionic species to be studied. The small volume renders the calorimeter useful for the measurement of uncommon and strongly radioactive substances. Enthalpies of reaction were obtained for the formation of the dicarbonato and the tricarbonato uranyl ions in a sulfate medium of ionic strength 1.6. The enthalpies are ..delta..H/sub 2/ = -39.6 +- 1 kJ/mol and -57.5 +- 1.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The titration data for the neptunyl(VI) - carbonate system yield a value of -50 +- 2 kJ/mol for the tricarbonato-neptunyl ion when interpreted in analogy to the uranyl system.

  11. URANIUM LEACHING AND RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClaine, L.A.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for recovering uranium from carbonate leach solutions by precipitating uranium as a mixed oxidation state compound. Uranium is recovered by adding a quadrivalent uranium carbon;te solution to the carbonate solution, adjusting the pH to 13 or greater, and precipitating the uranium as a filterable mixed oxidation state compound. In the event vanadium occurs with the uranium, the vanadium is unaffected by the uranium precipitation step and remains in the carbonate solution. The uranium-free solution is electrolyzed in the cathode compartment of a mercury cathode diaphragm cell to reduce and precipitate the vanadium.

  12. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm{sup 2}-sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface.

  13. Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into Mesoporous Silica Friday, ... and fate of radioactive material such as uranium (U) and strontium (Sr) in the environment ...

  14. Calculating Atomic Number Densities for Uranium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-01-01

    Provides method to calculate atomic number densities of selected uranium compounds and hydrogenous moderators for use in nuclear criticality safety analyses at gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment facilities.

  15. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  16. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  17. The apparent absence of chemical sensitivity in the 4d and 5d X-ray absorption spectroscopy of uranium compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tobin, J. G.

    2013-05-03

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and related derivative measurements have been used to demonstrate that the Pu 5f states are strongly relativistic and have a 5f occupation number near 5. Owing to the success in this regime, it has been argued that the XAS measurements should be a powerful tool to probe 5f occupation variation, both as a function of elemental nature (actinide atomic number) and as a function of physical and chemical perturbation, e.g., oxidation state. We show that XAS and its related measurements fail in this latter aspect for a wide variety of uranium compounds and materials. Possible causesmore » will be discussed.« less

  18. COATING URANIUM FROM CARBONYLS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Storrs, S.S.

    1959-07-14

    Methods are described for making adherent corrosion resistant coatings on uranium metal. According to the invention, the uranium metal is heated in the presence of an organometallic compound such as the carbonyls of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, niobium, and tungsten at a temperature sufficient to decompose the metal carbonyl and dry plate the resultant free metal on the surface of the uranium metal body. The metal coated body is then further heated at a higher temperature to thermally diffuse the coating metal within the uranium bcdy.

  19. Bioreduction and immobilization of uranium in situ: a case study at a USA Department of Energy radioactive waste site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weimin; Carley, Jack M; Watson, David B; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C; Kelly, Shelly D; Kemner, Kenneth M; Van Nostrand, Joy; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong; Luo, Jian; Cardenas, Erick; Fields, Matthew Wayne; Marsh, Terence; Tiedje, James; Green, Stefan; Kostka, Joel; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip; Criddle, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation of uranium contaminated groundwater was tested by delivery of ethanol as an electron donor source to stimulate indigenous microbial bioactivity for reduction and immobilization of uranium in situ, followed by tests of stability of uranium sequestration in the bioreduced area via delivery of dissolved oxygen or nitrate at the US Department of energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge site located at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. After long term treatment that spanned years, uranium in groundwater was reduced from 40-60 mg {center_dot} L{sup -1} to <0.03 mg {center_dot} L{sup -1}, below the USA EPA standard for drinking water. The bioreduced uranium was stable under anaerobic or anoxic conditions, but addition of DO and nitrate to the bioreduced zone caused U remobilization. The change in the microbial community and functional microorganisms related to uranium reduction and oxidation were characterized. The delivery of ethanol as electron donor stimulated the activities of indigenous microorganisms for reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Results indicated that the immobilized U could be partially remobilized by D0 and nitrate via microbial activity. An anoxic environmental condition without nitrate is essential to maintain the stability of bioreduced uranium.

  20. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PITCHBLENDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruehle, A.E.

    1958-06-24

    The decontamination of uranium from molybdenum is described. When acid solutions containing uranyl nitrate are contacted with ether for the purpose of extracting the uranium values, complex molybdenum compounds are coextracted with the uranium and also again back-extracted from the ether with the uranium. This invention provides a process for extracting uranium in which coextraction of molybdenum is avoided. It has been found that polyhydric alcohols form complexes with molybdenum which are preferentially water-soluble are taken up by the ether extractant to only a very minor degree. The preferred embodiment of the process uses mannitol, sorbitol or a mixture of the two as the complexing agent.

  1. Occurrence of Metastudtite (Uranium Peroxide Dihydrate) at a FUSRAP Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, C.M.; Nelson, K.A.; Stevens, G.T.; Grassi, V.J.

    2006-07-01

    Uranium concentrations in groundwater in a localized area of a site exceed the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) by a factor of one thousand. Although the groundwater seepage velocity ranges up to 0.7 meters per day (m/day), data indicate that the uranium is not migrating in groundwater. We believe that the uranium is not mobile because of local geochemical conditions and the unstable nature of the uranium compound present at the site; uranium peroxide dihydrate (metastudtite). Metastudtite [UO{sub 4}.2(H{sub 2}O) or (U(O{sub 2})|O|(OH){sub 2}).3H{sub 2}O] has been identified at other sites as an alteration product in casks of spent nuclear fuel, but neither enriched nor depleted uranium were present at this site. Metastudtite was first identified as a natural mineral in 1983, although documented occurrences in the environment are uncommon. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a remedial investigation at the DuPont Chambers Works in Deep water New Jersey under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) to evaluate radioactive contamination resulting from historical activities conducted in support of Manhattan Engineering District operations. From 1942 to 1947, Chambers Works converted uranium oxides to uranium tetrafluoride and uranium metal. More than half of the production at this facility resulted from the recovery process, where uranium-bearing dross and scrap were reacted with hydrogen peroxide to produce uranium peroxide dihydrate. The 280-hectare Chambers Works has produced some 600 products, including petrochemicals, aromatics, fluoro-chemicals, polymers, and elastomers. Contaminants resulting from these processes, including separate-phase petrochemicals, have also been detected within the boundaries of the FUSRAP investigation. USACE initiated remedial investigation field activities in 2002. The radionuclides of concern are natural uranium (U{sub nat}) and its short-lived progeny. Areas of impacted soil generally

  2. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, J.W.; Segre, E.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for obtaining a compound of uranium in an extremely pure state and in such a condition that it can be used in determinations of the isotopic composition of uranium. Uranium deposited in calutron receivers is removed therefrom by washing with cold nitric acid and the resulting solution, coataining uranium and trace amounts of various impurities, such as Fe, Ag, Zn, Pb, and Ni, is then subjected to various analytical manipulations to obtain an impurity-free uranium containing solution. This solution is then evaporated on a platinum disk and the residue is ignited converting it to U2/sub 3//sub 8/. The platinum disk having such a thin film of pure U/sub 2/O/sub 8/ is suitable for use with isotopic determination techaiques.

  3. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  4. Method for producing uranium atomic beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H.

    1976-06-15

    A method for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms is obtained by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM.sub.x heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared to that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe.sub.2. An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced.

  5. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.

    1959-12-22

    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  6. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milius, R.A.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1989-05-02

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly [sup 211]At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes. 3 figs.

  7. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milius, Richard A.; Lambrecht, Richard M.; Bloomer, William D.

    1989-05-02

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly .sup.211 At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes.

  8. Critical Amounts of Uranium Compounds

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Konopinski, E.; Metropolis, N.; Teller, E.; Woods, L.

    1943-03-19

    The method of calculation of critical masses of oxides and fluorides of U is given. The geometry assumed is a sphere and the calculations hold only in the absence of hydrogenous materials. Calculations are carried out which are applicable to materials containing form 20 to 100% U{sup 235}. (T.R.H.)

  9. URANIUM BISMUTHIDE DISPERSION IN MOLTEN METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-10-27

    The formation of intermetallic bismuth compounds of thorium or uranium dispersed in a liquid media containing bismuth and lead is described. A bismuthide of uranium dispersed in a liquid metal medium is formed by dissolving uranium in composition of lead and bismuth containing less than 80% lead and lowering the temperature of the composition to a temperature below the point at which the solubility of uranium is exceeded and above the melting point of the composition.

  10. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colbeck, E.W.

    1959-12-29

    A uranium alloy is reported containing from 0.1 to 5 per cent by weight of molybdenum and from 0.1 to 5 per cent by weight of silicon, the balance being uranium.

  11. ORISE: Radiation and Radioactive Contamination FAQ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A: Radiation comes from many sources, some natural and some man-made. Naturally occurring radioactive materials, such as uranium, thorium and radon are found in the Earth's crust. ...

  12. Mathematical simulation of the amplification of 1790-nm laser radiation in a nuclear-excited He Ar plasma containing nanoclusters of uranium compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosarev, V A; Kuznetsova, E E

    2014-02-28

    The possibility of applying dusty active media in nuclearpumped lasers has been considered. The amplification of 1790-nm radiation in a nuclear-excited dusty He Ar plasma is studied by mathematical simulation. The influence of nanoclusters on the component composition of the medium and the kinetics of the processes occurring in it is analysed using a specially developed kinetic model, including 72 components and more than 400 reactions. An analysis of the results indicates that amplification can in principle be implemented in an active laser He Ar medium containing 10-nm nanoclusters of metallic uranium and uranium dioxide. (lasers)

  13. PREPARATION OF URANIUM TRIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckingham, J.S.

    1959-09-01

    The production of uranium trioxide from aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate is discussed. The uranium trioxide is produced by adding sulfur or a sulfur-containing compound, such as thiourea, sulfamic acid, sulfuric acid, and ammonium sulfate, to the uranyl solution in an amount of about 0.5% by weight of the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, evaporating the solution to dryness, and calcining the dry residue. The trioxide obtained by this method furnished a dioxide with a considerably higher reactivity with hydrogen fluoride than a trioxide prepared without the sulfur additive.

  14. PEROXIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1958-09-16

    reduced state, from hexavalent uranium. It consists in treating an aqueous solution containing such uranium and plutonium ions with sulfate ions in order to form a soluble uranium sulfate complex and then treating the solution with a soluble thorium compound and a soluble peroxide compound in order to ferm a thorium peroxide carrier precipitate which carries down with it the plutonium peroxide present. During this treatment the pH of the solution must be maintained between 2 and 3.

  15. An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-04

    The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment.

  16. URANIUM COMPOSITIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, N.P.; Grogan, J.D.

    1959-05-12

    This patent relates to high purity uranium alloys characterized by improved stability to thermal cycling and low thermal neutron absorption. The high purity uranium alloy contains less than 0.1 per cent by weight in total amount of any ore or more of the elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, tin, lead, bismuth, niobium, and zinc.

  17. Uranium Processing Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Uranium Processing Facility

  18. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  19. Uranium industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This report provides statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing.

  20. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  1. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  2. Y-12 Knows Uranium | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12 Knows Uranium Y-12 Knows Uranium Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:45pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 Y-12 produces many forms of uranium. They may be used in chemical processing steps on-site or shipped elsewhere to serve as raw materials for nuclear fuel or as research tools. All of uranium's uses, defense related and otherwise, are critical to the nation. Y-12's understanding of uranium, coupled with the site's work with enriched uranium metal, alloys, oxides, compounds and

  3. EIS-0126: Remedial Actions at the Former Climax Uranium Company Uranium Mill Site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assess the environmental impacts of remediating the residual radioactive materials left from the inactive uranium processing site and associated properties located in Grand Junction, Colorado.

  4. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  5. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  6. METHOD OF PRODUCING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, L.S.; Magel, T.T.

    1958-05-13

    A modified process is described for the production of uranium metal by means of a bomb reduction of UF/sub 4/. Difficulty is sometimes experienced in obtaining complete separation of the uranium from the slag when the process is carried out on a snnall scale, i.e., for the production of 10 grams of U or less. Complete separation may be obtained by incorporating in the reaction mixture a quantity of MnCl/sub 2/, so that this compound is reduced along with the UF/sub 4/ . As a result a U--Mn alloy is formed which has a melting point lower than that of pure U, and consequently the metal remains molten for a longer period allowing more complete separation from the slag.

  7. PROCESSES OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM A CALUTRON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baird, D.O.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1958-07-15

    An improved process is described for recovering the residue of a uranium compound which has been subjected to treatment in a calutron, from the parts of the calutron disposed in the source region upon which the residue is deposited. The process may be utilized when the uranium compound adheres to a surface containing metals of the group consisting of copper, iron, chromium, and nickel. The steps comprise washing the surface with an aqueous acidic oxidizing solvent for the uranium whereby there is obtained an acidic aqueous Solution containing uranium as uranyl ions and metals of said group as impurities, treating the acidic solution with sodium acetate in the presenee of added sodium nitrate to precipitate the uranium as sodium uranyl acetate away from the impurities in the solution, and separating the sodium uranyl acetate from the solution.

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Falls City Uranium Ore Stockpile - TX

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    04A Falls City Uranium Ore Stockpile - TX 04A FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Falls City Uranium Ore Stockpile (TX.04A ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: The history of domestic uranium procurement under U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) contracts identifies a number of ore buying stations (sampling and storage sites) that

  9. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Development Drilling","Mine Production of Uranium ","Uranium Concentrate Production ","Uranium Concentrate Shipments ","Employment " "Year","Drilling (million feet)"," ...

  10. Uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This book presents the GAO's views on the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to develop a new uranium enrichment technology, the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process (AVLIS). Views are drawn from GAO's ongoing review of AVLIS, in which the technical, program, and market issues that need to be addressed before an AVLIS plant is built are examined.

  11. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF{sub 6} gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF{sub 6}-handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D D, as will the other UF{sub 6}-handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF{sub 6}. These reagents include ClF{sub 3}, F{sub 2}, and other compounds. The scope of D D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  14. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-10-07

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  15. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  16. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  17. Uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector.

  18. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2. Maximum anticipated uranium market requirements of owners and operators of U.S. ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  19. COPPER COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Various techniques and methods for obtaining coppercoated uranium are given. Specifically disclosed are a group of complex uranium coatings having successive layers of nickel, copper, lead, and tin.

  20. Development of uranium metal targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    A substantial amount of high enriched uranium (HEU) is used for the production of medical-grade {sup 99}Mo. Promising methods of producing irradiation targets are being developed and may lead to the reduction or elimination of this HEU use. To substitute low enriched uranium (LEU) for HEU in the production of {sup 99}Mo, the target material may be changed to uranium metal foil. Methods of fabrication are being developed to simplify assembly and disassembly of the targets. Removal of the uranium foil after irradiation without dissolution of the cladding is a primary goal in order to reduce the amount of liquid radioactive waste material produced in the process. Proof-of-concept targets have been fabricated. Destructive testing indicates that acceptable contact between the uranium foil and the cladding can be achieved. Thermal annealing tests, which simulate the cladding/uranium diffusion conditions during irradiation, are underway. Plans are being made to irradiate test targets.

  1. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  2. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  3. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  4. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM MONOCARBIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powers, R.M.

    1962-07-24

    A method of making essentially stoichiometric uranium monocarbide by pelletizing a mixture of uranium tetrafluoride, silicon, and carbon and reacting the mixture at a temperature of approximately 1500 to 1700 deg C until the reaction goes to completion, forming uranium monocarbide powder and volatile silicon tetrafluoride, is described. The powder is then melted to produce uranium monocarbide in massive form. (AEC)

  5. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

  6. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chellew, N.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent deals with the separation of rare earth and other fission products from neutron bombarded uranium. This is accomplished by melting the uranium in contact with either thorium oxide, maguesium oxide, alumnum oxide, beryllium oxide, or uranium dioxide. The melting is preferably carried out at from 1150 deg to 1400 deg C in an inert atmosphere, such as argon or helium. During this treatment a scale of uranium dioxide forms on the uranium whtch contains most of the fission products.

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Colonial Uranium Co - CO 10

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Colonial Uranium Co - CO 10 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Colonial Uranium Co. (CO.10 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Grand Junction , Colorado CO.10-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CO.10-2 Site Operations: Processed thorium concentrates for commercial market at another site. AEC purchased small quantity (100 lbs) for testing. CO.10-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority - Commercial operation CO.10-2 Radioactive

  8. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  9. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  10. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  11. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  12. Paragenesis and Geochronology of the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Fayek; M. Ren

    2007-02-14

    Uranium deposits can, by analogy, provide important information on the long-term performance of radioactive waste forms and radioactive waste repositories. Their complex mineralogy and variable elemental and isotopic compositions can provide important information, provided that analyses are obtained on the scale of several micrometers. Here, we present a structural model of the Nopal I deposit as well as petrography at the nanoscale coupled with preliminary U-Th-Pb ages and O isotopic compositions of uranium-rich minerals obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). This multi-technique approach promises to provide ''natural system'' data on the corrosion rate of uraninite, the natural analogue of spent nuclear fuel.

  13. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  14. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  15. Method of recovering uranium hexafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuman, S.

    1975-12-01

    A method of recovering uranium hexafluoride from gaseous mixtures which comprises adsorbing said uranium hexafluoride on activated carbon is described.

  16. Portsmouth Site Delivers First Radioactive Waste Shipment to Disposal Facility in Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PIKETON, Ohio — EM’s Portsmouth site this summer sent its first shipment of mixed low-level radioactive waste from its uranium enrichment operations to Waste Control Specialists (WCS) in Andrews, Texas for treatment and disposal.

  17. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  18. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5. Shipments of uranium feed by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  19. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Inventories of uranium by owner as of end of year, 2011-15 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Inventories at the end of the year Owner of uranium inventory 2011 2012 2013 2014 P2015 ...

  20. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2013-15 2013 2014 2015 American Fuel Resources, LLC Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. AREVA ...

  1. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0. Contracted purchases of uranium from suppliers by owners and operators of U.S. civilian ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  2. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    a. Foreign purchases, foreign sales, and uranium inventories owned by U.S. suppliers and ... Foreign sales U.S. supplier owned uranium inventories Owners and operators of U.S. ...

  3. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Uranium in fuel assemblies loaded into U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by year, 2011-15 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Origin of uranium 2011 2012 2013 2014 P2015 ...

  4. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for purifying a uranium-base nuclear material. The nuclear material is dissolved in zinc or a zinc-magnesium alloy and the concentration of magnesium is increased until uranium precipitates.

  5. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  6. Uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.W.; Arengi, J.T.; Parrish, I.S.

    1980-04-01

    This report is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program designed to identify criteria favorable for the occurrence of the world's significant uranium deposits. This project deals specifically with uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites in the United States and, in particular, their distribution and origin. From an extensive literature survey and field examination of 44 pegmatite localities in the United States and Canada, the authors have compiled an index to about 300 uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites in the United States, maps giving location of these deposits, and an annotated bibliography to some of the most pertinent literature on the geology of pegmatites. Pegmatites form from late-state magma differentiates rich in volatile constituents with an attendant aqueous vapor phase. It is the presence of an aqueous phase which results in the development of the variable grain size which characterizes pegmatites. All pegmatites occur in areas of tectonic mobility involving crustal material usually along plate margins. Those pegmatites containing radioactive mineral species show, essentially, a similar distribution to those without radioactive minerals. Criteria such as tectonic setting, magma composition, host rock, and elemental indicators among others, all serve to help delineate areas more favorable for uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites. The most useful guide remains the radioactivity exhibited by uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites. Although pegmatites are frequently noted as favorable hosts for radioactive minerals, the general paucity and sporadic distribution of these minerals and inherent mining and milling difficulties negate the resource potential of pegmatites for uranium and thorium.

  7. PROCESS OF PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Orlemann, E.F.; Jensen, L.H.

    1958-12-23

    A method of obtaining substantially pure uranium from a uranium composition contaminated with light element impurities such as sodium, magnesium, beryllium, and the like is described. An acidic aqueous solution containing tetravalent uranium is treated with a soluble molybdate to form insoluble uranous molybdate which is removed. This material after washing is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid to obtaln a uranyl nitrate solution from which highly purified uranium is obtained by extraction with ether.

  8. PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1959-10-01

    A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

  9. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  10. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, W.E.; Spenceley, R.M.; Teetzel, F.M.

    1959-08-01

    A method is presented for producing uranium tetrafluoride from the gaseous hexafluoride by feeding the hexafluoride into a high temperature zone obtained by the recombination of molecularly dissociated hydrogen. The molal ratio of hydrogen to uranium hexnfluoride is preferably about 3 to 1. Uranium tetrafluoride is obtained in a finely divided, anhydrous state.

  11. Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Uranium Leasing ...

  12. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Major U.S. Uranium Reserves

  13. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1958-04-15

    The production of uranium metal by the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is described. Massive uranium metal of high purily is produced by reacting uranium tetrafluoride with 2 to 20% stoichiometric excess of magnesium at a temperature sufficient to promote the reaction and then mantaining the reaction mass in a sealed vessel at temperature in the range of 1150 to 2000 d C, under a superatomospheric pressure of magnesium for a period of time sufficient 10 allow separation of liquid uranium and liquid magnesium fluoride into separate layers.

  14. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  15. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeager, J.H.

    1958-08-12

    In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

  16. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of uranium from a mixture of uranium and thorium by organic solvent extraction from an aqueous solution is described. The uranium is separrted from an aqueous mixture of uranium and thorium nitrates 3 N in nitric acid and containing salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate, so as to bring ihe total nitrate ion concentration to a maximum of about 8 N by contacting the mixture with an immiscible aliphatic oxygen containing organic solvent such as diethyl carbinol, hexone, n-amyl acetate and the like. The uranium values may be recovered from the organic phase by back extraction with water.

  17. Concept Feasibility Report for Electroplating Zirconium onto Uranium Foil - Year 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Pederson, Larry R.; Lavender, Curt A.; Burkes, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    The Fuel Fabrication Capability within the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversion Program is funded through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) NA-26 (Office of Material Management and Minimization). An investigation was commissioned to determine the feasibility of using electroplating techniques to apply a coating of zirconium onto depleted uranium/molybdenum alloy (U-10Mo). Electroplating would provide an alternative method to the existing process of hot roll-bonding zirconium foil onto the U-10Mo fuel foil during the fabrication of fuel elements for high-performance research reactors. The objective of this research was to develop a reproducible and scalable plating process that will produce a uniform, 25 μm thick zirconium metal coating on U-10Mo foil. In previous work, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established a molten salt electroplating apparatus and protocol to plate zirconium metal onto molybdenum foil (Coffey 2015). During this second year of the research, PNNL furthered this work by moving to the U-10Mo alloy system (90 percent uranium:10 percent molybdenum). The original plating apparatus was disassembled and re-assembled in a laboratory capable of handling low-level radioactive materials. Initially, the work followed the previous year’s approach, and the salt bath composition was targeted at the eutectic composition (LiF:NaF:ZrF4 = 26:37:37 mol%). Early results indicated that the formation of uranium fluoride compounds would be problematic. Other salt bath compositions were investigated in order to eliminate the uranium fluoride production (LiF:NaF = 61:39 mol% and LiF:NaF:KF = 46.5:11.5:42 mol% ). Zirconium metal was used as the crucible for the molten salt. Three plating methods were used—isopotential, galvano static, and pulsed plating. The molten salt method for zirconium metal application provided high-quality plating on molybdenum in PNNL’s previous work. A key advantage of this approach is that

  18. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA.

  20. About the Uranium Mine Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uranium Mine Team About the Uranium Mine Team Text coming

  1. EIS-0132: Remedial Actions at the Former Union Carbide Corp. Uranium Mill Sites, Rifle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts of remediating the residual radioactive materials left at the inactive uranium tailing sites in Rifle, Colorado.

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory shipping containers for radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The types of containers used at ORNL for the transport of radioactive materials are described. Both returnable and non-returnable types are included. Containers for solids, liquids and gases are discussed. Casks for the shipment of uranium, irradiated fuel elements, and non-irradiated fuel elements are also described. Specifications are provided. (DC)

  3. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    S2. Uranium feed deliveries, enrichment services, and uranium loaded by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 1994-2015 million pounds U3O8 equivalent million separative work units (SWU) Year Feed deliveries by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors Uranium in fuel assemblies loaded into U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors U.S.-origin enrichment services purchased Foreign-origin enrichment services purchased Total purchased enrichment services

  4. Radioactive Waste Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-02-06

    To establish policies and guidelines by which the Department of Energy (DOE) manages tis radioactive waste, waste byproducts, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities.

  5. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  6. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  7. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W.; Horton, James A.; Elliott, Guy R. B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  8. FLUORIDE VOLATILITY PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.J.; Hyman, H.H.; Sheft, I.

    1958-04-15

    The separation and recovery of uraniunn from contaminants introduced by neutron irradiation by a halogenation and volatilization method are described. The irradiated uranium is dissolved in bromine trifluoride in the liquid phase. The uranium is converted to the BrF/sub 3/ soluble urmium hexafluoride compound whereas the fluorides of certain contaminating elements are insoluble in liquid BrF/sub 3/, and the reaction rate of the BrF/sub 3/ with certain other solid uranium contamirnnts is sufficiently slower than the reaction rate with uranium that substantial portions of these contaminating elements will remain as solids. These solids are then separated from the solution by a distillation, filtration, or centrifugation step. The uranium hexafluoride is then separated from the balance of the impurities and solvent by one or more distillations.

  9. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruehle, A.E.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1957-11-12

    An improved process is described for the magnesium reduction of UF/sub 4/ to produce uranium metal. In the past, there have been undesirable premature reactions between the Mg and the bomb liner or the UF/sub 4/ before the actual ignition of the bomb reaction. Since these premature reactions impair the yield of uranium metal, they have been inhibited by forming a protective film upon the particles of Mg by reacting it with hydrated uranium tetrafluoride, sodium bifluoride, uranyl fluoride, or uranium trioxide. This may be accomplished by adding about 0.5 to 2% of the additive to the bomb charge.

  10. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  11. Uranium Purchases Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    Final issue. This report details natural and enriched uranium purchases as reported by owners and operators of commercial nuclear power plants. 1996 represents the most recent publication year.

  12. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, D.

    1958-04-15

    A process of recovering uranium from very low-grade ore residues is described. These low-grade uraniumcontaining hydroxide precipitates, which also contain hydrated silica and iron and aluminum hydroxides, are subjected to multiple leachings with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate at a pH of at least 9. This leaching serves to selectively extract the uranium from the precipitate, but to leave the greater part of the silica, iron, and aluminum with the residue. The uranium is then separated from the leach liquor by the addition of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium diuranate.

  13. highly enriched uranium

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and radioisotope supply capabilities of MURR and Nordion with General Atomics' selective gas extraction technology-which allows their low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to remain...

  14. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  15. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Resources, Inc., dba Cameco Resources Smith Ranch-Highland Operation Converse, Wyoming ... Uranium is first processed at the Nichols Ranch plant and then transported to the Smith ...

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Lovelock Quadrangle, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, V.P.; Bradley, M.T.; Nagy, P.A.

    1982-08-01

    Uranium resources of the Lovelock Quadrangle, Nevada and California, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m using available surface and subsurface geological information. Uranium occurrences reported in the literature and in reports of the Atomic Energy Commission were located, sampled, and described in detail. Areas of anomalous radioactivity, as interpreted from the aerial radiometric reconnaissance survey and from the hydrochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance survey reports, were also investigated. A general reconnaissance of the geologic environments exposed in surface outcrops was carried out; and over 400 rock, sediment, and water geochemical analyses were made from the samples taken. Additionally, 119 rock samples were petrographically studied. A total of 21 occurrences were located, sampled, and described in detail. Six uranium occurrences, previously unreported in the literature, were located during hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, aerial radiometric reconnaissance survey followup, or general outcrop reconnaissance. Nine areas of uranium favorability were delineated within the Lovelock Quadrangle. One area, which contains the basal units of the Hartford Hill Rhyolite, is favorable for hydroallogenic uranium deposits. Eight areas are favorable for uranium deposits in playa sediments. These playas are considered favorable for nonmarine carbonaceous sediment deposits and evaporative deposits. The total volume of rock in favorable areas of the Lovelock Quadrangle is estimated to be 190 km/sup 3/. The remaining geologic units are considered to be unfavorable for uranium deposits. These include upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic volcanic, plutonic, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Also unfavorable are Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic flows and intrusive phases, tuffs, and sediments.

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: McDermitt quadrangle, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garside, L.J.

    1982-06-01

    The uranium resources of the McDermitt Quadrangle, Nevada, were evaluated using available surface and subsurface geologic information. Uranium occurrences reported in the literature, in mining claim records, and in reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission were located, sampled, and described in detail. Some occurrences could not be found during this study. Three areas of uranium favorability were outlined within the quadrangle; their delineation was based on geochemical sampling, anomalous aerial radioactivity, and favorable geologic criteria. The delineation was mainly based on surface information, as subsurface data in the quadrangle are limited. Data from the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sampling program were not received in time to be considered, and the Airborne Gamma-ray and Magnetometer Survey was received too late in the field-investigation phase for individual anomalies to be ground checked. The areas favorable for uranium deposits are predominantly in upper Miocene silicic to intermediate volcanic rocks and nearby volcaniclastic sedimentary units of equivalent age. These rocks are believed to be favorable mainly for volcanogenic uranium deposits, and volcanogenic deposits are present in a part of the McDermitt caldera complex, just outside the quadrangle. A large variety of upper Precambrian to Tertiary rock units present in the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits. Because of limited subsurface data, the upper Tertiary and Quaternary valley-fill deposits and rocks at depth below basalts of the Owyhee Upland could not be evaluated for their favorability for uranium deposits.

  18. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    data set of uranium reserves that were published in the July 2010 report U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates at http:www.eia.govcneafnuclearpagereservesures.html. ...

  19. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Number of Holes Feet (thousand) Number of Holes ...

  20. 2015 Uranium Market Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium ... received in 2015 Weighted-average price Number of purchase contracts for ...

  1. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Number of purchasers Quantity with reported price ...

  2. U.S.Uranium Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Uranium Reserves Data for: 2003 Release Date: June 2004 Next Release: Not determined Uranium Reserves Estimates The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has reported the...

  3. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  4. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Minimum ...

  5. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Origin of ...

  6. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  7. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  8. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual ...

  9. PROCESS FOR MAKING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, R.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for producing uranium hexafluoride by reacting uranium hexachloride with hydrogen fluoride at a temperature below about 150 deg C, under anhydrous conditions.

  10. Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages an inventory of depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), and low-enriched uranium (LEU) that is currently stored in large cylinders as...

  11. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McVey, W.H.; Reas, W.H.

    1959-03-10

    The separation of uranium from an aqueous solution containing a water soluble uranyl salt is described. The process involves adding an alkali thiocyanate to the aqueous solution, contacting the resulting solution with methyl isobutyl ketons and separating the resulting aqueous and organic phase. The uranium is extracted in the organic phase as UO/sub 2/(SCN)/sub/.

  12. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spedding, F.H.; Butler, T.A.

    1962-05-15

    A process is given for separating fission products from uranium by extracting the former into molten aluminum. Phase isolation can be accomplished by selectively hydriding the uranium at between 200 and 300 deg C and separating the hydride powder from coarse particles of fissionproduct-containing aluminum. (AEC)

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. [UMTRA project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereinafter referred to as the Act.'' Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at designated inactive uranium processing sites (Attachment 1 and 2) and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing site. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control such uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. The principal health hazards and environmental concerns are: the inhalation of air particulates contaminated as a result of the emanation of radon from the tailings piles and the subsequent decay of radon daughters; and the contamination of surface and groundwaters with radionuclides or other chemically toxic materials. This UMTRA Project Plan identifies the mission and objectives of the project, outlines the technical and managerial approach for achieving them, and summarizes the performance, cost, and schedule baselines which have been established to guide operational activity. Estimated cost increases by 15 percent, or if the schedule slips by six months. 4 refs.

  14. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  15. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  16. EIS-0240: Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department proposes to eliminate the proliferation threat of surplus highly enriched uranium (HEU) by blending it down to low enriched uranium (LEU), which is not weapons-usable. The EIS assesses the disposition of a nominal 200 metric tons of surplus HEU. The Preferred Alternative is, where practical, to blend the material for use as LEU and use overtime, in commercial nuclear reactor field to recover its economic value. Material that cannot be economically recovered would be blended to LEU for disposal as low-level radioactive waste.

  17. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristo, Michael Joseph; Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Knight, Kim; Loi, Elaine; Hotchkis, Michael; Moody, Kenton; Singleton, Michael; Robel, Martin; Hutcheon, Ian

    2015-04-13

    Abstract

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (∼ 1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K

  18. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  19. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  20. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  1. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  2. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense

  3. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Deliveries of uranium feed for enrichment by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by origin country and delivery year, 2013-15 thousand pounds U3O8 ...

  4. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9. Contracted purchases of uranium by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, signed in 2015, by delivery year, 2016-25 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Year ...

  5. PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FUELS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niedrach, L.W.; Glamm, A.C.

    1959-09-01

    An electrolytic process of refining or decontaminating uranium is presented. The impure uranium is made the anode of an electrolytic cell. The molten salt electrolyte of this cell comprises a uranium halide such as UF/sub 4/ or UCl/sub 3/ and an alkaline earth metal halide such as CaCl/sub 2/, BaF/sub 2/, or BaCl/sub 2/. The cathode of the cell is a metal such as Mn, Cr, Co, Fe, or Ni which forms a low melting eutectic with U. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting point of U. In operation the electrodeposited uranium becomes alloyed with the metal of the cathode, and the low melting alloy thus formed drips from the cathode.

  6. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.

    1959-07-28

    The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.

  7. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2015 Year Exploration and development surface drilling (million feet) Exploration and development drilling expenditures 1 (million dollars) Mine production of uranium (million pounds U3O8) Uranium concentrate production (million pounds U3O8) Uranium concentrate shipments (million pounds U3O8) Employment (person-years) 1993 1.1 5.7 2.1 3.1 3.4 871 1994 0.7 1.1 2.5 3.4 6.3 980 1995 1.3 2.6 3.5 6.0 5.5 1,107 1996 3.0 7.2 4.7 6.3

  8. Flowsheets and source terms for radioactive waste projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Flowsheets and source terms used to generate radioactive waste projections in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program are given. Volumes of each waste type generated per unit product throughput have been determined for the following facilities: uranium mining, UF/sub 6/ conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, boiling-water reactors (BWRs), pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and fuel reprocessing. Source terms for DOE/defense wastes have been developed. Expected wastes from typical decommissioning operations for each facility type have been determined. All wastes are also characterized by isotopic composition at time of generation and by general chemical composition. 70 references, 21 figures, 53 tables.

  9. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  10. ANODIC TREATMENT OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for effecting eloctrolytic dissolution of a metallic uranium article at a uniform rate. The uranium is made the anode in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing nitrate ions furnished by either ammonium nitrate, lithium nitrate, sodium nitrate, or potassium nitrate. A stainless steel cathode is employed and electrolysls carried out at a current density of about 0.1 to 1 ampere per square inch.

  11. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  12. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  13. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R.; Ernstberger, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  14. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  15. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

  16. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  17. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  18. Uranium Processing Facility Team Signs Partnering Agreement ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing Facility ... Uranium Processing Facility Team Signs Partnering Agreement ... Nuclear Security, LLC; John Eschenberg, Uranium Processing Facility Project Office; Brian ...

  19. Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facts: Uranium Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium has the highest atomic weight (19 kg m) of all naturally occurring elements. Uranium occurs naturally in low concentrations in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing

  20. Analysis of uranium oxide weathering by molecular spectroscopy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zickafoose, M.S.

    1997-11-01

    A preliminary study of the weathering of uranium oxide particles diluted in diamond dust at ambient environmental conditions is presented. The primary weathering reaction is oxidation of the uranium from the +4 to +6 oxidation state, although formation of compounds such as carbonates and hydroxides is possible. Identification of the state of uranium oxide has been attempted using luminescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Luminescence spectra of nominal samples of three common oxides, UO3, U3O8, and UO2, have been measured showing significant spectral differences in peaks at 494 nm, 507 nm, 529 nm, and 553 nm. DRIFTS spectra of the same three oxides show significant differences in peaks at 960 /cm, 856 /cm, and 754 /cm. The differences in these peaks allow determination of the oxidation to the +6 state in these compounds.

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  2. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  3. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  4. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-08-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  5. SEPARATION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM AND COMPOUNDS THEREOF

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Winkle, A.

    1959-07-21

    The separation of protactinium from aqueous solutions from its mixtures with thorium, uranium and fission products is described. The process for the separation comprises preparing an ion nitric acid solution containing protactinium in the pentavalent state and contacting the solution with a fluorinated beta diketone, such as trifluoroacetylacetone, either alone or as an organic solvent solution to form a pentavalent protactinium chelate compound. When the organic solvent is present the chelate compound is extracted; otherwise it is separated by filtration.

  6. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-08-27

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ converted to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such as CoF/sub 3/. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reac tion chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. After nitrogen gas is used to sweep out the hydrogen and the water vapor formed, and while continuing to inaintain the temperature between 400 deg C and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion of UO/sub 2/ to UF/sub 4/ the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to about 400 deg C or less, the UF/sub 4/ is mixed with the requisite quantity of CoF/sub 3/, and after evacuating the chamber, the mixture is heated to 300 to 400 deg C, and the resulting UF/sub 6/ is led off and delivered to a condenser.

  7. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The 2013 Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan describes a framework for the effective management of the Energy Department’s surplus uranium inventory in support of meeting its critical...

  9. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Table 9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. ...

  10. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 State(s) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 ...

  11. METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

  12. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 2014 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 Weighted-average price ...

  13. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Figure 3. Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by origin and delivery year, 2011-15 Figure 4. Weighted-average price of uranium ...

  14. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 24, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 thousand pounds U 3 O 8 equivalent Year Maximum ...

  15. Uranium-titanium-niobium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gail M.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    1990-01-01

    A uranium alloy having small additions of Ti and Nb shows improved strength and ductility in cross section of greater than one inch over prior uranium alloy having only Ti as an alloying element.

  16. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  17. uranium | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    uranium Klotz visits Y-12 to see progress on new projects and ongoing work on NNSA's national security missions Last week, NNSA Administrator Lt. Gen. Frank Klotz (Ret.) visited the Y-12 National Security Complex to check on the status of ongoing projects like the Uranium Processing Facility as well as the site's continuing uranium operations. He also met with the Region 2 volunteers of the Radiogical... NNSA Announces Arrival of Plutonium and Uranium from Japan's Fast Critical Assembly at

  18. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kesler, R.D.; Rabb, D.D.

    1959-07-28

    An improved process is presented for recovering uranium from a carnotite ore. In the improved process U/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is added to the comminuted ore along with the usual amount of NaCl prior to roasting. The amount of U/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is dependent on the amount of free calcium oxide and the uranium in the ore. Specifically, the desirable amount of U/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is 3.2% for each 1% of CaO, and 5 to 6% for each 1% of uranium. The mixture is roasted at about 1560 deg C for about 30 min and then leached with a 3 to 9% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate.

  19. Process for recovering uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  20. Uranium industry annual, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-29

    This report provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, federal and state agencies, the uranium and utility industries, and the public. It utilizes data from the mandatory ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858; historical data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and by the Grand Junction (Colorado) Project Office of the Idaho Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE); and other data from federal agencies that preceded the DOE. The data provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's annual activities and include some information about industry plans and commitments over the next several years. Where these data are presented in aggregate form, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific data while still conveying an accurate and complete statistical representation of the industry data.

  1. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by supplier and delivery year, 2011-15 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent, dollars per pound U3O8 equivalent Deliveries 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Purchased from U.S. producers Purchases of U.S.-origin and foreign-origin uranium 550 W W W 1,455 Weighted-average price 58.12 W W W 52.35 Purchased from U.S. brokers and traders Purchases of U.S.-origin and foreign-origin uranium 14,778 11,545 12,835 17,111 13,852

  2. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by origin and delivery year, 2011-15 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent; dollars per pound U3O8 equivalent Deliveries 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 U.S.-Origin Uranium Purchases 5,205 9,807 9,484 3,316 3,419 Weighted-Average Price 52.12 59.44 56.37 48.11 43.86 Foreign-Origin Uranium Purchases 49,626 47,713 47,919 50,033 53,106 Weighted-Average Price 55.98 54.07 51.13 46.03 44.14 Total Purchases 54,831 57,520 57,403

  3. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0. U.S. broker and trader purchases of uranium by origin, supplier, and delivery year, 2011-15 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent; dollars per pound U3O8 equivalent Deliveries 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Received U.S.-origin uranium Purchases 1,668 1,194 W 410 2,702 Weighted-average price 54.85 51.78 W 33.55 35.04 Received foreign-origin uranium Purchases 24,695 24,606 W 28,743 33,014 Weighted-average price 49.69 47.75 W 38.42 39.58 Total received by U.S. brokers and traders Purchases 26,363 25,800

  4. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. Foreign sales of uranium from U.S. suppliers and owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by origin and delivery year, 2011-15 thousands pounds U3O8 equivalent; dollars per pound U3O8 equivalent Deliveries to foreign suppliers and utilities 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 U.S.-origin uranium Foreign sales 4,387 4,798 4,148 4,210 4,258 Weighted-average price 53.08 47.53 43.10 32.91 37.85 Foreign-origin uranium Foreign sales 12,297 13,185 14,717 15,794 21,465 Weighted-Average Price

  5. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  6. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. U.S. uranium concentrate production, shipments, and sales, 2003-15 Activity at U.S. mills and In-Situ-Leach plants 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Estimated contained U3O8 (thousand pounds) Ore from Mines and Stockpiles Fed to Mills1 0 W W W 0 W W W W W W W 0 Other Feed Materials 2 W W W W W W W W W W W W W Total Mill Feed W W W W W W W W W W W W W Uranium Concentrate Produced at U.S. Mills (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W W Uranium Concentrate

  7. Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.

    1982-02-01

    Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species.

  8. PROCESS OF PREPARING URANIUM CARBIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Stethers, H.L.; Johnson, T.R.

    1964-03-24

    A process of preparing uranium monocarbide is de scribed. Uranium metal is dissolved in cadmium, zinc, cadmium-- zinc, or magnesium-- zinc alloy and a small quantity of alkali metal is added. Addition of stoichiometric amounts of carbon at 500 to 820 deg C then precipitates uranium monocarbide. (AEC)

  9. Estimating Uranium Partition Coefficients from Laboratory Adsorption Isotherms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, L.C.; Grossman, C.; Fjeld, R.A.; Coates, J.T.; Elzerman, A.W.

    2002-05-10

    An estimated 330 metric tons of uranium have been buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of uranium transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of uranium fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms have been measured in the laboratory and fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter was statistically identical for 14 sediment samples. The Freundlich Kf for seven samples, where material properties have been measured, is correlated to sediment surface area. Based on these empirical observations, a model has been derived for adsorption of uranium on INEEL sedimentary materials using surface complexation theory. The model was then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected at the SDA. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth.

  10. Estimating Uranium Partition Coefficients from Laboratory Adsorption Isotherms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, Laurence Charles; Grossman, Christopher; Fjeld, R. A.; Coates, C.J.; Elzerman, A.

    2002-08-01

    An estimated 330 metric tons of uranium have been buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of uranium transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of uranium fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms have been measured in the laboratory and fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter was statistically identical for 14 sediment samples. The Freundlich Kf for seven samples, where material properties have been measured, is correlated to sediment surface area. Based on these empirical observations, a model has been derived for adsorption of uranium on INEEL sedimentary materials using surface complexation theory. The model was then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected at the SDA. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth.

  11. TREATMENT OF URANIUM SURFACES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slunder, C.J.

    1959-02-01

    An improved process is presented for prcparation of uranium surfaces prior to electroplating. The surfacc of the uranium to be electroplated is anodized in a bath comprising a solution of approximately 20 to 602 by weight of phosphoric acid which contains about 20 cc per liter of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Anodization is carried out for approximately 20 minutes at a current density of about 0.5 amperes per square inch at a temperature of about 35 to 45 C. The oxidic film produced by anodization is removed by dipping in strong nitric acid, followed by rinsing with water just prior to electroplating.

  12. Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    b. Weighted-average price of uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 1994-2015 dollars per pound U3O8 equivalent Delivery year Total purchased (weighted-average price) Purchased from U.S. producers Purchased from U.S. brokers and traders Purchased from other owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, other U.S. suppliers, (and U.S. government for 2007)1 Purchased from foreign suppliers U.S.-origin uranium (weighted-average price)

  13. Uranium Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, William D.

    2008-01-15

    Uranium contamination is prevalent at many of the U.S. DOE facilities and at several civilian sites that have supported the nuclear fuel cycle. The potential off-site mobility of uranium depends on the partitioning of uranium between aqueous and solid (soil and sediment) phases. Hexavalent U (as uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) is relatively mobile, forming strong complexes with ubiquitous carbonate ion which renders it appreciably soluble even under mild reducing conditions. In the presence of carbonate, partition of uranyl to ferri-hydrate and select other mineral phases is usually maximum in the near-neutral pH range {approx} 5-8. The surface complexation reaction of uranyl with iron-containing minerals has been used as one means to model subsurface migration, used in conjunction with information on the site water chemistry and hydrology. Partitioning of uranium is often studied by short-term batch 'equilibrium' or long-term soil column testing ; MCLinc has performed both of these methodologies, with selection of method depending upon the requirements of the client or regulatory authority. Speciation of uranium in soil may be determined directly by instrumental techniques (e.g., x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS; x-ray diffraction, XRD; etc.) or by inference drawn from operational estimates. Often, the technique of choice for evaluating low-level radionuclide partitioning in soils and sediments is the sequential extraction approach. This methodology applies operationally-defined chemical treatments to selectively dissolve specific classes of macro-scale soil or sediment components. These methods recognize that total soil metal inventory is of limited use in understanding bioavailability or metal mobility, and that it is useful to estimate the amount of metal present in different solid-phase forms. Despite some drawbacks, the sequential extraction method can provide a valuable tool to distinguish among trace element fractions of different solubility related to

  14. METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1959-07-14

    A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.

  15. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, T.D.; Jeung, N.M.

    1958-06-17

    An improved precipitation method is described for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. After removal of all but small amounts of Ni or Cu, and after complexing any iron present, the uranium is separated as the peroxide by adding H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The improvement lies in the fact that the addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and consequent precipitation are carried out at a temperature below the freezing; point of the solution, so that minute crystals of solvent are present as seed crystals for the precipitation.

  16. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  17. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  18. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2011-15 Owner Mill and Heap Leach1 Facility name County, state (existing and planned locations) Capacity (short tons of ore per day) Operating status at end of the year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Anfield Resources Shootaring Canyon Uranium Mill Garfield, Utah 750 Standby Standby Standby Standby Standby EPR White Mesa LLC White Mesa Mill San Juan, Utah 2,000 Operating Operating Operating- Processing

  19. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2014 and 2015 million pounds U3O8 End of 2014 End of 2015 Forward Cost2 Uranium Reserve Estimates1 by Mine and Property Status, Mining Method, and State(s) $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 154.6 24.3 W 151.6 Properties Under Development for Production and Development

  20. Uranium Lease and Take-Back | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Uranium Lease and Take-Back

  1. Evaluation of Uranium Measurements in Water by Various Methods - 13571

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Workman, Stephen M.

    2013-07-01

    In December 2000, EPA amended its drinking water regulations for radionuclides by adding a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for uranium (so called MCL Rule)[1] of 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L). The MCL Rule also included MCL goals of zero for uranium and other radionuclides. Many radioactively contaminated sites must test uranium in wastewater and groundwater to comply with the MCL rule as well as local publicly owned treatment works discharge limitations. This paper addresses the relative sensitivity, accuracy, precision, cost and comparability of two EPA-approved methods for detection of total uranium: inductively plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Both methods are capable of measuring the individual uranium isotopes U-234, U- 235, and U-238 and both methods have been deemed acceptable by EPA. However, the U-238 is by far the primary contributor to the mass-based ICP-MS measurement, especially for naturally-occurring uranium, which contains 99.2745% U-238. An evaluation shall be performed relative to the regulatory requirement promulgated by EPA in December 2000. Data will be garnered from various client sample results measured by ALS Laboratory in Fort Collins, CO. Data shall include method detection limits (MDL), minimum detectable activities (MDA), means and trends in laboratory control sample results, performance evaluation data for all methods, and replicate results. In addition, a comparison will be made of sample analyses results obtained from both alpha spectrometry and the screening method Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) performed at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) FUSRAP Maywood Laboratory (UFML). Many uranium measurements occur in laboratories that only perform radiological analysis. This work is important because it shows that uranium can be measured in radiological as well as stable chemistry laboratories and it provides several criteria as a basis for comparison of two uranium test methods. This data will

  2. STRIPPING OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crouse, D.J. Jr.

    1962-09-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from uranium-containing solutions. Uranium is removed from a uranium-containing organic solution by contacting said organic solution with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution substantially saturated in uranium values. A uranium- containing precipitate is thereby formed which is separated from the organic and aqueous phases. Uranium values are recovered from this separated precipitate. (AE C)

  3. Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Gillow, Jeffrey B.

    2006-04-05

    The FRC groundwater and sediment contain significant concentrations of U and Tc and are dominated by low pH, and high nitrate and Al concentrations where dissimilatory metal reducing bacterial activity may be limited. The presence of Clostridia in Area 3 at the FRC site has been confirmed and their ability to reduce uranium under site conditions will be determined. Although the phenomenon of uranium reduction by Clostridia has been firmly established, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a reaction are not very clear. The authors are exploring the hypothesis that U(VI) reduction occurs through hydrogenases and other enzymes (Matin and Francis). Fundamental knowledge of metal reduction using Clostridia will allow us to exploit naturally occurring processes to attenuate radionuclide and metal contaminants in situ in the subsurface. The outline for this report are as follows: (1) Growth of Clostridium sp. under normal culture conditions; (2) Fate of metals and radionuclides in the presence of Clostridia; (3) Bioreduction of uranium associated with nitrate, citrate, and lepidocrocite; and (4) Utilization of Clostridium sp. for immobilization of uranium at the FRC Area 3 site.

  4. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.

    1959-07-01

    The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so

  6. Uranium Isotopic Assay Instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2006-12-01

    The isotopic assay instrument under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is capable of rapid prescreening to detect small and rare particles containing high concentrations of uranium in a heterogeneous sample. The isotopic measurement concept is based on laser vaporization of solid samples followed with sensitive isotope specific detection using either uranium atomic fluorescence emission or uranium atomic absorbance. Both isotopes are measured concurrently, following a single ablation laser pulse, using two external-cavity violet diode lasers. The simultaneous measurement of both isotopes enables the correlation of the fluorescence and absorbance signals on a shot-to-shot basis. This measurement approach demonstrated negligible channel crosstalk between isotopes. Rapid sample scanning provides high spatial resolution isotopic fluorescence and absorbance sample imagery of heterogeneous samples. Laser ablation combined with measurements of laser-induced fluorescence (LALIF) and through-plume laser absorbance (LAPLA) was applied to measure gadolinium isotope ratios in solid samples. Gadolinium has excitation wavelengths very close to the transitions of interest in uranium. Gadolinium has seven stable isotopes, and the natural 152Gd:160Gd ratio of 0.009 is in the range of what will be encountered for 235U:238U isotopic ratios. LAPLA measurements were demonstrated clearly using 152Gd (0.2% isotopic abundance) with a good signal-to-noise ratio. The ability to measure gadolinium abundances at this level indicates that measurements of 235U/238U isotopic ratios for natural (0.72%), depleted (0.25%), and low enriched uranium samples will be feasible.

  7. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  8. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore » melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  9. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  11. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM METAL BY CARBON REDUCTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holden, R.B.; Powers, R.M.; Blaber, O.J.

    1959-09-22

    The preparation of uranium metal by the carbon reduction of an oxide of uranium is described. In a preferred embodiment of the invention a charge composed of carbon and uranium oxide is heated to a solid mass after which it is further heated under vacuum to a temperature of about 2000 deg C to produce a fused uranium metal. Slowly ccoling the fused mass produces a dendritic structure of uranium carbide in uranium metal. Reacting the solidified charge with deionized water hydrolyzes the uranium carbide to finely divide uranium dioxide which can be separated from the coarser uranium metal by ordinary filtration methods.

  12. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  13. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  14. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  15. Multiple reaction fronts in the oxidation-reduction of iron-rich uranium ores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewynne, J.N. . Faculty of Mathematical Studies); Fowler, A.C. . Mathematical Inst.); Hagan, P.S. )

    1993-08-01

    When a container of radioactive waste is buried underground, it eventually corrodes, and leakage of radioactive material to the surrounding rock occurs. Depending on the chemistry of the rock, many different reactions may occur. A particular case concerns the oxidation and reduction of uranium ores by infiltrating groundwater, since UO[sub 3] is relatively soluble (and hence potentially transportable to the water supply), whereas UO[sub 2] is essentially insoluble. It is therefore of concern to those involved with radioactive waste disposal to understand the mechanics of uranium transport through reduction and oxidation reactions. This paper describes the oxidation of iron-rich uranium-bearing rocks by infiltration of groundwater. A reaction-diffusion model is set up to describe the sequence of reactions involving iron oxidation, uranium oxidation and reduction, sulfuric acid production, and dissolution of the host rock that occur. On a geological timescale of millions of years, the reactions occur very fast in very thin reaction fronts. It is shown that the redox front that separates oxidized (orange) rock from reduced (black) rock must actually consist of two separate fronts that move together, at which the two separate processes of uranium oxidation and iron reduction occur, respectively. Between these fronts, a high concentration of uranium is predicted. The mechanics of this process are not specific to uranium-mediated redox reactions, but apply generally and may be used to explain the formation of concentrated ore deposits in extended veins. On the long timescales of relevance, a quasi-static response results, and the problem can be solved explicitly in one dimension. This provides a framework for studying more realistic two-dimensional problems in fissured rocks and also for the future study of uraninite nodule formation.

  16. Method of preparing uranium nitride or uranium carbonitride bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, Harley A.; McClusky, James K.

    1976-04-27

    Sintered uranium nitride or uranium carbonitride bodies having a controlled final carbon-to-uranium ratio are prepared, in an essentially continuous process, from U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and carbon by varying the weight ratio of carbon to U.sub.3 O.sub.8 in the feed mixture, which is compressed into a green body and sintered in a continuous heating process under various controlled atmospheric conditions to prepare the sintered bodies.

  17. file://\\fs-f1\shared\uranium\uranium.html

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Glossary Home > Nuclear > U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates Data for: 2008 Report Released: July 2010 Next Release Date: 2012 Summary The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has updated its estimates of uranium reserves for year-end 2008. This represents the first revision of the estimates since 2004. The update is based on analysis of company annual reports, any additional information reported by companies at conferences and in news releases,

  18. EIS-0084: Incineration Facility for Radioactively Contaminated PCBs and Other Wastes, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Uranium Enrichment and Assessment prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the proposed Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, an incineration facility to dispose of radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biophenyls, as well as combustible waste from the Paducah, Portsmouth and Oak Ridge facilities.

  19. PREPARATION OF DENSE URANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES FROM URANIUM HEXAFLUORI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... A fluid-bed method was developed for the direct preparation from uranium hexafluoride of ...

  20. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM NUCLEAR FUELS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gens, T.A.

    1962-07-10

    An improvement was made in a process of recovering uranium from a uranium-zirconium composition which was hydrochlorinated with gsseous hydrogen chloride at a temperature of from 350 to 800 deg C resulting in volatilization of the zirconium, as zirconium tetrachloride, and the formation of a uranium containing nitric acid insoluble residue. The improvement consists of reacting the nitric acid insoluble hydrochlorination residue with gaseous carbon tetrachloride at a temperature in the range 550 to 600 deg C, and thereafter recovering the resulting uranium chloride vapors. (AEC)

  1. Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Knighton, Gaven C.; Clark, Curtis R.

    2006-09-05

    A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

  2. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  3. Utilizing Isotopic Uranium Ratios in Groundwater Evaluations at FUSRAP Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.T.; Keil, K.G.; Rhodes, M.C.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District is evaluating environmental radioactive contamination at several Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites throughout New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. The investigations follow the process defined in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Groundwater data from the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York were evaluated for isotopic uranium ratios, specifically uranium-234 versus uranium-238 (U- 234 and U-238, respectively), and the results were presented at Waste Management 2006. Since uranium naturally occurs in all groundwater, it can be difficult to distinguish where low-concentration impacts from past releases differ from the high end of a site-specific natural background range. In natural groundwater, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 exceeds 1 (unity) due to the alpha particle recoil effect, in which U-234 is preferentially mobilized to groundwater from adjacent rock or soil. This process is very slow and may take hundreds to thousands of years before a measurable increase is seen in the natural isotopic ratio. If site releases are the source of uranium being measured in groundwater, the U-234 to U-238 ratio is commonly closer to 1, which normally reflects FUSRAP-related, uranium-contaminated wastes and soils. This lower ratio occurs because not enough residence time has elapsed since the 1940's and 1950's for the alpha particle recoil effect to have significantly altered the contamination-derived ratio. An evaluation of NFSS-specific and regional groundwater data indicate that an isotopic ratio of 1.2 has been identified as a signature value to help distinguish natural groundwater, which may have a broad background range, from zones impacted by past releases. (authors)

  4. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harvey, B.G.

    1954-09-14

    >This patent relates to improvements in the method for producing uranium tetrafluoride by treating an aqueous solutlon of a uranyl salt at an elevated temperature with a reducing agent effective in acld solutlon in the presence of hydrofluoric acid. Uranium tetrafluoride produced this way frequentiy contains impurities in the raw material serving as the source of uranium. Uranium tetrafluoride much less contaminated with impurities than when prepared by the above method can be prepared from materials containing such impurities by first adding a small proportion of reducing agent so as to cause a small fraction, for example 1 to 5% of the uranium tetrafluoride to be precipitated, rejecting such precipitate, and then precipitating and recovering the remainder of the uranium tetrafluoride.

  5. ELECTROLYSIS OF THORIUM AND URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.N.

    1960-09-01

    An electrolytic method is given for obtaining pure thorium, uranium, and thorium-uranium alloys. The electrolytic cell comprises a cathode composed of a metal selected from the class consisting of zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth, an anode composed of at least one of the metals selected from the group consisting of thorium and uranium in an impure state, and an electrolyte composed of a fused salt containing at least one of the salts of the metals selected from the class consisting of thorium, uranium. zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth. Electrolysis of the fused salt while the cathode is maintained in the molten condition deposits thorium, uranium, or thorium-uranium alloys in pure form in the molten cathode which thereafter may be separated from the molten cathode product by distillation.

  6. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    b. Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors ranked by price and distributed by purchaser, 2013-15 deliveries thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent; dollars per pound U3O8 equivalent Deliveries in 2013 Deliveries in 2014 Deliveries in 2015 Distribution of purchasers Number of purchasers Quantity with reported price Weighted-average price Number of purchasers Quantity with reported price Weighted-average price Number of purchasers Quantity with reported price

  7. WELDED JACKETED URANIUM BODY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurinsky, D.H.

    1958-08-26

    A fuel element is presented for a neutronic reactor and is comprised of a uranium body, a non-fissionable jacket surrounding sald body, thu jacket including a portion sealed by a weld, and an inclusion in said sealed jacket at said weld of a fiux having a low neutron capture cross-section. The flux is provided by combining chlorine gas and hydrogen in the intense heat of-the arc, in a "Heliarc" welding muthod, to form dry hydrochloric acid gas.

  8. METHOD OF DISSOLVING URANIUM METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slotin, L.A.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to an economicai means of dissolving metallic uranium. It has been found that the addition of a small amount of perchloric acid to the concentrated nitric acid in which the uranium is being dissolved greatly shortens the time necessary for dissolution of the metal. Thus the use of about 1 or 2 percent of perchioric acid based on the weight of the nitric acid used, reduces the time of dissolution of uranium by a factor of about 100.

  9. PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, C.H. Jr.; Reynolds, F.L.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented for producing oxygen-free uranium metal comprising contacting iodine vapor with crude uranium in a reaction zone maintained at 400 to 800 C to produce a vaporous mixture of UI/sub 4/ and iodine. Also disposed within the maction zone is a tungsten filament which is heated to about 1600 C. The UI/sub 4/, upon contacting the hot filament, is decomposed to molten uranium substantially free of oxygen.

  10. D0 Decomissioning : Storage of Depleted Uranium Modules Inside D0 Calorimeters after the Termination of D0 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarychev, Michael; /Fermilab

    2011-09-21

    Dzero liquid Argon calorimeters contain hadronic modules made of depleted uranium plates. After the termination of DO detector's operation, liquid Argon will be transferred back to Argon storage Dewar, and all three calorimeters will be warmed up. At this point, there is no intention to disassemble the calorimeters. The depleted uranium modules will stay inside the cryostats. Depleted uranium is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. It is slightly radioactive, emits alpha, beta and gamma radiation. External radiation hazards are minimal. Alpha radiation has no external exposure hazards, as dead layers of skin stop it; beta radiation might have effects only when there is a direct contact with skin; and gamma rays are negligible - levels are extremely low. Depleted uranium is a pyrophoric material. Small particles (such as shavings, powder etc.) may ignite with presence of Oxygen (air). Also, in presence of air and moisture it can oxidize. Depleted uranium can absorb moisture and keep oxidizing later, even after air and moisture are excluded. Uranium oxide can powder and flake off. This powder is also pyrographic. Uranium oxide may create health problems if inhaled. Since uranium oxide is water soluble, it may enter the bloodstream and cause toxic effects.