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1

Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cost Structure and Control: The Dominant Issues in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Structure and Control: The Dominant Issues in Farm Management Michael Boehlje, Professor M any of cost and cost structure on bottom line performance should be the manager's primary concern. This discussion will emphasize the importance of a fundamental and essential understanding of how costs affect

3

MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft Home > Groups > Water Power Forum Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 9 April, 2013 - 13:30 CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy MHK ocean energy The generalized Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) projects is a hierarchical structure designed to facilitate the collection and organization of lifecycle costs of any type of MHK project, including wave energy converters and current energy convertners. At a high level, the categories in the CBS will be applicable to all projects; at a detailed level, however, the CBS includes many cost categories that will pertain to one project but not others. It is expected that many of the detailed levels of the CBS will be populated with "NA" or left blank.

4

PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure. Cost and schedule review copy  

SciTech Connect

The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

Vohra, A.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

7

Multidisciplinary structural design and optimization for performance, cost, and flexibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reducing cost and improving performance are two key factors in structural design. In the aerospace and automotive industries, this is particularly true with respect to design criteria such as strength, stiffness, mass, ...

Nadir, William David, 1979-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy  

SciTech Connect

To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Small Buildings Small Portfolio Commercial Upstream Incentive...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Small Portfolio Commercial Upstream Incentive Project: Regional Roll-Out - 2014 BTO Peer Review Small Buildings Small Portfolio Commercial Upstream Incentive Project:...

10

Economics of Online Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbines: Cost Benefit Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics of Online Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbines: Cost Benefit Analysis Jeremy Van monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O cost of energy (LCOE) [1]. The costs required to keep wind turbines working in extreme temperatures

McCalley, James D.

11

Using Retail Data for Upstream Merger Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and D. Klapper, 2007. “Retail Environment and Manufacturerand Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empiricalof Upstream Mergers on Retail Gasoline Markets,” work- ing

Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Network Formation: Neighborhood Structures, Establishment Costs, and Distributed Learning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

network diameter, small congestion and minimum communication cost, without the need to standardize several issues related to energy conservation, information and computational complexity. Thus, recent desirable properties such as connectivity, bounded-hop diameter and efficiency (i.e., minimum number

Shamma, Jeff S.

13

Task Assignment in a Heterogeneous Server Farm with Switching Delays and General Energy-Aware Cost Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Task Assignment in a Heterogeneous Server Farm with Switching Delays and General Energy-Aware Cost costs include energy related switching and processing costs, as well as general performance. Therefore, in this paper we assume that the general cost structure includes energy consumption related costs

Hyytiä, Esa

14

Design and prototype of a minimal cost tracking photovoltaic array structure  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents research results to develop a minimal cost photovoltaic array tracking structure. Objectives of the project were to (1) employ a modular design based upon multiple point foundations, off-site assembly, and commercially available materials; (2) offer performance improvements over horizontal one-axis trackers by tilting the axis of rotation; (3) verify design performance, and cost goals through prototype construction and operation. Each of these objectives was accomplished beginning with design activities in early 1993 and culminating with construction of commercial trackers in early 1995. The Delta Trackers{trademark} offer dramatic reduction in PV energy production costs ({cents}/kWh) through lower balance-of-system costs and improved performance.

Shugar, D.S. [Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc., San Bruno, CA (United States); Matlin, R.W. [Enertech Engineering, Lexington, MA (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Small Buildings Small Portfolio Commercial Upstream Incentive Project: Regional Roll-Out- 2014 BTO Peer Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presenter: Todd Levin, Argonne National Laboratory To cost-effectively spur energy efficiency improvements in the small buildings and small portfolios (SBSP) sector, this project is evaluating how to expand commercial upstream incentive approaches to a level that will be nationally replicated.

16

Hybrid simulation codes with application to shocks and upstream waves  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid codes in which part of the plasma is represented as particles and the rest as fluid are discussed. In the past few years such codes with particle ions and massless, fluid electrons have been applied to space plasmas, especially to collisionless shocks. All of these simulation codes are one-dimensional and similar in structure, except for how the field equation are solved. We describe in detail the various approaches that are used (resistive Ohm's law, predictor-corrector, Hamiltonian) and compare results from the various codes with examples taken from collisionless shocks and low frequency wave phenomena upstream of shocks.

Winske, D.

1985-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

17

Assessing the impact of changes in the electricity price structure on dairy farm energy costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study aims to provide information on the changes in electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms, through the simulation of various electricity tariffs that may exist in the future and how these tariffs interact with changes in farm management (i.e. shifting the milking operation to an earlier or later time of the day). A previously developed model capable of simulating electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms (MECD) was used to simulate five different electricity tariffs (Flat, Day&Night, Time of Use Tariff 1 (TOU1), TOU2 and Real Time Pricing (RTP)) on three representative Irish dairy farms: a small farm (SF), a medium farm (MF) and a large farm (LF). The Flat tariff consisted of one electricity price for all time periods, the Day&Night tariff consisted of two electricity prices, a high rate from 09:00 to 00:00 h and a low rate thereafter. The TOU tariff structure was similar to that of the Day&Night tariff except that a peak price band was introduced between 17:00 and 19:00 h. The RTP tariff varied dynamically according to the electricity demand on the national grid. The model used in these simulations was a mechanistic mathematical representation of the electricity consumption that simulated farm equipment under the following headings; milk cooling system, water heating system, milking machine system, lighting systems, water pump systems and the winter housing facilities. The effect of milking start time was simulated to determine the effect on electricity consumption and costs at farm level. The earliest AM milking start time and the latest PM milking start time resulted in the lowest energy consumption. The difference between the lowest and highest electricity consumption within a farm was 7% for SF, 5% for MF and 5% for LF. This difference was accounted for by the variation in the milk cooling system coefficient of performance. The greatest scope to reduce total annual electricity costs by adjusting milking start times was on TOU2 (39%, 34% and 33% of total annual electricity costs on the SF, MF and LF) and the least scope for reductions using this method was on the Flat tariff (7%, 5% and 7% of total annual electricity costs). The potential for reduction of annual electricity consumption and related costs per litre of milk produced by adjusting milking times was higher for the LF than the SF or MF across all electricity tariffs. It is anticipated that these results and the use of the MECD will help support the decision-making process at farm level around increasing energy efficiency and electricity cost forecasts in future electricity pricing tariff structures.

J. Upton; M. Murphy; L. Shalloo; P.W.G. Groot Koerkamp; I.J.M. De Boer

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Upstream -- SW92-03&  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

09 09 This page intentionally left blank Upstream -- SW00-01 a _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Analyte Unit 04/18/00 07/17/00 10/20/00 04/17/01 07/11/01 10/09/01 04/07/05 10/05/05 04/28/06 10/02/06 04/11/07 10/08/07 04/09/08 g _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Field Measurements Alkalinity b mg/L 196 130 263 218 196 98 145 202 228 183 227 186 213 Conductivity c μmhos/cm 1544 847 8190 792 652 632 562 1389 1011 1332 959 1157 613

19

EFFECT OF THE MODEL CORRELATING STRUCTURAL DAMAGE TO REPAIRING COST ON LIFE CYCLE ECONOMIC LOSS ESTIMATION OF BUILDING STRUCTURES IN HIGH SEISMIC ZONE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

correlating the damage to repairing cost on the life cycle loss using a simple model. Buildings are modeledEFFECT OF THE MODEL CORRELATING STRUCTURAL DAMAGE TO REPAIRING COST ON LIFE CYCLE ECONOMIC LOSS ESTIMATION OF BUILDING STRUCTURES IN HIGH SEISMIC ZONE Noriyuki TAKAHASHI, Hitoshi SHIOHARA, and Shunsuke

Shiohara, Hitoshi

20

Cost viability of a base isolation system for the seismic protection of a steel high-rack structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the effects and costs of implementing a base isolation system for the mitigation of the seismic risk of an existing externally-braced steel frame rack structure are analysed by means of nonlinear...

Vojko Kilar; Simon Petrov?i?; David Koren…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Modeling the Cost Structure of Public Transit Firms: Scale Economies and Functional Form (#09-3435) Michael Iacono, University of Minnesota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the Cost Structure of Public Transit Firms: Scale Economies and Functional Form (#09-3435) Michael Iacono, University of Minnesota Abstract This study analyzes the cost structure of a set of medium in the production of transit services. Short and long-run costs are modeled using two of the more commonly

Levinson, David M.

22

Development of a Preliminary Decommissioning Plan Following the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations - 13361  

SciTech Connect

The International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, published by OECD/NEA, IAEA and EC is intended to provide a uniform list of cost items for decommissioning projects and provides a standard format that permits international cost estimates to be compared. Candesco and DECOM have used the ISDC format along with two costing codes, OMEGA and ISDCEX, developed from the ISDC by DECOM, in three projects: the development of a preliminary decommissioning plan for a multi-unit CANDU nuclear power station, updating the preliminary decommissioning cost estimates for a prototype CANDU nuclear power station and benchmarking the cost estimates for CANDU against the cost estimates for other reactor types. It was found that the ISDC format provides a well defined and transparent basis for decommissioning planning and cost estimating that assists in identifying gaps and weaknesses and facilitates the benchmarking against international experience. The use of the ISDC can also help build stakeholder confidence in the reliability of the plans and estimates and the adequacy of decommissioning funding. (authors)

Moshonas Cole, Katherine; Dinner, Julia; Grey, Mike [Candesco - A Division of Kinectrics Inc, 26 Wellington E 3rd floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5E 1S2 (Canada)] [Candesco - A Division of Kinectrics Inc, 26 Wellington E 3rd floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5E 1S2 (Canada); Daniska, Vladimir [DECOM a.s., Sibirska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)] [DECOM a.s., Sibirska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Metabolic systems cost-benefit analysis for interpreting network structure and regulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......metabolic pathways The trade-off between capital investment costs and operating costs...and do not include maintenance energy expenditures. The in silico representation of the...operating costs were defined as the expenditure of substrate, either glucose or oxygen......

Ross P. Carlson

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Impact of the Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program structure on the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency projects  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) analyzed the cost-effective energy efficiency potential of Fort Drum, a customer of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) in Watertown, New York. Significant cost-effective investments were identified, even without any demand-side management (DSM) incentives from NMPC. Three NMPC DSM programs were then examined to determine the impact of participation on the cost-effective efficiency potential at the Fort. The following three utility programs were analyzed: (1) utility rebates to be paid back through surcharges, (2) a demand reduction program offered in conjunction with an energy services company, and (3) utility financing. Ultimately, utility rebates and financing were found to be the best programs for the Fort. This paper examines the influence that specific characteristics of the DSM programs had on the decision-making process of one customer. Fort Drum represents a significant demand-side resource, whose decisions regarding energy efficiency investments are based on life-cycle cost analysis subject to stringent capital constraints. The structures of the DSM programs offered by NMPC affect the cost-effectiveness of potential efficiency investments and the ability of the Fort to obtain sufficient capital to implement the projects. This paper compares the magnitude of the cost-effective resource available under each program, and the resulting level of energy and demand savings. The results of this analysis can be used to examine how DSM program structures impact the decision-making process of federal and large commercial customers.

Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Dixon, D.R.; Elliott, D.B.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Impact of the demand-side management (DSM) Program structure on the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency projects  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) analyzed the cost-effective energy efficiency potential of Fort Drum, a customer of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) in Watertown, New York. Significant cost-effective investments were identified, even without any demand-side management (DSM) incentives from NMPC. Three NMPC DMS programs were then examined to determine the impact of participation on the cost-effective efficiency potential at the Fort. The following three utility programs were analyzed: (1) utility rebates to be paid back through surcharges; (2) a demand reduction program offered in conjunction with an energy services company; and (3) utility financing. Ultimately, utility rebates and financing were found to be the best programs for the Fort. This paper examines the influence that specific characteristics of the DSM programs had on the decision-making process of one customer. Fort Drum represents a significant demand-side resource, whose decisions regarding energy efficiency investments are based on life-cycle cost analysis subject to stringent capital constraints. The structures of the DSM programs offered by NMPC affect the cost-effectiveness of potential efficiency investments and the ability of the Fort to obtain sufficient capital to implement the projects. This paper compares the magnitude of the cost-effective resource available under each program, and the resulting level of energy and demand savings. The results of this analysis can be used to examine how DSM program structures impact the decision-making process of federal and large commercial customers.

Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Dixon, D.R.; Elliott, D.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

AN ENERGY COST OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR A LARGE SCALE HYBRID CENTRAL COOLING PLANT WITH MULTIPLE ENERGY SOURCES UNDER A COMPLEX ELECTRICITY COST STRUCTURE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The cooling energy cost could be a significant portion of the total energy cost for a large organization or building complex during summer. A hybrid… (more)

Guo, Yin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Breakthrough in platinum structures maintains high catalytic activity and could lead to reduced costs for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

costs for hydrogen fuel cells, which hold the promise of powering vehicles and buildings. Hydrogen fuel be useful in hydrogen fuel cells while sharply driving down the cost compared to an all-platinum catalyst cells could power the vehicles of tomorrow. With platinum an essential catalyst in fuel cells

28

General equilibrium, electricity generation technologies and the cost of carbon abatement: A structural sensitivity analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General equilibrium, electricity generation technologies and the cost of carbon abatement-down General equilibrium Electricity generation is a major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Electricity generation is a significant contributor

29

Structure, energy and cost efficiency evaluation of three different lightweight construction systems used in low-rise residential buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This article presents the analysis of the structure, energy and cost efficiency of three lightweight structural systems – wood light frames (WLF), lightweight steel frames (LGSF) and 3D sandwich (3DSP) panels – during their useful life. The structural systems focussed upon in this study are commonly used in Eastern Europe with specific reference to Turkey. The structural analysis and design was carried out using ETABS while EnergyPlus was used in the analysis of the energy consumption of the buildings. The results of the structural analysis of the three alternative construction systems show that 3DSP has better structural behaviour in terms of resistance against lateral loads. The thermal performance evaluation of the walls and ceilings shows that the WLF and LGSF walls have better insulation values (12.5% lower U-value) while the roof construction of the 3DSP has much better insulation performance (70% lower U-value). Moreover, the building designed with 3DSP requires 11% less energy for total heating and cooling during one year. The information for the building industry in Turkey shows that the cost of construction for 3DSP construction is 34.6% lower than for WLF and 27.7% lower than LGSF.

Sareh Naji; O?uz Cem Çelik; U. Johnson Alengaram; Mohd Zamin Jumaat; Shahaboddin Shamshirband

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Eco-Design of River Fishways for Upstream Passage: Application for Hanfeng Dam, Pengxi River, China  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a scientific approach to eco-design of river fishways to allow upstream movement of fish past new and existing dams in China. This eco-design approach integrates principles of fish ecology/behavior and engineering, a scientific field also known as bio-engineering or eco-hydraulics. We define a fishway as a structure or mechanism to convey fish upstream past a dam. Man-made or natural stream beds can be part of the fishway mechanism. Fish include bony and non-bony fishes, and upstream passage is the concern here, not downstream passage. The problem is dams block access to upstream habitat used for spawning, rearing, and refuge, i.e., dams decrease habitat connectivity. A solution to alleviate this problem is to design fishways, preferably while the dam is being designed, but if necessary, as retrofits afterward to provide a route that fish can and will use to pass safely upstream without undue delay. Our eco-design approach for fishways involves eight steps: 1) identify the primary species of importance; 2) understand basic ecology and behavior of these fish; 3) characterize the environmental conditions where passage is or will be blocked; 4 identify fishway alternatives and select a preferred alternative; 5) establish eco-design criteria for the fishway, either from management agencies or, if necessary, developed specifically for the given site; 6) where needed, identify and perform research required to resolve critical uncertainties and finalize the eco-design criteria; 7) apply the eco-design criteria and site-specific considerations to design the fishway, involving peer-review by local stakeholders in the process; 8) build the fishway, monitor its effectiveness, and apply the lessons learned. Example fishways are described showing a range of eco-designs depending on the dam site and fish species of concern. We apply the eco-design principles to recommend an approach and next steps for a fishway to pass fish upstream at Hanfeng Dam, an existing regulating dam forming Hanfeng Lake on the Pengxi River near Kaixian, China.

Johnson, Gary E.; Rainey, William S.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

31

How to use Big Data technologies to optimize operations in Upstream Petroleum Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How to use Big Data technologies to optimize operations in Upstream Petroleum Industry Abdelkader generated by the Petroleum Industry and particularly its upstream segment? Upstream is no stranger to Big the desired outcomes? Keywords Big Data; Analytics; Upstream Petroleum Industry; Knowledge Management; KM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Audit of selected aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant cost structure, Carlsbad, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development facility intended to demonstrate that transuranic waste from the Government`s defense activities can be safely disposed of in a deep geologic formation. The Fiscal Year 1994 budget for WIPP is about $185 million and includes funding for the operation of WIPP and for experiments being done by other DOE facilities. DOE`s current plan is for WIPP to begin receiving transuranic waste in June 1998. This audit was requested by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management because two recent reports, one issues by the Office of Inspector General (OIG), were critical of the staffing and cost-effectiveness of WIPP, and because of recent mission changes at WIPP. The audit team consisted of representatives from the DOE, auditors from the OIG, and technical specialists hired by the OIG to assist in the audit. The purpose of the audit was to determine whether WIPP was appropriately staffed to meet programmatic requirements in the most cost-effective manner. The Secretary of Energy expected DOE facilities to benchmark their performance against other facilities to strive for best in class status, and the Westinghouse management and operating contract for WIPP required the facility to be operated in a cost-effective manner. However, the authors determined that Westinghouse did not use benchmarks and that WIPP could be managed more cost-effectively, with fewer personnel, while maintaining its current level of excellence. They concluded that the WIPP staffing level could be significantly reduced with a decrease in costs at WIPP of about $11.4 million per year.

Not Available

1994-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

33

Cost structure of a postcombustion CO{sub 2} capture system using CaO  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the basic economics of an emerging concept for CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases in power plants. The complete system includes three key cost components: a full combustion power plant, a second power plant working as an oxy-fired fluidized bed calciner, and a fluidized bed carbonator interconnected with the calciner and capturing CO{sub 2} from the combustion power plant. The simplicity in the economic analysis is possible because the key cost data for the two major first components are well established in the open literature. It is shown that there is clear scope for a breakthrough in capture cost to around 15 $/t of CO{sub 2} avoided with this system. This is mainly because the capture system is generating additional power (from the additional coal fed to the calciner) and because the avoided CO{sub 2} comes from the capture of the CO{sub 2} generated by the coal fed to the calciner and the CO{sub 2} captured (as CaCO{sub 3}) from the flue gases of the existing power plant, that is also released in the calciner. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

J. Carlos Abanades; G. Grasa; M. Alonso; N. Rodriguez; E.J. Anthony; L.M. Romeo [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Linking transaction cost and social exchange theory to explain strategic alliance performance: a meta-analytic structural equation model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Drawing on transaction cost economics (TCE) and social exchange theory (SET), we develop and test an integrative model of strategic alliance performance using meta-analytic structural equation modelling. Results reveal that TCE's key constructs (e.g., relationship specific investments, opportunism, and environmental uncertainty) influence SET's key constructs (e.g., trust and commitment) which in turn increase different strategic alliance performance outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, goal fulfilment, profitability, and stability). Further, our results show that the different outcome variables are distinct constructs, which measure different facets of strategic alliance performance.

Rodrigo Isidor; Holger Steinmetz; Christian Schwens; Ruediger Kabst

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Accelerated quantification of critical parameters for predicting the service life and life cycle costs of chloride-laden reinforced concrete structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of corrosion resistant steels (instead of conventional carbon steels) and/or high performance concrete can increase the overall service life and can reduce the life cycle cost (LCC) of reinforced concrete (RC) structures exposed to chloride...

Pillai Gopalakrishnan, Radhakrishna

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Test plan : reducing soft costs of rooftop solar installations attributed to structural considerations.  

SciTech Connect

This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

Dwyer, Stephen F.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

How to use Big Data technologies to optimize operations in Upstream Petroleum Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How to use Big Data technologies to optimize operations in Upstream Petroleum Industry Abdelkader for it to have value. But what about Big Data generated by the Petroleum Industry and particularly its upstream; Analytics; Upstream Petroleum Industry; Knowledge Management; KM; Business Intelligence; BI; Innovation

Boyer, Edmond

38

Startup Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

39

Maximal freedom at minimum cost: linear large-scale structure in general modifications of gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a turnkey solution, ready for implementation in numerical codes, for the study of linear structure formation in general scalar-tensor models involving a single universally coupled scalar field. We show that the totality of cosmological information on the gravitational sector can be compressed - without any redundancy - into five independent and arbitrary functions of time only and one constant. These describe physical properties of the universe: the observable background expansion history, fractional matter density today, and four functions of time describing the properties of the dark energy. We show that two of those dark-energy property functions control the existence of anisotropic stress, the other two - dark-energy clustering, both of which are can be scale-dependent. All these properties can in principle be measured, but no information on the underlying theory of acceleration beyond this can be obtained. We present a translation between popular models of late-time acceleration (e.g. perfect fluids, f (R), kinetic gravity braiding, galileons), as well as the effective field theory framework, and our formulation. In this way, implementing this formulation numerically would give a single tool which could consistently test the majority of models of late-time acceleration heretofore proposed.

Emilio Bellini; Ignacy Sawicki

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

40

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

SciTech Connect

This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines : case studies of rotor fault and blade damage with initial O&M cost modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

Myrent, Noah J. [Purdue Center for Systems Integrity, Lafayette, IN; Kusnick, Joshua F. [Purdue Center for Systems Integrity, Lafayette, IN; Barrett, Natalie C. [Purdue Center for Systems Integrity, Lafayette, IN; Adams, Douglas E. [Purdue Center for Systems Integrity, Lafayette, IN; Griffith, Daniel Todd

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cost Containment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost containment in health care involves a wide ... , the growth rate of expenditure or certain costs of health care services. These measures include ... patient education, etc. The reasons for increased cost ...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Cost Function Estimates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The cost function describes the cost-minimizing combinations of inputs required for production of different levels of output. Empirical cost function studies take both short-run and long-run approaches and can be structurally consistent with microeconomic theory versus more behavioral or real-world data oriented. Studies of health care providers face numerous challenges including the multiproduct nature of the firm, difficulty in controlling for quality of service, and frequent failure of the profit-maximization assumption. Cost function applications in health care are numerous and include such topics as optimal firm size, performance inefficiency measures, and comparisons of production costs with third-party payments.

K. Carey

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

64 BioProcess International May 2010 ptimized upstream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchangers (1). Harinarayan et al. demonstrated the existence of an exclusion mechanism on ion exchangers the number of column chromatography steps and decrease purification cost). Ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography is one of the most broadly used techniques for protein purification. Protein binding during ion exchange

Lebendiker, Mario

46

Cost Effective Sustainable Housing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cost Effective Sustainable Housing The topic of research which was discussed throughout this study was an analysis of sustainable development between single-family and multi-family structures.… (more)

Morton, Joshua

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Cost Estimator  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A successful candidate in this position will serve as a senior cost and schedule estimator who is responsible for preparing life-cycle cost and schedule estimates and analyses associated with the...

48

Operating Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

49

Effects of upstream wake phasing on the performance of transonic compressors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of the upstream wake phase on the work input (i.e., rise in stagnation enthalpy across the blade row) of a transonic rotor is examined computationally and analytically. It is found that the compressor work depends ...

Nolan, Sean Patrick Rock

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry 2013  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis focuses on financial and operating trends of the oil and natural gas production business segment, often referred to as upstream operations, of 42 global oil and natural gas producing companies

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Selection of structural systems and materials: minimizing lateral drift and cost of tall buildings in Saudi Arabia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis proposes procedures and guidelines for selection of optimum structural systems and materials in two stages. Stage one is based on a list of… (more)

ALShamrani, Othman Subhi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Cost Shifting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cost shifting exists when a provider raises prices for one set of buyers because it has lowered prices for some other buyer. In theory, cost shifting can take place only if providers have unexploited market power. The empirical evidence on the extent of cost shifting is mixed. Taken as a whole, the evidence does not support the claims that cost shifting is a large and pervasive feature of the US health-care markets. At most, one can argue that perhaps one-fifth of Medicare payment reductions have been passed on to private payers. The majority of the rigorous studies, however, have found no evidence of cost shifting.

M.A. Morrisey

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

performing fiber. (600-750 KSI) Barriers: Addresses the need for higher performance low cost fiber for hydrogen storage tanks and energy management structures of automobiles....

54

Low-cost, deterministic quasi-periodic photonic structures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light trapping has been an important issue for thin film silicon solar cells because of the low absorption coefficient in the near infrared range. In this paper, we present a photonic structure which combines anodic aluminum ...

Sheng, Xing

55

cost savings  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

reduced the amount of time involved in the annual chemical inventory for a cost savings of 18,282. Other presentations covered SRNS' award-winning employee suggestion...

56

BPA's Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BPAsCosts Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects & Initiatives Finance & Rates...

57

White Sturgeon Mitigation & Restoration in the Columbia & Snake River Upstream from Bonneville Dam  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) Summary: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release

58

Numerical study of the effects of upstream flow condition upon orifice flow meter performance  

SciTech Connect

Recent experimental work has shown that when the mean velocity profile upstream of an orifice plate has a deficit on the centerline and higher velocities at the outer edges of the pipe, the pressure drop across the orifice is greater than if the flow upstream is fully developed. It is proposed that this increase in [Delta]P is directly correlated with the radial distribution of momentum upstream of the orifice plate. In an effort to investigate how the upstream flow condition affects the pressure distribution along the pipe wall and to determine if the hypothesis is correct, Creare.X Inc. 's FLUENT numerical analysis program was used to simulate the effects. Two [beta] ratios (0.50 and 0.75) have been considered with various mean velocity inlet profiles. Inlet profiles include the 1/16th, 1/7th, 1/8th, 1/9th and 1/10th power law power law, uniform flow, and two linear distributions. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the second and third-order moments of momentum and the value of the discharge coefficient. This empirical correlation, after being fully verified by experimental data, can be used to estimate the change in the coefficient of discharge given the inlet velocity profile.

Morrison, G.L.; Panak, D.L.; DeOtte, R.E. Jr. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

u.s. Fish Wildl. Servo eire. Upstream Passage of Anadromous Fish  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

u.s. Fish Wildl. Servo eire. Upstream Passage of Anadromous Fish hrough Navigation Locks and Use OF THE INTERIOR u.s. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES Circular 352 #12;Cover Photograph.- Brailing fish from haul seine into live car. #12;UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Walter J. Hickel

60

Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel via Fractional Evaporation and Subsequent Hydrodesulfurization Upstream a Fuel Cell System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are favored for application in the foreseeable future. ... For fuel cells to be fuelled with liquid fuels as per Figure 1, an upstream desulfurization step is mandatory. ... fuel?recovered ...

Markus Brune; Rainer Reimert

2005-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Seasonal variation of upper-level mobile trough development upstream of the Pacific storm track  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of upper-level mobile troughs as they enter and exit the DZ as well as over the western Pacific, using Lefevre and Nielsen-Gammon's trough tracking data (1995). The relationship between deformation and trough intensification upstream of the Pacific storm...

Myoung, Boksoon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

62

Larmor radius size density holes discovered in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Larmor radius size density holes discovered in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock G. K, University of New Brunswick, Canada M. L. Goldstein NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland P that are five or more times the solar wind density. Particle distributions show the steepened edge can behave

California at Berkeley, University of

63

Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Title, Location Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: 2010 LCLS Undulator 2 is envisioned to be a 0.2 - 2keV FEL x-ray source, capable of delivering x-rays to End Station A (ESA), located in the existing Research Yard at SLAC. It will also be configurable as a non- FEL hard x-ray source capable of delivering a chirped x-ray pulse for single-shot broad-spectrum measurements. The project would entail reconstruction of the electron beam transport to End Station A, construction and installation of a new undulator in the tunnel upstream of ESA and beam dump, and construction and installation of x-ray transport, optics, and diagnostics in ESA. It also includes the construction of an annex to End Station A , providing hutches for experiment stations.

64

Electricity costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... index is used to correct for inflation. The short answer is given by the Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB's) 1980-81 report, paragraph 168. "The ... Generating Board's (CEGB's) 1980-81 report, paragraph 168. "The cost per kWh of fuel. . . rose by 18.6 per cent (between 1979 ...

J.W. JEFFERY

1982-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

65

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

Richard Rhudy

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Heliostat cost-analysis tool  

SciTech Connect

Estimated production costs of solar energy systems serve as guides for future component development and as measures of the potential economic viability of the technologies. The analysis of heliostat costs is particularly important since the heliostat field is the largest cost component of a solar central receiver plant. A heliostat cost analysis tool (HELCAT) that processes manufacturing, transportation, and installation cost data has been developed to provide a consistent structure for cost analyses. HELCAT calculates a representative product price based on direct input data (e.g. direct materials, direct labor, capital requirements) and various economic, financial, and accounting assumptions. The characteristics of this tool and its initial application in the evaluation of second generation heliostat cost estimates are discussed. A set of nominal economic and financial parameters is also suggested.

Brandt, L.D.; Chang, R.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main· Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining-site management or corporate level expenditure · Direct vs. Indirect Costs ­ Direct (or variable) costs apply

Boisvert, Jeff

68

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408 ­ off-site management or corporate level expenditure · Direct vs. Indirect Costs ­ Direct (or variable

Boisvert, Jeff

69

Estimating Specialty Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

70

Direct costing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oau 5e reduced. Under the same oonOitions, even ~Me on a bread scale entails not mere1y the conduct of the direct oyeraticns cf yrccessing the materials into finished products, but also the performance of auxiliary functions. these may 'ba power y... purposes have been advanced as folkway le Most of a o03RyaxO' 8 products Grc usual13r sold at prices which oovex' full product costs y plus 861ling a%el administrative expenses, plus normal profit. The inventoi~ valuate. on should be consistent...

Browning, Donald Bullock

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

71

Cost Analysis Rate Settin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Analysis and Rate Settin for Animal Research Facilities #12;#12;Cost Analysis and Rate ... .. . ...................... . . . ................................. . .... 7 Chapter 2 Preparation for Cost Analysis ......................................................... 9 Chapter 3 Assignment of Costs to Animal Research Facility Cost Centers

Baker, Chris I.

72

Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources and Expenses o Equipment x Committing to cost share is highly discouraged unless required by the sponsoring agency x Tracking of committed cost share is required to meet federal regulations (OMB A-110) x UCSD has

Tsien, Roger Y.

73

Eco-Efficiency in Practice: Aligning Business and Environmental Interests in the Upstream Oil and Gas Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, CETAC-WEST (Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Corporation - West), in mid-2000, introduced a practical approach to eco-efficiency to Western Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. The CETAC-WEST Eco-Efficiency Program, focused primarily...

Lukacs, J.; Munroe, V.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Cost Sharing Basics Definitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Sharing Basics Definitions Some funding agencies require the grantee institution the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may resources or facilities. If the award is federal, only acceptable non-federal costs qualify as cost sharing

Finley Jr., Russell L.

75

The Costs of Environmental Regulation in a Concentrated Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The typical cost analysis of an environmental regulation consists of an engineering estimate of the compliance costs. In industries where fixed costs are an important determinant of market structure, this static analysis ...

Ryan, Stephen

76

FULL-COST ACCOUNTING  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

FULL-COST ACCOUNTING ... Environmental costs would be built into a product's cost, and consumers would be able to make informed purchases. ...

1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

77

Cost-Effectiveness Ratio  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cost?effectiveness ratio (CER) is a calculation that summarizes the intervention's net cost and effectiveness. The three types of CER are: the average cost?effectiveness ratio (ACER), the marginal cost?...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Cost Share-Cost Reimbursement Invoice Format Example | The Ames...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Share-Cost Reimbursement Invoice Format Example Effective Date: 102014 File (public): Cost Share-Cost...

79

DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main performing units were as follows: (1) Data acquisition. (GTI, OIPA, Participating producers.) (2) Development of the virtual intelligence software. (WVU, ISI); (3) Application of the software on the acquired data. (GTI, ISI); (4) Detailed production analysis using conventional engineering techniques and the DECICE neural network software. (GTI) and (5) Detailed seismic analysis using Inspect spectral decomposition package and Hapmson-Russell's EMERGE inversion package. (GTI) Technology transfer took place through several workshops held at offices of the participating companies, at OIPA offices, and presentations at the SPE panel on soft computing applications and at the 2003 annual meeting of Texas Independent Producers and Royalty Owners Association (TIPRO). In addition, results were exhibited at the SPE annual meeting, published in GasTips, and placed on the GTI web page. Results from the research and development work were presented to the producing companies as a list of recommended recompletion wells and the corresponding optimized operations parameters. By the end of the project, 16 of the recommendations have been implemented the majority of which resulted in increased production rates to several folds. This constituted a comprehensive field demonstration with positive results.

Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

White Sturgeon Mitigation & Restoration in the Columbia & Snake River Upstream from Bonneville Dam  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

29, 2003 29, 2003 To: People Interested in the Project to Mitigate and Restore White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has prepared the Final Environmental Assessment (EA), which includes a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), for the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The document is enclosed for your information. Background: Since 1986, State, Federal, and Tribal fisheries agencies have been gathering data and studying habitats, movements, population dynamics, feeding, and distribution of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. With the decline in anadromous salmonid runs there has been an increase in the importance of the white sturgeon fisheries. The Oregon Department of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Mean free path of low-energy protons upstream of selected interplanetary shocks  

SciTech Connect

There are two fundamentally different approaches in calculating the mean free path of energetic charged particles. The first approach is concerned with the particle data. Here measured time intensity profiles are fitted to theoretical models and a best fit value for the mean free path is obtained. For undisturbed propagation of solar particles this theoretical model usually is a numerical solution of a Fokker-Planck equation. In the case of quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks the mean free path can be determined from the exponential increase of the particles intensity in the upstream region of the shock. The second approach starts with the magnetic field properties. One often-applied model assumes that the scattering of the particles is due to Alfven waves that propagate along the guiding field. Here the particles are scattered resonantly by the components of the field fluctuations perpendicular to the guiding field. A second model assumes that a different type of magnetiohydrodynamic wave, the magnetosonic wave, in addition to Alfven waves plays an important role in particle scattering. The scattering by magnetosonic waves is a nonresonant interaction. The authors discuss the time intensity profiles of low-energy protons (35-1,600 keV) associated with interplanetary shocks observed by ISEE 3 during the period August 1978 to December 1981. For five shock-associated particle intensity increases, they calculate the amount of scattering upstream of the shock by fitting the intensity increase as an exponential in time. The anisotropy in the solar wind frame is analyzed. They hereby test the validity of their diffusion model.

Beeck, J.; Sanderson, T.R. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk (Netherlands))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

83

Cost Study Manual  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

28, 2012 28, 2012 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a percent of payroll exceeds the comparator group by more than five percent. For example, if per capita benefit costs for the comparator group are $10,000 and the benefit costs as a percent of payroll for the comparator group are 20%, the threshold for the contractor's benefits as a

84

Activity Based Costing  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

85

Levelized Electricity Costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of levelized energy costs responds to the necessity of disclosing the ... in order to recover the total life cycle cost of energy production. This chapter charts the effectiveness of levelized cost fo...

Nuno Luis Madureira

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

information NREL has developed the following cost of energy tools: System Advisor Model (SAM): https:sam.nrel.gov SAM makes performance predictions and cost of...

87

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas sector service company  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas and process flow from high-value oil and gas wells, from exploration and appraisal through to mature field for the development and delivery of innovative technologies to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry globally

Painter, Kevin

89

Highly Insulating Windows - Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Cost The following is an estimate of the cost effective incremental cost of highly-insulating windows (U-factor=0.20 Btu/hr-ft2-F) compared to regular ENERGY STAR windows (U-factor 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F). Energy savings from lower U-factors were simulated with RESFEN over an assumed useful window life of 25 years. To determine the maximum incremental cost at which highly-insulating windows would still be cost-effective, we used a formula used by many utility companies to calculate the cost of saved energy from energy efficiency programs, based on the programs' cost and savings. We turned this formula around so that the cost of saved energy equals the present energy prices in the studied locations, whereas the program cost (the incremental cost of the windows) is the dependent variable. By entering 5%

90

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2008 2008 contacts thomas J. Feeley III Technology Manager Environmental & Water Resources National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-6134 thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov charles E. Miller Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5745 charles.miller@netl.doe.gov Gary Blythe Principal Investigator URS Corp. 9400 Amberglen Blvd. P.O. Box 201088 Austin, Texas 78720 512-419-5321 gary_blythe@urscorp.com Environmental and Water Resources Full-Scale TeSTing oF a Mercury oxidaTion caTalyST upSTreaM oF a WeT Fgd SySTeM Background To provide alternatives for power plant owners to comply with the Clean Air Mercury Rule promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NETL is

91

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

92

Cost Study for Large Wind Turbine Blades  

SciTech Connect

The cost study for large wind turbine blades reviewed three blades of 30 meters, 50 meters, and 70 meters in length. Blade extreme wind design loads were estimated in accordance with IEC Class I recommendations. Structural analyses of three blade sizes were performed at representative spanwise stations assuming a stressed shell design approach and E-glass/vinylester laminate. A bill of materials was prepared for each of the three blade sizes using the laminate requirements prepared during the structural analysis effort. The labor requirements were prepared for twelve major manufacturing tasks. TPI Composites developed a conceptual design of the manufacturing facility for each of the three blade sizes, which was used for determining the cost of labor and overhead (capital equipment and facilities). Each of the three potential manufacturing facilities was sized to provide a constant annual rated power production (MW per year) of the blades it produced. The cost of the production tooling and overland transportation was also estimated. The results indicate that as blades get larger, materials become a greater proportion of total cost, while the percentage of labor cost is decreased. Transportation costs decreased as a percentage of total cost. The study also suggests that blade cost reduction efforts should focus on reducing material cost and lowering manufacturing labor, because cost reductions in those areas will have the strongest impact on overall blade cost.

ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Contracting with Reading Costs andrents, and the competitive contracting process. Journal ofReiche. Foundation of incomplete contracting in a model of

Brennan, James R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Cost Estimation Package  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

95

Life Cycle Cost Estimate  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

96

A chronicle of costs  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

Elioff, T.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Early Station Costs Questionnaire  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Early Station Costs Questionnaire Early Station Costs Questionnaire Marc Melaina Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center Market Readiness Workshop February 16-17th, 2011 Washington, DC Questionnaire Goals * The Early Station Costs questionnaire provides an anonymous mechanism for organizations with direct experience with hydrogen station costs to provide feedback on current costs, near-term costs, economies of scale, and R&D priorities. * This feedback serves the hydrogen community and government agencies by increasing awareness of the status of refueling infrastructure costs National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Questions for Market Readiness Workshop Attendees * Are these questions the right ones to be asking?

98

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost, Durable Seal Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * Technical Approach * Timeline * Team Roles * Budget * Q&A 2 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal Durability Transportation: 5,000 hr Stationary: 40,000 hr Durability Improve mechanical and chemical stability to achieve 40,000 hr of useful operating life. Low Cost Low Cost A material cost equivalent to or less than the cost of silicones in common use. 3 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL

99

Cost Accounting System for fusion studies  

SciTech Connect

A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

The Rising Cost of Electricity Generation  

SciTech Connect

Through most of its history, the electric industry has experienced a stable or declining cost structure. Recently, the economic fundamentals have shifted and generating costs are now rising and driving up prices at a time when the industry faces new challenges to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. New plant investment faces the most difficult economic environment in decades.

Tobey Winters

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Operations Cost Allocation Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms OCP Cost Allocation Spreadsheets OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation - Questions and Answers - September 19 - 20, 2011 Additional Questions and Answers Customer Comments/Questions and Answers: Arizona Municipal Power Users Association Arizona Power Authority Central Arizona Project Colorado River Commission Colorado River Energy Distributors Association City of Gilbert, AZ Irrigation and Electrical Districts Association of Arizona Town of Marana, AZ City of Mesa, AZ Town of Wickenburg, AZ Western's Final Decision Regarding the Long-Term Cost Allocation Methodology for Operations Staff Costs

102

Adaptation costs for sustainable development and ecological transitions: a presentation of the structural model M3ED with reference to French energy?economy?carbon dioxide emission prospects*  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to assess the adaptation costs associated with the transition to a sustainable development path, taking the example of carbon dioxide emissions in the French economy. The model used is based on systems dynamics modelling and energy input-output analysis. This type of approach has the interesting property of precisely defining the nature of interactions between the different economic sectors, and between the economic sectors and the environment. This provides a framework within which to test different types of economic, technology and environment policy. In effect, according to our interests, it is necessary to measure problems of resources allocation or sequential choices between different alternatives why and how a particular solution comes to be selected from a multiplicity of alternatives. First, we characterise the methodological and conceptual specification of the model. Secondly, we locate specific properties of the model linked with both ecological sustainability and economic feasability constraints. Thirdly, a sensitivity test is applied concerning different control policy scenarios for the case of carbon dioxide emissions in the French economy.

Patrick Schembri

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

104

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

105

Cost-Benefit Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

cost-benefit analysis is an analytical procedure for determining the economic efficiency of intervention, expressed as the relationship between costs and outcomes, usually measured in monetary terms. In othe...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Cost-Efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost?efficiency is a goal that has been integrated by policy makers into all modern health care systems to control the expansion of costs over time. It relates to maximizing the quality of a comparable unit ...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

About Cost Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from the university, fee-for-service contracts, as well as establishing CAMD as a cost center. We know that our users are reluctant to see CAMD become a cost center, however...

108

Costs of Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A major reason for the decreased interest in the building of new nuclear power plants in recent years has been the relatively high cost of nuclear power. In this section, we will consider the role of costs in electricity

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Direct/Indirect Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Cost Optimal Energy Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

EPBD recast requires Member States (MS) to ensure that minimum energy performance requirements of buildings are set with a view to achieving cost optimal levels using a comparative methodology framework...1]. Cost

Jarek Kurnitski

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Guidelines for Energy Cost Savings Resulting from Tracking and Monitoring Electrical nad Natural Gas Usage, Cost, and Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses how improved energy information in schools and hospitals from tracking and monitoring electrical and natural gas usage, cost, and optional rate structures, can reduce energy costs. Recommendations, methods, and guidelines...

McClure, J. D.; Estes, M. C.; Estes, J. M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Cost Containment and Productivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Containment and Productivity Faculty Assembly Presentation January 22, 2013 Arthur G. Ramicone, CFO David N. DeJong, Vice Provost, Academic Planning and Resources Management #12;Cost Containment Resources to Enhance the Student Experience · Reduce the Cost and Complexity of Administrative Operations

Jiang, Huiqiang

113

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Lunch & Learn Cost Sharing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lunch & Learn Cost Sharing #12;Today's Agenda Policy Procedures OMNI Child Budget Setup Transactions in OMNI FACET Common Issues #12;Cost Sharing Policy http://www.research.fsu.edu/contractsgra nts ­ Not quantified ­ Do not have to account for and report #12;Cost Sharing Procedures http

McQuade, D. Tyler

115

Cost effective lighting  

SciTech Connect

Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen-hours are determined for each lamp system. We find the most important lighting cost component is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial cost of $15.00, is the most cost effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

Morse, O.; Verderber, R.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steece, B. 2000. Software cost estimation with COCOMO II.Developing a Framework of Cost Elements for PreservingAshley, K. 1999. Digital archive costs: Facts and fallacies.

Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Commercial equipment cost database  

SciTech Connect

This report, prepared for DOE, Office of Codes and Standards, as part of the Commercial Equipment Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, specifically addresses the equipment cost estimates used to evaluate the economic impacts of revised standards. A database including commercial equipment list prices and estimated contractor costs was developed, and through statistical modeling, estimated contractor costs are related to equipment parameters including performance. These models are then used to evaluate cost estimates developed by the ASHRAE 90.1 Standing Standards Project Committee, which is in the process of developing a revised ASHRAE 90.1 standard. The database will also be used to support further evaluation of the manufacturer and consumer impacts of standards. Cost estimates developed from the database will serve as inputs to economic modeling tools, which will be used to estimate these impacts. Preliminary results suggest that list pricing is a suitable measure from which to estimate contractor costs for commercial equipment. Models developed from these cost estimates accurately predict estimated costs. The models also confirm the expected relationships between equipment characteristics and cost. Cost models were developed for gas-fired and electric water heaters, gas-fired packaged boilers, and warm air furnaces for indoor installation. Because of industry concerns about the use of the data, information was not available for the other categories of EPAct-covered equipment. These concerns must be addressed to extend the analysis to all EPAct equipment categories.

Freeman, S.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

this project will facilitate the following: - A clear understanding of the current cost structure - Its dependence on markets - The benefits of innovation - The impact of...

119

A 3D laser doppler velocimetry study of the upstream velocity profile effects upon the flow field inside an orifice flowmeter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of metering accuracy has resulted in an estimated tens of millions of dollars of annual mischarges for gas companies. This has led to basic research on methods to improve orifice meter accuracy. Those investigations underline the importance of the upstream...

Robic, Bernard Francois

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

120

Determining the maximal capacity of a combined-cycle plant operating with afterburning of fuel in the gas conduit upstream of the heat-recovery boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect gained from afterburning of fuel in the gas conduit upstream of the heat-recovery boiler used as part of a PGU-450T combined-cycle plant is considered. The results obtained from ... electric and therma...

V. M. Borovkov; N. M. Osmanova

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methods Methods Disclaimer The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only. About the Cost Database For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning. The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

122

LMFBR fuel component costs  

SciTech Connect

A significant portion of the cost of fabricating LMFBR fuels is in the non-fuel components such as fuel pin cladding, fuel assembly ducts and end fittings. The contribution of these to fuel fabrication costs, based on FFTF experience and extrapolated to large LMFBR fuel loadings, is discussed. The extrapolation considers the expected effects of LMFBR development programs in progress on non-fuel component costs.

Epperson, E.M.; Borisch, R.R.; Rice, L.H.

1981-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

123

Cost analysis guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

Strait, R.S.

1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

124

White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Petroleum well costs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This is the first academic study of well costs and drilling times for Australia??s petroleum producing basins, both onshore and offshore. I analyse a substantial… (more)

Leamon, Gregory Robert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Early Station Costs Questionnaire  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of refueling infrastructure costs National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Questions for Market Readiness Workshop Attendees * Are these questions the...

127

''When Cost Measures Contradict''  

SciTech Connect

When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

2003-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

128

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on low cost, durable seals, was given by George Roberts of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

129

Avoidable waste management costs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Cost Estimating and Cost Management Capacity Building Workshop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Estimating and Cost Management Capacity Building Workshop August 11-13, 2010 Coffman Memorial 574 guidebook on cost estimating and cost management · To learn how states are moving forward with the implementation of the guidebook or other initiatives related to cost estimating and cost management · To share

Minnesota, University of

131

Benefit/Cost Analysis for Transportation Infrastructure: A Practitioner's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benefit/Cost Analysis for Transportation Infrastructure: A Practitioner's Workshop May 17, 2010 an introduction to benefit/cost analysis for transportation infra- structure. There is growing emphasis on the use of benefit/cost analysis for evaluating transportation projects funded by discretionary federal

132

Simple Modular LED Cost Model  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The LED Cost Model, developed by the DOE Cost Modeling Working Group, provides a simplified method for analyzing the manufacturing costs of an LED package. The model focuses on the major cost...

133

Costing climate change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Costenergy analyses of such schemes...and tidal power at costs...consider in economic analyses of GHG abatement...pertaining to wind power in Denmark...In a cost analysis of implementing...Cutting coal combustion...large an economic burden...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

levelized cost of energy levelized cost of energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 9 April, 2013 - 13:30 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy MHK ocean energy The generalized Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) projects is a hierarchical structure designed to facilitate the collection and organization of lifecycle costs of any type of MHK project, including wave energy converters and current energy convertners. At a high level, the categories in the CBS will be applicable to all projects; at a detailed level, however, the CBS includes many cost categories that will pertain to one project but not others. It is expected that many of the detailed levels of the CBS will be populated with "NA" or left blank.Upload

136

An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

existing avoided cost methodology and established thefor certain avoided cost methodologies or avoided cost inpu

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Transmission line capital costs  

SciTech Connect

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

139

Lookin g for data personnel costs, indirect costs, equipment costs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Negotiating Group Question/Answer Sessions November 19, 2009 Q: What happens now? A: The negotiation process starts tomorrow [November 20, 2009], when DOE will be sending the Awardees an e-mail with information about which website to go to for clarification and direction, information from the Office of Civil Rights, and answers to some of the questions that came up in the meeting. DOE will be gathering information about the questions concerning cyber requirements, metrics, and reporting requirements and will be getting back to the awardees about those issues the week after Thanksgiving. We have done a review of the budgets, and emails will be sent giving opportunities to address any issues. We will also re-review technical and cost proposals.

140

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrators Concentrators California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Award Number:0595-1612 | April 18, 2013 | Ganapathi * Mirror module development has been approached with the goal of being applicable to all types of CSP systems * Several heliostat design options being considered to address driving requirements: * Facets that are compliant to winds > 35 mph * Deep structures for optimizing structural efficiency * Pointing accuracy achieved with mechanism design * Simple precision components * Easy on-site assembly with pre-fab components * Structural foam properties and strengthening trades being conducted to reduce overall costs with FEM models Goal: Typical costs for a concentrator (heliostat or parabolic dish) can range between 40-50% of the total costs. To meet SunShot

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structure Structure functions 1 NOTE: THE FIGURES IN THIS SECTION ARE INTENDED TO SHOW THE REPRESENTATIVE DATA. THEY ARE NOT MEANT TO BE COMPLETE COMPILATIONS OF ALL THE WORLD'S RELIABLE DATA. Q 2 (GeV 2 ) F 2 (x,Q 2 ) * 2 i x H1 ZEUS BCDMS E665 NMC SLAC 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 -1 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 Figure 16.6: The proton structure function F p 2 measured in electromagnetic scattering of positrons on protons (collider experiments ZEUS and H1), in the kinematic domain of the HERA data, for x > 0.00006 (cf. Fig. 16.9 for data at smaller x and Q 2 ), and for electrons (SLAC) and muons (BCDMS, E665, NMC) on a fixed target. Statistical and systematic errors added in quadrature are shown. The data are plotted as a function of Q 2 in bins of fixed x. Some points have been slightly offset in Q 2 for clarity. The ZEUS binning in x is used in this plot; all other data are rebinned to the x values of

142

cost | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cost cost Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

143

Estimating Renewable Energy Costs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

144

Cost Estimating Guide  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

145

Vehicle Cost Calculator  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Get Widget Code...

146

Costing climate change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...even whether man-made greenhouse-gas emissions should...and monetary savings from lighting policy calculated using `Work Energy Smart Lighting Calculator', assuming...reducing energy costs and greenhouse gases. Australian Greenhouse...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Estimating environmental costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Added demands on natural resources and proposed environmental regulations could potentially have a significant impact on the production and operational costs of information technology (IT). In this paper, we utilize an Economic Input-Output Life-Cycle ...

Kiara Corrigan; Amip Shah; Chandrakant Patel

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Standard costs for labor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STANDARD COSTS FOR LABOR A Thesis By MD. NURUL ABSAR KHAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texms in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Administration and the government of East Pakistan. CONTENTS Chapter Page I. Introduction and Prelisd. nary Discussion II. Installation and Accounting Aspects of Standard Costs for Labor III, Recording~ Analysing and Reporting of Labor Vaxlances . 45 IV...

Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

149

Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Temporal Variability of Waves at the Proton Cyclotron Frequency Upstream from Mars: Implications for Mars Distant Hydrogen Exosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the temporal variability of the occurrence of waves at the local proton cyclotron frequency upstream from the Martian bow shock from Mars Global Surveyor observations during the first aerobraking and science phasing orbit periods. Observations at high southern latitudes during minimum-to-mean solar activity show that the wave occurrence rate is significantly higher around perihelion southern summer solstice and lower around the same hemisphere's spring and autumn equinoxes. A similar trend is observed in the hydrogen (H) exospheric density profiles over the Martian South Pole obtained from a model including UV thermospheric heating effects. In spite of the complexity in the ion pick-up and plasma wave generation and evolution processes, these results support the idea that variations in the occurrence of waves could be used to study the temporal evolution of the distant Martian H corona and its coupling with the thermosphere at altitudes currently inaccessible to direct measurements.

Bertucci, Cesar; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Gomez, Daniel; Mazelle, Christian; Delva, Magda; Modolo, Ronan; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Brain, David Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Investigating Sources of Toxicity in Stormwater: Algae Mortality in Runoff Upstream of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A source evaluation case study is presented for observations of algae toxicity in an intermittent stream passing through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory near Livermore, California. A five-step procedure is discussed to determine the cause of water toxicity problems and to determine appropriate environmental management practices. Using this approach, an upstream electrical transfer station was identified as the probable source of herbicides causing the toxicity. In addition, an analytical solution for solute transport in overland flow was used to estimate the application level of 40 Kg/ha. Finally, this source investigation demonstrates that pesticides can impact stream water quality regardless of application within levels suggested on manufacturer labels. Environmental managers need to ensure that pesticides that could harm aquatic organisms (including algae) not be used within close proximity to streams or storm drainages and that application timing should be considered for environmental protection.

Campbell, C G; Folks, K; Mathews, S; Martinelli, R

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

152

Tokamak reactor cost model based on STARFIRE/WILDCAT costing  

SciTech Connect

A cost model is presented which is useful for survey and comparative studies of tokamak reactors. The model is heavily based on STARFIRE and WILDCAT costing guidelines, philosophies, and procedures and reproduces the costing for these devices quite accurately.

Evans, K. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

Sanford, P.C. [1129 Business Parkway South, Westminister, MD (United States); Skokan, B. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator" ... Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. ... Cost-Effective Teacher ...

Frederick Sweet

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation CTS 21st Annual Transportation Research Conference costs #12;Potential Applications · Roadway Project Feasibility Studies ­ Identified potential roadway infrastructure improvement ­ Documentation of estimated project costs ­ Determine property assessments

Minnesota, University of

157

Sunk Costs and Competitive Bidding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUNK COSTS AND COMPETITIVE BIDDING Kenneth R. FrenchRevised: November 1982 SUNK COSTS AND COMPETITIVE BIDDINGl the winning bid be? I f sunk costs do not matter, I f the

French, Kenneth R.; McCormick, Robert E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Evidence of cost growth under cost-plus and fixed-price contracting  

SciTech Connect

As defined by the US Department of Energy (DOE), privatization refers to a shifting of responsibilities for the completion of projects from a cost-plus Management and Operations (M and O) contract, to incentive-based contracts with the private sector. DOE`s new vision is to arrange cleanup work around incentives-based contracts, which are won via competitive bidding. Competition in awarding cleanup contracts can make use of market incentives to lower project costs and reduce slippage time. Fixed-price contracts encourage contractors to minimize schedule delays and cost overruns once the scope of a project has been negotiated. Conversely, cost-plus contracting offers weak incentives for contractors to select cost-minimizing production and management approaches. Because privatization explicitly allocates more risk to the contractor, it forces the government to better define its goals and methods. This study summarizes actual cost experiences with government contracts performed under cost-plus and fixed-price incentive structures at all levels of government. The first section provides some background on the problem of making contractor activity more cost-efficient. Following this are sections on the measurement of performance and the costs of projects, limitations on measurement, and findings of similar studies. The study concludes with appendices discussing the details of the performance measurement methodology and the project data sets used in the study.

Scott, M.J.; Paananaen, O.H.; Redgate, T.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Jaksch, J.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Assigning research and development costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Development Cost Components RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS . 10 Capitalization Basis for Reporting Research and Development Costs Revenue Basis for Reporting Research and Development Costs Reasons Why Most Companies Expense... PRACTICE WITH ACCOUNTING THEORY Unknown Results at the End of an Accounting Period Uncertain Useful Life of Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . Recurrence of Annual Costs Permissive Feature of the Internal Revenue Code Uniform Amounts of Annual Costs...

Edwards, Wendell Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COST REVIEW (ICR) COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP) Revision 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT (OAPM) September 2013 SUMMARY OF UPDATES: This revision includes the following significant changes since the December 2011 SOP release: 1. The original SOP discussed how an EIR and an ICE could be executed in tandem, but since we are no longer advocating this approach the ICE process has been completely separated from the EIR process and references to EIRs have been removed. 2. Section 1 adds a reference to Public Law 2055 reflecting that we must now, as a matter of law, perform an ICE at CD-3 for projects with a TPC over $100 million. 3. Section 2 notes that DOE Programs must now pay for ICRs and ICEs and reflects that PARS II must be

162

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Cycling Costs Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-55433 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Prepared under Subcontract No. NFT-1-11325-01

163

Cost Controls Pay Off Big  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost Controls Pay Off Big ... Biggest plus was the general improvement in the economy; but to this must be added successful efforts by industry to control costs. ...

1959-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

164

QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(costs and values of inputs, outputs, and processes, including capital and operating costs) and performance (mass conversion, energy efficiency, and, generally speaking,...

165

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

SciTech Connect

Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

166

Predicting the energy use and operation cost of HVAC air filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model has been developed to predict the energy efficiency and annual operation cost for filters installed in an HVAC air handling system using filter data from standard ASHRAE 52.2-2007 filter tests. Thirty filters from six manufacturers were investigated to determine the most energy efficient and cost effective filtration solutions for an airport installation in Vancouver, Canada. A comparison of the output of the proposed model with the ‘kep’ and Wattage methods was performed to highlight the possible differences in filter choice that would be made using alternative approaches. The outcomes have been shown to differ due to data not incorporated in the older models such as filtration efficiency and particulate concentration. The sensitivity of filter cost to model parameters was also studied. It was found that the concentration of particles in the air stream and the cost of electricity had the largest effect on annual cost of operation. Increasing the concentration of particles in the air stream increases the cost of operating the filter and causes the installation of a prefilter upstream of the primary filter to be more economically attractive. Increasing electricity cost also increases the operation cost but has the reverse effect on attractiveness of prefilter installations.

James F. Montgomery; Sheldon I. Green; Steven N. Rogak; Karen Bartlett

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working on the grant Fellows, research assistants by the technician can be supported by a verifiable audit trail. Specialist consultancy fees Recruitment costs Staff recruitment and advertising costs, including interviewee travel. Materials & consumables Laboratory chemicals

Rambaut, Andrew

168

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National fiber reinforced composites have enjoyed limited acceptance in the automotive industry due to high costs to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model

169

Estimating SCR installation costs  

SciTech Connect

The EUCG surveyed 72 separate US installations of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired units totalling 41 GW of capacity to identify the systems' major cost drivers. The results, summarized in this article, provide excellent first-order estimates and guidance for utilities considering installing the downstream emissions-control technology. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Marano, M.; Sharp, G. [American Electric Power (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Invoice Statement of Cost Cost Type/Cost Share UT-B Contracts Div Page 1 of 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Invoice Statement of Cost ­ Cost Type/Cost Share UT-B Contracts Div Aug 2009 Page 1 of 1 invoice-state-cost-ext-venx-aug09 Company Name: Statement of Amounts Claimed Invoice Number: Statement of Cost ­ Cost Type/Cost Cost Subcontractor Cost Job Title Name Current Hours Rate Current Amount Cumulative Hours Cumulative

Pennycook, Steve

171

An experimental study on the effects of an upstream gate valve on the accuracy of an insertion type flowmeter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flowmeters measure the consumption of chilled water or hot water in buildings. Depending on the accuracy, cost consideration, and available space, the flowmeter selected could be an insertion type or fixed type such as orifices or venturi meters...

Wornyoh, Emmanuel Yao Atsu

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

172

Robust Cost Colorings Takuro Fukunaga  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robust Cost Colorings Takuro Fukunaga Magn´us M. Halld´orsson Hiroshi Nagamochi Abstract We consider graph coloring problems where the cost of a coloring is the sum of the costs of the colors, and the cost of a color is a monotone concave function of the total weight of the class. This models resource

Halldórsson, Magnús M.

173

Cost Estimates for New Molecules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost Estimates for New Molecules ... Once this has been carried out, the projected cost/kilogram for the new drug substance (if only raw material costs and no manufacturing/overhead/labour costs are considered) may well come down by a factor of 10 or even 100, and this is often more acceptable to management trying to make strategic decisions about potential profitability. ...

Trevor Laird

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

174

Cost Sharing Why and How  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Sharing Why and How Trudy M. Riley Assistant Provost, Research Administration Susan M. Tkachick Sponsored Research Accountant $ Research Office #12;Research Office AGENDA What is Cost Sharing Why Cost Share What is Allowable Managing Cost Sharing during the life of the project What happens

Firestone, Jeremy

175

7 - Cost-Efficiency Evaluation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of cost-efficiency evaluations is to make the connection between cost and outcomes. Using methods like cost-benefit analysis and cost-effective analysis, this allows evaluators to provide the most complete information. The information may be used to make better decisions about implementation or continuing a program.

Gennaro F. Vito; George E. Higgins

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Intracellular Hydrogen Peroxide Production Is an Upstream Event in Apoptosis Induced by Down-Regulation of Casein Kinase 2 in Prostate Cancer Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hydrogen peroxide production independent of the...Kundu GC, et al. Hydrogen peroxide activates...S, Clement MV. Hydrogen peroxide-induced...reductive stress. Methods Enzymol 2002;352...Increased Nox1 and hydrogen peroxide in prostate...hydrogen peroxide production is an upstream event...

Kashif A. Ahmad; Guixia Wang; and Khalil Ahmed

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Turbine blade platform film cooling with simulated stator-rotor purge flow with varied seal width and upstream wake with vortex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

phase locations to model the unsteady wake formed at the trailing edge of the upstream vane. Delta wings were also placed in four positions to create a vortex similar to the passage vortex at the exit of the vane. The film cooling effectiveness...

Blake, Sarah Anne

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

1984-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

179

Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. Memo regarding Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Policy Flash 2013-62 Acquisition Letter 09 -...

180

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

costs | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7 7 Varnish cache server costs Dataset Summary Description This dataset represents a historical repository of all the numerical data from the smartgrid.gov website condensed into spreadsheets to enable analysis of the data. Below are a couple of things worth noting: Source Smartgrid.gov Date Released March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Date Updated March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Keywords AMI costs distribution smart grid transmission Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 4Q12 (xlsx, 112.1 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 3Q12 (xlsx, 107.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 2Q12 (xlsx, 111.9 KiB)

182

Residential photovoltaic systems costs  

SciTech Connect

A study of costs associated with the installation and operation of a residential photovoltaic system has been conducted to determine present and projected (1986) status. As a basis for the study, a residential photovoltaic system design projected for 1986 was assumed, consisting of two principal components: a roof-mounted array and a utility-interactive inverter. The scope of the study encompassed both silicon and cadmium sulfide photovoltaic modules. Cost estimates were obtained by a survey and study of reports generated by companies and agencies presently active in each of the subsystem area. Where necessary, supplemental estimates were established as part of this study. The range of estimates for silicon-based systems strongly suggest that such systems will be competitive for new installations and reasonably competitive for retrofit applications. The cadmium-sulfide-based system cost estimates, which are less certain than those for silicon, indicate that these systems will be marginally competitive with silicon-based systems for new construction, but not competitive for retrofit applications. Significant variations from the DOE system price sub-goals were found, however, particularly in the areas of array mounting, wiring and cleaning. Additional development work appears needed in these areas.

Cox, C.H. III

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

d upstream downstream disturbance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

microphone Cm (s) C e (s) Controller (a) m Pmd (s) d Cm (s) Pmu (s) P ed (s) u P eu (s) e C e (s) (b) Figure) #12; y 2 =m Pmd (s) w 1 =d w 2 D 2 C m (s) Pmu (s) z 2 P ed (s) D 1 W 2 W 3 z 3 D 3 w 3 1 0 0005 1 0 with experimental data and the HÂ¥/ QFT synthesized controller #12; disturbance speaker detection control error

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

184

Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David (Dave) Warren David (Dave) Warren Field Technical Manager Transportation Materials Research Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2009, M/S 8050 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8050 Phone: 865-574-9693 Fax: 865-574-0740 Email: WarrenCD@ORNL.GOV Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber 14 February 2011 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Questions for Today Materials How can the cost of carbon fiber suitable for higher performance applications (H 2 Storage) be developed? H 2 Storage requirements implies Aerospace grade fibers. Can we build off of work previously done for more modest structural applications? To accurately answer: We need to know the minimum performance and maximum cost requirements of the fiber not simply the properties of current fiber.

185

Low-Cost High-Performance Scientific Visualization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors discuss the development of a low-cost stereoscopic visualization system using commonly available components. The system is used to improve understanding about the field-line structure and associated dynamics, confinement, and geometry of ...

Samuel T. Jones; Scott E. Parker; Charlson C. Kim

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Endogenous market structures in non-cooperative international emissions trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The literature on cost-effective international emissions trading (IET) assumes exogenous market structures. This...

Tsung-Chen Lee

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Low Cost Radio Telescope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radio interferometer has been constructed at Haverford College as an aid to learning the fundamentals of radio astronomy. Its cost both in cash outlay and in construction time make it a feasible year-long project for an undergraduate. Its simplicity does not prevent it from being a useful instrument for instruction at the college or high-school level; among its capabilities are the measurement of the positions of at least four of the strongest discrete cosmic-noisesources and the diameter of the radio sun.

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A Wisconsin-based company is developing an innovative way to reduce manufacturing costs of light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

190

Cost Effectiveness NW Energy Coalition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Action 8 Cost Effectiveness Manual Kim Drury NW Energy Coalition Context · Inconsistent understanding of cost effectiveness contributed to under performing conservation E.g: individual measures vs at end of 2009 #12;2 The thinking was . . . That a Cost Effectiveness Guide could: · Increase regionally

191

The cost of a bodyguard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Animal behaviour 1001 60 70 14 The cost of a bodyguard Fanny Maure 1 2 * Jacques...benefits of host manipulation and their costs to fitness-related traits, such as longevity...study provides the first evidence of a cost required for manipulating host behaviour...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Check Estimates and Independent Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

193

ROC curves in cost space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ROC curves and cost curves are two popular ways of visualising classifier performance, finding appropriate thresholds according to the operating condition, and deriving useful aggregated measures such as the area under the ROC curve (AUC) or ... Keywords: Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC), Cost curves, Cost-sensitive evaluation, Kendall tau distance, Operating condition, ROC curves, Ranking performance

José Hernández-Orallo; Peter Flach; César Ferri

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Historical pipeline construction cost analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aims to provide a reference for the pipeline construction cost, by analysing individual pipeline cost components with historical pipeline cost data. Cost data of 412 pipelines recorded between 1992 and 2008 in the Oil and Gas Journal are collected and adjusted to 2008 dollars with the chemical engineering plant cost index (CEPCI). The distribution and share of these 412 pipeline cost components are assessed based on pipeline diameter, pipeline length, pipeline capacity, the year of completion, locations of pipelines. The share of material and labour cost dominates the pipeline construction cost, which is about 71% of the total cost. In addition, the learning curve analysis is conducted to attain learning rate with respect to pipeline material and labour costs for different groups. Results show that learning rate and construction cost are varied by pipeline diameters, pipeline lengths, locations of pipelines and other factors. This study also investigates the causes of pipeline construction cost differences among different groups. [Received: October 13, 2010; Accepted: December 20, 2010

Zhenhua Rui; Paul A. Metz; Doug B. Reynolds; Gang Chen; Xiyu Zhou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Low-Cost Options for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control ADA- Environmental Solutions will test two new technologies for mercury control. The TOXECON II(tm) technology injects activated carbon directly into the downstream collecting fields of an electrostatic precipitator. The benefit of this technology is that the majority of the fly ash is collected in the upstream collecting fields which results in only a small portion of carbon-contaminated ash. Additionally, the TOXECON II(tm) technology requires minimal capital investment as only minor retrofits to the electrostatic precipitator are needed. The second technology is injection of novel sorbents for mercury removal on units with hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Mercury removal from hot-side electrostatic precipitators is difficult as their high operating temperature range keeps the mercury in the vapor phase and prevents the mercury from adsorbing onto sorbents. The TOXECON II(tm) technology will be tested at Entergy's Independence Station which burns PRB coal. The novel sorbents for hot-side ESPs technology will be tested at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center and MidAmerican's Louisa Station, both of which burn PRB coal. Additional project partners include EPRI, MidAmerican, Entergy, Alliant, ATCO Power, DTE Energy, Oglethorpe Power, Norit Americas Inc., Xcel Energy, Southern Company, Arch Coal, and EPCOR.

196

Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: financere.nrel.gov/finance/content/CREST-model OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool, CREST Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/cost-renewable-energy-spreadsheet-too Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: Feed-in Tariffs Assess projects, design cost-based incentives (e.g., feed-in tariffs), and evaluate impacts of tax incentives and other support structures using this economic cash flow model.

197

COST SHARING Cost sharing is the portion of total project costs of a sponsored agreement that is not bourn by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 COST SHARING Cost sharing is the portion of total project costs of a sponsored agreement. There are primarily three types of cost sharing that may occur on sponsored projects: Mandatory cost sharing. For example, the National Science Foundation requires mandatory cost sharing for some of its projects. COST

Cui, Yan

198

17.2 - Cost Participation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

17.2 (June 2004) 17.2 (June 2004) 1 Cost Participation [Reference: FAR 35.003(b), DEAR 917.70] Overview This section discusses DOE treatment of cost participation by organizations performing research, development, and demonstration projects under DOE prime contracts. This section does not cover efforts and projects performed for DOE by other Federal agencies. Background Cost participation is a generic term denoting any situation where the Government does not fully reimburse the contractor for all allowable costs necessary to accomplish the project or effort under the contract. The term includes, but is not limited to: * Cost Sharing * Cost Matching * Cost Limitation, which may be direct or indirect * Participation in-kind

199

Realistic costs of carbon capture  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators JPL logo Graphic of two dishes, mounted to the ground, that are side-by-side. This graphic shows the JPL/L'Garde lightweight concentrator facets, which are deployed for different configurations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with funding from the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is designing an optimized solar thermal collector structure using a lightweight collector structure capable of lowering structural costs, simplifying installation, and leading to mass-manufacturability. Approach The JPL project seeks to achieve the SunShot Initiative installed cost target of $75/m2 for a solar thermal collector system, as well as SunShot performance targets for optical errors, operations during windy conditions, and lifetime.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties exist. A review of historical quantitative PCB data for fish from the Rio Grande and Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs does not indicate a distinct contribution of PCBs from LANL to fish in the Rio Grande or Cochiti. Analysis of homologue patterns for fish does not provide sufficient evidence of a LANL contribution. Nevertheless, concentrations of PCBs in fillets of fish sampled from the Rio Grande are indicative of potential adverse chronic health impact from consumption of these fish on a long-term basis.

Gilbert J. Gonzales

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

202

LIFE CYCLE COST HANDBOOK Guidance for Life Cycle Cost Estimation...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of the parts of a cost estimate (those elements not truly independent of each other in terms of their accuracy and expected values), consider evaluating certain elements as...

203

Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

delivered costs of coal, by year and primary transport mode Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton) Average Delivered Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)...

204

Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet.xlsx More Documents & Publications Statement of Work (SOW) Template (Combined...

205

EGov PMA Scorecard Cost, Schedule & Performance Standard...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

EGov PMA Scorecard Cost, Schedule & Performance Standard.tif EGov PMA Scorecard Cost, Schedule & Performance Standard.tif EGov PMA Scorecard Cost, Schedule &...

206

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen Program Record number11007, Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation, documents the methodology and...

207

High Energy Cost Grants | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

High Energy Cost Grants High Energy Cost Grants The High Energy Cost Grant Program provides financial assistance for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and...

208

An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subject An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah Date Januarystate by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid tomethod of calculating avoided costs that has been officially

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Membrane Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...structure. The gen-cral picturc (given bs both of' these workeirs \\aas very similar...Circle No. 82 on Readers Service Card Low cost student recording from Harvard Apparatus...Steim, thermal analysis; D. Chapman, nuclear magnet-ic resonance; H. M. McConnell...

D. E. Green

1971-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

210

Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: glass monoliths vs metal matrices  

SciTech Connect

A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matrix composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes.

Jardine, L.J.; Carlton, R.E.; Steindler, M.J.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Download Data | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a...

212

Turfgrass: Maintenance Costs in Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LAW FOR VARIOUS M-AINTENANCE ITEMS BASED ON O\\!'\\'S. ERSHIP AND TYPE OF GRASS WITHIN EACH REGION Maintenance items TY PC Percent Lot size, Region of oz;r- of lawns square Com~osty Fertilizer Chemicals Water Average grass in region feet cost cost... LAW FOR VARIOUS M-AINTENANCE ITEMS BASED ON O\\!'\\'S. ERSHIP AND TYPE OF GRASS WITHIN EACH REGION Maintenance items TY PC Percent Lot size, Region of oz;r- of lawns square Com~osty Fertilizer Chemicals Water Average grass in region feet cost cost...

Holt, Ethan C.; Allen, W. Wayne; Ferguson, Marvin H.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Reviewing electricity generation cost assessments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Studies assessing the electricity generation cost of various power generating technologies are becoming increasingly common and references to such studies can often be heard… (more)

Larsson, Simon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings.

215

Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities...

Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Life-cycle cost analysis of floating offshore wind farms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this article is to put forward a methodology in order to evaluate the Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) of a Floating Offshore Wind Farm (FOWF). In this paper CBS is evaluated linked to Life-Cycle Cost System (LCS) and taking into account each of the phases of the FOWF life cycle. In this sense, six phases will be defined: definition, design, manufacturing, installation, exploitation and dismantling. Each and every one of these costs can be subdivided into different sub-costs in order to obtain the key variables that run the life-cycle cost. In addition, three different floating platforms will be considered: semisubmersible, Tensioned Leg Platform (TLP) and spar. Several types of results will be analysed according to each type of floating platform considered: the percentage of the costs, the value of the cost of each phase of the life-cycle and the value of the total cost in each point of the coast. The results obtained allow us to become conscious of what the most important costs are and minimize them, which is one of the most important contributions nowadays. It will be useful to improve the competitiveness of floating wind farms in the future.

Castro-Santos Laura; Diaz-Casas Vicente

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Polynomial time algorithms for constant capacitated single-item lot sizing problem with stepwise production cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production cost Ayse Akbalik , Christophe Rapine LGIPM, Université de Lorraine, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz. Assuming constant production capacity, constant batch size and Wagner- Whitin cost structure, we derive O sizing problem, stepwise costs, polynomial time algorithm, dynamic programming. 1. Introduction We study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

An analysis was performed to estimate the costs associated with storing and transporting hydrogen. These costs can be added to a hydrogen production cost to determine the total delivered cost of hydrogen.

219

Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

Kusek, Stephen M.

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

220

Use of Cost Estimating Relationships  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Electric power substation capital costs  

SciTech Connect

The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The future costs of energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2002 GDP per capita: Argentina...15 000 in GDP per capita, then a...afford higher energy cost? Or, should we demand OPEC countries...15 000 in GDP per capita, then a...afford higher energy cost? Or, should we demand OPEC countries...

Matthew R. Simmons

223

Hay Harvesting Costs $$$$$ in Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.............. .. ................. 6 LOOSE HAY STACKING ................................... 7 Tractor-Mounted (Front-End Loader) Hay Stacking Equipment .......... .... ............. 8 Fixed Costs ............................................................ 8 Operating Costs..., there is no economic advantage to At least two tractors are usually needed for baling. Most livestock producers who use custom balers will probably have to buy another tractor. This machine may be used for other operations, but the equivalent of one full...

Long, James T.; Taylor, Wayne D.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17  

SciTech Connect

Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland; Das, Sujit [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Cost Principles Policy Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Principles Policy Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013 Last-21, Cost Principles for Educational Institutions and the Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB)) identify cost accounting policies that must be followed to receive federal awards. These regulations

Jawitz, James W.

226

GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency of 45.4% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,096 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to coproduce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. As gasification technology matures, SCOHS and other improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements.

Samuel S. Tam

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Entanglement cost of generalised measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bipartite entanglement is one of the fundamental quantifiable resources of quantum information theory. We propose a new application of this resource to the theory of quantum measurements. According to Naimark's theorem any rank 1 generalised measurement (POVM) M may be represented as a von Neumann measurement in an extended (tensor product) space of the system plus ancilla. By considering a suitable average of the entanglements of these measurement directions and minimising over all Naimark extensions, we define a notion of entanglement cost E_min(M) of M. We give a constructive means of characterising all Naimark extensions of a given POVM. We identify various classes of POVMs with zero and non-zero cost and explicitly characterise all POVMs in 2 dimensions having zero cost. We prove a constant upper bound on the entanglement cost of any POVM in any dimension. Hence the asymptotic entanglement cost (i.e. the large n limit of the cost of n applications of M, divided by n) is zero for all POVMs. The trine measurement is defined by three rank 1 elements, with directions symmetrically placed around a great circle on the Bloch sphere. We give an analytic expression for its entanglement cost. Defining a normalised cost of any d-dimensional POVM by E_min(M)/log(d), we show (using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques) that the trine measurement is more costly than any other POVM with d>2, or with d=2 and ancilla dimension 2. This strongly suggests that the trine measurement is the most costly of all POVMs.

Richard Jozsa; Masato Koashi; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu; Stuart Presnell; Dan Shepherd; Andreas Winter

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

228

Chapter 6 - Subsea Cost Estimation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter provides guidelines for cost estimation during a project feasibility study, where the accuracy range is between ± 30% for subsea field development projects. Subsea cost refers to the cost of the whole project, which generally includes the capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operation expenditures (OPEX) of the subsea field development. The feasibility studies are performed before execution of the project, which may include three phases as shown in the figure: prefield development; conceptual/feasibility study; and front-end engineering design (FEED). Cost estimations are made for several purposes, and the methods used for the estimations as well as the desired amount of accuracy will be different. The cost estimation classifications according to Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE): level of project definition: expressed as percentage of complete definition; end usage: typical purpose of estimation; methodology: typical estimating method; expected accuracy range: typical ± range relative to best index of 1; and preparation effort: typical degree of effort relative to least cost index of 1.

Yong Bai; Qiang Bai

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

Scott Jenne

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

230

Large-eddy simulations of structure effects of an upstream elbow main pipe on hot and cold fluids mixing in a vertical tee junction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power plant. Thermal fatigue is an important degradation mechanism for the life time assessment in e.g. nuclear power plants. In the present work, the mixing of a hot and a cold fluid stream place both in nuclear plants involving light water and sodium cooled reactors due to thermal fatigue

Attinger, Daniel

231

Memory cost of quantum protocols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we consider the problem of minimizing the ancillary systems required to realize an arbitrary strategy of a quantum protocol, with the assistance of classical memory. For this purpose we introduce the notion of memory cost of a strategy, which measures the resources required in terms of ancillary dimension. We provide a condition for the cost to be equal to a given value, and we use this result to evaluate the cost in some special cases. As an example we show that any covariant protocol for the cloning of a unitary transformation requires at most one ancillary qubit. We also prove that the memory cost has to be determined globally, and cannot be calculated by optimizing the resources independently at each step of the strategy.

Alessandro Bisio; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti; Michal Sedlak

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOEPPPO03-0145&D2 Engineering EvaluationCost Analysis for Group 1 Buildings X-103, X-334, and X-344B at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio This document has...

233

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization Genevieve Saur, Todd Ramsden Prepared under...

234

Rising Cost of Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... METHODS are being discussed by electrical engineers to meet the rising costs of generating ... of generating electricity. Even before the War this was becoming a serious problem. In some cases it ...

1940-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

235

Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

236

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors P.I. Name: Dave Warren Presenter: Dr. Amit K. Naskar Oak Ridge National Laboratory 05162012 Project ID LM004 This presentation does not...

237

Cost | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 18 April, 2013 - 13:41 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To normalize competing claims of LCOE, DOE has developed-for its own use-a standardized cost and performance data reporting process to facilitate uniform calculation of LCOE from MHK device developers. This standardization framework is only the first version in what is anticipated to be an iterative process that involves industry and the broader DOE stakeholder community. Multiple files are attached here for review and comment.Upload Files: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document icon device_performance_validation_data_request.docx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon

238

Search Costs in Airline Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SEARCH COSTS IN AIRLINE MARKETS A Dissertation by JOSE ANTONIO PELLERANO GUZMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... Copyright 2013 José Antonio Pellerano Guzmán ii ABSTRACT This paper recovers consumer search cost estimates in airline markets consistent with theoretical search models. We follow an empirical framework developed in the recent literature...

Pellerano Guzman, Jose

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC COST TRENDS IN CALIFORNIA RyanInvestigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California”,cost of customer-sited, grid-connected solar photovoltaic (

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the University for common or joint projects and cannot be specifically attributed to an individual project. Some examples of indirect costs include accounting staff

Vonessen, Nikolaus

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Sponsored Project Account Cost Transfer Explanation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sponsored Project Account Cost Transfer Explanation Check-Off List December 2011 The explanations checked below best describe the reasons for why the cost transfers are being made. Costs as to how to allocate the cost, temporarily assigned the cost to an existing account that acted

He, Chuan

242

COST ACCOUNTING IN US CITIES: TRANSACTION COSTS AND GOVERNANCE FACTORS AFFECTING COST ACCOUNTING DEVELOPMENT AND USE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost accounting in government is a topic that has an oddly uncertain place in public financial management. Many people know what it is as an ideal construct but do not know what it is in practice. This uncertainty of ...

Mohr, Zachary Thomas

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Fuel Cell System Cost for Transporationa--2008 Cost Estimate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell System Cost for Fuel Cell System Cost for Transportation-2008 Cost Estimate National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program NREL/BK-6A1-45457 May 2009 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

245

Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector  

SciTech Connect

This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Balancing cost and effectiveness in arms control monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a qualitative assessment of arms control cost and effectiveness issues. Various chapters characterize some basic requirements for effective verification, summarize the monitoring activities incorporated into the INF, START, CFE, and CWC verification regimes, identify the costs of these monitoring activities as estimated in earlier IDA work, and discuss some reasons for the wide differences in costs among treaties. Drawing on both experience and observation about monitoring costs and effectiveness, the paper indicates where cost-saving modifications can be made to existing agreements and suggests some general principles for structuring monitoring regimes to maintain effectiveness while keeping costs at a minimum. These principles include: requiring the declaration of all facilities that are part of the infrastructure surrounding treaty-limited items and activities during the course of their operational lifetime; validating data at all declared facilities and, subsequently, inspecting those facilities on a quota basis; continuous monitoring of all elimination activities; and incorporating provisions for inspection of undeclared facilities. The paper argues that one frequently-included type of inspection, monitoring of production facilities, is unnecessary and, given the high cost involved, undesirable.

Grotte, J.H.; Klare, J.L.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Designing for cost In an aerospace company  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Companies take different approaches, and achieve different degrees of implementation, in designing products for cost. This thesis discusses Target Costing and its application at The Boeing Company. Target Costing is a ...

Hammar, Elizabeth (Elizabeth Deming)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Benefit-cost in a Benevolent Society  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that there is a well-de?ned cost function C( y) for publicthe private values bene?t-cost test, but is potentiallythe private values bene?t-cost test, Lemma 4 implies y-

Bergstrom, Ted

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Maintenance cost studies of present aircraft subsystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes two detailed studies of actual maintenance costs for present transport aircraft. The first part describes maintenance costs for jet transport aircraft broken down into subsystem costs according to an ...

Pearlman, Chaim Herman Shalom

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Total cost model for making sourcing decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Pipeline compressor station construction cost analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aims to provide a reference for pipeline compressor station construction costs by analysing individual compressor station cost components using historical compressor station cost data between 1992 and 2008. Distribution and share of these pipeline compressor station cost components are assessed based on compressor station capacity, year of completion, and locations. Average unit costs in material, labour, miscellaneous, land, and total costs are $866/hp, $466/hp, $367/hp, $13/hp, and $1,712/hp, respectively. Primary costs for compressor stations are material cost, approximately 50.6% of the total cost. This study conducts a learning curve analysis to investigate the learning rate of material and labour costs for different groups. Results show that learning rates and construction component costs vary by capacity and locations. This study also investigates the causes of pipeline compressor station construction cost differences. [Received: March 25, 2012; Accepted; 20 February 2013

Yipeng Zhao; Zhenhua Rui

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

The relative cost of biomass energy transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for ... , rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass

Erin Searcy; Peter Flynn; Emad Ghafoori…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The Relative Cost of Biomass Energy Transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for ... , rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass

Erin Searcy; Peter Flynn; Emad Ghafoori…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

RaisingRivals'FixedCosts Matthew Olczak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In addition much of the recent Industrial Organisation literature has focused on the importance of sunk costs, whereas this paper considers fixed costs that do not have to be sunk costs. A set of guidelines produced

Feigon, Brooke

255

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors. Feedstock CostHydrogen Production Equipment Purifier Storage System Compressor Dispenser Additional Equipment Installation Costshydrogen equipment costs. Meyers [2] provides an in depth analyses of reformer, compressor, and storage equipment costs.

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:58am Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 3 After identifying petroleum reduction strategies, a Federal agency should estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential and cost effectiveness of these strategies for vehicles and mobile equipment. The table below provides steps for identifying optimal vehicle acquisition strategies. Table 1. Framework for Identifying Optimal Vehicle Acquisition Strategies Step Summary Purpose PLAN and COLLECT 1 Determine vehicle acquisition requirements Establish a structured Vehicle Allocation Matrix (VAM) to determine the numbers and types of vehicles required to accomplish your fleet's mission

257

Cost objective PLM and CE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during the progression of the project of product development.

Nicolas Perry; Alain Bernard

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

258

Microsoft Word - CR-091 Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CR-091 Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount Custom Fields Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount Custom Fields Background On August 29 th , 2013 the...

259

Cost Principles Directives & Procedures Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Cost Principles Directives & Procedures Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date....................................................................................................................... 2 2. Guiding Principles to Determine the Charge of a Cost to a Sponosred Agreement ................................................................................................. 5 5.1. Personnel Costs

Jawitz, James W.

260

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

NETL: Turbine Projects - Cost Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Reduction Cost Reduction Turbine Projects Cost Reduction Single Crystal Turbine Blades Enhancing Gas Turbine Efficiency Data/Fact Sheets Enabling and Information Technologies to Increase RAM of Advanced Powerplants Data/Fact Sheets Development of NDE Technology for Environmental Barrier Coating and Residual Life Estimation Data/Fact Sheets Welding and Weld Repair of Single Crystal Gas Turbine Alloy Data/Fact Sheets Combustion Turbine Hot Section Coating Life Management Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating [PDF] Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle RAM Data/Fact Sheets Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine [PDF]

262

Chapter 30 - Cost Accounting Standards Administration | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

30 - Cost Accounting Standards Administration Chapter 30 - Cost Accounting Standards Administration 30.1DOE'sOversightofCertainContractorDefinedPensionPlansandItsEffect...

263

Definition: Reduced Electricity Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Electricity Cost Functions that provide this benefit could help alter customer usage patterns (demand response with price...

264

Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Tables  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Table Updated: October 6, 2014 FY 2016 September 2014 CRC Calculation Table (pdf) Final FY 2015 CRC Letter & Table (pdf) Note: The Cost...

265

Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pieces of hardware: 1. Hydrogen production equipment (e.g.when evaluating hydrogen production costs. Many analyses inrespect to size and hydrogen production method. These costs

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

268

Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

policy impacts on system financing, and to perform detailed levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analyses. This shows the path to cost-equalizing as envisioned under the...

269

Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

psi pressure capability High effectiveness > 90% 80% lower estimated external heat loss 60% estimated lower cost Complete remaining tests and refine cost...

270

Cutting Biofuel Production Costs | The Ames Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cutting Biofuel Production Costs Working to use sunlight to convert biomass to biofuels, researchers have found a pathway toward reducing the energy costs associated with making...

271

PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting...

272

PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

273

Entanglement cost in practical scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We quantify the one-shot entanglement cost of an arbitrary bipartite state, that is the minimum number of singlets needed by two distant parties to create a single copy of the state up to a finite accuracy, using local operations and classical communication only. This analysis, in contrast to the traditional one, pertains to scenarios of practical relevance, in which resources are finite and transformations can only be achieved approximately. Moreover, it unveils a fundamental relation between two well-known entanglement measures, namely, the Schmidt number and the entanglement of formation. Using this relation, we are able to recover the usual expression of the entanglement cost as a special case.

Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

274

Quantum cost for sending entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Establishing quantum entanglement between two distant parties is an essential step of many protocols in quantum information processing. One possibility for providing long-distance entanglement is to create an entangled composite state within a lab and then physically send one subsystem to a distant lab. However, is this the "cheapest" way? Here, we investigate the minimal "cost" that is necessary for establishing a certain amount of entanglement between two distant parties. We prove that this cost is intrinsically quantum, and is specified by quantum correlations. Our results provide an optimal protocol for entanglement distribution and show that quantum correlations are the essential resource for this task.

Alexander Streltsov; Hermann Kampermann; Dagmar Bruß

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

275

Cost-Parity and Cost-Streett Games Nathanael Fijalkow1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-Parity and Cost-Streett Games Nathana¨el Fijalkow1,2 and Martin Zimmermann2 1 LIAFA, Universit@mimuw.edu.pl Abstract. We consider games played on graphs equipped with costs on edges, and introduce two winning conditions, cost-parity and cost- Streett, which require bounds on the cost between requests

276

DESIGNING COST-EFFECTIVE COARSE-GRAINED RECONFIGURABLE ARCHITECTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

configuration cache for reconfiguration of its PE array. However, such a structure consumes significant area and power. Therefore, designing cost-effective CGRA has been a serious concern for reliability of CGRA-based embedded systems. As an effort to provide...

Kim, Yoonjin

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Cost Vehicle Cost Calculator to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on AddThis.com... Vehicle Cost Calculator Vehicle Cost Calculator This tool uses basic information about your driving habits to calculate total cost of ownership and emissions for makes and models of most vehicles, including alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles. Also

278

Examples of Cost Estimation Packages  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

279

Basic Costs in Electricity Supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... ONE of the principal problems in the management of public electricity supply companies is how to reconcile the ... supply companies is how to reconcile the costs with the charges not only from year to year but also in their irregular secular ...

1941-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

280

Market Equilibrium with Transaction Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identical products being sold at different prices in different locations is a common phenomenon. Price differences might occur due to various reasons such as shipping costs, trade restrictions and price discrimination. We give a way to model such scenarios by supplementing the classical Fisher model of a market by introducing {\\em transaction costs}. For every buyer $i$ and every good $j$, there is a transaction cost of $\\cij$; if the price of good $j$ is $p_j$, then the cost to the buyer $i$ {\\em per unit} of $j$ is $p_j + \\cij$. This allows the same good to be sold at different (effective) prices to different buyers. We study questions regarding existence, uniqueness and computability of equilibrium in such a model. Our results can be summarized as such: The convex program of \\cite{Dev09} can be generalized to prove existence and uniqueness of equilibrium. We also provide a combinatorial algorithm that computes $\\epsilon$-approximate equilibrium prices and allocations in $O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon}(n+\\log{m})mn\\l...

Chakraborty, Sourav; Karande, Chinmay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An Attack on Centrifugal Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN ATTACK ON CENTRIFUGAL COSTS j P. ~,t~~c1ier Mwra~ I Mons'anto ' Alvin, 'ie~as I ABSTRACT Energy conservation in small and medium horse power industrial centrifugal power users has re ceived very little attention to date. Monsanto...

Murray, P. F.

282

Oil cost hits ship studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... March 2007 to March 2009, are under threat because of the steep rise in marine-fuel costs. Hundreds of Arctic and Antarctic scientists face uncertainty as polar science programmes worldwide ... scientists face uncertainty as polar science programmes worldwide are curtailed, postponed or cancelled. The price of a barrel of oil has more than doubled since March 2007, from US$ ...

Quirin Schiermeier

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

283

Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection  

SciTech Connect

This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Sustaining Cost-Effective Incentives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents how understanding the way in which customers' minds process incentives can help energy efficiency programs structure effective incentives.

285

COST 227/08 1 European Cooperation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COST 227/08 1 DG C II EN European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research - COST - -------------------- Secretariat ------- Brussels, 2 July 2008 COST 227/08 MEMORANDUM Action designated as COST Action ES0801: The ocean chemistry of bioactive trace elements and paleoclimate

Henderson, Gideon

286

COST 4138/10 1 European Cooperation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COST 4138/10 1 EN European Cooperation in Science and Technology - COST - -------------------- Secretariat ------- Brussels, 2 July 2010 COST 4138/10 MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING Subject : Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a European Concerted Research Action designated as COST Action FP1002

287

COST SHARING ON SPONSORED PROGRAMS Policy Statement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page 1 COST SHARING ON SPONSORED PROGRAMS Policy Statement Northwestern University engages in cost and compelling circumstances. This document was developed to set forth University policy on cost sharing, and to provide guidance on the appropriate and consistent management and reporting of cost sharing throughout

Shahriar, Selim

288

WVU Personal Rapid Transit Benefit Cost Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

....................................................................... 6 Demographic Trends - Engineering Station .................................................................... 7 Demographic Trends - Engineering Station ............................................................................. 18 Economic Cost of Increased Congestion

Mohaghegh, Shahab

289

Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology CONSERVATION COST-EFFECTIVENESS As with all other resources, the Council uses its portfolio model to determine how much conservation is cost the amount of savings achievable at varying costs. In order to capture the impact of variations in wholesale

290

Technological Feasibility and Cost Analysis | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analysis Analysis Methodologies Technological Feasibility and Cost Analysis Technological Feasibility and Cost Analysis Technology Feasibility and Cost Analysis is performed...

291

Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Freeman, Sullivan & Co. Sector: Energy Focus Area: Grid Assessment and Integration, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online calculator, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: icecalculator.com/ Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America References: [1] Logo: Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator This calculator is a tool designed for electric reliability planners at utilities, government organizations or other entities that are interested in estimating interruption costs and/or the benefits associated with reliability improvements. About The Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator is an electric reliability

292

Transparent Cost Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transparent Cost Database Transparent Cost Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transparent Cost Database Agency/Company /Organization: Department of Energy Partner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, Transportation Topics: Baseline projection, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Resource assessment, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Dataset, Lessons learned/best practices, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Web Application Link: en.openei.org/apps/TCDB/ Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Featured Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/united-states-transparent-cost-databa Language: English The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

293

Part cost estimation at early design phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Although 70% of part cost is determined during the early design stage, designers rarely accurately estimate the costs of their designs. Based on extensive literature review, in-depth industrial survey and close collaboration with multiple manufacturers, forty factors were identified as governing part cost and ranked according to cost impact. Based on parameter ranking and availability at the early stages of design, a cost estimator for designers is proposed. As the design progresses and more parameters become available, a more accurate cost model is derived and proposed to manufacturers. Results are analyzed and compared to actual manufacturing costing demonstrating good fit.

Gila Molcho; Asher Cristal; Moshe Shpitalni

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Research & Development Competitive Awards Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. Past Incubator awardee, Innovalight, is creating high-efficiency, low-cost

295

Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Production | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost Titanium Alloy Production Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Production titaniumalloyproduction.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost Titanium Propulsion Applications Low Cost...

297

The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

SciTech Connect

End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new construction, commercial/industrial custom rebate programs). In this report, the focus is on gross energy savings and the costs borne by the program administrator—including administration, payments to implementation contractors, marketing, incentives to program participants (end users) and both midstream and upstream trade allies, and evaluation costs. We collected data on net savings and costs incurred by program participants. However, there were insufficient data on participant cost contributions, and uncertainty and variability in the ways in which net savings were reported and defined across states (and program administrators).

Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

298

1998 Cost and Quality Annual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8) 8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1998 Tables June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts The annual publication Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) is no longer published by the EIA. The tables presented in this document are intended to replace that annual publication. Questions regarding the availability of these data should

299

Entanglement Cost of Nonlocal Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For certain joint measurements on a pair of spatially separated particles, we ask how much entanglement is needed to carry out the measurement exactly. For a class of orthogonal measurements on two qubits with partially entangled eigenstates, we present upper and lower bounds on the entanglement cost. The upper bound is based on a recent result by D. Berry [Phys. Rev. A 75, 032349 (2007)]. The lower bound, based on the entanglement production capacity of the measurement, implies that for almost all measurements in the class we consider, the entanglement required to perform the measurement is strictly greater than the average entanglement of its eigenstates. On the other hand, we show that for any complete measurement in d x d dimensions that is invariant under all local Pauli operations, the cost of the measurement is exactly equal to the average entanglement of the states associated with the outcomes.

Somshubhro Bandyopadhyay; Gilles Brassard; Shelby Kimmel; William K. Wootters

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

300

Entanglement cost of nonlocal measurements  

SciTech Connect

For certain joint measurements on a pair of spatially separated particles, we ask how much entanglement is needed to carry out the measurement exactly. For a class of orthogonal measurements on two qubits with partially entangled eigenstates, we present upper and lower bounds on the entanglement cost. The upper bound is based on a recent result by Berry [Phys. Rev. A 75, 032349 (2007)]. The lower bound, based on the entanglement production capacity of the measurement, implies that for almost all measurements in the class we consider, the entanglement required to perform the measurement is strictly greater than the average entanglement of its eigenstates. On the other hand, we show that for any complete measurement in dxd dimensions that is invariant under all local generalized Pauli operations, the cost of the measurement is exactly equal to the average entanglement of the states associated with the outcomes.

Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Brassard, Gilles [Departement IRO, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Kimmel, Shelby; Wootters, William K. [Department of Physics, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts 01267 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and posted 2/10/2011 and posted 2/10/2011 *Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain $50,000 FONSI: uncertain Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain FONSI: uncertain Total Estimated Cost $70,000 Attachment: Memo, Moody to Marcinowski, III, SUBJECT: NEPA 2011 APS for DOE-SRS, Dated: Annual NEPA Planning Summary Environmental Assessments (EAs) Expected to be Initiated in the Next 12 Months Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Jan-11 Estimated Schedule (**NEPA Milestones) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) issued a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Industrial Stormwater General Permit (IGP) # SCR000000 November 12, with an effective date of January

302

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: The outlook for heating oil costs this winter, due to high crude oil costs and tight heating oil supplies, breaks down to an expected increase in heating expenditures for a typical oil-heated household of more than $200 this winter, the result of an 18% increase in the average price and an 11% increase in consumption. The consumption increase is due to the colder than normal temperatures experienced so far this winter and our expectations of normal winter weather for the rest of this heating season. Last winter, Northeast heating oil (and diesel fuel) markets experienced an extremely sharp spike in prices when a severe weather situation developed in late January. It is virtually impossible to gauge the probability of a similar (or worse) price shock recurring this winter,

303

Entanglement Cost of Quantum Channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The entanglement cost of a quantum channel is the minimal rate at which entanglement (between sender and receiver) is needed in order to simulate many copies of a quantum channel in the presence of free classical communication. In this paper we show how to express this quantity as a regularized optimization of the entanglement formation over states that can be generated between sender and receiver. Our formula is the channel analog of a well-known formula for the entanglement cost of quantum states in terms of the entanglement of formation; and shares a similar relation to the recently shattered hope for additivity. The entanglement cost of a quantum channel can be seen as the analog of the quantum reverse Shannon theorem in the case where free classical communication is allowed. The techniques used in the proof of our result are then also inspired by a recent proof of the quantum reverse Shannon theorem and feature the one-shot formalism for quantum information theory, the post-selection technique for quantum channels as well as von Neumann's minimax theorem. We discuss two applications of our result. First, we are able to link the security in the noisy-storage model to a problem of sending quantum rather than classical information through the adversary's storage device. This not only improves the range of parameters where security can be shown, but also allows us to prove security for storage devices for which no results were known before. Second, our result has consequences for the study of the strong converse quantum capacity. Here, we show that any coding scheme that sends quantum information through a quantum channel at a rate larger than the entanglement cost of the channel has an exponentially small fidelity.

Mario Berta; Fernando Brandao; Matthias Christandl; Stephanie Wehner

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

304

Energy Cost of Information Transfer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From thermodynamic and causality considerations a general upper bound on the rate at which information can be transferred in terms of the message energy is inferred. This bound is consistent with Shannon's bounds for a band-limited channel. It prescribes the minimum energy cost for information transferred over a given time interval. As an application, a fundamental upper bound of 1015 operations/sec on the speed of an ideal digital computer is established.

Jacob D. Bekenstein

1981-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

305

Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform  

SciTech Connect

A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in the Presence of Convex Transaction Costs and Market Impact Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in the Presence of Convex Transaction Costs and Market Impact transaction costs. The loss to a portfolio from market impact costs is typically modeled with a convex, transaction costs, market impact costs, rebalanc- ing, conic optimization, convex optimization. 1 #12

Mitchell, John E.

307

INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS YOU KNOW WHAT THE TUITION, STIPEND AND EQUIPMENT COSTS ARE YOU KNOW WHAT THE TOTAL COST IS CALCULATION IS USING THE 2010 FED F&A RATE FOR WSU OF 52% (.52) [ DIRECT COST ­ TUITION ­ STIPEND ­ EQUIPMENT] (.52 ) + DIRECT

Finley Jr., Russell L.

308

5. ESTIMATING THE COSTS OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION 5.1 Isolating a `preservation cost'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

44 5. ESTIMATING THE COSTS OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION 5.1 Isolating a `preservation cost' Deciding preservation is--how much will it cost? One of the problems encountered in trying to answer this question costs do relate specifically to preservation, but this does not mean that those are the only costs

Carr, Leslie

309

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with incumbents earlier on in market entry process ! Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite / stainless steel hardware Acidic membrane Platinum based electrodes Cost barriers deeply embedded in core tech materials BOM-based cost barriers - 90% of stack cost Cost volatility - Platinum $500/Oz - $2,500/Oz The possibility of an OH - ion conducting membrane 4 Non-acidic membrane CellEra Took Advantage of this Opportunity A new type of membrane component with potential for strong fuel cell cost cuts was revealed in 2006, but was accompanied by general industry skepticism

310

Cost of Fuel to General Electricity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Fuel to Generate Electricity of Fuel to Generate Electricity Cost of Fuel to Generate Electricity Herb Emmrich Gas Demand Forecast, Economic Analysis & Tariffs Manager SCG/SDG&E SCG/SDG&E Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) 2009 Fall Meeting November 18, 2009 Ontario, California The Six Main Costs to Price Electricity are:  Capital costs - the cost of capital investment (debt & equity), depreciation, Federal & State income taxes and property taxes and property taxes  Fuel costs based on fuel used to generate electricity - hydro, natural gas, coal, fuel oil, wind, solar, photovoltaic geothermal biogas photovoltaic, geothermal, biogas  Operating and maintenance costs  Transmission costs  Distribution costs  Social adder costs - GHG adder, low income adder,

311

Development of surface mine cost estimating equations  

SciTech Connect

Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

312

STRUCTURE magazine April 2007 newtrends,newtechniquesandcurrentindustryissues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

must consider tech- nically feasible structural remediation technologies and life cycle maintenance research programs with carbon fiber systems enable opportuni- ties for development of innovative and cost

Mobasher, Barzin

313

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: PEMFC Manufacturing Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEMFC Manufacturing Cost PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Project Summary Full Title: Manufacturing Cost of Stationary Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems Project ID: 85 Principal Investigator: Brian James Keywords: Costs; fuel cells; stationary Performer Principal Investigator: Brian James Organization: Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) Address: 3601 Wilson Blvd., Suite 650 Arlington, VA 22201 Telephone: 703-243-3383 Email: brian_james@directedtechnologies.com Period of Performance End: November 1999 Project Description Type of Project: Analysis Category: Cross-Cutting Objectives: Estimate the cost of the fuel cell system using the Directed Technologies, Inc. cost database built up over the several years under U.S. Department of Energy and Ford Motor Company contracts.

314

Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A Fresh Look at Integrating Supply-Side and Demand-Side Resources Speaker(s): Bill Kelly Robert Redlinger Date: January 19, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn The restructuring of the California electricity industry has not proceeded as intended. A generation capacity shortage, combined with spiraling natural gas costs and a flawed electricity market structure, have led to unprecedented wholesale electricity prices, power outages, and a political and financial crisis for the State. This crisis will not be solved through increasing electricity supply alone. Energy industry observers agree that 1.) energy efficiency, 2.) distributed on-site generation, and 3.) price

315

Evaluating the costs and benefits of increased funding for public transportation in Chicago  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) off-peak ridership, is at or slightly below break-even with respect to net benefits if the CTA cost structure and tax source of subsidy remains unchanged. In order to justify any significant additional long-term ...

Schofield, Mark L., 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, ...

Pettit R. G.; Wang J. J.; Toh C.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

CBE UFAD cost analysis tool: Life cycle cost model, issues and assumptions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building Maintenance and Repair Cost Reference. ” WhitestoneJ. Wallis and H. Lin. 2008. “CBE UFAD Cost Analysis Tool:UFAD First Cost Model, Issues and Assumptions. ” Center for

Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne; Bauman, Fred

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Das Upstream-Spline Advektionsverfahren  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raumrichtung. Unter Verwendung der Steigungen der Splinefunktionen mi, kann die Splinefunktion als s (x) = mi 1 (xi x)2 (x xi 1) h2i mi (x xi)2 (xi x) h2i + i 1 (xi x)2 2(x xi)+hi] h3i + i (x xi 1)2 2(xi x)+hi] h3i erh lt man durch Einsetzen von x i in (2): t+ ti = ti mi + h 3 ti 1 ti +2mi +mi 1 i 2 (4) h mi +mi 1

Raasch, Siegfried

319

Upstream -- SW92-03&  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

777 678 650 pH c s.u. 7.58 8.25 7.88 7.83 Temperature c C 6.5 15.7 16.1 8.8 Common Ions Ca b mgL 132 107 89.7 81.2 Chloride b mgL 7.26 10.7 8.57 22.9 Fluoride b gL 196 148...

320

Seize Opportunities to Reduce Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specify for maximum energy savings Specify for maximum energy savings Windows must meet local energy code requirements. For even higher energy performance, consider ENERGY STAR windows, which are recommended for low-rise dwellings and are often suitable for mid-rise dwellings as well. For window and storm window options with superior performance in cold climates, check out the U.S. Department of Energy's highly insulating windows purchasing program (see next page). Seize Opportunities to Reduce Cost Government or utility incentives and financing may be available for energy efficiency in low-income housing. Check www.dsireusa.org for up-to-date information on incentive

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling  

SciTech Connect

Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Private trucking costs and records  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were asked of the appro- priate officials in each case. Tbe interviewer observed the methods of keeping cost and operating statistics in order to determine the different systems in use and also to estimate the time and expense involved in keeping... TBB OHR4TIOI Oy TBBXR OMN TROCHE FLBBT@?1956 Losel Xaeareity Total Operation Rsysaeaa: Qrkviag Bayeaaes Motor tueL aa6 Oil Other operatiaO Bryaaeea 855, 104. 00 62?915 ?00 oO? 91?979?$65?00 040?0$7. 00 197 ' 725 ?00 62)054?667?00 911, 7...

Haning, Charles R

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

323

Reducing Power Factor Cost | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Power Factor Cost Reducing Power Factor Cost Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95....

324

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with...

325

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

sunshot DOEGO-102012-3663 * September 2012 MOTIVATION Solar concentrators currently cost 150-250m 2 , which represents as much as half of the total installed cost for a...

326

Certificate of Current Cost and Pricing Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERTIFICATE OF CURRENT COST AND PRICING DATA (OCT 1997) This is to certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data (as defined in section 15.401 of...

327

Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory% postconsumer waste #12;i Independent Review Panel Summary Report September 28, 2011 From: Independent Review Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE

328

How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rising energy costs have many businesses looking for creative ways to reduce their energy usage and lower the costs of energy delivered to their facilities. This paper explores innovative renewable and alternative energy technologies that can help...

Swanson, G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION and Anitha Rednam, Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies Manager Ruben Tavares - Acting Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director

Laughlin, Robert B.

330

Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The real costs of tuition tax credits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculations of the costs of tuition tax credits should include estimates of the induced migration ... by the President's advisors that his 1983 tax credit proposal would cost up to $800 million ... migrants that...

Edwin G. West

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Challenges in estimating waste confinement costs  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a systems analysis framework for cost estimating and outlines the challenges likely to be confronted during the cost estimating and data base development process. 1 ref., 8 figs.

Rivera, A.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Sunk Costs and Real Options in Antitrust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sunk costs play a central role in antitrust economics, but are often misunderstood and mismeasured. I will try to clarify some of the conceptual and empirical issues related to sunk costs, and explain their implications ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

335

Photovoltaics in 1986: Routes to Low Cost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cost based comparison of crystralline silicon (Xtal-Si) cells, amorphous siliccn (a-Si) cells and concentrators is undertaken. It is concluded that crystalline Si cells can lower significantly their cost by ...

Antonio Luque

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Dow Offers Low-Cost Ethylenimine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New process paves way to commercialization of highly reactive cyclic compound at low cost ... Behind the imine's substantially lower price tag is a new, low-cost commercial process developed by Dow. ...

1963-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

337

Cost Principles Webinar for DOE Grant Recipients  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Cost Principles in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) define, by organization type, what kinds of costs are allowable or unallowable for reimbursement...

338

How Much Does That Incinerator Cost?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biosecurity on poultry farms includes proper disposal of dead carcasses. In many cases, that means using an incinerator. Calculating the cost of an incinerator means considering long and short-term expenses and the cost of fuel. This publication...

Mukhtar, Saqib; Nash, Catherine; Harman, Wyatte; Padia, Reema

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

339

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments.

340

PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. es001barnett2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment PHEV...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Toward Cost-Effective Solar Energy Use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cost), then the sale price of grid-connected PV electricity...would have to be hooked up to the grid, and they would have to cost as...superconducting global transmission grid, supercapacitors, flywheels, etc., as promoted by Smalley...

Nathan S. Lewis

2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

342

Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning.

Q. Yang; G.Q. Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

cost savings | National Nuclear Security Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cost savings | National Nuclear Security Administration People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing...

344

An algorithm for minimization of quantum cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new algorithm for minimization of quantum cost of quantum circuits has been designed. The quantum cost of different quantum circuits of particular interest (eg. circuits for EPR, quantum teleportation, shor code and different quantum arithmetic operations) are computed by using the proposed algorithm. The quantum costs obtained using the proposed algorithm is compared with the existing results and it is found that the algorithm has produced minimum quantum cost in all cases.

Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

345

Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

346

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis Costs of storing and transporting hydrogen A comprehensive comparison of fuel options for fuel cell vehicles

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil Workship on biomass derivatives competitive with heating oil costs.

348

Hydrogen production costs -- A survey  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen, produced using renewable resources, is an environmentally benign energy carrier that will play a vital role in sustainable energy systems. The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of cost-effective technologies for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen in the energy infrastructure. International interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier is high. Research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of hydrogen energy systems are in progress in many countries. Annex 11 of the International Energy Agency (IEA) facilitates member countries to collaborate on hydrogen RD and D projects. The United States is a member of Annex 11, and the US representative is the Program Manager of the DOE Hydrogen R and D Program. The Executive Committee of the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in its June 1997 meeting decided to review the production costs of hydrogen via the currently commercially available processes. This report compiles that data. The methods of production are steam reforming, partial oxidation, gasification, pyrolysis, electrolysis, photochemical, photobiological, and photoelectrochemical reactions.

Basye, L.; Swaminathan, S.

1997-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

349

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Strength; Fiber Format & Manufacturing Methods 1-10 M lbsyr 100M - 1B lbsyr Oil & Gas Deep Water Production Enabler Pipes, Drill Shafts, Off-Shore Structures Low Mass, High...

350

Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Dataset Summary Description The calculator provides information on the assumptions behind foodborne illness cost estimates and gives you a chance to make your own assumptions and calculate your own cost estimates. This interactive web-based tool allows users to estimate the cost of illness due to specific foodborne pathogens. The updated ERS cost estimate for Shiga-toxin producing E. coli O157 (STEC O157) was added to the Calculator in spring, 2008. Calculator users can now review and change the assumptions behind the ERS cost estimates for either STEC O157 or Salmonella. The assumptions that can be modified include the annual number of cases, the distribution of cases by severity, the use or costs of medical care, the amount or value of time lost from work, the costs of premature death, and the disutility costs for nonfatal cases. Users can also update the cost estimate for inflation for any year from 1997 to 2007.

351

Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block ... Secondary school and undergraduate laboratories can build many units for the cost of a commercially comparable one while simultaneously putting to practice several electronic principles taught in most instrumental analysis courses. ... Cost-Effective Teacher ...

Charles G. Shevlin; Ward Coppersmith; Christopher Fish; Stanley Vlock; William Vellema

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Cost-Cautious Designs for Confirmatory Bioassay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-Cautious Designs for Confirmatory Bioassay A. N. Donev, R. Tobias & F. Monadjemi First version, The University of Manchester #12;Cost-Cautious Designs for Confirmatory Bioassay Alexander N. Donev School process when a small number of compounds have to be compared with respect to their properties. As the cost

Sidorov, Nikita

353

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

or parabolic dish) can range between 40-50% of the total costs. To meet SunShot cost target of 6ckWh, the concentrator costs need to reduced from 150-200m 2 to 75m 2...

354

Rationale for cost-effective laboratory medicine.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hospital, work load has increased...to contain costs in the DRG...limit future capital funds for...mechanism to control total health...Although computers can track...performed more cost effectively...investment in capital equipment...in a more cost-efficient...sufficient work load and multiple...of quality control, auto...hospital via computer, telephone...

A Robinson

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Indirect Cost Sharing Policies and Guidelines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indirect Cost Sharing Policies and Guidelines University at Albany In the 1997 Fall semester% of the University's indirect cost return to the schools or colleges, departments, and centers. The allocations are determined in direct proportion to the units' contribution toward the total indirect cost recovery pool

Kidd, William S. F.

356

An integrated cost model for software reuse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several cost models have been proposed in the past for estimating, predicting, and analyzing the costs of software reuse. In this paper we analyze existing models, explain their variance, and propose a tool-supported comprehensive model that encompasses ... Keywords: COCOMO, application engineering, component engineering, domain engineering, return on investment, software cost estimation, software reuse

A. Mili; S. Fowler Chmiel; R. Gottumukkala; L. Zhang

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of such efforts based substantially on empirical data collected from operating facilities. The combined cycle, alternative technologies, combined cycle, simple cycle, integrated gasification combined cycle, coal cost and simple cycle costs are the result of a comprehensive survey of actual costs from the power plant

359

Unit costs of waste management operations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Information erasure without an energy cost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Information erasure without an energy cost Joan A. Vaccaro 1 2 * Stephen...stored in a memory device incurs an energy cost in the form of a minimum amount...We find, however, that this energy cost can be reduced to zero by paying...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Computational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang Telecommunications System Division SAMSUNG present results from a detailed energy measurement study of TCP. We focus on the node- level cost of the TCP protocol and obtain a breakdown of the energy cost of different TCP functions. We analyze

Singh, Suresh

362

Hidden Costs of Energy Chris Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hidden Costs of Energy NRC: 2010 Chris Field Carnegie Institution: Department of Global Ecology www.global-ecology.org #12;What are the real costs of energy? · Health · Environment · Conflict and security · Infrastructure #12;What are the real costs of energy? · Unpriced components · Production · Distribution · Consumption

Kammen, Daniel M.

363

Structure of fast shocks in the presence of heat conduction  

SciTech Connect

There are three types of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks: the fast shock, intermediate shock, and slow shock. The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of heat conduction has been studied earlier [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002); C. L. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 12, 82501 (2005)]. Based on one-dimensional MHD numerical simulations with a heat conduction term, the evolution and structure of fast shocks are studied. The fast shock will form a foreshock in the presence of heat conduction. The foreshock is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream and located in the immediate upstream of the main shock. In the steady state, the value of diffusion velocity V{sub d} in the foreshock is found to nearly equal the upstream convection velocity in the fast shock frame. It is found that the density jump across the main shock in high Mach number case can be much larger than 4 in the early simulation time. However the density jump will gradually evolve to a value smaller than 4 at steady state. By using the modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations with heat flux, the density jump across the fast shock is examined for various upstream parameters. The results show that the calculated density jump with heat flux is very close to the simulation value and the density jump can far exceed the maximum value of 4 without heat conduction. The structure of foreshock and main shock is also studied under different plasma parameters, such as the heat conductivity K{sub 0}, the ratio of upstream plasma pressure to magnetic pressure {beta}{sub 1}, Alfven Mach number M{sub A1}, and the angle {theta}{sub 1} between shock normal and magnetic field. It is found that as the upstream shock parameters K{sub 0}, {beta}{sub 1}, and M{sub A1} increase or {theta}{sub 1} decreases, the width of foreshock L{sub d} increases. The present results can be applied to fast shocks in the solar corona, solar wind, and magnetosphere, in which the heat conduction effects are important.

Tsai, C. L.; Chen, H. H.; Wu, B. H.; Lee, L. C. [Earth Dynamic System Research Center and Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701 Taiwan and Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701 Taiwan and Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China); National Space Organization, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Designing and Implementing Monitoring Based Energy Cost Reduction Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

administering energy information, not acting on it. In addition to implementing an organizational structure that supports ‘action’ oriented monitoring, an effective energy management information system EMIS plays an important role in streamlining... management information system . REFERENCES “Practical near term strategies for identifying and achieving energy cost savings at industrial sites” Pretty B, Hart D, Karp A. paper presented at 2005 World Energy Engineering Congress, San Antonio...

McMullan, A. S.; Pretty, B. L.; Hart, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Focus Area: Ethanol Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.ecn.nl/units/ps/models-and-tools/biotrans/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/biotrans-cost-optimization-model,http Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration & Implementation BIOTRANS optimizes the biofuel supply chain allocation by finding the least-cost configuration of resources and trade to meet a specified biofuel demand in the European transportation sector. The user can constrain the optimization by inputting a number of economic and technological assumptions for a specific target year. References Retrieved from

366

Industrial heat pumps - types and costs  

SciTech Connect

Confusion about energy savings and economics is preventing many potentially beneficial applications for industrial heat pumps. The variety of heat pumps available and the lack of a standard rating system cause some of this confusion. The authors illustrate how a simple categorization based on coefficient of performance (COP) can compare the cost of recovering waste energy with heat pumps. After evaluating examples in which the cost of energy delivered was calculated based on estimates of capital cost, operating costs, and maintenance costs, they compare heat pumps from the various categories on the basis of economics. 6 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Chappell, R.N.; Bliem, C.J. Jr.; Mills, J.I.; Demuth, O.J.; Plaster, D.S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Support for Cost Analyses on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Hartwell Ave 5 Hartwell Ave Lexington, MA 02421 Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles Final Report to: Department of Energy Order DE-DT0000951 Report prepared by TIAX LLC Reference D0535 February 22, 2011 Matt Kromer (Principal Investigator) Kurt Roth Rosalind Takata Paul Chin Copyright 2011, TIAX LLC Notice: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

368

COST AND QUALITY TABLES 95  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Tables 5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts The annual publication Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) will no longer be pub- lished by the EIA. The tables presented in this docu- ment are intended to replace that annual publication. Questions regarding the availability of these data should be directed to: Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division

369

Low-cost inertial measurement unit.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

Deyle, Travis Jay

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Coking Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Import Costs for Selected Countries Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 48.67 46.59 49.25 78.98 108.68 126.85 120.51 163.26 NA France 52.47 60.26 62.05 75.46 109.69 133.48 124.63 212.51 NA Germany 51.30 59.53 64.00 74.74 113.48 135.72 133.45 182.72 NA Italy 55.48 57.67 60.39 77.24 103.02 112.05 118.05 118.97 NA Japan 41.13 42.14 41.73 61.40 88.80 93.10 88.43 184.13 NA Netherlands 55.37 55.55 63.00 78.99 104.06 125.70 125.84 187.06 NA Spain 52.32 57.10 60.44 79.30 116.50 134.81 124.87 211.23 NA United Kingdom 53.14 56.81 57.34 77.73 116.05 128.51 120.24 187.79 NA 1To convert U.S. dollars per metric ton to U.S. dollars per short ton

371

Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34 39.76 66.29 70.83 70.95 82.81 150.58 NA Denmark 40.78 31.65 50.27 56.29 61.84 59.15 75.20 113.34 NA Finland 40.83 37.08 39.99 58.45 62.80 67.65 72.64 134.21 NA France 45.36 42.59 42.63 64.08 75.23 72.92 84.49 135.53 NA Germany 41.46 36.80 39.00 61.22 72.48 70.12 81.49 138.84 NA Ireland3 45.25 47.88 50.08 80.90 74.91 101.78 125.15 143.08 NA Italy 44.83 41.25 42.45 63.54 73.20 69.16 86.00 143.68 NA Japan 37.95 36.95 34.93 51.48 62.73 63.33 70.92 125.42 NA Netherlands 40.09 35.81 37.27 55.09 68.86 68.57 79.12 133.50 NA

372

Cost reduction potential in LMFBR design  

SciTech Connect

LWR capital costs have escalated continuously over the years to the point where today its economics represent a bar to further LWR deployment in the U.S. High initial costs and the promise of a similar pattern of cost escalation in succeeding years for the LMFBR would effectively stop LMFBR deployment in this country before it could even begin. LWR cost escalation in the main can be traced to large increases in both amounts and unit costs of construction materials and to greatly lengthened construction times. Innovative approaches to LMFBR design are now being pursued that show promise for substantial cost reductions particularly in those areas that have contributed most to LWR cost increases.

Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

COST SHARING There are many situations in which questions about cost sharing could be raised.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COST SHARING SCENARIOS There are many situations in which questions about cost sharing could and equipment 8. Academic Year appointments paid over 12 months 9. Handling Overruns 10.Cost sharing that does, but the position was not in the proposal and is paid by gift or other non-sponsored funds, is the effort cost

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

374

UAH Cost Sharing Policy _ revised August 2013 Page 1 COST SHARING ON SPONSORED PROGRAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UAH Cost Sharing Policy _ revised August 2013 Page 1 COST SHARING ON SPONSORED PROGRAMS Note: This policy supersedes all existing policy governing cost sharing on sponsored programs unless otherwise stated herein. Policy Statement The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) engages in cost sharing

Fork, Richard

375

Class Noise Handling for Effective Cost-Sensitive Learning by Cost-Guided  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Class Noise Handling for Effective Cost-Sensitive Learning by Cost-Guided Iterative Classification, and related areas has produced a wide variety of algorithms for cost-sensitive (CS) classification, where instead of maximizing the classification accuracy, minimizing the misclassification cost becomes

Wu, Xindong

376

Labor/Tuition Cost Transfers Involving Sponsored Funds Labor Cost Transfer (Attach Labor Redistribution Worksheet)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Labor/Tuition Cost Transfers Involving Sponsored Funds Labor Cost Transfer (Attach Labor Redistribution Worksheet) Tuition Cost Transfer Greater Than 90 days or Cross Semesters (Attach BRIO Query) Date state that all cost transfers should be requested within 90 days of the original expenditure

Salama, Khaled

377

Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis ­ Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org) Page 5.5-1 5.5 Congestion This chapter examines traffic congestion costs, that is, delay that affect congestion, various estimates of congestion costs, and the benefits of congestion reductions

O'Donnell, Tom

378

Contribution of teg49 Small RNA in the 5? Upstream Transcriptional Region of sarA to Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...strains. The RNA structure of teg49 was predicted by the RNAfold web server ( http://rna.tbi.univie.ac.at/cgi-bin...sRNA teg49. The structure of teg49 was predicted by the RNAfold web server (see Results). Two hairpin-loop structures, HP1...

Samin Kim; Dindo Reyes; Marie Beaume; Patrice Francois; Ambrose Cheung

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

379

College of Engineering Request for Institutional Waiver of Indirect Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PAF Number College of Engineering Request for Institutional Waiver of Indirect Cost Principal Investigator Sponsor Project Title Total Direct Costs Total Modified Direct Costs Full Indirect Costs Rate Full Indirect Costs Amount Total Project Costs (with Full IDC) Requested Indirect Costs Rate Requested Indirect

Kamat, Vineet R.

380

A study of the coherent structures and installation effects in an orifice flow meter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Errors on the order of approximately 250 millions of dollar per year have been estimated for the natural gas industry. The urgent need to improve the accuracy has fueled basic research in the area of orifice flow meters. The objectives of this present... study were to analyze the coherent structures present in an orifice flow meter, and to examine the effect of a flow conditioner placed upstream of the orifice plate on the flow meter's accuracy, The coherent structures were measured by performing...

Pattabhi, Srikanth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

New England Wind Forum: Cost Trends  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Cost Trends Cost Trends Figure 1: Cost of Energy and Cumulative Domestic Capacity This graph shows how the cumulative domestic wind capacity (MW) has increased since 1980, while the cost of energy from wind power has declined by a factor of approximately 20 times during the same period but has increased slightly since 2001. Click on the image to view a larger version. This graph shows how the cumulative domestic wind capacity (MW) has increased since 1980, while the cost of energy from wind power has declined by a factor of approximately 20 times during the same period but has increased slightly since 2001. View a larger version of the graph. Overall, the wind industry is experiencing long-term decreases in the cost to produce wind-generated electricity (Figure 1), despite recent short-term increases in upfront equipment costs. Even in the short term, however, the effect of increases in up-front capital costs on the cost of energy from wind power projects has been dampened by improvements in energy capture from the wind and decreases in operating and maintenance costs.

382

Cost Transfers Involving Sponsored Projects Directives and Procedures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Transfers Involving Sponsored Projects Directives and Procedures Responsible Office: Office....................................................................................................................2 1.3 Cost Transfer..................................................................................................................................................2 4. Documentation of Cost Transfers

Jawitz, James W.

383

Subject: Cost and Price Analysis | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Subject: Cost and Price Analysis Subject: Cost and Price Analysis Subject: Cost and Price Analysis More Documents & Publications Acquisition Letter 2009-03 Acquisition...

384

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program...

385

Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems Presentation by Stephen Lasher on cost analysis of hydrogen storage systems....

386

Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda carbonfiberworkshopagenda.pdf More...

387

DOE Challenge Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Savings and Cost Estimate Summary DOE Challenge Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary The U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary, November...

388

The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California,”The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic ElectricityThe Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Development of Low-Cost, High Strength Commercial Textile Precursor...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

High cost of carbon fiber CF largest cost component of high pressure storage tanks. Inadequate supply base for low cost carbon fibers Timeline Barriers * ORNL:...

390

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehiclesthe societal cost of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles with modelsand running costs) than hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles in 2030.

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refineries with specific energy and cost savings data whenoperations. Typically, energy and cost savings are around 5%the potential energy and cost-savings (Frangopoluos et al. ,

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

The role of parallel heat transport in the relation between upstream scrape-off layer widths and target heat flux width in H-mode plasmas of NSTX.  

SciTech Connect

The physics of parallel heat transport was tested in the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) plasma of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000) and S. M. Kaye, et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, S168 (2005)] tokamak by comparing the upstream electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) profiles measured by the mid-plane reciprocating probe to the heat flux (q{sub {perpendicular}}) profile at the divertor plate measured by an infrared (IR) camera. It is found that electron conduction explains the near SOL width data reasonably well while the far SOL, which is in the sheath limited regime, requires an ion heat flux profile broader than the electron one to be consistent with the experimental data. The measured plasma parameters indicate that the SOL energy transport should be in the conduction-limited regime for R-R{sub sep} (radial distance from the separatrix location) < 2-3 cm. The SOL energy transport should transition to the sheath-limited regime for R-R{sub sep} > 2-3cm. The T{sub e}, n{sub e}, and q{sub {perpendicular}} profiles are better described by an offset exponential function instead of a simple exponential. The conventional relation between mid plane electron temperature decay length ({lambda}{sub Te}) and target heat flux decay length ({lambda}{sub q}) is {lambda}{sub Te} = 7/2{lambda}{sub q}, whereas the newly-derived relation, assuming offset exponential functional forms, implies {lambda}{sub Te} = (2-2.5){lambda}{sub q}. The measured values of {lambda}{sub Te}/{lambda}{sub q} differ from the new prediction by 25-30%. The measured {lambda}{sub q} values in the far SOL (R-R{sub sep} > 2-3cm) are 9-10cm, while the expected values are 2.7 < {lambda}{sub q} < 4.9 cm (for sheath-limited regime). We propose that the ion heat flux profile is substantially broader than the electron heat flux profile as an explanation for this discrepancy in the far SOL.

Ahn, J W; Boedo, J A; Maingi, R; Soukhanovskii, V A

2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

393

A. Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility Determining the cost of a facility as complex as the neutrino source presented here is a very difficult task within the short time period of six months. Three factors contribute to the uncertainty significantly: 1. The number of subsystems in the facility, which are described throughout the report, is comparatively large. All of the subsystems contribute a considerable amount of complexity and cost that have to be addressed by specific expertise in order to find a technical solution and a reasonable cost estimate. The variety of technologies is large and many of them have to be pushed to the edge or beyond and therefore has to be addressed with an appropriate R&D program. Cost savings from mass production will not be

394

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 January 2013 Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 This paper presents average levelized costs for generating technologies that are brought on line in 2018 1 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) Early Release Reference case. 2 Both national values and the minimum and maximum values across the 22 U.S. regions of the NEMS electricity market module are presented. Levelized cost is often cited as a convenient summary measure of the overall competiveness of different generating technologies. It represents the per-kilowatthour cost (in real dollars) of building and operating a generating plant over an assumed financial life and duty cycle. Key

395

Evaluation of desalination costs with DEEP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed analysis has shown several discrepancies and pitfalls of coupling an economic evaluation code, such as SEMER to the desalination cost evaluation code DEEP. This paper resumes our findings, which may be of interest to other DEEP users. The paper in particular deals with the following issues: why is it that power costs from nuclear systems are systematically higher in DEEP than those given by the economic evaluations made by individual organisations, (in our case, the SEMER code for example), even when the calculated construction costs are input into DEEP? Why corresponding power costs for fossil energy systems are lower? Why in particular desalination costs from Gas-Turbine Combined Cycle power system, which is now considered to be the cheapest fossil fuel option, are higher than desalination costs by Pulverised Coal system? Why DEEP calculation results with the backup heat source are 40% higher than those without the backup heat source?

S. Nisan; Linda Volpi

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Vehicle Cost Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vehicle Cost Calculator Vehicle Cost Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Vehicle Cost Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Phase: Evaluate Options Resource Type: Online calculator User Interface: Website Website: www.afdc.energy.gov/calc/ Web Application Link: www.afdc.energy.gov/calc/ OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools Language: English References: Vehicle Cost Calculator[1] Logo: Vehicle Cost Calculator Calculate the total cost of ownership and emissions for makes and models of most vehicles, including alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles. Overview This tool uses basic information about your driving habits to calculate

397

The Cost of Bearing a Sword: Locomotor Costs and Compensations in Relation to a Sexually Selected Trait in Xiphophorus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluating performance costs of sexually selected traits.result in a locomotor cost. References Allen, B. J. &Levinton, J. S. (2006). Costs of bearing a sexually selected

Oufiero, Christopher E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rail transit capital cost study update final. Washington,2005). Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Fundedin US rail transit project cost overrun. Transportation

Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Certificate of Current Cost and Pricing Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERTIFICATE OF CURRENT COST AND PRICING DATA (OCT 1997) CERTIFICATE OF CURRENT COST AND PRICING DATA (OCT 1997) This is to certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data (as defined in section 15.401 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and required under FAR subsection 15.403-4) submitted, either actually or by specific identification in writing, to the Contracting Officer or to the Contracting Officer's representative in support of * are accurate, complete, and current as of **. This certification includes the cost or pricing data supporting any advance agreements and forward pricing rate agreements between the offeror and the Government that are

400

Information erasure without an energy cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Landauer argued that the process of erasing the information stored in a memory device incurs an energy cost in the form of a minimum amount of mechanical work. We find, however, that this energy cost can be reduced to zero by paying a cost in angular momentum or any other conserved quantity. Erasing the memory of Maxwell's demon in this way implies that work can be extracted from a single thermal reservoir at a cost of angular momentum and an increase in total entropy. The implications of this for the second law of thermodynamics are assessed.

Joan A. Vaccaro; Stephen M. Barnett

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Oseltamivir cost saving for influenza in Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oseltamivir is cost saving for the treatment of influenza virus infections, according to researchers from Brazil. This study was presented at the 10th...

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Cost of Fuel to General Electricity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers the topic of the cost of fuel to general electricity for the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

403

Sandia National Laboratories: lowering costs associated with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lowering costs associated with geothermal energy production Sandia and Atlas-Copco Secoroc Advance to Phase 2 in Their Geothermal Energy Project On July 31, 2013, in Energy,...

404

Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

In 2004, DOE has selected TIAX to evaluate the lifecycle cost and WTW energy use and GHG emissions of various hydrogen storage options. Water Electrolyzer Water Electrolyzer...

405

The Law and Economics of Costly Contracting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Markets, Relational Contracting, New York: Free Press (and the Value of Contracting,” 89 American Economic ReviewLAW AND ECONOMICS OF COSTLY CONTRACTING BY ALAN SCHWARTZ AND

Schwartz, Alan; Watson, Joel

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

A study of design oriented cost estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, embossing, draw- 14 ing, forming and extruding of one inch or less. The value of 5 hours is based on the time taken for the following: 1. machine the unit length using a continuous path wire EDM machine, 2. make the die block, 3. make the punch, 4... Function-Cost Table for the Alternatives for Connecting Gear and Shaft 4. 5 Function-Cost Table for the Check Valve 4. 6 Function-Cost Table for the Gas Damper Assembly. . 69 Al. 1 Spreadsheet Used in Machining Cost Estimation A1. 2 Characterestics...

Raman, Ramchand P.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

Sandia National Laboratories: reduce wind energy costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

wind energy costs DOE Completes Construction of State-of-the-Art Wind Plant Performance Facility On April 17, 2013, in Energy, Events, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy,...

408

Low Cost Titanium ? Propulsion Applications | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Applications Low Cost Titanium Propulsion Applications 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

409

Inverter Cost Analysis and Marketing Intelligence | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Marketing Intelligence Inverter Cost Analysis and Marketing Intelligence 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and...

410

Watt Does It Cost To Use It?  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

Students learn how electrical usage is counted and priced. They measure and evaluate energy use and cost of representative household and school electrical items.

411

Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model  

SciTech Connect

This model intends to provide projections of the impact on cost from changes in economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product and Producer Price Index.

Fingersh, L.; Hand, M.; Laxson, A.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average *...

413

23rd steam-station cost survey  

SciTech Connect

The results of the 23rd Steam Station Cost Survey covering the year 1982 are summarized. The major categories of the survey are as follows: general data; output data, 1982; fuel consumption, 1982; operation 1982 (mills/net kWh); investment ($/net kWh); energy cost, 1982 (mills/net kWh); and station performance, 1982. Thirty-one fossil-fuel steam plants and four nuclear stations were included in the survey. Fuel and operating cost increases are felt to be responsible for the moderate rise in total busbar-enery costs. 11 figures, 1 table.

Friedlander, G.D.; Going, M.C.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define program characteristics In a technical baseline description document, identify the program's

416

Modeling the Cost of Climate Policy: Distinguishing Between Alternative Cost Deftitions and Long-Run Cost Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

debate the cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, andpolicy-makers do not know whom to believe dynamics of GHG emission reduction. We explore these generic methodological issues with a case study of GHG reduction costs in Canada. INTRODUCTION In deciding how and by how much to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG

417

White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume III, Appendix B, Fisheries Report; Appendix C, Engineering Alternative Evaluation; Appendix D, Benefit/Cost Analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developd to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. This volume contains appendices of habitat survey data, potential production, resident fish population data, upstream passage designs, and benefit/cost calculations. (ACR)

Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest (Or.)

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

while liquefaction electricity costs ($/kg) are independent0.10/kg while higher electricity costs ($0.075 vs $0.05/kWh)the cost of electricity and the cost of storage lead to

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

NONE

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Technology Cost and Performance Toolkit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Technology Cost and Performance Toolkit (Redirected from Gateway:International/Technology Performance and Costs) Jump to: navigation, search Stage 3 LEDS Home Introduction to Framework Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities Develop_BAU Stage 4: Prioritizing and Planning for Actions Begin execution of implementation plans 1.0. Organizing the LEDS Process 1.1. Institutional Structure for LEDS 1.2. Workplan to Develop the LEDS 1.3. Roles and responsibilities to develop LEDS 2.1. Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities 2.2. Compile lessons learned and good practices from ongoing and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Technology Cost and Performance Toolkit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technology Cost and Performance Toolkit Technology Cost and Performance Toolkit Jump to: navigation, search Stage 3 LEDS Home Introduction to Framework Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities Develop_BAU Stage 4: Prioritizing and Planning for Actions Begin execution of implementation plans 1.0. Organizing the LEDS Process 1.1. Institutional Structure for LEDS 1.2. Workplan to Develop the LEDS 1.3. Roles and responsibilities to develop LEDS 2.1. Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities 2.2. Compile lessons learned and good practices from ongoing and previous sustainable development efforts in the country 2.3. Assess public and private sector capacity to support initiatives 2.4. Assess and improve the national GHG inventory and other economic and resource data as needed for LEDS development

422

System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

Peter Campbell

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Geothermal Analysis Project Description In pursuit of the goal of reducing EGS costs, this project will facilitate the following: - A clear understanding of the current cost structure - Its dependence on markets - The benefits of innovation - The impact of synergistic process configurations, and - Widespread dissemination of the findings for use by the geothermal community

424

Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.  

SciTech Connect

This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Software Cost Reduction Constance L. Heitmeyer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software Cost Reduction Constance L. Heitmeyer Introduction Software Cost Reduction SCR is a set Research Laboratory NRL beginning in the late 1970s. A major goal of the original SCR research team Variable Model 37 and the SCR requirements model 15 , and a set of software tools for analyzing SCR

426

BUSINESS PLAN NIRMAL: LOW COST WATER PURIFICATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NIRMAL #12;BUSINESS PLAN 2 NIRMAL: LOW COST WATER PURIFICATION I. Executive summary Nearly one the water. Hence we intend to address the issue by providing a low cost water purification system using billion people all over the world do not have access to safe drinking water.It is estimated that around 37

Mlllet, Dylan B.

427

Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION COMMISSION Joel Klein Principal Author Ivin Rhyne Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender DeputyCann Please use the following citation for this report: Klein, Joel. 2009. Comparative Costs of California

429

www.praxair.com Low Cost Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.praxair.com Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform Cooperative Agreement: DE-FC36-01GO11004 Timothy M. Aaron Team Praxair - Tonawanda, NY Boothroyd-Dewhurst - Wakefield, RI Diversified Manufacturing (Hot Components Only) Praxair HGS Comparison 1/4 Capacity 1/6 Physical Plant Size Lower H2 Cost

430

Practical Application of Second Law Costing Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or availability. The methods for composing exergy cost flow diagrams will be explained. The results will be shown for several plants - electric-power, co-generation, coal-gasification, and others. The application of such results will be shown for cost...

Wepfer, W. J.; Gaggioli, R. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update  

SciTech Connect

Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

Greene, D.L.

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

432

Cost of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update  

SciTech Connect

Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

Greene, D.L.; Tishchishyna, N.I.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy investigated the major cost factors that affected PMU installation costs for the synchrophasor projects funded through the Recovery Act Smart Grid Programs. The data was compiled through interviews with the nine projects that deployed production grade synchrophasor systems.

434

Calculator program aids well cost management  

SciTech Connect

A TI-59 calculator program designed to track well costs on daily and weekly bases can dramatically facilitate the task of monitoring well expenses. The program computes the day total, cumulative total, cumulative item-row totals, and day-week total. For carrying these costs throughout the drilling project, magnetic cards can store the individual and total cumulative well expenses.

Doyle, C.J.

1982-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

435

Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index indicates that actual escalation since 1970 is near 10% per year. Therefore, the Laboratory will continue using a 10% per year escalation rate for construction estimates through 1985 and a slightly lower rate of 8% per year from 1986 through 1990. The computerized program compares the different elements involved in the cost of a typical construction project, which for our purposes, is a complex of office buildings and experimental laboratores. The input data used in the program consist primarily of labor costs and material and equipment costs. The labor costs are the contractural rates of the crafts workers in the Los Alamos area. For the analysis, 12 field-labor draft categories are used; each is weighted corresponding to the labor craft distribution associated with the typical construction project. The materials costs are current Los Alamos prices. Additional information sources include material and equipment quotes obtained through conversations with vendors and from trade publications. The material and equipment items separate into 17 categories for the analysis and are weighted corresponding to the material and equipment distribution associated with the typical construction project. The building cost index is compared to other national building cost indexes.

Orr, H.D.; Lemon, G.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Los Alamos National Laboratory building cost index  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index indicates that actual escalation since 1970 is near 10% per year. Therefore, the Laboratory will continue using a 10% per year escalation rate for construction estimates through 1985 and a slightly lower rate of 8% per year from 1986 through 1990. The computerized program compares the different elements involved in the cost of a typical construction project, which for our purposes, is a complex of office buildings and experimental laboratories. The input data used in the program consist primarily of labor costs and material and equipment costs. The labor costs are the contractual rates of the crafts workers in the Los Alamos area. For the analysis, 12 field-labor craft categories are used; each is weighted corresponding to the labor craft distribution associated with the typical construction project. The materials costs are current Los Alamos prices. Additional information sources include material and equipment quotes obtained through conversations with vendors and from trade publications. The material and equipment items separate into 17 categories for the analysis and are weighted corresponding to the material and equipment distribution associated with the typical construction project. The building cost index is compared to other national building cost indexes.

Orr, H.D.; Lemon, G.D.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen production equipment Puri?er Storage system Compressor Dispenser Additional equipment Installation costshydrogen storage vessels and compressors. 2.4.4. Feedstock costhydrogen equipment costs. Meyers [2] pro- vides an in depth analyses of reformer, compressor, and storage equipment costs.

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Partner: E3 Analytics Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Phase: Evaluate Options Topics: Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Case studies/examples, Lessons learned/best practices, Technical report Website: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/50225.pdf Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): feed-in tariffs, feed tariffs, FITs, renewable energy, policy design, solar, wind, geothermal Language: English This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on

439

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office provides information about the cost of hydrogen production using low-cost natural gas.

440

Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for use in fuel cell systems need development in order to achieve cost targets. Low-cost, highLow-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 LowLow--CostCost;2 Project objective: Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system Project objective

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Network Cost-Sharing without Anonymity Tim Roughgarden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Network Cost-Sharing without Anonymity Tim Roughgarden Okke Schrijvers August 20, 2014 Abstract We consider network cost-sharing games with non-anonymous cost functions, where the cost of each edge is a submodular function of its users, and this cost is shared using the Shapley value. Non-anonymous cost

Roughgarden, Tim

442

Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation Estimating the costs of nuclear  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on this topic is fairly confusing. Some present electricity production using nuclear power as an affordable of costs and draw a distinction between a private cost and a social cost. The private cost is what evaluating the costs it is impossible to establish the cost price, required to compare electricity production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

The Cost of Superconducting Magnets as a Function of Stored Energy and Design Magnetic Induction Times the Field Volume  

SciTech Connect

By various theorems one can relate the capital cost of superconducting magnets to the magnetic energy stored within that magnet. This is particularly true for magnet where the cost is dominated by the structure needed to carry the magnetic forces. One can also relate the cost of the magnet to the product of the magnetic induction and the field volume. The relationship used to estimate the cost the magnet is a function of the type of magnet it is. This paper updates the cost functions given in two papers that were published in the early 1990 s. The costs (escalated to 2007 dollars) of large numbers of LTS magnets are plotted against stored energy and magnetic field time field volume. Escalated costs for magnets built since the early 1990 s are added to the plots.

Green, Mike; Green, M.A.; Strauss, B.P.

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

444

Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect

A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

Mark Leavitt

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

2003-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

446

Estimating Renewable Energy Costs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating Renewable Energy Costs Estimating Renewable Energy Costs Estimating Renewable Energy Costs October 16, 2013 - 4:40pm Addthis Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically require large, additional capital investments with savings accruing over the project's life. It is crucial that these systems are considered early on in the budgeting process. Early budget requests need to include a set of technologies that could be used to meet the project's design requirements and their associated implementation costs. The design team may respond with a different set of feasible technologies, but it is wise to have an existing placeholder in the budget. Federal agencies can continue to update the budget as decisions

447

Industrial heat pumps: types and costs  

SciTech Connect

Many potentially beneficial applications for industrial heat pumps are not being pursued because of confusion regarding both energy savings and economics. Part of this confusion stems from the variety of heat pumps available and the fact that the measure of merit, the coefficient of performance (COP), is commonly defined in at least three different ways. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, a simple categorization was developed based on the commonly accepted COP definitions. Using this categorization, the cost of recovering waste energy with heat pumps was examined. Examples were evaluated in which the cost of energy delivered was calculated based on estimates of capital cost, operating costs, and maintenance costs. Heat pumps from the various categories were then compared on the basis of economics.

Chappell, R.N.; Bliem, C.J. Jr.; Mills, J.I.; Demuth, O.J.; Plaster, D.S.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Industrial heat pumps - types and costs  

SciTech Connect

Many potentially beneficial applications for industrial heat pumps are not being pursued because of confusion regarding both energy savings and economics. Part of this confusion stems from the variety of heat pumps available and the fact that the measure of merit, the coefficient of performance (COP) is commonly defined in at least three different ways. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, a simple categorization was developed based on the commonly accepted COP definitions. Using this categorization, the cost of recovering waste energy with heat pumps was examined. Examples were evaluated in which the cost of energy delivered was calculated based on estimates of capital cost, operating costs, and maintenance costs. Heat pumps from the various categories were then compared on the basis of economics. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Chappell, R.N.; Bliem, C.J. Jr.; Mills, J.I.; Demuth, O.J.; Plaster, D.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Time-Energy Costs of Quantum Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time and energy of quantum processes are a tradeoff against each other. We propose to ascribe to any given quantum process a time-energy cost to quantify how much computation it performs. Here, we analyze the time-energy costs for general quantum measurements, along a similar line as our previous work for quantum channels, and prove exact and lower bound formulae for the costs. We use these formulae to evaluate the efficiencies of actual measurement implementations. We find that one implementation for a Bell measurement is optimal in time-energy. We also analyze the time-energy cost for unambiguous state discrimination and find evidence that only a finite time-energy cost is needed to distinguish any number of states.

Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

450

Time-energy costs of quantum measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time and energy of quantum processes are a tradeoff against each other. We propose to ascribe to any given quantum process a time-energy cost to quantify how much computation it performs. Here, we analyze the time-energy costs for general quantum measurements, along a similar line as our previous work for quantum channels, and prove exact and lower bound formulas for the costs. We use these formulas to evaluate the efficiencies of actual measurement implementations. We find that one implementation for a Bell measurement is optimal in time energy. We also analyze the time-energy cost for unambiguous state discrimination and find evidence that only a finite time-energy cost is needed to distinguish any number of states.

Chi-Hang Fred Fung and H. F. Chau

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

451

Use of the formula of dynamic discounted costs for determining the replacement cost of electrical energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Determination of the replacement costs of fuel and electrical energy is of great theoretical and practical importance.

D. S. Shchavelev

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Decommissioning Cost Estimating Factors And Earned Value Integration  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats 771 Project progressed from the planning stage of decommissioning a plutonium facility, through the strip-out of highly-contaminated equipment, removal of utilities and structural decontamination, and building demolition. Actual cost data was collected from the strip-out activities and compared to original estimates, allowing the development of cost by equipment groupings and types and over time. Separate data was developed from the project control earned value reporting and compared with the equipment data. The paper discusses the analysis to develop the detailed factors for the different equipment types, and the items that need to be considered during characterization of a similar facility when preparing an estimate. The factors are presented based on direct labor requirements by equipment type. The paper also includes actual support costs, and examples of fixed or one-time start-up costs. The integration of the estimate and the earned value system used for the 771 Project is also discussed. The paper covers the development of the earned value system as well as its application to a facility to be decommissioned and an existing work breakdown structure. Lessons learned are provided, including integration with scheduling and craft supervision, measurement approaches, and verification of scope completion. In summary: The work of decommissioning the Rocky Flats 771 Project process equipment was completed in 2003. Early in the planning process, we had difficulty in identifying credible data and implementing processes for estimating and controlling this work. As the project progressed, we were able to collect actual data on the costs of removing plutonium contaminated equipment from various areas over the life of this work and associate those costs with individual pieces of equipment. We also were able to develop and test out a system for measuring the earned value of a decommissioning project based on an evolving estimate. These were elements that would have been useful to us in our early planning process, and we would expect that they would find application elsewhere as the DOE weapons complex and some commercial nuclear facilities move towards closure. (authors)

Sanford, P.C.; Cimmarron, E. [Englewood, CO, B. Skokan, Office of Project Management Oversight, EM-53, United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks  

SciTech Connect

Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

Lacey, Ph.D, P.E., Ronald E. [Texas A& M University

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

454

Sequential and parallel algorithms for minimum cost parallel decomposition of finite state machines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

form a lattice, where each node in the lattice has a cost associated with it. An algorithm to build the lattice is presented. Also to find the best pos- sible parallel decomposition, an optimal cost algorithm is proposed. Sequential snd parallel.... The OSI Reference Model C. Bottlenecks in Communication Protocols D. High Speed Protocols E. High-Speed Implementations F. Structure of the Thesis THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A. Set Theory . B. Partially Ordered Sets and Lattices C. Sequential Machines...

Shelke, Rajendra Ram

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

The rising cost of warming waters: effects of temperature on the cost of swimming in fishes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Global change biology 1001 25 60 14 The rising cost of warming waters: effects of temperature on the cost of swimming in fishes Andrew M. Hein * Katrina...respond to global climate change. Metabolic cost of transport (COT)-a measure of the energy...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The Economics of Dying -- The Illusion of Cost Savings at the End of Life  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to have informal support structures that enable them to obtain additional services, such as personal attendants not covered by Medicare, that are invisible in most cost estimates. As rates of hospitalization decline, so, too, may the savings from hospice care. Finally, an overwhelming majority of hospice... For more than a decade, health policy analysts have noted -- and some have decried -- the high cost of dying1–7. With the acceleration of pressures on health care costs and calls for reform, considerably more attention has been focused on proposals to ...

Emanuel E.J.; Emanuel L.L.

1994-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

457

R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Response of Fish Assemblage Structure and Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), and the creation of deep upstream refugia pools. This is one of the first studies to use both structural and func, the water-mediated transfer of energy, matter, and organisms throughout the hydrologic cycle (sensu Pringle acknowledged as a critical component of long- term conservation strategies (Young et al. 2005). Restoration

Langerhans, Brian

458

Do feed-in tariffs drive PV cost or viceversa?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A survey of the PV market in Italy was done studying a number of installations of different sizes whose economic data were known and assessed. The Italian market has experienced a boom in the PV market after the first mechanism of feed-in tariffs was promoted in 2005. The variations of the tariff structure in the following years have caused significant changes in the market structure in terms of average size and technical characteristics of installed plants. However, an Italian PV industry was not stimulated by the incentives and only companies involved in installation and maintenance were created. At the same time, the cost of the PV plants components, design and commissioning have followed quite a particular trend, which is more determined by the tariffs than by the market development and structure. It is quite clear that the costs of PV plants component are not driven by the amount of installations but by the tariffs, with a trend that follows the decreases in the incentives and not the global installed power. It is therefore very important to study the right tariff mechanisms and benefits to avoid financial disturbances on the market and to promote a real competitive market instead of a simple financial operation under a fake façade of green economy.

Marco Antonelli; Umberto Desideri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Cost estimate of electricity produced by TPV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A crucial parameter for the market penetration of TPV is its electricity production cost. In this work a detailed cost estimate is performed for a Si photocell based TPV system, which was developed for electrically self-powered operation of a domestic heating system. The results are compared to a rough estimate of cost of electricity for a projected GaSb based system. For the calculation of the price of electricity, a lifetime of 20 years, an interest rate of 4.25% per year and maintenance costs of 1% of the investment are presumed. To determine the production cost of TPV systems with a power of 12–20 kW, the costs of the TPV components and 100 EUR kW?1el,peak for assembly and miscellaneous were estimated. Alternatively, the system cost for the GaSb system was derived from the cost of the photocells and from the assumption that they account for 35% of the total system cost. The calculation was done for four different TPV scenarios which include a Si based prototype system with existing technology (?sys = 1.0%), leading to 3000 EUR kW?1el,peak, an optimized Si based system using conventional, available technology (?sys = 1.5%), leading to 900 EUR kW?1el,peak, a further improved system with future technology (?sys = 5%), leading to 340 EUR kW?1el,peak and a GaSb based system (?sys = 12.3% with recuperator), leading to 1900 EUR kW?1el,peak. Thus, prices of electricity from 6 to 25 EURcents kWh?1el (including gas of about 3.5 EURcents kWh?1) were calculated and compared with those of fuel cells (31 EURcents kWh?1) and gas engines (23 EURcents kWh?1).

Günther Palfinger; Bernd Bitnar; Wilhelm Durisch; Jean-Claude Mayor; Detlev Grützmacher; Jens Gobrecht

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Production costs and supply of biomass by U.S. Region  

SciTech Connect

The Biofuels Feedstock Development Program has attempted to estimate the cost of producing dedicated energy crops for several regions of the United States. Switchgrass and hybrid poplar have been chosen as representative herbaceous and woody crop species for the estimation. A full economic cost accounting approach is used. This means that not only are out-of-pocket cash expenses (e.g. fertilizers, chemicals, seeds, fuel, repairs) estimated, but fixed costs (e.g., overhead, taxes) and the costs of owned resources (e.g., producer`s own labor, equipment depreciation, land values) are also estimated as part of the cost of producing dedicated energy crops. The costs are estimated as enterprise budgets which means that costs of producing energy crops are estimated as separate entities, and not estimated in context of the entire farm management structure. Competitiveness of energy crops with conventional crops vary by region. Breakeven prices are regional averages. Breakeven prices for poplar are higher than for switchgrass in all regions, in large part due to the higher cost of producing poplars.

Walsh, M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Low-cost coherent receiver for long-reach optical access network using single-ended detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A low-cost coherent receiver using two 2×3 optical hybrids and single-ended detection is proposed for long-reach optical access network. This structure can detect the two...

Zhang, Xuebing; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Jianping; Yu, Changyuan; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Low-cost flexible packaging materials for batteries.  

SciTech Connect

Considerable cost savings can be realized if the metal container used for lithium-based batteries is replaced with a flexible multi-laminate containment commonly used in the food packaging industry. This laminate structure must have air, moisture, and electrolyte barrier capabilities, be resistant to hydrogen-fluoride attack, and be heat-sealable. After extensive screening of commercial films, the polyethylene and polypropylene classes of polymers were found to have an adequate combination of mechanical, permeation, and seal-strength properties. The search for a better film and adhesive is ongoing.

Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Newman, A. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

6 GeV light source project cost estimating procedure  

SciTech Connect

To maintain uniformity in estimating the cost requirements of the various components of the 6 GeV Light Source, the following procedure will be used by all the task groups. The procedure uses a Work Breakdown Structure (VBS) to break down the project into manageable, easy to estimate, components. The project is first broken down into major tasks or categories. Then each major division is continuously subdivided until the desired level of detail is achieved. This can be shown best by using the example of the WBS of the Aladdin Upgrade Project, excerpts of which are included in Appendix A.

NONE

1985-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

464

Cost Recovery | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Recovery Cost Recovery Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(155) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations Categorical Exclusions Coordinating Permit Office Cost Mechanisms Cost Recovery geothermal Hawaii NEPA permitting quarterly meeting White Papers On June 26th, we held the 3rd Quarter GRR Stakeholder Update at the Grand Sierra Resort in Reno, NV. The meeting was well-attended with over 40 attendees, including in-person and webinar attendance. Thanks to all who attended! Files: application/pdf icon Presentation: 3rd Quarterly Stakeholder Update Meeting application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation icon Mock-up: GRR Permitting Wizard Interface Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(155)

465

Definition: Reduced Congestion Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Congestion Cost Transmission congestion is a phenomenon that occurs in electric power markets. It happens when scheduled market transactions (generation and load) result in power flow over a transmission element that exceeds the available capacity for that element. Since grid operators must ensure that physical overloads do not occur, they will dispatch generation so as to prevent them. The functions that provide this benefit provide lower cost energy, decrease loading on system elements, shift load to off-peak, or allow the grid operator to manage the flow of electricity around constrained interfaces (i.e. dynamic line capability or power flow control).[1] Related Terms power, transmission lines, load, element, electricity

466

Cost Mechanisms | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Mechanisms Cost Mechanisms Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(155) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations Categorical Exclusions Coordinating Permit Office Cost Mechanisms Cost Recovery geothermal Hawaii NEPA permitting quarterly meeting White Papers On June 26th, we held the 3rd Quarter GRR Stakeholder Update at the Grand Sierra Resort in Reno, NV. The meeting was well-attended with over 40 attendees, including in-person and webinar attendance. Thanks to all who attended! Files: application/pdf icon Presentation: 3rd Quarterly Stakeholder Update Meeting application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation icon Mock-up: GRR Permitting Wizard Interface Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(155)

467

Low Cost, High Performance, 50-year Electrode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an extremely durable, highly active, conductive, and inexpensive electrode for flow batteries. Flow batteries offer one of the most exciting opportunities for affordable grid storage, however electrodes are costly and are the single largest cost component in a well integrated design. Grid storage can yield numerous benefits in utility and customer- owned applications:  renewable firming  peak load reduction  load shifting  capital deferral  frequency regulation By incorporating volume production practices from the chlorine, filter media, and electroplating industries, Primus Power will effectively reduce electrode costs to exceed GRIDS cost targets while providing the durability essential for widespread grid-scale adoption.

468

NETL: Guide for Preparation of Cost Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Business Opportunities and Business Opportunities Guide for Preparation of Cost Proposals The following guide is to be used in the preparation of the offeror's cost proposal. It provides general instructions as well as the format, exhibits and content that is required to be included in the submission. In addition, the exhibits include examples of both cost elements and indirect rate data that are in typical proposals. Please note that these are provided as a guide only. Do not attempt to conform your proposal to match the exact elements and accounts in the examples. Both the cost elements and indirect rate data in your proposal should be able to be traced to and supported by your accounting system. Any questions should be directed to the contact person noted in the instructions.

469

Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes US Department of Energy Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Kickoff Meeting, Washington DC, February 13, 2007 Michel Fouré Project Objectives z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80°C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a membrane capable of operating at 120°C for brief periods of time. z To elucidate membrane degradation and failure mechanisms. U:jen/slides/pres.07/FC kickoff Washington DC 2-13-07 2 Technical Barriers Addressed z Membrane Cost z Membrane Durability z Membrane capability to operate at low relative humidity. z Membrane capability to operate at 120ºC for brief period of times.

470

On the Accuracy of Regulatory Cost Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On the Accuracy of Regulatory Cost Estimates On the Accuracy of Regulatory Cost Estimates Speaker(s): Richard Morgenstern Date: December 10, 2013 - 12:00pm - 1:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Alan Sanstad Margaret Taylor Over the past several decades, the U.S. has seen a gradual reduction in economic regulation and a simultaneous increase in safety, health, environmental, and other social regulations. Especially with the prospect of regulation on greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act, there is growing concern about the costs, effectiveness, and benefits of federal rules. While prospective or ex ante analyses of the benefits and costs of major federal regulations are now a standard part of government operations, retrospective or ex post analyses, focusing on measurements of actual

471

Unit Cost Natural Gas | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2 2 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142281532 Varnish cache server Unit Cost Natural Gas Dataset Summary Description Provides annual energy usage for years 1989 through 2010 for UT at Austin; specifically, electricity usage (kWh), natural gas usage (Mcf), associated costs. Also provides water consumption for 2005 through 2010. Source University of Texas (UT) at Austin, Utilities & Energy Management Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Consumption Natural Gas Texas Unit Cost Electricity Unit Cost Natural Gas University Water Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Energy and Water Use Data for UT-Austin (xls, 32.8 KiB) Quality Metrics

472

Unit Cost Electricity | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8 8 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142281518 Varnish cache server Unit Cost Electricity Dataset Summary Description Provides annual energy usage for years 1989 through 2010 for UT at Austin; specifically, electricity usage (kWh), natural gas usage (Mcf), associated costs. Also provides water consumption for 2005 through 2010. Source University of Texas (UT) at Austin, Utilities & Energy Management Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Consumption Natural Gas Texas Unit Cost Electricity Unit Cost Natural Gas University Water Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Energy and Water Use Data for UT-Austin (xls, 32.8 KiB) Quality Metrics

473

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SOA * Project leverages extensive space experience by JPL and L'Garde to develop a low-cost parabolic dish capable of providing 4 kW thermal. Key features: * Metallized reflective...

474

Watt Does It Cost To Use It?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Watt Does It Cost to Use It? Grades: 5-8, 9-12 Topic: Energy Efficiency and Conservation Author: Mark Ziesmer Owner: Alliance to Save Energy This educational material is brought to...

475

Physical Cost of Erasing Quantum Correlation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Erasure of information stored in a quantum state requires energy cost and is inherently an irreversible operation. If quantumness of a system is physical, does erasure of quantum correlation as measured by discord also need some energy cost? Here, we show that change in quantum correlation is never larger than the total entropy change of the system and the environment. The entropy cost of erasing correlation has to be at least equal to the amount of quantum correlation erased. Hence, quantum correlation can be regarded as genuinely physical. We show that the new bound leads to the Landauer erasure. The physical cost of erasing quantum correlation is well respected in the case of bleaching of quantum information, thermalization, and can have potential application for any channel leading to erasure of quantum correlation.

Arun Kumar Pati

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

476

Modeling the Costs of Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper explores the fundamental concepts required to model intertemporal carbon capture costs. A technical overview of post-combustion, pre-combustion, and alternative combustion carbon capture technologies i...

Erin Baker; Gregory Nemet; Peter Rasmussen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Building low-cost music controllers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents our work on building low-cost music controllers intended for educational and creative use. The main idea was to build an electronic music controller, including sensors and a sensor interface, on a “10 euro” budget. We ...

Alexander Refsum Jensenius; Rodolphe Koehly; Marcelo M. Wanderley

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Explorations in Low-Cost Compliant Robotics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the findings of exploratory research in low-cost compliant robotics. The most heavily leveraged trade-off is that of mechanical precision for computational power, with the hope that the price of future ...

Kumpf, Adam

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

479

Explorations in low-cost compliant robotics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the findings of exploratory research in low-cost compliant robotics. The most heavily leveraged trade-off is that of mechanical precision for computational power, with the hope that the price of future ...

Kumpf, Adam (Adam A.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

External Costs of Fossil Fuel Cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of energy causes damage to a wide range of receptors, including human health, natural ecosystems, and the built environment. Such damages are referred to as external costs, as they are not reflected in...

W. Krewitt; P. Mayerhofer; R. Friedrich; A. Trukenmüller…

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upstream cost structures" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Rationale for cost-effective laboratory medicine.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...expendi- tures had become an important political issue (6). The conclu- sion had been...based on probability theory, iatrogenic risks, clini- cal decision making, cost...unknown. This can alleviate the premature investment in capital equipment or new personnel...

A Robinson

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Keeping down the cost of LEP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... welding them together. But the low magnetic fields required for LEP (to reduce bending, synchroton radiation, and running costs) can be obtained by bonding a smaller number of steel ...

Konrad Guettler

1978-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

483

Cost Effective Cooling Strategies for Manufacturing Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial plants are designed for a specific purpose of manufacturing products or a group of products in the most cost effective way. One factor which is often very poorly addressed is the environmental requirements for the workplace. Environmental...

Kumar, R.

484

Renewable electricity policies, heterogeneity, and cost effectiveness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Renewable electricity policies promote investment in renewable electricity generators and have become increasingly common around the world. Because of intermittency and the composition of other generators in the power system, the value of certain renewable – particularly wind and solar – varies across locations and technologies. This paper investigates the implications of this heterogeneity for the cost effectiveness of renewable electricity policies. A simple model of the power system shows that renewable electricity policies cause different investment mixes. Policies also differ according to their effect on electricity prices, and both factors cause the cost effectiveness to vary across policies. We use a detailed, long-run planning model that accounts for intermittency on an hourly basis to compare the cost effectiveness for a range of policies and alternative parameter assumptions. The differences in cost effectiveness are economically significant, where broader policies, such as an emissions price, outperform renewable electricity policies.

Harrison Fell; Joshua Linn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Cost Recovery in Congested Electricity Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Large scale investments in European electricity networks are foreseen in the next decade. Pricing the network at marginal cost will not be sufficient to pay for ... derives numerically the socially optimal transm...

Guido Pepermans; Bert Willems

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Costing plutonium: economics of reprocessing in India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relative merits of reprocessing and direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel have been widely debated in Europe and the USA. An important aspect of the debate has been the economics of reprocessing. So far there have been no studies of the subject in the Indian context. This study assesses the economics of reprocessing in India and the cost of producing plutonium for the fast breeder reactor programme. Our results suggest that the cost of reprocessing each kilogram of spent fuel would cost approximately Rs. 26,000 (approx. $600) with assumptions favourable to reprocessing, and close to Rs. 30,000 (approx. $675) under other assumptions. These costs are lower than the corresponding figures for reprocessing plants in Europe, the USA, and Japan. As in their case, however, it is unlikely to be an economically viable method of waste disposal.

M.V. Ramana; J.Y. Suchitra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Top Low- or No-Cost Improvements  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation describes the top low- or no-cost projects to improve energy efficiency as identified in energy assessments performed by DOE and by the Industrial Assessment Centers.

488

The Measured Cost of Conservative Garbage Collection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approaches. Techniques for dynamic storage management can be divided into two broad categories: explicit programs to use automatic storage management. Another common approach to automatic The Measured Cost of Conservative Garbage Collection Benjamin Zorn Department of Computer Science

Ramsey, Norman

489

Harmonizing Systems and Software Cost Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to examine the gaps and overlaps between software and systems engineering cost models with intent to harmonize the estimates in engineering engineering estimation. In particular, we evaluate ...

Wang, Gan

2009-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

490

Cost of heliostats in low volume production  

SciTech Connect

This study indicates that in small volumes, heliostats can be produced at an installed cost of approximately 200 $/M/sup 2/ for a 49.053 m/sup 2/ heliostat. Initial one-time costs of $10 to $15 million would be required, although part of the one-time costs are recoverable. This study provides estimated costs of heliostats that are produced in a plant operating on a continuous basis for a period of four years at a production rate of 2,500 heliostats per year. This scenario was selected somewhat arbitrarily as a scenario that could lead to heliostat market of 5,000 to 10,000 units per year.

Drumheller, K.; Williams, T. A.; Dilbeck, R. A.; Allison, G. S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...purportedly creates a “virtuous cycle of poverty reduction and...costs of land clearing. In general, landholders’ agricultural...10 km/h (2). Price of diesel, $1.2/L. { Estimated...South Africa: A computable general equilibrium analysis. The...

Jacob Phelps; Luis Roman Carrasco; Edward L. Webb; Lian Pin Koh; Unai Pascual

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Cost of Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

as well as projections for the future. Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P. (March 2013). 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review. National Renewable...

493

Energy and cost optimization in industrial models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A program for Linear Energy Optimization (LEO...) which was used to investigate thermodynamical and technical options of reducing the energy-consumption of industrialized countries is extended to handle the cost ...

H. -M. Groscurth; R. Kümmel

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Energy cost and energy sources in karate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy costs and energy sources in karate (wado style) were...2max) 36.8 ml · min?1 · kg?1) performing six katas (formal, organized movement sequences) of increasing duration (from approximately. 10 s to approxim...

M. P. Francescato; T. Talon…

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

The energy cost of walking in children  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Size, morphology and motor skills change dramatically during growth and this probably has an effect on the cost of locomotion. In this study, the effects of age and speed on the energy expended while walking w...

D. DeJaeger; P.A. Willems; N.C. Heglund

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Furnace can Cut Solar Industry Costs A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF)-developed by the National Renew- able Energy Laboratory (NREL) with funding from the U.S....

497

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

Sharon Sjostrom

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Estimating the Economic Costs of Espionage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reports often cite wide- ranging figures for dollars lost, researchers are hesitant to release their methodologies and sources of data. For example, a 2004 report on the costs of cyber-crime by the Congressional Research Service assessed... lack sufficient information on the process, variables, and data used to estimate cost. 1 U.S. Congressional Research Service. “The Economic Impact of Cyber-Attacks,” (RL32331; April 1, 2004) Brian...

Bell, Rich; Bennett, J. Ethan; Boles, Jillian R.; Goodoien, David M.; Irving, Jeff W.; Kuhlman, Phillip B.; White, Amanda K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Theories on Auctions with Participation Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THEORIES ON AUCTIONS WITH PARTICIPATION COSTS A Dissertation by XIAOYONG CAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2009 Major... Subject: Economics THEORIES ON AUCTIONS WITH PARTICIPATION COSTS A Dissertation by XIAOYONG CAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

Cao, Xiaoyong

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

500

Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts  

SciTech Connect

Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z