National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for upstream cost structures

  1. UpStream: Motivating Water Conservation with Low-Cost Water Flow Sensing and Persuasive Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    - another byproduct of excessive water use, which leads to pollution. While reduced water usage in the USUpStream: Motivating Water Conservation with Low-Cost Water Flow Sensing and Persuasive Displays, Pittsburgh, PA, USA {stace, paulos}@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Water is our most precious and most rapidly declining

  2. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  3. Large-eddy simulations of structure effects of an upstream elbow main pipe on hot and cold fluids mixing in a vertical tee junction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attinger, Daniel

    in e.g. nuclear power plants. In the present work, the mixing of a hot and a cold fluid streamLarge-eddy simulations of structure effects of an upstream elbow main pipe on hot and cold fluids Fuel Injection Equipment Stock Co., Ltd., Beijing 100166, China c Department of Mechanical Engineering

  4. Multidisciplinary Structural Design and Optimization for Performance, Cost, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multidisciplinary Structural Design and Optimization for Performance, Cost, and Flexibility;Multidisciplinary Structural Design and Optimization for Performance, Cost, and Flexibility by William David Nadir and improving performance are two key factors in structural design. In the aerospace and automotive industries

  5. BIODIVERSITY Comparing latitudinal and upstream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García-Berthou, Emili

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Comparing latitudinal and upstream­ downstream gradients: life history traits holbrooki) along latitudinal and upstream­downstream river gradients and to assess the effects of age° of latitude in the Mediterranean region and seven sites along the upstream­downstream gradient in three

  6. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  7. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

    1999-01-01

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  8. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  9. Multidisciplinary structural design and optimization for performance, cost, and flexibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadir, William David, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    Reducing cost and improving performance are two key factors in structural design. In the aerospace and automotive industries, this is particularly true with respect to design criteria such as strength, stiffness, mass, ...

  10. SBSP Commercial Upstream Incentive Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SBSP Commercial Upstream Incentive Project 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Todd Levin, tlevin@anl.gov, Cathy Milostan, cmilostan@anl.gov Argonne National Laboratory...

  11. Two Problems With Cost Structures There are two problems with the cost structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsh, David

    the factors that go into a cost can be compared. I argue that in Starbucks and other café environments we need as currently practiced. Ordering & Preparing Drinks: Starbucks To study how the problems of multiple costs, communicating and preparing espresso-based drinks at Starbucks. Starbucks does not permit filming so we brought

  12. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  13. Upstream swimming in microbiological flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathijssen, Arnold J T M; Yeomans, Julia M; Doostmohammadi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between microorganisms and their complex flowing environments are essential in many biological systems. We develop a model for microswimmer dynamics in non-Newtonian Poiseuille flows. We predict that swimmers in shear-thickening (-thinning) fluids migrate upstream more (less) quickly than in Newtonian fluids and demonstrate that viscoelastic normal stress differences reorient swimmers causing them to migrate upstream at the centreline, in contrast to well-known boundary accumulation in quiescent Newtonian fluids. Based on these observations, we suggest a sorting mechanism to select microbes by swimming speed.

  14. Upstream swimming in microbiological flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold J. T. M. Mathijssen; Tyler N. Shendruk; Julia M. Yeomans; Amin Doostmohammadi

    2015-07-03

    Interactions between microorganisms and their complex flowing environments are essential in many biological systems. We develop a model for microswimmer dynamics in non-Newtonian Poiseuille flows. We predict that swimmers in shear-thickening (-thinning) fluids migrate upstream more (less) quickly than in Newtonian fluids and demonstrate that viscoelastic normal stress differences reorient swimmers causing them to migrate upstream at the centreline, in contrast to well-known boundary accumulation in quiescent Newtonian fluids. Based on these observations, we suggest a sorting mechanism to select microbes by swimming speed.

  15. 1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 1. Go on top of the check-dam and survey the water-shed, i.e., the upstream part from which water ows into the storage. 2. What is the storage in the dam (in cu.m.)? 3. What is the length and depth of the dam? What is its structure and cost? How much time did it take to build the dam? 4. Where

  16. Understanding SmartTag Structure in Workday Researching Cost Center and Fund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    in Banner combined to represent an index. As you may already be aware, Cost Center hierarchy is the keyUnderstanding SmartTag Structure in Workday Researching Cost Center and Fund For new SmartTag requests In Workday, we have funds and cost centers similar to how we had funds and org codes in Banner

  17. UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM INFLUENCE ON STBLI UNSTEADINESS Upstream and Downstream Influence on the Unsteadiness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín, Pino

    UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM INFLUENCE ON STBLI UNSTEADINESS 1 Upstream and Downstream Influence the upstream flow and downstream flow with the shock motions. In Section 6, we characterize the separa between the incoming flow and the shock motions, as well as the downstream flow and the shock unsteadiness

  18. Bin packing with general cost structures Leah Epstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Leah

    of Industrial Engineering and Management, The Technion, Haifa, Israel. levinas@ie.technion.ac.il. 1 #12;Anily a larger load than a processor that executes a smaller number of long tasks, even if the total duration are not related to this paper. A related model was studied by Li and Chen [25]. In this model the cost of a bin

  19. Task Assignment in a Heterogeneous Server Farm with Switching Delays and General Energy-Aware Cost Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyytiä, Esa

    Task Assignment in a Heterogeneous Server Farm with Switching Delays and General Energy-Aware Cost costs include energy related switching and processing costs, as well as general performance. Therefore, in this paper we assume that the general cost structure includes energy consumption related costs

  20. Novel Inkjet-Printed Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Structures on Low-Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    on a multilayer paper substrate, which permits to implement low-cost and eco-friendly structures. A broadband waveguide, paper-based inkjet-printed technology, eco-friendly materials. I. INTRODUCTION The implementation

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Cost, Structurally Advanced Novel Electrode and Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 24M Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low cost, structurally...

  2. Economics of Online Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbines: Cost Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    ' desire a shift away from carbon intensive electricity generation. Wind power is increasingly becomingEconomics of Online Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbines: Cost Benefit Analysis Jeremy Van monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Evaluating the effects of upstream lakes and wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and recalculated downstream lake phosphorus concentra- tions. We found that upstream lakes decreased the phosphorusRESEARCH ARTICLE Evaluating the effects of upstream lakes and wetlands on lake phosphorus of these inputs. In addition, the presence, connectivity, and configuration of upstream lakes and wetlands likely

  4. COOPERATIVE GAME THEORY SOLUTION IN AN UPSTREAM-DOWNSTREAM RELATIONSHIP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COOPERATIVE GAME THEORY SOLUTION IN AN UPSTREAM-DOWNSTREAM RELATIONSHIP By Ezio Marchi Paula Andrea THEORY SOLUTION IN AN UPSTREAM-DOWNSTREAM RELATIONSHIP MARCHI, Ezio Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San; and second, an economic element, where we reconsider the upstream-downstream relationship under a cooperative

  5. Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

  6. World trends: Improving fortunes restore upstream health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    After a decade of recovery from the oil price collapse of 1986, the global upstream industry appears headed for a period of renewed strength and growth. Underpinning the prosperity is steady unrelenting growth in crude demand. Stronger global crude demand and heavy natural gas usage in the US are driving higher prices. Operators are reacting to better prices with larger drilling programs. Also boosting drilling levels are crude production expansion projects that many countries have underway in response to perceived future demand. Not surprisingly, World Oil`s outlook calls for global drilling to rise 4.5% to 60,273 wells, a second straight annual increase. Better US activity is helping, but so are stronger-than-expected numbers in Canada. Meanwhile, World Oil`s 51st annual survey of governments and operators indicates that global oil production rose 1.4% last year, to 62,774 million bpd. That was not enough, however, to keep up with demand. The paper discusses financial performance, business practices, other factors, and operating outlook. A table lists the 1996 forecasts, estimated wells drilled in 1995, and total wells and footage drilled in 1994 by country. A second table lists global crude and condensate production and wells actually producing in 1995 versus 1994.

  7. Development of a Preliminary Decommissioning Plan Following the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations - 13361

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moshonas Cole, Katherine; Dinner, Julia; Grey, Mike [Candesco - A Division of Kinectrics Inc, 26 Wellington E 3rd floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5E 1S2 (Canada)] [Candesco - A Division of Kinectrics Inc, 26 Wellington E 3rd floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5E 1S2 (Canada); Daniska, Vladimir [DECOM a.s., Sibirska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)] [DECOM a.s., Sibirska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-01

    The International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, published by OECD/NEA, IAEA and EC is intended to provide a uniform list of cost items for decommissioning projects and provides a standard format that permits international cost estimates to be compared. Candesco and DECOM have used the ISDC format along with two costing codes, OMEGA and ISDCEX, developed from the ISDC by DECOM, in three projects: the development of a preliminary decommissioning plan for a multi-unit CANDU nuclear power station, updating the preliminary decommissioning cost estimates for a prototype CANDU nuclear power station and benchmarking the cost estimates for CANDU against the cost estimates for other reactor types. It was found that the ISDC format provides a well defined and transparent basis for decommissioning planning and cost estimating that assists in identifying gaps and weaknesses and facilitates the benchmarking against international experience. The use of the ISDC can also help build stakeholder confidence in the reliability of the plans and estimates and the adequacy of decommissioning funding. (authors)

  8. General equilibrium, electricity generation technologies and the cost of carbon abatement: A structural sensitivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General equilibrium, electricity generation technologies and the cost of carbon abatement Institute of Technology, USA a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 25 February 2011: C61 C68 D58 Q43 Keywords: Carbon policy Energy modeling Electric power sector Bottom-up Top

  9. Upstream Measurements of Wind Profiles with Doppler Lidar for Improved Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Frehlich

    2012-10-30

    New upstream measurements of wind profiles over the altitude range of wind turbines will be produced using a scanning Doppler lidar. These long range high quality measurements will provide improved wind power forecasts for wind energy integration into the power grid. The main goal of the project is to develop the optimal Doppler lidar operating parameters and data processing algorithms for improved wind energy integration by enhancing the wind power forecasts in the 30 to 60 minute time frame, especially for the large wind power ramps. Currently, there is very little upstream data at large wind farms, especially accurate wind profiles over the full height of the turbine blades. The potential of scanning Doppler lidar will be determined by rigorous computer modeling and evaluation of actual Doppler lidar data from the WindTracer system produced by Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies, Inc. of Louisville, Colorado. Various data products will be investigated for input into numerical weather prediction models and statistically based nowcasting algorithms. Successful implementation of the proposed research will provide the required information for a full cost benefit analysis of the improved forecasts of wind power for energy integration as well as the added benefit of high quality wind and turbulence information for optimal control of the wind turbines at large wind farms.

  10. Literature review : reducing soft costs of rooftop solar installations attributed to structural considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  11. Accelerated quantification of critical parameters for predicting the service life and life cycle costs of chloride-laden reinforced concrete structures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai Gopalakrishnan, Radhakrishna

    2003-01-01

    The use of corrosion resistant steels (instead of conventional carbon steels) and/or high performance concrete can increase the overall service life and can reduce the life cycle cost (LCC) of reinforced concrete (RC) structures exposed to chloride...

  12. Numerical Evaluation of the Energy for Upstream Opportunistic Large Array-based Transmissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, Mary Ann

    protocols [1]. Even though the network is Ad Hoc in nature, one can optimize energy usage by judicious the upstream behavior of OLACRA-FT, in terms of the energy usage. This upstream routing back to the sink hasNumerical Evaluation of the Energy for Upstream Opportunistic Large Array-based Transmissions R

  13. STEREO observations of upstream and downstream waves at low Mach number shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    STEREO observations of upstream and downstream waves at low Mach number shocks C. T. Russell,1 L. K; published 13 February 2009. [1] Early theories of upstream and downstream wave formation at laminar (low, propagating upstream along the shock normal. Downstream waves were attributed to nearly perpendicular shocks

  14. Pickup Ions Upstream and Downstream of Shocks G. Gloeckler*,, L. A. Fisk and L. J. Lanzerotti**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickup Ions Upstream and Downstream of Shocks G. Gloeckler*,, L. A. Fisk and L. J. Lanzerotti from upstream to downstream is relatively small in the case of Jupiter's bow shock. The presence of pre, the reverse shock of a Corotating Interaction Region, and the Jovian bow shock. Upstream ion velocity

  15. Chutes and ladders and other games we play with rivers. I. Simulated effects of upstream passage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jager, Henriette I.

    or downstream passage, was harmful to the metapopulation as a whole. However, upstream passage was beneficial downstream passage). The combi- nation of upstream and downstream passage was most beneficial at dams aboveChutes and ladders and other games we play with rivers. I. Simulated effects of upstream passage

  16. Waves upstream and downstream of interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Waves upstream and downstream of interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections P. Kajdic,1) waves and higher-frequency (HF, 1 Hz) whistler precursors upstream of these shocks. Downstream of them as in the upstream case. We find that IP shocks with relatively small Mms can excite waves in large regions in front

  17. The future potential of earth sheltered structures: cost, acceptability and planning considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.; Carmody, J.

    1980-12-01

    Earth sheltered structures have received an increasing amount of attention over the past few years. This has been primarily due to their typically low requirements for both heating and cooling energy. Their potential; however, not only lies in their energy performance but also in their ability to deal with a number of planning and design issues that must be faced in many locations. These issues include: noise protection, storm protection, saving a usable land area above the building and providing a minimum impact on the environment and ecology of a site. Against this promising potential must be weighed the factors which have made such structures undesirable from a designer's and user's point of view in the past. In addition, there are also a few new constraints which have arisen as the use of this building form has grown. This paper examines these issues and discusses the current acceptability and possible future potential of earth sheltered structures.

  18. Test plan : reducing soft costs of rooftop solar installations attributed to structural considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  19. Cost-effective Printing of 3D Objects with Skin-Frame Structures Weiming Wang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Jiansong

    ; Keywords: 3D printing, fabrication, frame structure, sparsity op- timization Corresponding author: yangzw@ustc.edu.cn (Zhouwang Yang) 1 Introduction Additive manufacturing (3D printing) enables fabrication of physi- cal techniques of 3D printing has received considerable attention for assisting users to generate desired

  20. Identifying emerging smart grid impacts to upstream and midstream natural gas operations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-09-01

    The Smart Grid has come to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption of electrical energy. Much of the present Smart Grid analysis focuses on utility and consumer interaction. i.e. smart appliances, home automation systems, rate structures, consumer demand response, etc. An identified need is to assess the upstream and midstream operations of natural gas as a result of the smart grid. The nature of Smart Grid, including the demand response and role of information, may require changes in upstream and midstream natural gas operations to ensure availability and efficiency. Utility reliance on natural gas will continue and likely increase, given the backup requirements for intermittent renewable energy sources. Efficient generation and delivery of electricity on Smart Grid could affect how natural gas is utilized. Things that we already know about Smart Grid are: (1) The role of information and data integrity is increasingly important. (2) Smart Grid includes a fully distributed system with two-way communication. (3) Smart Grid, a complex network, may change the way energy is supplied, stored, and in demand. (4) Smart Grid has evolved through consumer driven decisions. (5) Smart Grid and the US critical infrastructure will include many intermittent renewables.

  1. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

  2. On the origin of the energetic ion events measured upstream of the Earth's bow shock by STEREO,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    acceleration between upstream scattering centers and the bow shock or downstream and upstream scatteringOn the origin of the energetic ion events measured upstream of the Earth's bow shock by STEREO of the solar cycle the energetic upstream ion events occurred mainly after a corotating interaction region

  3. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  4. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

  5. Short-Term Supply Chain Management in Upstream Natural Gas Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short-Term Supply Chain Management in Upstream Natural Gas Systems by Ajay Selot Submitted Students #12;2 #12;Short-Term Supply Chain Management in Upstream Natural Gas Systems by Ajay Selot of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering Abstract Natural gas supply chain

  6. Upstream Orographic Enhancement of a Narrow Cold-Frontal Rainband Approaching the Andes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    river'' upstream of the Andes. Model output indicates that low-level convergence enhanced the NCFR where strati- form clouds forming as a result of the upstream orographic ascent of the atmospheric river Geofi´sica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Corresponding author address: Maximiliano Viale

  7. Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects Da-Lin Zhang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da-Lin

    Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects Da-Lin Zhang,1 Yi-Xuan Shou,1; published 19 December 2009. [1] Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban

  8. UpStream: A Storage-centric Load Management System for Real-time Update Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UpStream: A Storage-centric Load Management System for Real-time Update Streams Alexandru Moga, Switzerland tatbul@inf.ethz.ch ABSTRACT UpStream is a framework for load management over data streams, security monitoring and location tracking systems. Various load management tech- niques have been proposed

  9. Upstream entrainment in numerical simulations of spatially evolving Pradeep C. Babu and Krishnan Mahesha)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh, Krishnan

    Upstream entrainment in numerical simulations of spatially evolving round jets Pradeep C. Babu) Direct numerical simulation is used to study the effect of entrainment near the inflow nozzle on spatially evolving round jets. Inflow entrainment is obtained by providing a buffer region upstream

  10. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines : case studies of rotor fault and blade damage with initial O&M cost modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrent, Noah J.; Kusnick, Joshua F.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2013-04-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

  11. The Charged Heavy Ion COunter (CHICO) is comprised of two equivalent halves referred to as the upstream and downstream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cline, Douglas

    to as the upstream and downstream detectors (as seen from the particle beam's point of view). Each half consists to wrap around the beampipe upstream of CHICO, and ten downstream to complete the entire system

  12. Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    cost projections · Chemical Engineering (CE) Plant Construction Cost Index ­ Base value = 100 in 1957.0 in 2Q 2001 · Engineering News Record (ENR) · Nelson Refinery (NR) Construction Cost Index Cost Indices available for estimation are based upon the past · These data must be updated using cost indexes . · Cost

  13. 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 710, 2008/Reno, NV Upstream and downstream influence on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín, Pino

    08544 Statistical analysis of the upstream and downstream flow influence on shock unsteadiness in shock to further study the upstream and downstream flow influence on shock unsteadiness using direct numerical46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 7­10, 2008/Reno, NV Upstream

  14. Effects of upstream wake phasing on the performance of transonic compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Sean Patrick Rock

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the upstream wake phase on the work input (i.e., rise in stagnation enthalpy across the blade row) of a transonic rotor is examined computationally and analytically. It is found that the compressor work depends ...

  15. Seasonal variation of upper-level mobile trough development upstream of the Pacific storm track 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myoung, Boksoon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate seasonal and interannual statistics of troughs associated with the Pacific storm track and quantify the influence of deformation on trough development upstream of the western ...

  16. Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    This analysis focuses on financial and operating trends of the oil and natural gas production business segment, often referred to as upstream operations, of 42 global oil and natural gas producing companies

  17. Low-cost, deterministic quasi-periodic photonic structures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Light trapping has been an important issue for thin film silicon solar cells because of the low absorption coefficient in the near infrared range. In this paper, we present a photonic structure which combines anodic aluminum ...

  18. The impact of software design structure on product maintenance costs and measurement of economic benefits of product redesign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akaikine, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports results of an empirical study that aimed to demonstrate the link between software product design structure and engineers' effort to perform a code modification in the context of a corrective maintenance ...

  19. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  20. Research Technician for Experimental Geomechanics Laboratories ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company has an immediate opening for a Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul G.

    Research Technician for Experimental Geomechanics Laboratories ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company has an immediate opening for a Research Technician working in the field of experimental geomechanics

  1. u.s. Fish Wildl. Servo eire. Upstream Passage of Anadromous Fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    u.s. Fish Wildl. Servo eire. Upstream Passage of Anadromous Fish hrough Navigation Locks and Use OF THE INTERIOR u.s. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES Circular 352 #12;Cover Photograph.- Brailing fish from haul seine into live car. #12;UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Walter J. Hickel

  2. Langmuir waves upstream of interplanetary shocks: Dependence on shock and plasma parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    waves undergo a mode conversion process and generate electromagnetic radio waves at the plasma frequency fp and 2fp. These radio waves propagate throughout the heliosphere and are used as a re- moteClick Here for Full Article Langmuir waves upstream of interplanetary shocks: Dependence on shock

  3. Impact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the WashingtonBaltimore Corridor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da-Lin

    of Washington, D.C. Results from a coupled ultrahigh-resolution mesoscale­urban canopy model with 2001 National of the urban­bay interaction reveals the importance of horizontal wind direction in determining the intensityImpact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the Washington

  4. Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Reading Costs, Competition, and ContractReading Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. EquilibriumUnconscionability A?ect Reading Costs . . . . . . . . . .

  5. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

  6. Upstream open loop control of the recirculation area downstream of a backward-facing step

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The flow downstream a backward-facing step is controlled using a pulsed jet placed upstream of the step edge. Experimental velocity fields are computed and used to the recirculation area quantify. The effects of jet amplitude, frequency and duty cycle on this recirculation area are investigated for two Reynolds numbers (Re=2070 and Re=2900). The results of this experimental study demonstrate that upstream actuation can be as efficient as actuation at the step edge when exciting the shear layer at its natural frequency. Moreover it is shown that it is possible to minimize both jet amplitude and duty cycle and still achieve optimal efficiency. With minimal amplitude and a duty-cycle as low as 10\\% the recirculation area is nearly canceled.

  7. Eco-Efficiency in Practice: Aligning Business and Environmental Interests in the Upstream Oil and Gas Sector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukacs, J.; Munroe, V.

    2005-01-01

    , CETAC-WEST (Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Corporation - West), in mid-2000, introduced a practical approach to eco-efficiency to Western Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. The CETAC-WEST Eco-Efficiency Program, focused primarily...

  8. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. • High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. • The nanofibers calcined at 100–700 °C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. • The calcined nanofibers at 400 °C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 °C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 20–90 nm in diameter and 2–7 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300–400 °C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 °C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 600–1000 °C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300–700 °C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 800–1000 °C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the nanofibers calcined at 400 °C for 2 h was found to be not merely higher than those of the commercially available TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles powders (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03) but also the highest of all the samples in this study.

  9. Cost-Effective Fabrication Routes for the Production of Quantum Well Structures and Recovery of Waste Heat from Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willigan, Rhonda

    2009-09-30

    The primary objectives of Phase I were: (a) carry out cost, performance and system level models, (b) quantify the cost benefits of cathodic arc and heterogeneous nanocomposites over sputtered material, (c) evaluate the expected power output of the proposed thermoelectric materials and predict the efficiency and power output of an integrated TE module, (d) define market acceptance criteria by engaging Caterpillar's truck OEMs, potential customers and dealers and identify high-level criteria for a waste heat thermoelectric generator (TEG), (e) identify potential TEG concepts, and (f) establish cost/kWatt targets as well as a breakdown of subsystem component cost targets for the commercially viable TEG.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis reveals a distant liver enhancer upstream of the COUP-TFII gene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baroukh, Nadine; Ahituv, Nadav; Chang, Jessie; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2004-08-20

    COUP-TFII is a central nuclear hormone receptor that tightly regulates the expression of numerous target lipid metabolism genes in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how COUP-TFII itself is transcriptionally controlled since studies with its promoter and upstream region fail to recapitulate the genes liver expression. In an attempt to identify liver enhancers in the vicinity of COUP-TFII, we employed a comparative genomic approach. Initial comparisons between humans and mice of the 3,470kb gene poor region surrounding COUP-TFII revealed 2,023 conserved non-coding elements. To prioritize a subset of these elements for functional studies, we performed further genomic comparisons with the orthologous pufferfish (Fugu rubripes) locus and uncovered two anciently conserved non-coding sequences (CNS) upstream of COUP-TFII (CNS-62kb and CNS-66kb). Testing these two elements using reporter constructs in liver (HepG2) cells revealed that CNS-66kb, but not CNS-62kb, yielded robust in vitro enhancer activity. In addition, an in vivo reporter assay using naked DNA transfer with CNS-66kb linked to luciferase displayed strong reproducible liver expression in adult mice, further supporting its role as a liver enhancer. Together, these studies further support the utility of comparative genomics to uncover gene regulatory sequences based on evolutionary conservation and provide the substrates to better understand the regulation and expression of COUP-TFII.

  11. Cosmic ray diffusive acceleration at shock waves with finite upstream and downstream escape boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ostrowski; R. Schlickeiser

    1996-04-18

    In the present paper we discuss the modifications introduced into the first-order Fermi shock acceleration process due to a finite extent of diffusive regions near the shock or due to boundary conditions leading to an increased particle escape upstream and/or downstream the shock. In the considered simple example of the planar shock wave we idealize the escape phenomenon by imposing a particle escape boundary at some distance from the shock. Presence of such a boundary (or boundaries) leads to coupled steepening of the accelerated particle spectrum and decreasing of the acceleration time scale. It allows for a semi-quantitative evaluation and, in some specific cases, also for modelling of the observed steep particle spectra as a result of the first-order Fermi shock acceleration. We also note that the particles close to the upper energy cut-off are younger than the estimate based on the respective acceleration time scale. In Appendix A we present a new time-dependent solution for infinite diffusive regions near the shock allowing for different constant diffusion coefficients upstream and downstream the shock.

  12. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  13. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    into COEUS x OPAFS establishes project related IFIS fund and index numbers x Department tracks cost sharing sharing using various data fields (bin, fund, PI, index, etc.) x Create a Bin Generate a bin where cost1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources

  14. Cost Sharing Basics Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Cost Sharing Basics Definitions Some funding agencies require the grantee institution the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may resources or facilities. If the award is federal, only acceptable non-federal costs qualify as cost sharing

  15. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Samuel Schenker, “The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers”,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  16. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to validate an existing Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) model developed for the Kootenai River and will also be used to assess the effect of changes in discharge on fish movements and habitat use downstream of Libby Dam. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags will be injected into rainbow, bull, and cutthroat trout throughout the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries to provide information on growth, survival, and migration patterns in relation to abiotic and biotic variables. Model simulations (RIVBIO) are used to calculate the effects of dam operations on the wetted perimeter and benthic biomass in the Kootenai River below Libby Dam. Additional models (IFIM) will also be used to evaluate the impacts of dam operations on the amount of available habitat for different life stages of rainbow and bull trout in the Kootenai River.

  17. Received 28 May 2012 | Accepted 9 Nov 2012 | Published 18 Dec 2012 Extracting net current from an upstream neutral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiblum, Mordehai "Moty"

    and carrying energy without net charge, had been predicted to exist in some of the fractional quantum Hall of upstream chiral neutral modes. These modes, which carry energy without net charge2­10, are at the focus, as expected, with zero net current. In a recent work by Gross et al.7, a few new features of these modes were

  18. The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas sector service company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas and process flow from high-value oil and gas wells, from exploration and appraisal through to mature field for the development and delivery of innovative technologies to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry globally

  19. Upstream Urbanization Exacerbates Urban Heat Island Effects Da-Lin Zhang*, Yi-Xuan Shou, & Russell R. Dickerson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    1 Upstream Urbanization Exacerbates Urban Heat Island Effects Da-Lin Zhang*, Yi-Xuan Shou, Maryland 20742 Email: dalin@atmos.umd.edu The adverse impacts of urbanization on climate and weather through urban heat island (UHI) effects and greenhouse emissions are issues of growing concern1

  20. INFLUENCE OF ROCKY REACH DAM AND THE TEMPERATURE OF THE OKANOGAN RIVER ON THE UPSTREAM MIGRATION OF SOCKEYE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INFLUENCE OF ROCKY REACH DAM AND THE TEMPERATURE OF THE OKANOGAN RIVER ON THE UPSTREAM MIGRATION Reach Dam, constructed on the Columbia River 7 miles above Wenatchee, Wash.· in 1957-61, has not appreciably increased the time required for adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to mi~rate to Zosel Dam

  1. A DETAILED RESEARCH PLAN TO ASSESS BEHAVIOR OF ADULT SUMMER/FALL CHINOOK UPSTREAM OF WELLS DAM USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A DETAILED RESEARCH PLAN TO ASSESS BEHAVIOR OF ADULT SUMMER/FALL CHINOOK UPSTREAM OF WELLS DAM-8295 Final Draft April 19, 2004 #12;BioAnalysts, Inc Summer/Fall Chinook Research Plan Chief Joseph Dam Page........................................................................ 11 3.6.3 Chief Joseph Dam Powerhouse

  2. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  3. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  4. Upstream vs. Downstream CO2 Trading: A Comparison for the Electricity Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Bushnell, J.; Wolak, F. A.

    ; a charge paid by all California electricity consumers to fund cost- effective energy efficiency programs; the decoupling of utility revenues from sales; and rate-of-return incentives adopted by the CPUC in September 2007. With implementation of AB... In electricity, “downstream” CO2 regulation requires retail suppliers to buy energy from a mix of sources so that their weighted emissions satisfy a standard. It has been argued that such “load-based” regulation would solve emissions leakage, cost consumers...

  5. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  6. Internal gravity waves in a saturated, moist-neutral atmosphere upstream wave of subsidence in start-up for moist topographic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muraki, David J.

    Internal gravity waves in a saturated, moist-neutral atmosphere upstream wave of subsidence of subsidence de-saturated, cloud-free air? #12;Desaturation of Cloud-Free, Moist-Neutral Air Primary Cause ( t + Ux ) + x = 0 xx + zz = the upstream propagating wave of subsidence persists . . . #12;A Hierarchy

  7. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-05-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time period January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the sixth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the pilot unit with three catalysts, conducting catalyst activity measurements, and procuring the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek pilot unit site. Laboratory efforts were also conducted to support catalyst selection for the second pilot unit site, at CPS' Spruce Plant. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  8. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-10-04

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The coprecipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fourth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to completing, installing and starting up the pilot unit, completing laboratory runs to size catalysts, and procuring catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  9. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-07-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period April 1, 2003 through June 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the seventh full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit, conducting catalyst activity measurements, installing sonic horns for on-line catalyst cleaning, and installing the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek site. CPS began installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter. Laboratory efforts were conducted to support catalyst selection for that second pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  10. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-07-17

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the third full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to constructing the pilot unit and conducting laboratory runs to help size catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts.

  11. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-01-21

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period October 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future fullscale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fifth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included starting up the pilot unit with three catalysts at the first site, conducting catalyst activity measurements, completing comprehensive flue gas sampling and analyses, and procuring additional catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  12. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  13. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems.S. Colton © GIT 2009 5 #12;LaborLabor Di t ti f ldi· Direct time of welding ­ time to produce a length of weld ­ labor rate ­ multiplication gives labor cost per length · Set-up time, etc. · Personal time

  14. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the eighth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit at the GRE Coal Creek site with all four catalysts in service and sonic horns installed for on-line catalyst cleaning. During the quarter, a catalyst activity measurement trip and mercury SCEM relative accuracy tests were completed, and catalyst pressure drop was closely monitored with the sonic horns in operation. CPS completed the installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter, and the four catalysts to be tested in that unit were ordered. The pilot unit was started up with two of the four catalysts in service late in August, and initial catalyst activity results were measured in late September. The other two catalysts will not become available for testing until sometime in October. This technical progress report details these efforts at both sites.

  15. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-26

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the second full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to pilot unit design and conducting laboratory runs to help select candidate catalysts. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts. A Test Plan for the upcoming pilot-scale evaluations was also prepared and submitted to NETL for review and comment. Since this document was already submitted under separate cover, this information is not repeated here.

  16. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-31

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

  17. Utility Cost Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, S.

    1984-01-01

    One of the first steps in setting up an energy management program in a commercial building is determining operating costs per energy consuming system through a utility cost analysis. This paper illustrates utility cost analysis methods used...

  18. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  19. Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-23

    For a particular class of supermodular cost cooperative games that arises from a scheduling ... the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents.

  20. Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    upstream of ESA and beam dump, and construction and installation of x-ray transport, optics, and diagnostics in ESA. It also includes the construction of an annex to End Station...

  1. Cost-Sensitive Learning with Conditional Markov Prithviraj Sen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    Cost-Sensitive Learning with Conditional Markov Networks Prithviraj Sen sen@cs.umd.edu Lise Getoor structured domains, there is an interesting structure in the risk or cost function associated with different misclassifications. There is a rich tra- dition of cost-sensitive learning applied to unstructured (IID) data. Here

  2. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  3. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  4. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  5. Guidelines for Energy Cost Savings Resulting from Tracking and Monitoring Electrical nad Natural Gas Usage, Cost, and Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, M. C.; Estes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how improved energy information in schools and hospitals from tracking and monitoring electrical and natural gas usage, cost, and optional rate structures, can reduce energy costs. Recommendations, methods, and guidelines...

  6. Examining Mechanisms of Variability within the Pacific Storm Track: Upstream Seeding and Jet-Core Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    variability in the strength and structure of the wintertime [December­February (DJF)] Pacific jet stream draw-core jet stream have weaker storminess than those with a weak-core jet stream. Contrary to expectations (Nakamura 1992). The minimum occurs despite the fact that regional temperature gradients and jet stream

  7. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  8. March 29, 2008 ICS 541: Index Structures 1 Index Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, Salah

    Deletion cost Update cost Storage cost #12;March 29, 2008 ICS 541: Index Structures 3 - Lecture outline records per block Dense index space = 1000000/100 * 4k = 40MB. Binary search cost log2(10000) = 14 disk index blocks = 4MB Binary search cost log2(1000) = 10 disk accesses at most #12;March 29, 2008 ICS 541

  9. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  10. APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-03

    A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present {open_quotes}entry level{close_quotes}, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability ({open_quotes}load curve{close_quotes}) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested.

  11. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Steece, B. 2000. Software cost estimation with COCOMO II.Developing a Framework of Cost Elements for PreservingAshley, K. 1999. Digital archive costs: Facts and fallacies.

  12. Temporal Variability of Waves at the Proton Cyclotron Frequency Upstream from Mars: Implications for Mars Distant Hydrogen Exosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertucci, Cesar; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Gomez, Daniel; Mazelle, Christian; Delva, Magda; Modolo, Ronan; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Brain, David Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We report on the temporal variability of the occurrence of waves at the local proton cyclotron frequency upstream from the Martian bow shock from Mars Global Surveyor observations during the first aerobraking and science phasing orbit periods. Observations at high southern latitudes during minimum-to-mean solar activity show that the wave occurrence rate is significantly higher around perihelion southern summer solstice and lower around the same hemisphere's spring and autumn equinoxes. A similar trend is observed in the hydrogen (H) exospheric density profiles over the Martian South Pole obtained from a model including UV thermospheric heating effects. In spite of the complexity in the ion pick-up and plasma wave generation and evolution processes, these results support the idea that variations in the occurrence of waves could be used to study the temporal evolution of the distant Martian H corona and its coupling with the thermosphere at altitudes currently inaccessible to direct measurements.

  13. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  14. Environmental Cost Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edge, D.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis David Edge Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission 131 ESL-IE-00-04-21 Proceedings from the Twenty-second National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 5-6, 2000 Tuas Natural Resource Conservation Cor...DDliuion Environmental Cost Analysis Presented By David Edge Determine the Costs c> Input co Output c> Hidden c> Capital (non recurring) Envirormenlal Cost Analy.;is "There has to be a measurable result ofimprovement and it should be tied to dollars...

  15. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Modeling Advanced Li-ion Couples 13 Courtesy of Junbing Yang & K. Amine Graphite with LNMO and LMRNMC similar in cost and energy density LMRNMC shows synergy...

  16. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

  17. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  18. Apportioning Climate Change Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Apportioning Climate Change Costs Daniel A. Farber* I. II.ON CLIMATE CHANGE FOUR QUESTIONS ABOUTof how to respond to climate change. Most public attention

  19. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, Rick

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  20. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  1. B. Mobasher, S-Y.Chen, C. Young and S. D. Rajan, "Cost-Based Design Of Residential Steel Roof Systems: A Case Study", Structural Engineering and Mechanics 8:(2) pp.165-180,1999.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    B. Mobasher, S-Y.Chen, C. Young and S. D. Rajan, "Cost-Based Design Of Residential Steel Roof OF RESIDENTIAL STEEL ROOF SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY S. D. Rajan 1 , B. Mobasher 2 , S-Y.Chen 3 and C. Young 3 The cost effectiveness of steel roof systems for residential buildings is becoming increasingly apparent

  2. An experimental study on the effects of an upstream gate valve on the accuracy of an insertion type flowmeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wornyoh, Emmanuel Yao Atsu

    2003-01-01

    Flowmeters measure the consumption of chilled water or hot water in buildings. Depending on the accuracy, cost consideration, and available space, the flowmeter selected could be an insertion type or fixed type such as ...

  3. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  4. Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-15

    Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

  5. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    station and equipment costs Capital equipment costs Non-a function of capital cost and is therefore represented intechnology and therefore capital cost and maintenance cost

  6. Cost Transfer Procedures How And When To Make Cost Transfers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Cost Transfer Procedures How And When To Make Cost Transfers Effective February 9, 2003, cost elsewhere. Federal regulations require additional documentation to support cost transfers to sponsored program indexes. Costs may not be shifted to other research projects or from one budget period to the next

  7. d upstream downstream disturbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    microphone Cm (s) C e (s) Controller (a) m Pmd (s) d Cm (s) Pmu (s) P ed (s) u P eu (s) e C e (s) (b) Figure) #12; y 2 =m Pmd (s) w 1 =d w 2 D 2 C m (s) Pmu (s) z 2 P ed (s) D 1 W 2 W 3 z 3 D 3 w 3 1 0 0005 1 0

  8. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  9. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select FuelTechnology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20)...

  10. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  11. cost.f

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUBROUTINE COST (N,X,WSAVE) IMPLICIT DOUBLE PRECISION (A-H, O-Z) DIMENSION X(1) ,WSAVE(1) NM1 = N-1 NP1 = N+1 NS2 = N/2 IF (N-2) ...

  12. Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyonsource History View NewTransparent Cost

  13. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  14. Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

  15. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Curation: Cost of Digital Migration Ulla Bøgvad Kejser, Thefocus especially on costing digital migration activities. Inof the OAIS Model digital migration includes both transfer (

  16. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    and Monitor Technology functions each consists of two costinfluence, the fewer costs. Monitor Technology depends onCost Critical Activities Monitor community Report on monitoring Monitor technology

  17. PHENIX WBS notes. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  18. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  19. Cost-effective ecological restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    whether the cost-effectiveness index in the all seed mixesRestoration cost-effectiveness (index calculated as percentwith the highest cost-effectiveness index values were drill

  20. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  1. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  2. Optimization Online - Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Schulz

    2007-08-28

    Aug 28, 2007 ... Abstract: We study cooperative games with supermodular costs. We show that supermodular costs arise in a variety of situations: in particular, ...

  3. Preemptive scheduling with position costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In most scheduling models presented in the literature [3, 10], the cost for ... Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems.

  4. OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Admin

    2009-03-25

    One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... They entail a reduction of transaction costs and improve the investor's economic welfare.

  5. Costs and Benefits in Perceptual Categorization W. Todd Maddox and Corey J. Bohil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Costs and Benefits in Perceptual Categorization W. Todd Maddox and Corey J. Bohil University the category costs and benefits were manipulated across conditions, and costs were either zero or non-zero. The cost-benefit structures were selected so that performance across conditions was equivalent with respect

  6. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  7. Policy on Cost Sharing Policy on Cost Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Cost Sharing 12/26/2014 Policy on Cost Sharing I. Purpose and Scope Northeastern University does not encourage cost sharing commitments in sponsored research, and generally will not commit for approval for cost sharing arrangements, and explains the requirements for how any such arrangements

  8. Policy on Cost Transfer Policy on Cost Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Cost Transfer 12/22/2014 Policy on Cost Transfer I. Purpose and Scope The University has posting of a cost to the general ledger, initiated by payroll charges, purchase orders or check requests (and the purchasing card). Cost Transfer means any subsequent transfer of the original charge

  9. Cost Sharing -1 -Approved: 01/07/2013 Cost Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Cost Sharing - 1 - Approved: 01/07/2013 Cost Sharing Policy Type: Administrative Responsible Office and Purpose The purpose of this policy is to define VCU's cost-sharing policy for sponsored programs. The university will make a cost-sharing commitment only when required by the sponsor or by the competitive nature

  10. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs ­ direct costs and facilities and administrative costs (F&A), also known as indirect costs. Direct

  11. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  12. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development *

  13. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

  14. MEMO OF UNDERSTANDING Service Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Lucia

    MEMO OF UNDERSTANDING Service Cost July 2013 1/4 Thera Kalmijn Chief Operating Officer 1608 Fourth] [Division Name] Re: CSS Service Cost for Fiscal Year 2013 - 2015 Please find the service cost for [Division [Division Name] implements into CSS. The service cost for [Division Name] will remain fixed throughout

  15. Robust Cost Colorings Takuro Fukunaga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halldórsson, Magnús M.

    Robust Cost Colorings Takuro Fukunaga Magn´us M. Halld´orsson Hiroshi Nagamochi Abstract We consider graph coloring problems where the cost of a coloring is the sum of the costs of the colors, and the cost of a color is a monotone concave function of the total weight of the class. This models resource

  16. The Costs and Revenues of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry Owen Davies & Gary Kerr March 2011 #12;2 | Costs and Revenues of CCF | Owen Davies & Gary Kerr | March 2011 Costs and Revenues of CCF The costs and revenues of transformation to continuous cover forestry: Modelling silvicultural options

  17. Allocable costs What are they?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Allocable costs What are they? The A-21 circular definition: a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective (i.e., a specific function, project, sponsored agreement, department, or the like) if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to such cost objective in accordance

  18. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  19. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  20. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  1. Step-by-step cost-estimation guide for residential earth-shelter construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Designers and builders of earth-sheltered structures will find this guide to be a basic outline for estimating construction costs. It considers, besides the basic materials and costs of any construction project, the regional, experience, and other variables that affect underground construction costs. The guide format permits the user to tally individual estimates and derive a simple cost per square foot. Space is also provided to tally actual costs for comparison. (DCK)

  2. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electric Utility companies charge industrial clients for two things: demand and usage. Depending on type of business and hours operation, demand cost could be very high. Most of the operations scheduling in a plant is achieved considering labor cost...

  3. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  4. Cover Sheet for Budget Item Predicted Cost Actual Cost Notes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cover Sheet for Budget Item Predicted Cost Actual Cost Notes Lodging $700.00 Three hotels: 1. $195, $154.00 was used for unintended transportations (taxi, train, bus, etc.) and lodging costs Meal Plan $1.70 10. Bus $1.70 11. Bus $2.83 12. Bus $4.53 13. Tram$3.28 = $96.11 These costs were paid

  5. The Outlook for CO2 Capture Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Common Measures of CCS Cost · Capital cost · Increased cost of electricity · Cost of CO2 avoided · Cost of CO2 captured E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Elements of Capital Cost Note: · Nomenclature and cost items construction Total Capital Requirement (TCR) E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Cost of Electricity (COE) COE ($/MWh

  6. User cost in oil production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1990-01-01

    The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

  7. Machine Learning with Operational Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudin, Cynthia

    This work proposes a way to align statistical modeling with decision making. We provide a method that propagates the uncertainty in predictive modeling to the uncertainty in operational cost, where operational cost is the ...

  8. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  9. Cost Effectiveness NW Energy Coalition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Action 8 Cost Effectiveness Manual Kim Drury NW Energy Coalition Context · Inconsistent consistent understanding and application of how cost effectiveness is calculated and when and how to apply Action Plan for Energy Efficiency published a comprehensive guide on cost effectiveness: best practices

  10. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  11. Overlay Costs National Concrete Consortium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overlay Costs National Concrete Consortium TTCC April 6, 2010 Savannah, Georgia Gary Fick Representing The National Concrete Pavement Technology Center #12;Overlay Cost Tech Brief · Developed to address common questions we have received during our implementation efforts #12;Overlay Cost Tech Brief

  12. The role of sequence, gene orientation, and intergenic distance in chromatin structure and function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langley, Sasha A.

    2010-01-01

    immediately upstream and downstream of transcription startgenes (Fig. 1C). Upstream and downstream peaks of H2Av andby a striking upstream and downstream phasing of nucleosome

  13. Evaluation of electric vehicle production and operating costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R. M.; Gaines, L. L.; Vyas, A. D.

    2000-05-23

    This report presents an analysis of the initial cost of electric vehicles (EVs). The manufacturing and retail cost structure of mature conventional vehicles produced at high volume is analyzed first, and the contributions by various cost categories to vehicle price are estimated. The costs are then allocated to such vehicle component groups as body, chassis, and powertrain. The similarities and differences among various component systems are reviewed. In electric vehicles, an electric drive replaces the conventional powertrain, and a battery pack replaces the fuel system. Three types of traction motors are reviewed, and their cost in high-volume production is analyzed. Various components of the motor and controller package are analyzed, and their representative costs are summarized. Four types of EV batteries are reviewed, and their costs are presented. Various alternatives for the low-, medium-, and high-volume production of EVs are evaluated, and some sample costs are presented. A methodology that estimates initial and operating costs on the basis of this analysis is presented. The methodology also estimates the average lifetime cost of owning and operating an electric vehicle.

  14. Hay Harvesting Costs $$$$$ in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, James T.; Taylor, Wayne D.

    1972-01-01

    would be approximately 34 cents. Labor cost was calculated at $1.50 per hour. Total operating cost, including labor and all equipmen! use, was 8.2 cents per bale and $5.73 per acre (a$ shown in Table 2). Assuming an average yieltl oi seventy 60.... averaged $5.73 per acre for each be 8.2 cents per bale. At a cost of 10 cents per baly cutting or $2.73 per ton. With an average of 70 for custom hauling, direct, out-of-pocket costs will be 18.2 cents per bale. I Table 3. Estimated Cost Per Ton and Per...

  15. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Total Cost (CPUC) Module Cost Index (CEC, CPUC) CEC CPUC *an external index of worldwide module costs from Strategies

  16. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  17. Lower Cost Energy Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maze, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    , wh1ch means g01ng from 13.000 volts up to 39.000 volts and buy1ng the transformers, we can save nearly $180,000. The other th1ng I p01nted out before was the power factor penalty. By addIng capac1tors and ra1s1ng our power factor from 84% to 95...'s not as wIdely used, but revlta11zatlon rates are avaIlable. The last area 1s cogeneratIon. ThIs can be one of two thIngs. It can be an attractIve buy-back rate or av01ded cost rate, for cogenerated electrIcIty or 1t can be a r1der or rate where they w...

  18. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  19. Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-05-16

    In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United States. The cost multipliers are used for scaling the component costs to retail prices.

  20. Library Rights Statement In presenting the thesis, Stream-Coordinate Structure and Variability of the Kuroshio Extension,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    - ment cruise in May 2004 provide near-synoptic ADCP and CTD data along cross-jet transects just up-stream of the jet structure that would result from an Eulerian approach. Stream-coordinate analysis revealsLibrary Rights Statement In presenting the thesis, Stream-Coordinate Structure and Variability

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  4. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.voltage connections) Capital costs for this equipment must

  5. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    Kingdom; 2004. [8] Amos W. Costs of storing and transportingcon- nections). Capital costs for this equipment must bein an analysis of station costs. Total station construction

  6. Snowflake-type network to minimize synchronization cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2011-01-01

    For stable electrical supply, voltage frequency of power plants should be synchronized. Nevertheless, the frequency synchronization causes power loss due to difference of voltage phases among power plants. The cost for synchronization should be reduced for efficient power grids, so-called smart grid, but little is known about what network topology has a small amount of the synchronization cost. In the present study, we newly define the synchronization cost, and investigate the optimal network structure with the minimum synchronization cost through rewiring-based optimization. By approximating a power grid with the Kuramoto model, we demonstrate that the cost is minimized in a snowflake-type network topology, which comprises the densely-connected center nodes and peripheral nodes connecting with the center module. We also show that the network topology is characterized by its bimodal degree distribution, which is quantified by Wolfson's polarization index. Furthermore, we provide analytical explanation on why ...

  7. Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusek, Stephen M.

    2014-04-21

    The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

  8. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities...

  9. Stochastic Optimisation Methods for Cost-E ective Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fouskakis, Dimitris

    is traditionally measured by using logistic regression of mortality within 30 days of admission on O(100) sickness are sharply better than SA in this problem for all values of p studied; and (iii) optimal subsets of variables that compromise between data collection costs and predictive accuracy have the potential to generate large cost

  10. Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    in animal house facility standard charge-out rates (excluding building depreciation) which we will pay, delivery and freight. Animal research costs Animal purchase and transportation costs. Animal maintenance employed on the grant. Training on specific skills relevant to the research project (e.g. animal handling

  11. JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocioalca, Oana

    JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS "non-systematic" risk, inclusive of transaction costs. We compute the total transac- tion costs and the turnover for different options, transaction costs, and revision intervals

  12. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  13. A model for predicting the costs of research and development in the Post Office Department 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David Eli

    1970-01-01

    Structural Operational mechanisms Control and sensing subassemblies. Pneumatic. . . . . . . . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ Power distribution and conversion. Contxol and sensing subassemblies. Electronic subsystems. Optical components Performance Variables... illustrating need for a trans- formation to achieve linearity. 14 A. 1 A. 2 Cost versus quantity of electronic components Cost versus power requirements. 83 A. 3 Cost versus quantity of electrical power components. 85 A. 4 A. 5 Cost versus feed speed...

  14. Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David; Wheatley, Dr. Alan; Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

  15. An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs? Costs involved in conducting sponsored projects are categorized in two ways: direct costs or indirect costs. The federal government refers officially to indirect costs as facilities and administrative (F&A) costs, sometimes simply called "overhead" costs. Direct

  16. Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities...

  17. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  18. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  19. Cost Principles Policy Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Cost Principles Policy Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013 Last-21, Cost Principles for Educational Institutions and the Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB)) identify cost accounting policies that must be followed to receive federal awards. These regulations

  20. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency of 45.4% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,096 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to coproduce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. As gasification technology matures, SCOHS and other improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements.

  1. Production Costing Models 1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    at each hour, The load is specified; A unit commitment decision is made; A dispatch decision is made. An important characterizing feature of PCMs is how it makes the unit commitment (UC) and dispatch decisions) such that units with lowest average cost are committed first. Startup costs are added when a unit #12;5 is started

  2. Turfgrass: Maintenance Costs in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Ethan C.; Allen, W. Wayne; Ferguson, Marvin H.

    1964-01-01

    LAW FOR VARIOUS M-AINTENANCE ITEMS BASED ON O\\!'\\'S. ERSHIP AND TYPE OF GRASS WITHIN EACH REGION Maintenance items TY PC Percent Lot size, Region of oz;r- of lawns square Com~osty Fertilizer Chemicals Water Average grass in region feet cost cost...

  3. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  4. Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-07-01

    Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

  5. Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wootan, Charley V.; McNeely, John G.

    1966-01-01

    share of the total. If one auction diverts volume from another, the total ;~uction volume will be unchanged, and volume- intl11ced gains in efficiency at the first market will ~eritl to be offset by losses at the second. Given the present structure... Market Operating Costs Texas Summary and Conclusions T THE TIME THE DATA for this study were collected A there were 178 livestock auctions operating in Texas; 140 were included in this analysis. They ranyed in size from just over 5,000 animal units...

  6. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  7. Total Ownership Cost (TOC) Cost as an Independent Variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $ + procurement $ + operation $ + logistical support $ + disposal $ Linked - Indirect Direct Direct Cost Life with the research, development, procurement, operation, logistical support and disposal of an individual weapon, operation, logistical support and disposal of an individual weapon system including the total supporting

  8. Cost | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler,CoalConcordiaConsumer ConnectionCoralCorvalenceCosoCostCostCost

  9. Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU F&A costs at NIU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU #12;F&A costs at NIU What are Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs? F&A Costs (aka "indirect costs" or "overhead") are real institutional costs project, instructional or public service activity. Such costs include utilities, buildings and facilities

  10. Low-cost interference lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fucetola, Corey P.

    The authors report demonstration of a low-cost ( ? 1000 USD) interference lithography system based on a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer that is capable of ? 300?nm pitch patterning. The components include only a 405?nm GaN ...

  11. Memory cost of quantum protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Bisio; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti; Michal Sedlak

    2011-12-16

    In this paper we consider the problem of minimizing the ancillary systems required to realize an arbitrary strategy of a quantum protocol, with the assistance of classical memory. For this purpose we introduce the notion of memory cost of a strategy, which measures the resources required in terms of ancillary dimension. We provide a condition for the cost to be equal to a given value, and we use this result to evaluate the cost in some special cases. As an example we show that any covariant protocol for the cloning of a unitary transformation requires at most one ancillary qubit. We also prove that the memory cost has to be determined globally, and cannot be calculated by optimizing the resources independently at each step of the strategy.

  12. Maximum output at minimum cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Gamesa G90-2.0 MW #12;Maximum output at minimum cost per kWh for low wind sites ®® Class IIIA mast and the electrical substation. This innovative modular design based on TCP/IP architecture has

  13. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    THE SUN SHINE ON SOLAR COSTS: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OFWe find that: (1) solar costs have declined substantially2004 $/W AC . 4. SOLAR COSTS HAVE DECLINED SUBSTANTIALLY In

  14. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    infrastructure. Though PV cost reductions in California areworldwide. Data on PV capacity and costs are expresseddepth statistical analysis of PV system costs in California.

  15. Costing Summaries for Selected Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Engineering News-Record Construction Cost Index · Consumer Prices Index · Year Index = average of the monthly values of the year )( )( )()( yyearIndexCost xyearIndexCost yyearCostxyearCostUpdated ×= #12;Slow SandCosting Summaries for Selected Water Treatment Processes Alix Montel Ecole Centrale de Nantes M

  16. CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the University for common or joint projects and cannot be specifically attributed to an individual project. Some examples of indirect costs include accounting staff

  17. Wind power costs in Portugal Saleiro, Carla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind power costs in Portugal Saleiro, Carla Department of Biological Engineering, University, following the European tendency. This analysis sets out to evaluate the total generating cost of wind power and CCGT in Portugal. A life cycle cost analysis was conducted, including investment costs, O&M costs, fuel

  18. Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfagrass hay

  19. Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfa-grass hay

  20. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

  1. WIRELESS SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF CIVIL STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    1 WIRELESS SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF CIVIL STRUCTURES J.P. Lynch1 , Y. Wang2 , A possible damage. This paper describes the design of a low-cost wireless sensing unit for installation in structural monitoring systems. The prototype wireless sensing unit is intended to 1) collect measurement data

  2. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

  3. A Framework for Assessing Cost Management System Changes: The Case of Activity-Based Costing Implementation at General Motors, 1986-1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Shannon W.

    2002-09-10

    An opportunity to study the technical and organizational impact of management accounting system changes has emerged with companies' adoption of activity-based costing (ABC). This paper provides a structured account of ...

  4. Information, Diversification, and Cost of Capital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, John S; Liu, Jing; Liu, Jun

    2005-01-01

    insider trading and cost of capital. ” Working paper, UCLA,Information and the cost of capital. ” Journal of Finance,in Determining Cost of Equity Capital,” Review of Accounting

  5. Total cost model for making sourcing decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

  6. Arbitration Costs and Contingent Fee Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2005-08-03

    A common criticism of arbitration is that its upfront costs (arbitrators' fees and administrative costs) may preclude consumers and employees from asserting their claims. Some commentators have argued further that arbitration costs undercut...

  7. Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) is a Management System designed to reduce operating cost in a continuous operating multi product plant by reviewing all cost factors and selecting plant wide production schedules which are most...

  8. USA oilgas production cost : recent changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1991-01-01

    During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

  9. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATIONCann Please use the following citation for this report: Klein, Joel. 2009. Comparative Costs of California............................................................................................................................1 Changes in the Cost of Generation Model

  10. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION and Anitha Rednam, Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 1: Summary of Technology Costs

  11. Maintenance cost studies of present aircraft subsystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearlman, Chaim Herman Shalom

    1966-01-01

    This report describes two detailed studies of actual maintenance costs for present transport aircraft. The first part describes maintenance costs for jet transport aircraft broken down into subsystem costs according to an ...

  12. Cost Principles Directives & Procedures Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    1 Cost Principles Directives & Procedures Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date....................................................................................................................... 2 2. Guiding Principles to Determine the Charge of a Cost to a Sponosred Agreement ................................................................................................. 5 5.1. Personnel Costs

  13. Statistical Inference for Costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios with Censored Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuai

    2012-07-16

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is widely conducted in the economic evaluation of new treatment options. In many clinical and observational studies of costs, data are often censored. Censoring brings challenges to both medical cost estimation and cost...

  14. Access Paths Multi-dimensional Index Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannheim, Universität

    for result TID-lists) · high cost for intersection if one of the indexes deliverse many results · But') · index.find_key(`ZH1984') · Discussion: · cost equivalent to the cost of a one-dimensional access! KeyAccess Paths Multi-dimensional Index Structures 1Freitag, 4. Juni 2010 #12;September 27, 2007

  15. Cost objective PLM and CE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Perry; Alain Bernard

    2010-11-26

    Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during the progression of the project of product development.

  16. Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Eric; Masur, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    and Eric A. Posner, Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-effects of environmental regulations for other industries.Paper Collection.   Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-

  17. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  18. Multiperiod Portfolio Optimization with General Transaction Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-07-17

    assets in the presence of general transaction costs such as proportional, market impact ... For proportional transaction costs, we find that a buy-and-hold policy is

  19. Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-14

    Feb 14, 2013 ... procurement/shipment) and inventory holding costs, the aim of the ... is to propose a minimum cost production plan to satisfy the demand (see, ...

  20. Driltac (Drilling Time and Cost Evaluation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1986-08-01

    The users manual for the drill tech model for estimating the costs of geothermal wells. The report indicates lots of technical and cost detail. [DJE-2005

  1. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...

  2. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M. [ICF Resources, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1989-05-18

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985.

  3. To: Research Cost Fund Fieldwork Cost Fund Both Graduate Program in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    To: Research Cost Fund Fieldwork Cost Fund Both From: Graduate Program in: Date: Subject: Research Cost Fund/Fieldwork Cost Fund I am submitting the applications for the students listed on the attached spreadsheet for the Research Cost Fund/Fieldwork Cost Fund Competition I confirm that all applications meet

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs And a Quick Guide to Patient Care Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janssen, Michel

    Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs And a Quick Guide to Patient Care Costs questions regarding human research patient care costs. Human research patient care costs are the costs. The costs of these services normally are assigned to specific research projects through the development

  5. Kinetic Structure of the Electron Diffusion Region in Antiparallel Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, J.; Egedal, J.; Le, A.; Daughton, W.; Chen, L.-J.

    2011-02-11

    Strong electron pressure anisotropy has been observed upstream of electron diffusion regions during reconnection in Earth's magnetotail and kinetic simulations. For collisionless antiparallel reconnection, we find that the anisotropy drives the electron current in the electron diffusion region, and that this current is insensitive to the reconnection electric field. Reconstruction of the electron distribution function within this region at enhanced resolutions reveals its highly structured nature and the mechanism by which the pressure anisotropy sets the structure of the region.

  6. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  7. RM methods for multiple fare structure environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kayser, Matthew R. (Matthew Russell)

    2008-01-01

    The rapid growth of Low Cost Carriers (LCC) and their simplified fare structures has created "semi-restricted" fare structures where lower classes are undifferentiated except for price, while higher fare classes are still ...

  8. Entanglement cost in practical scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

    2011-03-03

    We quantify the one-shot entanglement cost of an arbitrary bipartite state, that is the minimum number of singlets needed by two distant parties to create a single copy of the state up to a finite accuracy, using local operations and classical communication only. This analysis, in contrast to the traditional one, pertains to scenarios of practical relevance, in which resources are finite and transformations can only be achieved approximately. Moreover, it unveils a fundamental relation between two well-known entanglement measures, namely, the Schmidt number and the entanglement of formation. Using this relation, we are able to recover the usual expression of the entanglement cost as a special case.

  9. Quantum cost for sending entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Streltsov; Hermann Kampermann; Dagmar Bruß

    2012-03-07

    Establishing quantum entanglement between two distant parties is an essential step of many protocols in quantum information processing. One possibility for providing long-distance entanglement is to create an entangled composite state within a lab and then physically send one subsystem to a distant lab. However, is this the "cheapest" way? Here, we investigate the minimal "cost" that is necessary for establishing a certain amount of entanglement between two distant parties. We prove that this cost is intrinsically quantum, and is specified by quantum correlations. Our results provide an optimal protocol for entanglement distribution and show that quantum correlations are the essential resource for this task.

  10. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience of SignaturesSoft Costs Soft Costs An

  11. A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost - 12479

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, Drew [Project Time and Cost Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper, 'A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost', shows how a second opinion for a Department of Energy (DOE) Project helped prepare and pass a DOE Order 413.3A 'Program and Project Management for the acquisition of Capital Assets' Office of Engineering and Construction Management (OECM) required External Independent Review (EIR) in support of the approved baseline for Critical Decision (CD) 2. The DOE project personnel were informed that the project's Total Project Cost (TPC) was going to increase from $815 million to $1.1 billion due to unforeseen problems and unexplained reasons. The DOE Project Team determined that a second opinion was needed to review and validate the TPC. Project Time and Cost, Inc. (PT and C) was requested to evaluate the cost estimate, schedule, basis of estimate (BOE), and risk management plan of the Project and to give an independent assessment of the TPC that was presented to DOE. This paper will demonstrate how breaking down a project to the work breakdown structure (WBS) level allows a project to be analyzed for potential cost increases and/or decreases, thus providing a more accurate TPC. The review Team's cost analyses of Projects identified eight primary drivers resulting in cost increases. They included: - Overstatement of the effort required to develop drawings and specifications. - Cost allocation to 'Miscellaneous' without sufficient detail or documentation. - Cost for duplicated efforts. - Vendor estimates or quotations without sufficient detail. - The practice of using the highest price quoted then adding an additional 10% mark-up. - Application of Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) highest level quality requirements when not required. - Allocation of operational costs to the Project Costs instead of to the Operating Expenses (OPEX). OPEX costs come from a different funding source. - DOE had not approved the activities. By using a Team approach with professionals from cost, civil, mechanical, electrical, structural and nuclear disciplines and by performing a Line by Line, WBS element by WBS element review of the Projects' CD-2 baseline package helped the DOE Project Team experience success. The second opinion that PT and C provide by conducting a Pre-EIR review of the Project baseline package and the cost review of the TPC helped the DOE Team pass the CD-2 EIR and reduced the TPC. The Line-by-Line review of the DOE Project identified opportunities to reduce the TPC from $1.1 billion to $740.8 million, thus realizing a saving of approximately $359.2 million, or roughly 32% of the original TPC. This significant cost savings underscores the cost in obtaining the second opinion. This same Line by Line review can be applied to any DOE project in the Energy Management or Weapons complex. In the case of this DOE Project a second opinion was worth the cost. (authors)

  12. ARIES-CS COIL STRUCTURE ADVANCED FABRICATION APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    stellarator concept should result in a fusion power plant with lower capital costs that retains the attractive ~lower capital costs!. Fabrication of the coils and coil structures is one of the more costly elements- tiveness of any power plant is its capital cost. The prem- ise for this study is that a more compact

  13. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new construction, commercial/industrial custom rebate programs). In this report, the focus is on gross energy savings and the costs borne by the program administrator—including administration, payments to implementation contractors, marketing, incentives to program participants (end users) and both midstream and upstream trade allies, and evaluation costs. We collected data on net savings and costs incurred by program participants. However, there were insufficient data on participant cost contributions, and uncertainty and variability in the ways in which net savings were reported and defined across states (and program administrators).

  14. Smog Check II Evaluation Part IV: Smog Check Costs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Smog Check II Evaluation Part IV: Smog Check Costs and Cost Effectiveness Are the Overall Costs of Smog Check? __________________ 2 2.1. Vehicle Testing Costs____________________________________________ 3 2.2. Repair Costs ___________________________________________________ 5 2.3. Administrative Costs

  15. Lead acetate induces EGFR activation upstream of SFK and PKC{alpha} linkage to the Ras/Raf-1/ERK signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C.-Y.; Wang, Y.-T.; Tzeng, D.-W. [Molecular Carcinogenesis Laboratory, Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, J.-L. [Molecular Carcinogenesis Laboratory, Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jlyang@life.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-03-01

    Lead acetate (Pb), a probable human carcinogen, can activate protein kinase C (PKC) upstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Yet, it remains unclear whether Pb activation of PKC {yields} ERK1/2 involves receptor/non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the Ras signaling transducer. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism elicited by Pb for transmitting ERK1/2 signaling in CL3 human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma cells. Pb induction of higher steady-state levels of Ras-GTP was essential for increasing phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Pre-treatment of the cells with a conventional PKC inhibitor Goe6976 or depleting PKC{alpha} using specific small interfering RNA blocked Pb induction of Ras-GTP. Pb also activated cellular tyrosine kinases. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, PD153035 for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and SU6656 for Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK), but not AG1296 for platelet-derived growth factor receptor, could suppress the Pb-induced tyrosine kinases, PKC{alpha}, Ras-GTP, phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of tyrosines on the EGFR multiple autophosphorylation sites and the conserved SFK autophosphorylation site occurred during exposure of cells to Pb for 1-5 min and 5-30 min, respectively. Intriguingly, Pb activation of EGFR required the intrinsic kinase activity but not dimerization of the receptor. Inhibition of SFK or PKC{alpha} activities did not affect EGFR phosphorylation, while knockdown of EGFR blocked SFK phosphorylation and PKC{alpha} activation following Pb. Together, these results indicate that immediate activation of EGFR in response to Pb is obligatory for activation of SFK and PKC{alpha} and subsequent the Ras-Raf-1-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade.

  16. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  17. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  18. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  19. Regulatory cost-risk study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  20. MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgency (IRENA) JumpLiterature Review HomeM-7

  1. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles

  2. Optimal Average Cost Manufacturing Flow Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veatch, Michael H.

    policy the differ- ential cost is C1 on attractive control switching boundaries. Index Terms Average costOptimal Average Cost Manufacturing Flow Controllers: Convexity and Differentiability Michael H and differentiability of the differential cost function are investigated. It is proven that under an optimal control

  3. COST 227/08 1 European Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    COST 227/08 1 DG C II EN European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research - COST - -------------------- Secretariat ------- Brussels, 2 July 2008 COST 227/08 MEMORANDUM Action designated as COST Action ES0801: The ocean chemistry of bioactive trace elements and paleoclimate

  4. CPRIT Cost Matching Endorsement Investigator Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    CPRIT Cost Matching Endorsement Investigator Name: Department: Project Title: Proposal Deadline regarding demonstration of available funding. To satisfy this cost matching requirement, the university is able to claim unrecovered indirect costs (i.e. the difference between the 5.263% of direct costs

  5. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothée BRECARD(*) 2009,version1-1Oct2009 #12;1 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothée Brécard production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product

  6. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Participant Support Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Policy on Participant Support Costs Effective: May 15, 2006 Purpose costs are separately accounted for, and expended for appropriate and intended objectives. Background in the conference, workshop or training activity. Participant supports costs are defined as direct costs for items

  7. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION in this paper. #12;ABSTRACT In this 2007 report of the cost of generation of electricity for California located technologies, California Energy Commission staff provides levelized costs, including the cost assumptions

  8. Hydroblasting permits safe, cost-effective dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lever, G. [Cavi-Tech Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The cost of using traditional methods to remove lead-based paint from structures subject to strict environmental regulations can be prohibitive, leaving many rehabilitation projects undone. However, alternative methods, including hydroblasting, can reduce debris containment and disposal costs to a tolerable level. This article describes a project which involved the removal of old lead paint and the repainting of a dam situated in a populated recreational area. It details the budgetary, environmental, and public health issues that led to strict specifications and oversight requirements, which saved money and protected the area from lead contamination.

  9. Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    include both operating costs and capital costs, though mostof semi?xed operating and capital-cost allocation generallyresearch, both operating and capital costs are combined, and

  10. GM-Ford-Chrysler: ATV Proposed Product Costs | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ATV Proposed Product Costs GM-Ford-Chrysler: ATV Proposed Product Costs "Proposed Product Cost for Advanced Technology Vehicles" GM-Ford-Chrysler: ATV Proposed Product Costs More...

  11. SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Analyzing the lifetime per unit cost of a linear WSN, we find that deploying commercial and military applications. A WSN consists of a large number of low-cost, low-power, energy the sen- sor placement and the transmission structure in a one- dimensional data-gathering WSN

  12. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon Kramer

    2003-09-01

    This project developed optimized designs and cost estimates for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC coproduction projects that produced hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and hydrocarbon liquid fuel precursors in addition to power. The as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project was the starting point for this study that was performed by Bechtel, Global Energy and Nexant under Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-99FT40342. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This non-optimized plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW.1 This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal- and coke-fueled IGCC power plants. A side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, shows their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a four-train coal-fueled IGCC power plant, also based on the Subtask 1.3 cases. This plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency to power of 44.5% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,116 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to co-produce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. Subtask 2.1 developed a petroleum coke IGCC power plant with the coproduction of liquid fuel precursors from the Subtask 1.3 Next Plant by eliminating the export steam and hydrogen production and replacing it with a Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis facility that produced 4,125 bpd of liquid fuel precursors. By maximizing liquids production at the expense of power generation, Subtask 2.2 developed an optimized design that produces 10,450 bpd of liquid fuel precursors and 617 MW of export power from 5,417 tpd of dry petroleum coke. With 27 $/MW-hr power and 30 $/bbl liquids, the Subtask 2.2 plant can have a return on investment of 18%. Subtask 2.3 converted the Subtask 1.6 four-train coal fueled IGCC power plant

  13. COST ACCOUNTING IN US CITIES: TRANSACTION COSTS AND GOVERNANCE FACTORS AFFECTING COST ACCOUNTING DEVELOPMENT AND USE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, Zachary Thomas

    2013-05-31

    Cost accounting in government is a topic that has an oddly uncertain place in public financial management. Many people know what it is as an ideal construct but do not know what it is in practice. This uncertainty of practice and strong expectations...

  14. Evaluating the costs and benefits of increased funding for public transportation in Chicago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Mark L., 1973-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) off-peak ridership, is at or slightly below break-even with respect to net benefits if the CTA cost structure and tax source of subsidy remains unchanged. In order to justify any significant additional long-term ...

  15. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  16. Entanglement Cost of Nonlocal Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somshubhro Bandyopadhyay; Gilles Brassard; Shelby Kimmel; William K. Wootters

    2009-03-30

    For certain joint measurements on a pair of spatially separated particles, we ask how much entanglement is needed to carry out the measurement exactly. For a class of orthogonal measurements on two qubits with partially entangled eigenstates, we present upper and lower bounds on the entanglement cost. The upper bound is based on a recent result by D. Berry [Phys. Rev. A 75, 032349 (2007)]. The lower bound, based on the entanglement production capacity of the measurement, implies that for almost all measurements in the class we consider, the entanglement required to perform the measurement is strictly greater than the average entanglement of its eigenstates. On the other hand, we show that for any complete measurement in d x d dimensions that is invariant under all local Pauli operations, the cost of the measurement is exactly equal to the average entanglement of the states associated with the outcomes.

  17. Entanglement Cost of Quantum Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Berta; Fernando Brandao; Matthias Christandl; Stephanie Wehner

    2012-03-23

    The entanglement cost of a quantum channel is the minimal rate at which entanglement (between sender and receiver) is needed in order to simulate many copies of a quantum channel in the presence of free classical communication. In this paper we show how to express this quantity as a regularized optimization of the entanglement formation over states that can be generated between sender and receiver. Our formula is the channel analog of a well-known formula for the entanglement cost of quantum states in terms of the entanglement of formation; and shares a similar relation to the recently shattered hope for additivity. The entanglement cost of a quantum channel can be seen as the analog of the quantum reverse Shannon theorem in the case where free classical communication is allowed. The techniques used in the proof of our result are then also inspired by a recent proof of the quantum reverse Shannon theorem and feature the one-shot formalism for quantum information theory, the post-selection technique for quantum channels as well as von Neumann's minimax theorem. We discuss two applications of our result. First, we are able to link the security in the noisy-storage model to a problem of sending quantum rather than classical information through the adversary's storage device. This not only improves the range of parameters where security can be shown, but also allows us to prove security for storage devices for which no results were known before. Second, our result has consequences for the study of the strong converse quantum capacity. Here, we show that any coding scheme that sends quantum information through a quantum channel at a rate larger than the entanglement cost of the channel has an exponentially small fidelity.

  18. Entanglement Cost of Quantum Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Berta; Fernando Brandao; Matthias Christandl; Stephanie Wehner

    2015-11-02

    The entanglement cost of a quantum channel is the minimal rate at which entanglement (between sender and receiver) is needed in order to simulate many copies of a quantum channel in the presence of free classical communication. In this paper we show how to express this quantity as a regularised optimisation of the entanglement formation over states that can be generated between sender and receiver. Our formula is the channel analog of a well-known formula for the entanglement cost of quantum states in terms of the entanglement of formation; and shares a similar relation to the recently shattered hope for additivity. The entanglement cost of a quantum channel can be seen as the analog of the quantum reverse Shannon theorem in the case where free classical communication is allowed. The techniques used in the proof of our result are then also inspired by a recent proof of the quantum reverse Shannon theorem and feature the one-shot formalism for quantum information theory, the post-selection technique for quantum channels as well as Sion's minimax theorem. We discuss two applications of our result. First, we are able to link the security in the noisy-storage model to a problem of sending quantum rather than classical information through the adversary's storage device. This not only improves the range of parameters where security can be shown, but also allows us to prove security for storage devices for which no results were known before. Second, our result has consequences for the study of the strong converse quantum capacity. Here, we show that any coding scheme that sends quantum information through a quantum channel at a rate larger than the entanglement cost of the channel has an exponentially small fidelity.

  19. 5. ESTIMATING THE COSTS OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION 5.1 Isolating a `preservation cost'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, Leslie

    44 5. ESTIMATING THE COSTS OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION 5.1 Isolating a `preservation cost' Deciding preservation is--how much will it cost? One of the problems encountered in trying to answer this question costs do relate specifically to preservation, but this does not mean that those are the only costs

  20. INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS YOU KNOW WHAT THE TUITION, STIPEND AND EQUIPMENT COSTS ARE YOU KNOW WHAT THE TOTAL COST IS CALCULATION IS USING THE 2010 FED F&A RATE FOR WSU OF 52% (.52) [ DIRECT COST ­ TUITION ­ STIPEND ­ EQUIPMENT] (.52 ) + DIRECT

  1. Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research Concordia University defines "Indirect Costs" as costs which cannot be associated specifically with a particular research program or other activity. Indirect costs include the provision and maintenance of physical space

  2. Pre-Award Costs Pre-award costs are incurred at the risk of the University.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Pre-Award Costs Pre-award costs are incurred at the risk of the University. The principal supply an alternate index number to charge in the event the project is not funded. Note: Pre-award costs are costs incurred prior to the beginning date of a budget period. Pre-award cost incurred more than 90 days

  3. Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and reactant comparison 2 Questions and Hypotheses Question 1 Can we make biodiesel at a lower cost than at a lower cost than buying fuel at a gas station. ii. Alternative hypothesis: Buying fuel at the pump costsBiodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison Burke Anderson

  4. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for allocating baseline budgets and contingencies. Given the scope and magnitude of the cost-overrun problem, the benefits are likely to be significant.

  5. Structural Engineering Faculty with Class of 2005 CSD's Structural Engi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Shake Table, with the goal of testing possible cost- effective ways to increase seismic safety of mid to improve seismic hazard mitigation, verify new structural materials and concepts, advance structural safety Mitigation of Blast Loading Health Monitoring & Condition Assessment Composite Materials & Light

  6. CBE UFAD cost analysis tool: Life cycle cost model, issues and assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne; Bauman, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Building Maintenance and Repair Cost Reference. ” WhitestoneJ. Wallis and H. Lin. 2008. “CBE UFAD Cost Analysis Tool:UFAD First Cost Model, Issues and Assumptions. ” Center for

  7. NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs and Benefits Comments of the NW Energy Coalition October 31, 2014 Introduction: Applying (Council) to include a methodology for determining quantifiable environmental costs and benefits in its

  8. Melanoma costs: A dynamic model comparing estimated overall costs of various clinical stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru Traian

    2009-01-01

    AL. Trends in treatment costs for localized prostate cancer:R, Elkin EP, et al. Cumulative cost pattern comparison ofAn estimate of the annual direct cost of treating cutaneous

  9. Assessing strategies to address transition costs in a restructuring electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-08-01

    Restructuring the US electricity industry has become the nation`s central energy issue for the 1990s. Restructuring proposals at the federal and state levels focus on more competitive market structures for generation and the integration of transmission within those structures. The proposed move to more competitive generation markets will expose utility costs that are above those experienced by alternative suppliers. Debate about these above-market, or transition, costs (e.g., their size,who will pay for them and how) has played a prominent role in restructuring proceedings. This paper presents results from a project to systematically assess strategies to address transition costs exposed by restructuring the electricity industry.

  10. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    calculation include the installed consumer cost (purchase price plus installation cost), operating expenses (energy and

  11. Modeling the Cost of Climate Policy: Distinguishing Between Alternative Cost Deftitions and Long-Run Cost Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling the Cost of Climate Policy: Distinguishing Between Alternative Cost Deftitions and Long. There are alternative definitions of cost and the evolution of technologies and preferences is a complex and highly, some are more useful." To be more useful, The Energy Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1. CopyrightQ2003

  12. Private trucking costs and records 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haning, Charles R

    1959-01-01

    ?asc Oys?etiss? Ceeyetieoa af Iatot?tets asd Xettset?C? Laweaeato Xatsooity Ve?oo? Leeel Racy? Oecm?ehly of geeek ylsotjt Releties Deyeeteaas ?I INRRaale llsasycaeat CmykaQae R?DC?dfaO Coif y?cseided Remeyoc~iaa kdsoateyae ead Dkssdreac?D?o ef Osa... Xtaeho so Cited c?LCLc RL?sd Rteeeyoxtetise Oeb~tf?? Valse? of Self ycoefd?4 Teeaeyettetisa ieelyeie of Coif ytooidod geeeeyeetstisa Costs ead Ops?eti?O Itetietfso Netj?4 ?f Rceetdiat Reae fet da?LIai? yatyee? Ceeye?4?ea of Xatcgoity sad Losel R...

  13. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    incentives have impacted pre-rebate installed costs, andMost prominent are capital cost rebates offered to PV systemtwo most significant current rebate programs are overseen by

  14. Using Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    higher demand push US natural gas construction plans. ”Using Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Costs to Estimatethe construction costs of natural gas, oil, and petroleum

  15. A Manager's Approach to Energy Cost Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls...

  16. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  17. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  18. Updating MIT's cost estimation model for shipbuilding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Matthew B., Lieutenant, junior grade

    2008-01-01

    This thesis project will update the MIT ship cost estimation model by combining the two existing models (the Basic Military Training School (BMTS) Cost Model and the MIT Math Model) in order to develop a program that can ...

  19. JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD DISCLOSURE STATEMENT FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS CASB DS-2 March 23, 2010 #12;COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD DISCLOSURE STATEMENT REQUIRED BY PUBLIC LAW 100-679 EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS INDEX JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERISTY GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

  20. Sunk Costs and Real Options in Antitrust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2005-07-29

    Sunk costs play a central role in antitrust economics, but are often misunderstood and mismeasured. I will try to clarify some of the conceptual and empirical issues related to sunk costs, and explain their implications ...

  1. How Much Does That Incinerator Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Nash, Catherine; Harman, Wyatte; Padia, Reema

    2008-07-25

    Biosecurity on poultry farms includes proper disposal of dead carcasses. In many cases, that means using an incinerator. Calculating the cost of an incinerator means considering long and short-term expenses and the cost of fuel. This publication...

  2. DOE Challenge Home Savings & Cost Estimate Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost data sources and maintains a methodology consistent with a similar study for ENERGY STAR Homes V3. In actual projects the cost impacts for various upgrades will vary....

  3. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  4. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  5. Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments.

  6. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen...

  7. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  8. An algorithm for minimization of quantum cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2010-04-09

    A new algorithm for minimization of quantum cost of quantum circuits has been designed. The quantum cost of different quantum circuits of particular interest (eg. circuits for EPR, quantum teleportation, shor code and different quantum arithmetic operations) are computed by using the proposed algorithm. The quantum costs obtained using the proposed algorithm is compared with the existing results and it is found that the algorithm has produced minimum quantum cost in all cases.

  9. Optimal Transportation Theory with Repulsive Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Di Marino; Augusto Gerolin; Luca Nenna

    2015-06-15

    This paper intents to present the state of art and recent developments of the optimal transportation theory with many marginals for a class of repulsive cost functions. We introduce some aspects of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) from a mathematical point of view, and revisit the theory of optimal transport from its perspective. Moreover, in the last three sections, we describe some recent and new theoretical and numerical results obtained for the Coulomb cost, the repulsive harmonic cost and the determinant cost.

  10. Cost and energy comparison study of above- and below-ground dwellings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapira, H.B.; Cristy, G.A.; Brite, S.E.; Yost, M.B.

    1983-08-01

    Designs of earth-sheltered (ES) homes were examined and compared with identical aboveground (AG) homes. The homes are identical except where changes were necessitated by earth-sheltering and energy conservation. The study involved design, construction costing, energy analysis, and life-cycle costing (LCC). It was concluded from this study that under present market conditions, if aboveground and earth-sheltered dwellings of equal size and quality are built on similar lots, the construction cost of the earth-sheltered structure compares poorly with that of the aboveground structure. Lowered operation and maintenance costs, including the lower fuel bills of the earth-sheltered structure, are outweighed by the current high interest rates, which cause an increase in monthly payments. 24 references.

  11. Cost Efficient Datacenter Selection for Cloud Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Cost Efficient Datacenter Selection for Cloud Services Hong Xu, Baochun Li henryxu, bli and performance. They need an effective way to direct the user requests to a suitable datacenter, in a cost efficient manner. Previ- ous work focused mostly on the electricity cost of datacenters. The approaches

  12. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE dollars. Costs for a pioneer plant [a 1st plant with a capacity of 500 dry ton per day (dtpd) biomass

  13. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  14. Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Cost Assessment for Hawaii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to residential solar photovoltaic (PV) power to reducing EV ownership costs. In this work, extensions are made substantially brings down the cost of EV ownership, even considering the capital expenditure for PV panelsElectric Vehicle Lifecycle Cost Assessment for Hawaii Dr. Makena Coffman Dr. Paul Bernstein

  15. What does a negawatt really cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    We use data from ten utility conservation programs to calculate the cost per kWh of electricity saved -- the cost of a "negawatthour" -- resulting from these programs. We first compute the life-cycle cost per kWh saved ...

  16. Mathematical Properties of the Deep Coalescence Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Noah

    the maximum cost. We also study corresponding problems for a fixed gene tree. Index Terms--Deep coalescenceMathematical Properties of the Deep Coalescence Cost Cuong V. Than and Noah A. Rosenberg Abstract coalescence cost for reconciling a collection of gene trees is taken as an estimate of the species tree

  17. Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR) Sharing Policy Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR) Sharing Policy Introduction The school receives the majority (~95 to have annual gross research expenditures (direct + indirect costs) greater than $500,000. The percentage explanation. ICR Return to Large Centers with Additional Operational Costs (NEW 7/1/2013) Once research

  18. Cost-Cautious Designs for Confirmatory Bioassay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Cost-Cautious Designs for Confirmatory Bioassay A. N. Donev, R. Tobias & F. Monadjemi First version, The University of Manchester #12;Cost-Cautious Designs for Confirmatory Bioassay Alexander N. Donev School process when a small number of compounds have to be compared with respect to their properties. As the cost

  19. THE COST OF REDUCING VOC EMMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    THE COST OF REDUCING VOC EMMISSIONS FROM 21 INDUSTRIES BY JONATHAN FISHER CSERGE WORKING PAPER WM 97-03 #12;THE COST OF REDUCING VOC EMISSIONS FROM 21 INDUSTRIES by Jonathan Fisher ERM Economics 8 and Industry to estimate the costs of various levels of controls on emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds

  20. LOGISMOS Cost Functions Surface set feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boykov, Yuri

    9/14/2014 1 LOGISMOS ­ Cost Functions 9/14/2014 1 Surface set feasibility A surface set { f1(x constraints Each pair of surfaces satisfies surface interaction constraints. #12;9/14/2014 2 Cost Function ­ Surface Costs One-to-one correspondence between each feasible surface set and each closed set

  1. Update on the Cost of Nuclear Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We update the cost of nuclear power as calculated in the MIT (2003) Future of Nuclear Power study. Our main focus is on the changing cost of construction of new plants. The MIT (2003) study provided useful data on the cost ...

  2. ...offers early cost-effectiveness check

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jeremy

    that an innovation is a `must' ­ offering lower costs for enhanced health outcomes. Or it might turn outMATCH Tool ...offers early cost- effectiveness check on innovations ® Medical Device Evaluation and costs persuade the NHS to buy the innovation? In just three hours, the company was able to check out its

  3. Prevalence-Dependent Costs of Parasite Virulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevalence-Dependent Costs of Parasite Virulence Stephanie Bedhomme1 , Philip Agnew2 , Yuri Vital2, Canada, 2 Ge´ne´tique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, Montpellier, France Costs of parasitism control groups. This measure potentially underestimates the cost of parasitism because it ignores indirect

  4. Hidden Costs of Energy Chris Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Hidden Costs of Energy NRC: 2010 Chris Field Carnegie Institution: Department of Global Ecology www.global-ecology.org #12;What are the real costs of energy? · Health · Environment · Conflict and security · Infrastructure #12;What are the real costs of energy? · Unpriced components · Production · Distribution · Consumption

  5. Memorial University of Newfoundland Indirect Costs Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    Memorial University of Newfoundland Indirect Costs Report 2012-13 The grant provided through the Government of Canada Indirect Costs Program (ICP) is essential to Memorial's research success. Funding and impact can be found in the following section. Total 2013 Indirect Costs Grant: $4,318,814 Management

  6. Support Vector Machines with Example Dependent Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brefeld, Ulf

    Support Vector Machines with Example Dependent Costs Ulf Brefeld, Peter Geibel, and Fritz Wysotzki neu- ral networks and machine learning, typically, do not take any costs into account or allow only costs depending on the classes of the examples that are used for learning. As an extension of class

  7. Financial Policy Manual 2111 UNALLOWABLE COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 2111 UNALLOWABLE COSTS Effective: August 1998 Last Revision PURPOSE: To establish policy for the accounting of costs which are unallowable charges against federally sponsored projects. POLICY: 1. The following costs are unallowable charges to sponsored projects as either

  8. Arbitration Costs and Forum Accessibility: Empirical Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    evidence suggests the following tentative conclusions on those two questions. First, the upfront costs of arbitration will in many cases be higher than, and at best be the same as, the upfront costs in litigation. Whether arbitration is less costly than...

  9. 2014-2015 Projected Aviation Program Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    2014-2015 Projected Aviation Program Costs UND Aerospace offers two aviation degree programs with a total of seven academic majors. Each has its own flight course requirements, which affect the cost of a degree program. BACHELOR of BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ** Flight Costs Airport Management Survey of Flight

  10. Costs and business models in scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Costs and business models in scientific research publishing A report commissioned by the Wellcome Trust DP-3114.p/100/04-2004/JM #12;Costs and business models in scientific research publishing A report, Cambridgeshire CB4 9ZR, UK Tel: +44 (0)1223 209400 Web: www.sqw.co.uk #12;Costs and business models in scientific

  11. TRANSACTION COSTS AND NONMARKOVIAN DELTA HEDGING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TRANSACTION COSTS AND NON­MARKOVIAN DELTA HEDGING Claudio Albanese and Stathis Tompaidis. The underlying security is a stock whose trading involves a small relative transaction cost k . If k = 0 find an optimal trading strategy that minimizes total transaction costs for a given degree of risk

  12. Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tracey

    Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition Shreeshankar Bodas, Jared Grubb, Sriram Sridharan-- This paper analyzes a capacitated network with costs from an information theoretic point of view. Determines a flow decomposition for a network with costs starting from an information theoretic point of view

  13. Using data analytics to streamline healthcare costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using data analytics to streamline healthcare costs The STFC Hartree Centre has helped Albatross Financial Solutions optimise the patient cost benchmarking service it provides to NHS Trusts, helping them to validate and predict costs more accurately and establish best practices. Challenge Most of us will contract

  14. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  15. Correct Marginal Utility Costs Underwrite Plant Profitability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Robert, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    site. However, as a first approximation, one may use the electricity price rather than value in carrying out economic analysis on a site. This article deals with cha.nge.s in steam and electricity demand w1th1n the system (i.e. the site under... o 1000 Lbs/h Fig. 1 For simplicity, fixed costs are not taken into account in this analysis. The only variable costs that are considered are the cost of fuel, the cost of electricity and the cost of boiler feed water (BFW). Other variable...

  16. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug [Sentech, Inc.; Goggin, Mr. Michael [Sentech, Inc.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  17. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  18. Approach to nitinol power plant cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNichols, J.L. Jr.; Cory, J.S.; Curtis, E.H.

    1982-11-01

    The objective of this paper is tof provide a method for cost evaluation of low grade thermal energy conversion by Nitinol power plants. To accomplish this objective Nitinol power plant costs are subdivided int those which can be obtained through conventional cost analysis, and those which are associated with the Nitino heat engine and are not subject to conventional analysis. Analytic expressions are provided for the Nitinol heat engine capital costs and Nitinol replacement costs in terms of Nitinol performance, heat engine configuration, plant operating factors, material costs, and the cost of capital. Nitinol working material factors are identified that require further definition before firm and reliable costs can be determined. Where data are lacking, plausible assumptions and estimates are utilized tof perform a first-cut analysis. It is found that the Nitinol heat engine capital costs per unit power generating capacity are approximately $0.15/W, and that the cost of produced energy for the Nitinol heat engine portion of the power plant is approximately 0.74 /kWh, includin operation, maintenance, Nitinol replacements and the cost of capital for the heat engine. It is concluded tha Nitinol power plants for the conversion of low grade thermal energy may have a significant economical advantage over conventionally fueled power plants.

  19. Low Cost Ceramics:Low Cost Ceramics: Applications in Water FiltrationApplications in Water Filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Low Cost Ceramics:Low Cost Ceramics: Applications in Water FiltrationApplications in Water as a SolutionCeramics as a Solution Low Materials CostLow Materials Cost Worldwide Availability ­ Variable change in head of water Qcw = (k/)(2R/lcw) 0 hw (hw)d (RR1)L = (R1R2)1 (approx.) R = R

  20. TOWARDS NEW METHODOLOGIES OF MEASURING COST EFFICIENCY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF GEOSPATIAL DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to make an assessment of the cost of implementation in relation to the potential capitalized benefits and results, the approaches in the research for health care, technical capital assets or environmental costsTOWARDS NEW METHODOLOGIES OF MEASURING COST EFFICIENCY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF GEOSPATIAL DATA

  1. Reduction of Ultrametric Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games to Cost Allocation Games on Rooted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RIMS-1674 Reduction of Ultrametric Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games to Cost Allocation Games Allocation Games on Rooted Trees Kazutoshi Ando and Shinji Kato June 2009 Abstract A minimum cost spanning tree game is called ultrametric if the cost function on the edges of the underlying network

  2. Reduction of Ultrametric Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games to Cost Allocation Games on Rooted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RIMS­1674 Reduction of Ultrametric Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games to Cost Allocation Games Allocation Games on Rooted Trees Kazutoshi Ando # and Shinji Kato + June 2009 Abstract A minimum cost spanning tree game is called ultrametric if the cost function on the edges of the underlying network

  3. One-Benefit learning: Cost-sensitive learning with restricted cost information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Gary

    @us.ibm.com ABSTRACT This paper presents a new formulation for cost-sensitive learning that we call the One values. Each entry C(i, j) gives the cost of predicting class i for an example whose actual class is jOne-Benefit learning: Cost-sensitive learning with restricted cost information Bianca Zadrozny IBM

  4. December 17, 2008 Robert Almgren / Encyclopedia of Quantitative Finance Execution Costs 1 Execution Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almgren, Robert F.

    December 17, 2008 Robert Almgren / Encyclopedia of Quantitative Finance Execution Costs 1 Execution Costs Execution costs are the difference in value between an ideal trade and what was actually done. The execution cost of a single completed trade is typically the difference between the final average trade price

  5. Direct Cost or F & A? This matrix indicates when selected items of cost will normally be treated as a direct cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Paul R.

    , and line charges · General purpose non-capital equipment (ex. computers costing less than $2500Direct Cost or F & A? This matrix indicates when selected items of cost will normally be treated as a direct cost (charged to a sponsored account) or an indirect cost (part of F&A costs) under "like

  6. Cost Transfer Review Criteria Revised: 01/28/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oviedo, Néstor J.

    Cost Transfer Review Criteria Revised: 01/28/2011 Cost transfers should contain sufficient. The cost transfer narrative should include enough detail to determine who or what the cost transfer relates to, the type of cost transferred, where the cost is transferred from and to, when the cost

  7. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  8. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  9. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    refineries with specific energy and cost savings data whenoperations. Typically, energy and cost savings are around 5%the potential energy and cost-savings (Frangopoluos et al. ,

  10. Optimal Portfolio Management with Transactions Costs and Capital Gains Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leland, Hayne E.

    1999-01-01

    with Transactions Costs and Capital Gains Taxes Hayne E.of Transactions Costs and Capital gains Taxes," SeptemberWITH TRANSACTIONS COSTS AND CAPITAL GAINS TAXES I.

  11. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    interactions between capital cost and performance as well asthat applies recent capital cost and performance data fromthe interdependence of capital costs and performance and to

  12. Wind Power: How Much, How Soon, and At What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-01-01

    on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performanceaccess the nation's lowest-cost wind resources can be builtpressure on installed wind project costs while the industry

  13. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    analyses of solar PV costs, there is perhaps surprisinglypresentation of changing PV costs over time. this requiresin the decline of solar PV costs over the last 30 years.

  14. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01

    energy prices (electricity and diesel fuel), and storage pa-delivered cost to electricity or storage costs is based uponassumptions about electricity prices, storage costs or

  15. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    pump system. Energy costs, and sometimes operations and maintenance costs,maintenance at times lowers pump system efficiency, causes pumps to wear out more quickly and increases costs.

  16. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01

    factor O&M – Operations and Maintenance (fraction of capitalfuel cost, and operations and maintenance costs. Table 4and variable operations and maintenance costs (O&M). In

  17. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) The Department of Energy investigated the major cost factors that...

  18. Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing This tip sheet discusses how to reduce pumping system costs through optimum pipe...

  19. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    increase in rail coal transportation costs in the future? (Ythus, the cost of coal transportation via unit trains ischance of the cost of coal transportation increasing are

  20. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  1. Comparison of financing costs for wind turbine and fossil powerplants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahn, E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper compares the financing costs of wind turbine powerplants with those of fossil powerplants. The goal of this examination is to determine the extent to which these costs differ and what the sources of such differences may be. The discussion is organized in the following fashion. Section 2 introduces basic terminology and concepts from finance, as they apply in the powerplant setting. Section 3 reviews available data from a variety of sources to estimate the magnitude of the variables identified in Section 2. In Section 4 we examine the effect of the production tax credit enacted in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 on the financing of wind turbine projects. Conclusions are offered in Section 5. In the past two years there have been only two wind turbine projects that have been financed, so the basis for broad conclusions is limited. Nonetheless, there appears to be a significant advantage in financing costs for conventional projects compared to wind turbines. The two sources of disadvantage to wind power are first, the cost of equity capital is significantly more expensive, and second, the capital structure of wind projects has a much greater fraction of expensive equity than conventional alternatives.

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  3. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01

    new starts projects-capital costs and ridership. TechnicalTransit Ridership and Capital Costs Erick Guerra and RobertTransit Ridership and Capital Costs Erick Guerra Robert

  4. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01

    rail transit capital cost study update final. Washington,2005). Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Fundedin US rail transit project cost overrun. Transportation

  5. The Cost of Bearing a Sword: Locomotor Costs and Compensations in Relation to a Sexually Selected Trait in Xiphophorus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oufiero, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating performance costs of sexually selected traits.result in a locomotor cost. References Allen, B. J. &Levinton, J. S. (2006). Costs of bearing a sexually selected

  6. Information erasure without an energy cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joan A. Vaccaro; Stephen M. Barnett

    2011-06-01

    Landauer argued that the process of erasing the information stored in a memory device incurs an energy cost in the form of a minimum amount of mechanical work. We find, however, that this energy cost can be reduced to zero by paying a cost in angular momentum or any other conserved quantity. Erasing the memory of Maxwell's demon in this way implies that work can be extracted from a single thermal reservoir at a cost of angular momentum and an increase in total entropy. The implications of this for the second law of thermodynamics are assessed.

  7. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company...

  8. Sandia Energy - Water Availability, Cost, and Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Availability, Cost, and Use Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western and Texas...

  9. Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

    1994-10-07

    Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

  10. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    production equipment (e.g. electrolyzer, steam reformer) (iffeedstock costs differences. Electrolyzer stations yield theuses an alkaline electrolyzer powered by grid electricity to

  11. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    production equipment (e.g. electrolyzer, steam reformer) (iffeedstock costs differences. Electrolyzer stations yield theuses an alkaline electrolyzer powered by grid electricity to

  12. Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fingersh, L.; Hand, M.; Laxson, A.

    2006-12-01

    This model intends to provide projections of the impact on cost from changes in economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product and Producer Price Index.

  13. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average *...

  14. Controller (Cost Compliance and Financial Reporting) | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GAAP, Cost Accounting Standards and internal controls required. Excellent analytical and problem solving skills Knowledge of DOE reporting requirements and prior Laboratory or...

  15. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    high-pressure stationary hydrogen storage tanks. The storage10] reviewed the hydrogen storage and the delivery cost forwhich applies to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors.

  16. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    10] reviewed the hydrogen storage and the delivery cost forwhich applies to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors.high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage containers, and a

  17. Costs and benefits of robust optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-11-13

    papers [3] by Ben-Tal and Nemirovski provides a stability analysis together with a result concerning costs for robust linear optimization under convex uncertainty.

  18. Dynamic Portfolio Optimization with Transaction Costs: Heuristics ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-02-03

    Aug 10, 2010 ... Dynamic Portfolio Optimization with Transaction. Costs: Heuristics and Dual Bounds. David B. Brown and James E. Smith?. Fuqua School of ...

  19. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  20. Optimal control of a large dam, taking into account the water costs [New Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abramov, Vyacheslav M

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies large dam models where the difference between lower and upper levels $L$ is assumed to be large. Passage across the levels leads to damage, and the damage costs of crossing the lower or upper level are proportional to the large parameter $L$. Input stream of water is described by compound Poisson process, and the water cost depends upon current level of water in the dam. The aim of the paper is to choose the parameters of output stream (specifically defined in the paper) minimizing the long-run expenses. The particular problem, where input stream is Poisson and water costs are not taken into account has been studied in [Abramov, \\emph{J. Appl. Prob.}, 44 (2007), 249-258]. The present paper partially answers the question \\textit{How does the structure of water costs affect the optimal solution?} In particular the case of linear costs is studied.

  1. Integrated structural health monitoring.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2001-01-01

    Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective structural health monitoring solution by integrating and extending technologies from various engineering and information technology disciplines. It is the authors opinion that all structural health monitoring systems must be application specific. Therefore, a specific application, monitoring welded moment resisting steel frame connections in structures subjected to seismic excitation, is described along with the motivation for choosing this application. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. The proposed system is based on an assessment of the deficiencies associated with many current structural health monitoring technologies including past efforts by the authors. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.

  2. System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Campbell

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

  3. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  4. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01

    Energy requirements and capital costs for liquefaction arethereby lowering capital costs and reducing the amount of$0.05/kg). The pipeline capital cost and the number and cost

  5. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01

    Energy requirements and capital costs for liquefaction arethereby lowering capital costs and reduc- ing the amount of$0.05/kg). The pipeline capital cost and the number and cost

  6. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    cost of the highest cost generation in about 1.1% of allcost of the highest cost generation in about 4.9% of allcost of the highest cost generation. The revenue shortfall

  7. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  8. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  9. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  10. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  11. Decommissioning Cost Estimating Factors And Earned Value Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P.C.; Cimmarron, E.

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Flats 771 Project progressed from the planning stage of decommissioning a plutonium facility, through the strip-out of highly-contaminated equipment, removal of utilities and structural decontamination, and building demolition. Actual cost data was collected from the strip-out activities and compared to original estimates, allowing the development of cost by equipment groupings and types and over time. Separate data was developed from the project control earned value reporting and compared with the equipment data. The paper discusses the analysis to develop the detailed factors for the different equipment types, and the items that need to be considered during characterization of a similar facility when preparing an estimate. The factors are presented based on direct labor requirements by equipment type. The paper also includes actual support costs, and examples of fixed or one-time start-up costs. The integration of the estimate and the earned value system used for the 771 Project is also discussed. The paper covers the development of the earned value system as well as its application to a facility to be decommissioned and an existing work breakdown structure. Lessons learned are provided, including integration with scheduling and craft supervision, measurement approaches, and verification of scope completion. In summary: The work of decommissioning the Rocky Flats 771 Project process equipment was completed in 2003. Early in the planning process, we had difficulty in identifying credible data and implementing processes for estimating and controlling this work. As the project progressed, we were able to collect actual data on the costs of removing plutonium contaminated equipment from various areas over the life of this work and associate those costs with individual pieces of equipment. We also were able to develop and test out a system for measuring the earned value of a decommissioning project based on an evolving estimate. These were elements that would have been useful to us in our early planning process, and we would expect that they would find application elsewhere as the DOE weapons complex and some commercial nuclear facilities move towards closure. (authors)

  12. HIGH SPEED RAIL COSTS, BENEFITS, AND FINANCING RAYMOND H. ELLIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Incremental Capital Cost Capital Cost Year of (Billions (Billions Completion Expenditure Section 2010$) 2010$) of Section Capital Cost #12;CALIFORNIA HIGH SPEED RAIL PHASE 1 CAPITAL COSTS SECTION INCREMENTAL CAPITAL COSTS (BILLIONS $ 2010) CUMULATIVE CAPITAL COSTS (BILLIONS $ 2010) COMPLETION OF SECTION INCREMENTAL

  13. Network Cost-Sharing without Anonymity Tim Roughgarden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Network Cost-Sharing without Anonymity Tim Roughgarden Okke Schrijvers May 16, 2015 Abstract We consider network cost-sharing games with non-anonymous cost functions, where the cost of each edge is a submodular function of its users, and this cost is shared using the Shapley value. Non-anonymous cost

  14. Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlon, B.

    2012-04-01

    Solar-powered electricity prices could soon approach those of power from coal or natural gas thanks to collaborative research with solar startup Ampulse Corporation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Silicon wafers account for almost half the cost of today's solar photovoltaic panels, so reducing or eliminating wafer costs is essential to bringing prices down. Current crystalline silicon technology converts energy in a highly efficient manner; however, that technology is manufactured with processes that could stand some improvement. The industry needs a method that is less complex, creates less waste and uses less energy. First, half the refined silicon is lost as dust in the wafer-sawing process, driving module costs higher. Wafers are sawn off of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of silicon. A typical 2-meter boule loses as many as 6,000 potential wafers during sawing. Second, the wafers produced are much thicker than necessary. To efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, the wafers need be only one-tenth the typical thickness. NREL, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Ampulse have partnered on an approach to eliminate this waste and dramatically lower the cost of the finished solar panels. By using a chemical vapor deposition process to grow the silicon on inexpensive foil, Ampulse is able to make the solar cells just thick enough to convert most of the solar energy into electricity. No more sawdust - and no more wasting refined silicon materials. NREL developed the technology to grow high-quality silicon and ORNL developed the metal foil that has the correct crystal structure to support that growth. Ampulse is installing a pilot manufacturing line in NREL's Process Development Integration Laboratory, where solar companies can work closely with lab scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to their technology development, as well as rapidly overcoming R and D challenges and risk. NREL's program is focused on transformative innovation in the domestic PV industry. With knowledge and expertise acquired from the PDIL pilot production line tools, Ampulse plans to design a full-scale production line to accommodate long rolls of metal foil. The Ampulse process 'goes straight from pure silicon-containing gas to high-quality crystal silicon film,' said Brent Nelson, the operational manager for the Process Development Integration Laboratory. 'The advantage is you can make the wafer just as thin as you need it - 10 microns or less.' Most of today's solar cells are made out of wafer crystalline silicon, though thin-film cells made of more exotic elements such as copper, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium and others are making a strong push into the market. The advantage of silicon is its abundance, because it is derived from sand. Silicon's disadvantage is that purifying it into wafers suitable for solar cells can be expensive and energy intensive. Manufacturers add carbon and heat to sand to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is useful in other industries, but not yet suitable for making solar cells. So this metallurgical-grade silicon is then converted to pure trichlorosilane (SiCl3) or silane (SiH4) gas. Typically, the purified gas is then converted to create a silicon feedstock at 1,000 degrees Celsius. This feedstock is melted at 1,414 C and recrystallized into crystal ingots that are finally sawed into wafers. The Ampulse method differs in that it eliminates the last two steps in the traditional process and works directly with the silane gas growing only the needed silicon right onto a foil substrate. A team of NREL scientists had developed a way to use a process called hot-wire chemical vapor deposition to thicken silicon wafers with near perfect crystal structure. Using a hot tungsten filament much like the one found in an incandescent light bulb, the silane gas molecules are broken apart and deposited onto the wafer using the chemical vapor deposition technique at about 700 C - a much lower temperature than needed to make the wafer. The hot filament dec

  15. Cost-of-Service Segmentation of Energy Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2014-11-01

    Uncertainty in consumption is a key challenge at energy utility companies, which are faced with balancing highly stochastic demand with increasingly volatile supply characterized by significant penetration rates of intermittent renewable sources. This paper proposes a methodology to quantify uncertainty in consumption that highlights the dependence of the cost-of-service with volatility in demand. We use a large and rich dataset of consumption time series to provide evidence that there is a substantial degree of high-level structure in the statistics of consumption across users which may be partially explained by certain characteristics of the users. To uncover this structure, we propose a new technique for extracting typical statistical signatures of consumption-energy demand distributions (EDDs)-that is based on clustering distributions using a fast, approximated algorithm. We next study the factors influencing the choice of consumption signature and identify certain types of appliances and behaviors related to appliance operation that are most predictive. Finally, we comment on how structure in consumption statistics may be used to target residential energy efficiency programs to achieve greatest impact in curtailing cost of service.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Cost Models Used for Estimating Renovation Costs of Universities in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faquih, Yaquta Fakhruddin

    2010-10-12

    Facility managers use various cost models and techniques to estimate the cost of renovating a building and to secure the required funds needed for building renovation. A literature search indicates that these techniques offer both advantages...

  17. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  18. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-07-01

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  19. Cost of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Tishchishyna, N.I.

    2000-05-01

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  20. Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2000-05-17

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  1. Cost Concepts for Climate Change Mitigation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR of global environment and energy challenges, thereby contributing to informed debate about climate change in consumption, change in welfare, energy system cost, and area under marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve

  2. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  3. RESEARCH PATIENT CARE COSTS --NIH(RC)-11 (a) Research patient care costs are the costs of routine and ancillary services provided to patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    RESEARCH PATIENT CARE COSTS -- NIH(RC)-11 (a) Research patient care costs are the costs of routine) Patient care costs shall be computed in a manner consistent with the principles and procedures used by the Medicare Program for determining the part of Medicare reimbursement based on reasonable costs

  4. Measuring the Effects of Peaking, Vehicle Capital, and Passenger Capacity on the Cost of Providing Transit Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Brian D; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    include both operating costs and capital costs, though mostthe Peak Period Operating Vehicle Non-vehicle Costs CapitalCosts Capital Costs Total Capital Total Costs Costs This

  5. Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacey, Ph.D, P.E., Ronald E.

    2012-07-16

    Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

  6. Calculating Wind Integration Costs: Separating Wind Energy Value from Integration Cost Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2009-07-01

    Accurately calculating integration costs is important so that wind generation can be fairly compared with alternative generation technologies.

  7. Time-Energy Costs of Quantum Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau

    2014-05-08

    Time and energy of quantum processes are a tradeoff against each other. We propose to ascribe to any given quantum process a time-energy cost to quantify how much computation it performs. Here, we analyze the time-energy costs for general quantum measurements, along a similar line as our previous work for quantum channels, and prove exact and lower bound formulae for the costs. We use these formulae to evaluate the efficiencies of actual measurement implementations. We find that one implementation for a Bell measurement is optimal in time-energy. We also analyze the time-energy cost for unambiguous state discrimination and find evidence that only a finite time-energy cost is needed to distinguish any number of states.

  8. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested.

  9. Wireless Sensing and Structural Control Strategies Kincho H. Law1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Wireless Sensing and Structural Control Strategies Kincho H. Law1 , Andrew Swartz2 , Jerome P from wireless communication and embedded computing technologies in terms of installation cost and time. Our prior research has developed low-cost wireless sensing systems for structural monitoring

  10. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  11. DIRECT COST REVIEW-JUSTIFICATION: PLEASE COMPLETE THIS FORM FOR JUSTIFICATION OF QUESTIONABLE DIRECT COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    DIRECT COST REVIEW-JUSTIFICATION: PLEASE COMPLETE THIS FORM FOR JUSTIFICATION OF QUESTIONABLE DIRECT COSTS Provide the information below, plus any related attachments (copy of receipt, quote, etc the cost be specifically identified with a particular award with relative ease and accuracy? 2) Does

  12. Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in the Presence of Convex Transaction Costs and Market Impact Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John E.

    Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in the Presence of Convex Transaction Costs and Market Impact Costs John E. Mitchell Department of Mathematical Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. Abstract The inclusion of transaction costs is an essential element of any realistic portfolio optimization

  13. Mathematical Modeling for CostMathematical Modeling for Cost Optimization of PV RecyclingOptimization of PV Recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    Mathematical Modeling for CostMathematical Modeling for Cost Optimization of PV Recycling of plants Capital costs to open up a recycling center 4 #12;Time Horizon for PV Recycling Infrastructure 5 cost $189K System optimal cost $1079K 11 #12;PV Recycling ­Cost Optimization 1. Where is the optimized

  14. Cost Bases for Incentive Rates Applicable to Industrial Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, C. N.

    1987-01-01

    ; they involve a depressed economy base in all or certain segments of the service area, a decrease in load, excess generation capacity, and an increase in base rates. An increase in rates may also be related to the commercial operation of a base load unit, i... utility has completely abandoned a pricing structure that is in any way related to cost. Some of the incentive rates are very short lived and reflect transient economic conditions while others tend to reflect long-term economic relationships...

  15. Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI) Cost Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary Alice Price

    2010-07-11

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) began operating Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) under the Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based and cost-effective program, in December 2006. The NTS SFPI Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Systems (COMPASS) Model is made up of specific elements (MC&A plan, graded safeguards, accounting systems, measurements, containment, surveillance, physical inventories, shipper/receiver differences, assessments/performance tests) and various sub-elements, which are each assigned effectiveness and contribution factors that when weighted and rated reflect the health of the MC&A program. The MC&A Cost Model, using an Excel workbook, calculates budget and/or actual costs using these same elements/sub-elements resulting in total costs and effectiveness costs per element/sub-element. These calculations allow management to identify how costs are distributed for each element/sub-element. The Cost Model, as part of the SFPI program review process, enables management to determine if spending is appropriate for each element/sub-element.

  16. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschall, R.K. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, Mail Stop IB57, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

    1993-01-10

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp[gt]870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified.

  17. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  18. Going with the flow: Life cycle costing for industrial pumping systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tutterow, Vestal; Hovstadius, Gunnar; McKane, Aimee

    2002-01-01

    Costs Energy Costs Pump Maintenance Costs Other Maintenanceand Identify pumps with high maintenance costs. Since thePump Downtime Operating Energy Maintenance Figure 1. Example life cycle costs

  19. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented.

  20. Structural colour in colourimetric sensors and indicators Ian B. Burgess,*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loncar, Marko

    for applications including low-cost colourimetric chemical sensors, smart, envi- ronment-adaptive optical building an overview of the development of low-cost sensors and indicators that exploit structural colour. Building

  1. Understanding the Cost of Higher Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McPherson, Peter; Shulenburger, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Index as a cost measure, the annual real increase is still just 0.84 percent per year.13 To repeat, the substantial increase in tuition revenue over the last decade, and in fact over the last two decades, was only slightly more than the real... methods of deflating figures to account for inflation. Wellman used the Consumer Price Index while SHEEO utilizes its own cost index, the Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA) for deflation. The SHEEO index is a combination of the BLS’s Employment...

  2. Cost and code study of underground buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

  3. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich; Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  4. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to individual refineries, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  5. Harmonizing Systems and Software Cost Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gan

    2009-07-19

    The objective of this paper is to examine the gaps and overlaps between software and systems engineering cost models with intent to harmonize the estimates in engineering engineering estimation. In particular, we evaluate ...

  6. Cost of Offshore Wind Energy Charlene Nalubega

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    water as well as on land based wind farms. The specific offshore wind energy case under consideration, most of the offshore wind farms are in Europe, which started being developed in the early 1990's Cost of Offshore Wind Energy

  7. Evaluating Utility Costs from Cogeneration Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polsky, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the method of calculation of incremental costs of steam, condensate, feedwater and electricity produced by the industrial cogeneration plant. (This method can also be applied to other energy production plants.) It also shows how...

  8. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  9. Prediction markets for cost and risk assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Taroon

    2011-01-01

    Several temporal and political factors can sometimes limit the effectiveness of traditional methods of project tracking and cost estimation. A large organization is susceptible to internal and external risks that are ...

  10. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    Well-to-wheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicleJP, et al. Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis,”Year 2006 UCD—ITS—RR—06—04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs

  11. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  12. Cost and benefit of energy efficient buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wenying, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    A common misconception among developers and policy-makers is that "sustainable buildings" may not be financially justified. However, this report strives to show that building green is cost-effective and does make financial ...

  13. How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, G.

    2007-01-01

    customers control their supply-side costs of energy. Specific topics include distributive wind power generation and solid fuel boilers. It identities factors to consider in determining whether these technologies are economically viable for customers...

  14. Physical Cost of Erasing Quantum Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arun Kumar Pati

    2012-08-23

    Erasure of information stored in a quantum state requires energy cost and is inherently an irreversible operation. If quantumness of a system is physical, does erasure of quantum correlation as measured by discord also need some energy cost? Here, we show that change in quantum correlation is never larger than the total entropy change of the system and the environment. The entropy cost of erasing correlation has to be at least equal to the amount of quantum correlation erased. Hence, quantum correlation can be regarded as genuinely physical. We show that the new bound leads to the Landauer erasure. The physical cost of erasing quantum correlation is well respected in the case of bleaching of quantum information, thermalization, and can have potential application for any channel leading to erasure of quantum correlation.

  15. Markovianizing Cost of Tripartite Quantum States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyuri Wakakuwa; Akihito Soeda; Mio Murao

    2015-04-22

    We introduce and analyze a task that we call Markovianization, in which a tripartite quantum state is transformed to a quantum Markov chain by a randomizing operation on one of the three subsystems. We consider cases where the initial state is a tensor product of $n$ copies of a tripartite state $\\rho^{ABC}$, and is transformed to a quantum Markov chain conditioned by $B^n$ with a small error, by a random unitary operation on $A^n$. In an asymptotic limit of infinite copies and vanishingly small error, we analyze the Markovianizing cost, that is, the minimum cost of randomness per copy required for Markovianization. For tripartite pure states, we derive a single-letter formula for the Markovianizing costs. Counterintuitively, the Markovianizing cost is not a continuous function of states, and can be arbitrarily large even if the state is an approximate quantum Markov chain. Our results have an application for distributed quantum computation.

  16. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    Chemicals, Inc. , Stuart Energy, H2Gen). All cost data areJournal of Hydrogen Energy 32 (2007) 4089 – 4100 2.4.1.Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32 (2007) 4089 – 4100 Annualized

  17. Updating Texas Energy Cost Containment Audit Reports 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, T. E.; Heffington, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984 and 1986, 35.3 million square feet of state owned buildings were audited to identify cost saving retrofit projects. Originally intended for direct legislative funding or bond sales, funding became available in 1989 ...

  18. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lowers Costs ArcelorMittal's Indiana Harbor plant in East Chicago, Indiana, is the largest steel mill in the Western Hemisphere. It operates five...

  19. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  20. Fire Brigades costs and organisational arrangements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, W.H.H.

    Basic cost curves for fire brigades in England and Wales are presented. The relationships are used to investigate the financial consequenoes of enlarging present brigade responsibilities in terms of the scope of service ...

  1. Cost accounting system for an emergency department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Josh (Josh Woolim)

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Michael Porter and Robert Kaplan - the godfather of modern managerial accounting and professor at Harvard Business School - said "There is an almost complete lack of understanding of how much it costs to deliver ...

  2. Explorations in low-cost compliant robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumpf, Adam (Adam A.)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the findings of exploratory research in low-cost compliant robotics. The most heavily leveraged trade-off is that of mechanical precision for computational power, with the hope that the price of future ...

  3. Explorations in Low-Cost Compliant Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumpf, Adam

    2007-01-30

    This thesis presents the findings of exploratory research in low-cost compliant robotics. The most heavily leveraged trade-off is that of mechanical precision for computational power, with the hope that the price of future ...

  4. Cost of heliostats in low volume production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, K.; Williams, T. A.; Dilbeck, R. A.; Allison, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    This study indicates that in small volumes, heliostats can be produced at an installed cost of approximately 200 $/M/sup 2/ for a 49.053 m/sup 2/ heliostat. Initial one-time costs of $10 to $15 million would be required, although part of the one-time costs are recoverable. This study provides estimated costs of heliostats that are produced in a plant operating on a continuous basis for a period of four years at a production rate of 2,500 heliostats per year. This scenario was selected somewhat arbitrarily as a scenario that could lead to heliostat market of 5,000 to 10,000 units per year.

  5. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  6. Forestry mitigation potential and costs in developing countries - Preface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Makundi, Willy; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    The forest sector in Tanzania offers ample opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and sequestered carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems. More than 90% of the country's demand for primary energy is obtained from biomass mostly procured unsustainably from natural forests. This study examines the potential to sequester C through expansion of forest plantations aimed at reducing the dependence on natural forest for wood fuel production, as well as increase the country's output of industrial wood from plantations. These were compared ton conservation options in the tropical and miombo ecosystems. Three sequestration options were analyzed, involving the establishment of short rotation and long rotation plantations on about 1.7 x 106 hectares. The short rotation community forest option has a potential to sequester an equilibrium amount of 197.4 x 106 Mg C by 2024 at a net benefit of $79.5 x 106, while yielding a NPV of $0.46 Mg-1 C. The long rotation options for softwood and hardwood plantations will reach an equilibrium sequestration of 5.6 and 11.8 x 106 Mg C at a negative NPV of $0.60 Mg-1 C and $0.32 Mg-1 C. The three options provide cost competitive opportunities for sequestering about 7.5 x 106 Mg C yr -1 while providing desired forest products and easing the pressure on the natural forests in Tanzania. The endowment costs of the sequestration options were all found to be cheaper than the emission avoidance cost for conservation options which had an average cost of $1.27 Mg-1 C, rising to $7.5 Mg-1 C under some assumptions on vulnerability to encroachment. The estimates shown here may represent the upper bound, because the actual potential will be influenced by market prices for inputs and forest products, land use policy constraints and the structure of global C transactions.

  7. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  8. Purpose Destination Date Parts Labor Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Report Previous Month Odometer Lub./ Fluid or Fuel Qty. Cost YearType Trip/Daily Ending Odometer Vehicle as necessary. $ $ $ Fuel/Fluid Type CNG=COMP.NAT.GAS DSL=DIESEL ELE=ELECTRICITY ETH=ETHANOL GAS=UNLEADEDGAS LPG=PROPANE MTH=METHANOL BDL=BIODIESEL Total Costs $ $ $ Fuel data entry must be per transaction A D D A D D #12;

  9. Pragmatic and cost efficient D and D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, M. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A great deal of effort is expended by remediation professionals in the pursuit of new technologies to assist them in performing their tasks more efficiently. These individuals understand the cost savings associated with volume reduction and waste minimization and routinely incorporate these practices into their planning. However, the largest cost component on many D and D projects is labor. Increasing the efficiency of work force utilization is frequently the most overlooked technique that can be instituted and which can easily offer major cost savings. Granted, some D and D jobs require highly specialized tools and equipment which are quite expensive. Decreasing these costs is often not an option or will yield minimal results. Conversely, the increase in worker efficiency can usually decrease costs dramatically. During the performance of the Safe Shutdown Project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (the Fernald site), a process improvement initiative was instituted in support of the development of the Ten Year Plan. Costs associated with the removal of hundreds of thousands of pounds of nuclear material from formerly utilized equipment piping, and ductwork in nuclear facilities at the Fernald site were analyzed. This analysis indicated that the labor component was large enough to merit further inspection. A new approach to the activities was instituted and the results were significant. A macroscopic overview of all work activities utilized work evolution control (sequencing), building segmentation, and efficient use of engineering controls to streamline the D and D process. Overall costs on the first facility were reduced by over 20%. The increased labor efficiency resulted in decreased Personal Protective Equipment costs for field personnel. This approach will be discussed in detail.

  10. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  11. THE COST OF CARBON CAPTURE Jeremy David and Howard Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characterize the reference (no capture) plant: · Capital cost, in $/kW; · Cost of electricity due to operation capital cost, in $/kg of CO2 processed per hour; · Incremental cost of electricity due to operationTHE COST OF CARBON CAPTURE Jeremy David and Howard Herzog Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  12. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  13. Cost Policy on Sponsored Agreements Page 12 of 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Cost Policy on Sponsored Agreements Page 12 of 12 Appendix A - Typical Direct and F&A (Indirect Costs) Direct Costs F&A Costs Compensation & Employee Benefits: Faculty, technicians, research, local postage costs (depending upon award), bulk mail services (depending upon award) and University

  14. Arbitrage and viability in securities markets with ...xed trading costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Arbitrage and viability in securities markets with ...xed trading costs Elyès Jouini Hedi Kallaly with ...xed costs of trading, i.e. transactions costs that are bounded regardless of the transaction size, such as: ...xed brokerage fees, investment taxes, op- erational and processing costs, or opportunity costs

  15. M i C tMeasuring Costs presented bypresented by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M i C tMeasuring Costs presented bypresented by Arlee Reno, Senior Vice PresidentArlee Reno, Senior leadership you can trust. #12;Measuring Costs Objective of presentation: cover all aspects of costs Costs are generally considered to be the costs of the transportation facilitytransportation facility Most "benefits

  16. Learning Linear Classifiers Sensitive to Example Dependent and Noisy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brefeld, Ulf

    Learning Linear Classifiers Sensitive to Example Dependent and Noisy Costs Peter Geibel, Ulf costs into ac- count or allow only costs depending on the classes of the examples that are used for learning. As an extension of class dependent costs, we con- sider costs that are example, i.e. feature

  17. Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keogh, Scott

    Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish Bob B. M. Wong* and Michael D. Jennions that female mate choice decisions depend on the direct costs of choosing (either because of search costs or male-imposed costs). Far less is known about how direct fitness costs affect male mate choice. We

  18. "A Model of Vertical Oligopolistic Competition"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisinger, Markus; Schnitzer, Monika

    2008-01-01

    interaction between upstream and downstream markets is alsostructures upstream and downstream evolve endogenously. Incompetitive structures upstream and downstream di?er a lot,

  19. A Model of Vertical Oligopolistic Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisinger, Markus; Schnitzer, Monika E

    2008-01-01

    interaction between upstream and downstream markets is alsostructures upstream and downstream evolve endogenously. Incompetitive structures upstream and downstream di?er a lot,

  20. Use of Air Modeling to Reduce Facility Demolition Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Dennis; Sanford, Peter; Parsons, Duane A.

    2003-02-26

    DOE faces the problem of decommissioning facilities contaminated with plutonium, uranium, and beryllium. The standard process has been to remove the contaminated process equipment from a facility, and then decontaminate the residual radiological and hazardous contamination from the facility structure to an ''unconditional release'' level. The facility would then be taken down as a clean demolition. Several beryllium-contaminated facilities were identified that will be particularly difficult to decontaminate to these release levels. A number of alternative decommissioning approaches were investigated that would require less decontamination, and thus reduced cost and schedule. Initial alternative approaches proposed erection of barriers (i.e. building-size tent structures with ventilation controls) to minimize the release of contamination to the environment. More recently we have investigated methods to control contamination at the structure surfaces before and during demolition, and model the risk posed to the workers, public, and the environment by the small residual material actually dispersed. This approach promises to minimize decontamination by removing only the highest contamination levels, and eliminates the need for erecting large contamination control structures along with the attendant ventilation equipment and administrative controls. The modeling has demonstrated the regulatory acceptability of this approach, and the approach is ready to be discussed with the regulators and the public.

  1. Minimization of Life Cycle Costs Through Optimization of the Validation Program A Test Sample Size and Warranty Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandborn, Peter

    unit cost to the customer (customer's price) d = design cost of the total program pv = cost of productMinimization of Life Cycle Costs Through Optimization of the Validation Program ­ A Test Sample Size and Warranty Cost Approach Andre Kleyner, Delphi Delco Electronics, Kokomo Peter Sandborn, Ph

  2. Is This Cost Estimate Reliable?Is This Cost Estimate Reliable? -The Relationship between Homogeneity of Analogues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Is This Cost Estimate Reliable?Is This Cost Estimate Reliable? - The Relationship between/4)( / ) Software cost estimation Definition · Task of predicting the cost required to complete a software projectproject Techniques for software cost estimation · Algorithmic estimationAlgorithmic estimation ­ Calculate

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1615_Cost Estimating Panel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cost Estimate (ICE) - Same Basis as Project Cost Estimate (PCE) Sa e as s as ojec Cos s a e ( C ) - Reconcilable with PCE to Facilitate Validation * Independent Cost Review...

  4. Challenging the Cost Effectiveness of Medi-Cal Managed Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riner, R. Myles

    2009-01-01

    on the average per capita cost of the eligibility cohort orCal population. The per capita cost method of calculatingwith the adjusted average per capita costs (AAPCC), and with

  5. DOE Perspective on Budget, Accounting, and Cost-Saving Initiatives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Joseph Hezir, Chief Financial Officer, DOE presented on the topic DOE Perspective on Budget, Accounting, and Cost-Saving Initiatives. The presentation focuses on FFRDCs, National Lab funding and cost accounting, ICR, and overhead costs.

  6. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A; Simonot, E. (2011). The Cost of Wind Energy. Spanish Wind5. DRIVERS OF FUTURE WIND ENERGY COST REDUCTIONS A largeput upward pressure on wind energy costs, such as continued

  7. Wind Power: How Much, How Soon, and At What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-01-01

    Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, andand costs for rapid wind energy deployment in the US haveinstalled cost for wind projects in the US has increased

  8. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    Solar PV Among analyses of solar PV costs, there is perhapsin the decline of solar PV costs over the last 30 years.declining trend in solar PV costs is critical to formulating

  9. The High Cost of Caring: Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla-Frausto, D. Imelda; Wallace, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    RESEARCH Monthly Cost Components in Elder Index for OlderElder Index) for California calculates that the costs ofIndex) provides more accurate estimates of the true cost of

  10. Demographic Variation in Housing Cost Adjustments With US Family Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Suzanne Davies; Clark, William A.V.; Ruiz, Tricia

    2007-01-01

    ACCRA. 2001. Cost of Living Index Manual, American ChambersAn interstate cost-of-living index. Educational Evaluationcomprehensive cost-of-living index (Nelson, 1991; McMahon,

  11. Chapter 31 - Contract Cost Principles and Procedures | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Chapter 31 - Contract Cost Principles and Procedures Chapter 31 - Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 31.1CostReasonableness0.pdf 31.2AllowableFoodandBeverageCostsatD...

  12. Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    W. , and S. R. Mundle. Peak-Base Cost Allocation Models. In29–33. Reilly, J. M. Transit Costs During Peak and Off-PeakHow to Allocate Bus Route Costs. Transit, Vol. 5, No. 2,

  13. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01

    3000 kg/day and electricity and storage costs. In all cases,in energy prices (electricity and diesel fuel), and storagedelivered cost to electricity or storage costs is based upon

  14. The New Science of Soft Costs Breakout Session Flier | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The New Science of Soft Costs Breakout Session Flier The New Science of Soft Costs Breakout Session Flier Flier promoting The New Science of Soft Costs breakout session at the May...

  15. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving...

  16. A multi-regression analysis of airline indirect operating costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taneja, Nawal K.

    1968-01-01

    A multiple regression analysis of domestic and local airline indirect costs was carried out to formulate cost estimating equations for airline indirect costs. Data from CAB and FAA sources covering the years 1962-66 was ...

  17. Diversification, Coordination Costs and Organizational Rigidity: Evidence from Microdata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salzman, Daniel

    1 Diversification, Coordination Costs and Organizational Rigidity: Evidence from Microdata First: Diversification, coordination costs, organizational rigidity, productivity #12;2 Diversification, Coordination Costs and Organizational Rigidity: Evidence from Microdata Abstract: This paper examines the impact

  18. INFOGRAPHIC: Let's Get to Work on Solar Soft Costs | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    INFOGRAPHIC: Let's Get to Work on Solar Soft Costs INFOGRAPHIC: Let's Get to Work on Solar Soft Costs December 2, 2013 - 1:00pm Addthis Learn how soft costs are contributing to the...

  19. Including costs of supply chain risk in strategic sourcing decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Avani

    2009-01-01

    Cost evaluations do not always include the costs associated with risks when organizations make strategic sourcing decisions. This research was conducted to establish and quantify the impact of risks and risk-related costs ...

  20. Understanding the Costs of Business Process Management Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    Understanding the Costs of Business Process Management Technology Bela Mutschler and Manfred. However, introduc- ing BPM approaches in enterprises is associated with significant costs. Though ex- isting economic-driven IT evaluation and software cost estimation approaches have received considerable

  1. Improved supplier selection and cost management for globalized automotive production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franken, Joseph P., II (Joseph Philip)

    2012-01-01

    For many manufacturing and automotive companies, traditional sourcing decisions rely on total landed cost models to determine the cheapest supplier. Total landed cost models calculate the cost to purchase a part plus all ...

  2. The Cost of Power Disturbances to Industrial & Digital Economy Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    Outages Outage Costs as a Function of Duration of Outage 2-1 Outage Costs by Sector and kWh Consumption 2-4 Outage Costs as a Function of Business Activities and Equipment 2-5 The Impact of Advance Notice on Outage Costs 2-7 Elements of Outage Costs ­ Where Does the Money Go? 2-8 Chapter 3: Aggregate Cost

  3. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  4. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED...

  5. Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

  6. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings estimates and cost...

  7. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy...

  8. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  9. On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) October 8...

  10. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation This...

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    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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