Sample records for upper air measurements

  1. The accuracy of miniature bead thermistors in the measurement of upper air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Donald C. (Donald Charles), 1933-

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was made of the errors of miniature bead thermistors of 5, 10, and 15 mils nominal diameter when used for the measurement of atmospheric temperature. Although the study was primarily concerned with the ...

  2. Upper-ocean variability in Drake Passage and the Weddell Sea : Measuring the oceanic response to air-sea and ice-ocean interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephenson, Gordon Ronald

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    remote-sensing observations of SST to an upper-ocean heatremote-sensing and reanalysis products provide estimates of the net heat

  3. Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F. Raymond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F, Second Fig ABSTRACT. Upper-air conditions archived in the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis have been used cannot be determined, so the investigation is limited to examining relative changes in those upper air

  4. Upper-air temperatures around Greenland: 19642005 Jason E. Box1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Upper-air temperatures around Greenland: 1964­2005 Jason E. Box1,2 and Ariel E. Cohen2 Received 15 of 12h balloon soundings from six sites surrounding Greenland reveal distinct patterns of tropospheric-air temperatures around Greenland: 1964­ 2005, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L12706, doi:10.1029/ 2006GL025723. 1

  5. Experimental investigation of a flow monitoring instrument in an upper plenum of an air-water reflood test facility. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, S.K.; Hardy, J.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Instrumentation was developed for measuring fluid phenomena in the upper plenum of pressurized water reactor reflood facilities. In particular, the instrumentation measured two-phase flow velocity and void fraction. The principle of operation of the instrumentation scheme was based on the measurement of electrical impedance. The technique of analysis of random signals from two spatially separated impedance sensors was employed to measure two-phase flow velocity. A relative admittance technique was used to determine void fraction. The performance of the instrumentaton was studied in an air-water test facility.

  6. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Review J. Indoor Air) 2007 LBNL-63193 Tarantola, Albert,Gas Measurement to Determine Air Movements in a House,Measurement Techniques”, Air Infiltration and Ventilation

  7. AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement Spring 2013 Instructor: Jeff Collett, 491 Resolution and Student Conduct Services." #12;ATS 560 - Air Pollution Measurement Spring 2013 Schedule Useful. 11, 13 Atmospheric Aero- sols/Sampling Lab #2: Aerosol and trace gas sampling; 5 Feb. 18, 20 Intro

  8. Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia...

  9. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Guide to Attic Air Sealing was completed in 2010 and although not in the standard Measure Guideline format, is intended to be a Measure Guideline on Attic Air Sealing. The guide was reviewed during two industry stakeholders meetings held on December 18th, 2009 and January 15th, 2010, and modified based on the comments received. Please do not make comments on the Building America format of this document. The purpose of the Guide to Attic Air Sealing is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy - health, safety and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  10. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  11. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  12. Quality-Controlled Upper-Air Sounding Dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and Corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciesielski, Paul; Yu, Hungjui; Johnson, Richard; Yoneyama, Kunio; Katsumata, Masaki; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Junhong; Loehrer, Scot; Young, Kate; Williams, S.; Brown, William; Braun, John; Van Hove, Terese

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper-air sounding network for DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO) has provided an unprecedented set of observations for studying the MJO over the Indian Ocean (IO) where coupling of this oscillation with deep convection first occurs. With 72 sounding sites and dropsonde data from 13 aircraft mission, the sonde network covers the tropics from Eastern African to the West Pacific. In total nearly 26,000 sondes were collected from this network during the experiment’s 6-month extended observing period (from October 2011 to March 2012). Slightly more than half of the sondes, collected from 33 sites, are at high vertical resolution. Rigorous post-field phase processing of the sonde data included several levels of quality checks and a variety of corrections which address a number of issues (e.g., daytime dry bias, baseline surface data errors, ship deck-heating effects, artificial dry spikes in slow ascent sondes). Because of the importance of an accurate description of the moisture field in meeting the scientific goals of the experiments, particular attention is given to humidity correction and its validation. The humidity corrections, though small relative to some previous field campaigns, produced high fidelity moisture analyses in which sonde precipitable water compared well with independent estimates. An assessment of model operational analyses moisture using corrected sonde data shows an overall good agreement with the exception at upper-levels where model moisture and clouds are more abundant than the sounding data would indicate.

  13. Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform Steve Hankey University-walkability Physical activity Air pollution 2 #12;Approach: Mobile, bicycle-based sampling Air pollution measurements.5BlackCarbon Low PollutionHigh Pollution Franklin Ave S, 130,000 pt/cc 8th St S, 19.8 µg/m3 Franklin Ave

  14. Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures Improved Refrigerant Charge Purpose Component packages require in some climate zones that split system air refrigerant charge. For the performance method, the proposed design is modeled with less efficiency

  15. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  16. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forMeasuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forpilots have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads

  17. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  18. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    static pressure distributions were measured in the duct and HVACstatic pressure distributions were measured in the duct and HVACstatic pressure distributions were measured in the duct and HVAC

  19. Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reaching the expansion valve. In theory, the efficiency of vapor compression air conditioning can be improved through two primary mechanisms associated with condenser shading: Direct shading. Incident solar radiation can pose approximately a 1,000 w...]: IEYPERAlURL COUPARlSOn A/C SHADING DP. 1 (Some): SOUR RADlAllON COUPARISON I=AYEI[Nl KYP orq=82.1 , mu=87.(22 Z=CONDEHSIR ARU AIR lEYP orq=83.8 , mox=02.858 TIME OF DAY, (hr) 9 12 15 TIME OF DAY, (hr) Figure 3. Sample daily 15-minute data for June 21...

  20. Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otis, C.; Maxwell, S.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  1. air pollution measurement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: AT...

  2. air pollution measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: AT...

  3. Pilot workload in the air transport environment : measurement, theory, and the influence of air traffic control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Jeffrey G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating environment of an air transport crew is characterized by multiple interrupting tasks, these tasks being composed of a mixture of purely physical control and purely mental planning processes. Measurement of ...

  4. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  5. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  6. EFFECTS OF ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES ON AIR HYGIENE IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS: FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmick, R.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STUDIES OF EFFECTS OF ENERGY CONSERVATION r1EASURES ON AIR41 T EFFECTS OF ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES ON AIR HYGIENE80-2 EFFECTS OF ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES ON AIR HYGIENE

  7. Measuring Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Measuring Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Alex Bigazzi PSU Transportation Seminar Feb. 28, 2014 Miguel Figliozzi Jim Pankow Wentai Luo Lorne Isabelle Urban Bicyclists' Pollution Uptake 1 #12;Bicycle & Health Promotion Public Health Exercise CrashesPollution Emissions Exposure/ Dose

  8. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  9. Front surface thermal property measurements of air plasma spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Ted; Kakuda, Tyler [University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5070 (United States); Kulkarni, Anand [Siemens Energy, Orlando, Florida 32826-2399 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A front-surface measurement for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings has been applied to air plasma spray coatings. The measurement is used to determine all independent thermal properties of the coating simultaneously. Furthermore, with minimal requirements placed on the sample and zero sample preparation, measurements can be made under previously impossible conditions, such as on serviceable engine parts. Previous application of this technique was limited to relatively thin coatings, where a one-dimensional heat transfer model is applied. In this paper, the influence of heat spreading on the measurement of thicker coatings is investigated with the development of a two-dimensional heat transfer model.

  10. Measurement of two-phase flow at the core upper plenum interface under simulated reflood conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.G.; Combs, S.K.; Bagwell, M.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of the Instrument Development Loop program were to simulate flows at the core/upper plenum interface during the reflood phase of a LOCA and to develop instruments for measuring mass-flows at this interface. A tie plate drag body was developed and tested successfully, and the data obtained were shown to be equivalent to pressure drops. The tie-plate drag body gave useful measurements in pure downflow, and the drag/turbine combination correlates with mass flow for high upflow. (DLC)

  11. Air Shower Measurements with the LOPES Radio Antenna Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Haungs; for the LOPES collaboration

    2008-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    LOPES is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and aims to measure and investigate radio pulses from Extensive Air Showers. Since radio waves suffer very little attenuation, radio measurements allow the detection of very distant or highly inclined showers. These waves can be recorded day and night, and provide a bolometric measure of the leptonic shower component. LOPES is designed as a digital radio interferometer using high bandwidths and fast data processing and profits from the reconstructed air shower observables of KASCADE-Grande. The LOPES antennas are absolutely amplitude calibrated allowing to reconstruct the electric field strength which can be compared with predictions from detailed Monte Carlo simulations. We report about the analysis of correlations present in the radio signals measured by the LOPES 30 antenna array. Additionally, LOPES operates antennas of a different type (LOPES-STAR) which are optimized for an application at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Status, recent results of the data analysis and further perspectives of LOPES and the possible large scale application of this new detection technique are discussed.

  12. SAGE II long-term measurements of stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.H.; Kent, G.S. [Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA (United States); McCormick, M.P.; Thomason, L.W. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Div.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II solar occultation instrument has been making measurements on stratospheric aerosols and gases continually since October 1984. Observations from the SAGE II instrument provide a valuable long-term data set for study of the aerosol in the stratosphere and aerosol and cloud in the upper troposphere. The period of observation covers the decay phase of material injected by the El Chichon volcanic eruption in 1982, the years 1988--1990 when stratospheric aerosol levels approached background levels, and the period after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. The Mount Pinatubo eruption caused the largest perturbation in stratospheric aerosol loading in this century, with effects on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. The SAGE II data sequence shows the global dispersion of aerosols following the Mount Pinatubo eruption, as well as the changes occurring in stratospheric aerosol mass and surface area. The downward transfer of stratospheric aerosols into the upper troposphere following the earlier eruption of El Chichon is clearly visible. Estimates have been made of the amount of volcanic material lying in the upper troposphere and the way in which this varies with latitude and season.

  13. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of air pollution on human health, 2) the designgenerated indoor air pollution on human health; and if borneAir Pollution Control Association, Portland, Oregon (June 27-July 1, 1976). vJorld Health

  14. Exposure Measurement Error in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution: Concepts and Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    of air pollution and health. Because measurement error may have substantial implications for interpreting1 Exposure Measurement Error in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution: Concepts and Consequences S in time-series studies 1 11/11/99 Keywords: measurement error, air pollution, time series, exposure

  15. Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper and lower critical consolute points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    has been measured for a two-component critical liquid system, butyl cellosolve-water, in the region to report measurements of the shear viscosity of critical binary mixture butyl cello- solve (2-n353 Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper

  16. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  17. Satellite Measurement of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor: Development and Applications and Applications for the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian J. Soden

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) measurements from the 6.7 micron channel on GOES (8, 9, 12) and GMS-5 satellites were employed to develop a near real-time UTH product that is now available from the ARM External Data Center (XDC). The UTH product is available in either gridded format (2.0 x 2.0 lat-lon resolution), full-disk pixel resolution, or individual pixel resolution for both the SGP and TWP sites. This product provides the basis for the instrument intercomparison and validation activities (Section 0.2), diurnal analysis and model evaluation (0.3), and cloud lifecycle studies (0.5); and is also an important component of the research proposed here. Full details regarding the retrieval algorithm for the ARM sites can be found in Soden et al. (2004a) and references therein.

  18. A Specific Multi-channel Photon-Counting Unit for Air-Pollution Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athens, University of

    A Specific Multi-channel Photon-Counting Unit for Air-Pollution Measurement Papageorgas P.1.g. confocal microscopy), air pollution optical measurements, laser sounding of the atmosphere for the in situ quantitative monitoring of up to five air pollutants simultaneously and one calibration channel

  19. Species measurements in a hypersonic, hydrogen-air, combustion wake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, K.A.; Stalker, R.J. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuously sampling, time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to measure relative species concentrations in a two-dimensional, hydrogen-air combustion wake at mainstream Mach numbers exceeding 5. The experiments, in a free piston shock tunnel, yielded distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, water, and nitric oxide at stagnation enthalpies ranging from 5.6 MJ/kg to 12.2 MJ/kg and at a distance of approximately 100s times the thickness of the initial hydrogen jet. The amount of hydrogen mixed in stoichiometric proportions was approximately independent of the stagnation enthalpy, despite the fact that the proportion of hydrogen in the wake was increased with stagnation enthalpy. Roughly 50% of the mixed hydrogen underwent combustion at the highest enthalpy. The proportion of hydrogen reacting to water could be approximately predicted using reaction rates based on mainstream temperatures.

  20. air quality measuring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It has also been modified to model pollution in South Korea, Mexico Manohar, Rajit 72 Predicting Air Quality: Current Status...

  1. air quality measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It has also been modified to model pollution in South Korea, Mexico Manohar, Rajit 72 Predicting Air Quality: Current Status...

  2. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    incorporating energy efficient designs. Indoor air qualityincorporating energy efficient designs. In the future, theenergy efficient ventilation standards and ventilation designs

  3. Automatic Continuous Commissioning of Measurement Instruments in Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, F.; Wang, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by International Energy Agency (IEA) and widely studied in the research projects of Annex 40[2] and Annex 47[3]. An open publication [4] found a media payback period of 4.8 years for commissioning of new buildings in United States. Additionally, commissioning... w Chilled water fanr Return air fan val Valve rtn Return air exh Exhaust air fans Supply air fan coil Cooling coil REFERENCES [1] Buildings Rese Lawrence Be [2] IEA ECBCS...

  4. inAir: A Longitudinal study of Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    pollutants are colorless and odorless, while many activities are inconspicuous and routine. We implemented inAir. Among those, air pollution and its effects on health have been researched extensively over past several decades [13]. In particular, the health effects of air pollution cover a wide variety of respiratory

  5. Air Fluorescence Relevant for Cosmic-Ray Detection - Review of Pioneering Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando Arqueros; Joerg R. Hoerandel; Bianca Keilhauer

    2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic rays with energies exceeding $10^{17}$ eV are frequently registered by measurements of the fluorescence light emitted by extensive air showers. The main uncertainty for the absolute energy scale of the measured air showers is coming from the fluorescence light yield of electrons in air. The fluorescence light yield has been studied in laboratory experiments. Pioneering measurements between 1954 and 2000 are reviewed.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  7. air ballot measures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of California eScholarship Repository Summary: chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive...

  8. air permeability measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air,...

  9. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acetaldehyde, and acrolein in residential indoor air inM. Cahill (2009). "Indoor acrolein emission and decay ratesbe impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene;

  10. air showers measured: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ray spectrum with unprecedented detail, are exerting a severe pressure on extensive air hower modeling. Detailed fast codes are in need in order to extract and understand the...

  11. air shower measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ray spectrum with unprecedented detail, are exerting a severe pressure on extensive air hower modeling. Detailed fast codes are in need in order to extract and understand the...

  12. Upper Air Wind Measurements by Weather Radar Iwan Holleman, Henk Benschop, and Jitze van der Meulen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    or assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Un- der the assumption of a linear wind field background statistics of the weather radar wind profiles against the Hirlam NWP model are at least as good of the VVP wind profiles against the Hirlam NWP model demonstrate the high quality of weather radar wind

  13. Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of equipment that provides the heating energy (the furnace, boiler or heat pump) and the method usedLBNL 40587 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems Vol. 104 Part 1 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution

  14. LORA: A scintillator array for LOFAR to measure extensive air showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Thoudam; S. Buitink; A. Corstanje; J. E. Enriquez; H. Falcke; W. Frieswijk; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; M. Krause; A. Nelles; P. Schellart; O. Scholten; S. ter Veen; M. van den Akker

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of the radio emission from extensive air showers, induced by high-energy cosmic rays is one of the key science projects of the LOFAR radio telescope. The LOfar Radboud air shower Array (LORA) has been installed in the core of LOFAR in the Netherlands. The main purpose of LORA is to measure the properties of air showers and to trigger the read-out of the LOFAR radio antennas to register extensive air showers. The experimental set-up of the array of scintillation detectors and its performance are described.

  15. inAir: Measuring and Visualizing Indoor Air Quality Sunyoung Kim & Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    to the development of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer. Complicating with our loved ones [6]. Yet, some of our activities degrade the environmental quality of these spaces into the air, and laser printers give off toxic chemicals [8]. To make indoor spaces clean and amenable, we

  16. Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Mechanical Closets in Slab-On-Grade Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, B.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline describes covers two fundamental retrofit strategies for air sealing around air handling systems that are located within the living space in an enclosed closet: one in which all of the equipment is removed and being replaced, and a closet where the equipment is to remain and existing conditions are sealed. It includes the design and installation details necessary to effectively seal the air handler closet and central return system to maximize the efficiency and safety of the space conditioning system.

  17. Measurement of Pressure Dependent Fluorescence Yield of Air: Calibration Factor for UHECR Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belz, J.W.; Burt, G.W.; Cao, Z.; Chang, F.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Chen, C.W.; Chen, P.; Field, C.; Findlay, J.; Huntemeyer, Petra; Huang, M.A.; Hwang, W.-Y.P.; Iverson, R.; Jones, B.F.; Jui, C.C.H.; Kirn, M.; Lin, G.-L.; Loh, E.C.; Maestas, M.M.; Manago, N.; Martens, K.; /Montana U. /Utah U. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In a test experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the fluorescence yield of 28.5 GeV electrons in air and nitrogen was measured. The measured photon yields between 300 and 400 nm at 1 atm and 29 C are Y(760 Torr){sup air} = 4.42 {+-} 0.73 and Y(760 Torr){sup N{sub 2}} = 29.2 {+-} 4.8 photons per electron per meter. Assuming that the fluorescence yield is proportional to the energy deposition of a charged particle traveling through air, good agreement with measurements at lower particle energies is observed.

  18. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  19. Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandsma, Theo

    in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 | March 14, 2011 Page 6 of 56 #12;nal | Parallel air at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 | March 14, 2011 Page 8 of 56 #12Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003

  20. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Grant Benson

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was created to address an important issue currently faced by test facilities measuring static pressure for air-conditioning and heat pumps. Specifically, ASHRAE Standard 37, the industry standard for test setup, requires an outlet duct...

  1. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  2. The measured energy impact of air leakage on a house

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaidya, Shilpa Arvind

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    +mC. &(1 ? e) (3. 13) 2p and, we have UA( 7'mdoor 7'ouldoor ) Auolor solar = ( power (3 14) Asplar is deduced from the test in which the house has no air leakage, i e. , when UA = UAp In this case, A~ala~ =17Ap fu (3 ?) 7 ? 7' uuloor ouuioor where j...) & power i. e. , UAp- Ti udoor ? Touidoor ? f u 7 solar (3. 18) 21 Then UA can be determined as o&rer + VAtkfi (sol&rr UA = To&door 7 oai&ioor (3 19) 3. 2. 3. Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness, IIIEE and energy saving ratio, ttc...

  3. Constraints and measurements of hadronic interactions in extensive air showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Cazon

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of extensive air showers are sensitive to the details of hadronic interactions at energies and in kinematic regions beyond those tested by human-made accelerators. Uncertainties on extrapolations of the hadronic interaction models in these regions hamper the interpretation of the ultra high energy cosmic ray data in terms of primary mass composition. We report on how the Pierre Auger Observatory is able to constrain the hadronic interaction models by measuring the muon content and muon production depth of air showers and also by measuring the proton-air cross section for particle production at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV.

  4. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quality Measurements in Energy Efficient Buildings Craig D.Quality ~leasurements in Energy Efficient Buildings Craig D.Gregory W. Traynor Energy Efficient Buildings Program Energy

  5. Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, W.A.; Rubin, L.A.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When downhole contact between the BHA and formation was optimum, as it was during rotation, high signal levels were experienced. Survey data acquired at the connections, when the BHA was totally at rest, is excellent. GEC intends modifying the system to optimize operations consistent with these disparate factors. A Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) of 89.9 hours appears reasonable from the data. It is not possible to infer an MTBF figure from this test. It is quite obvious, however, that the system reliability performance has been significantly improved since FT {number_sign}5 was performed almost two years earlier. Based on the above results, GEC concludes that it is certainly feasible to attain 100 hours MTBF, for the Model 27, in any and all situations, and hence to provide a reliable MWD for air-drilling.

  6. New sensor for measurement of low air flow velocity. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Hashemian, M.; Riggsbee, E.T. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project described here is the Phase I feasibility study of a two-phase program to integrate existing technologies to provide a system for determining air flow velocity and direction in radiation work areas. Basically, a low air flow sensor referred to as a thermocouple flow sensor has been developed. The sensor uses a thermocouple as its sensing element. The response time of the thermocouple is measured using an existing in-situ method called the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test. The response time results are then converted to a flow signal using a response time-versus-flow correlation. The Phase I effort has shown that a strong correlation exists between the response time of small diameter thermocouples and the ambient flow rate. As such, it has been demonstrated that thermocouple flow sensors can be used successfully to measure low air flow rates that can not be measured with conventional flow sensors. While the thermocouple flow sensor developed in this project was very successful in determining air flow velocity, determining air flow direction was beyond the scope of the Phase I project. Nevertheless, work was performed during Phase I to determine how the new flow sensor can be used to determine the direction, as well as the velocity, of ambient air movements. Basically, it is necessary to use either multiple flow sensors or move a single sensor in the monitoring area and make flow measurements at various locations sweeping the area from top to bottom and from left to right. The results can then be used with empirical or physical models, or in terms of directional vectors to estimate air flow patterns. The measurements can be made continuously or periodically to update the flow patterns as they change when people and objects are moved in the monitoring area. The potential for using multiple thermocouple flow sensors for determining air flow patterns will be examined in Phase II.

  7. Satellite Measurements of Trace Gases or Air Pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    #12;ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING Passive Remote Sensing: Natural sources of radiation-located with receiver #12;Thermal Emission Measurements (IR, microwave) EARTH SURFACE I(To) Absorbing gas, HIRDLS Pros: · versa4lity (many species) · small field of view (nadir) · ver4

  8. Model Based Sensor System for Temperature Measurement in R744 Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitz, Sven; Schneider, Peter

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal is the development of a novel principle for the temperature acquisition of refrigerants in CO2 air conditioning systems. The new approach is based on measuring the temperature inside a pressure sensor, which is also needed in the system. On the basis of simulative investigations of different mounting conditions functional relations between measured and medium temperature will be derived.

  9. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  10. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  11. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200?s. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

  12. Shipboard Measurements and Estimations of AirSea Fluxes in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Ship­board Measurements and Estimations of Air­Sea Fluxes in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean E dur­ ing the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean and Atmospheric Response of the surface­layer turbulence properties are compared with those from previous land and ocean results. Momentum

  13. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  14. De Bilt, 2011 | Scientific report; WR 2011-01 Parallel air temperature measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 | March 14, 2011 Page 6 of 56 #12 observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 Theo Brandsma #12;#12;Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 Version 1.0 Date March

  15. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  16. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  17. Measurement of two-phase flow at the core/upper plenum interface for a PWR geometry under simulated reflood conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.G.; Combs, S.K.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Instrument Development Loop (IDL) Program is part of the International 2D/3D Refill and Reflood Experimental and Analytical Research Program. Among the objectives of the International Program are: the study of the steam binding effect during reflood flow distribution (chimney effect) in a heated core; and the study of flow hydrodynamics in the core, downcomer and upper plenum during refill and reflood. Three experimental facilities were used in these studies: a one-bundle air/water loop, a three-bundle air/water loop, and a one-bundle steam/water loop. The loops represent full-scale vertical sections of the UPTF, extending from spray nozzles to the top of the upper plenum and including a short length of dummy fuel rods, upper end boxes, core support plate and control rod guide tubes. Three flow regimes were identified and studied: (1) all liquid down; (2) countercurrent flow in which gas (or vapor) goes up and liquid goes both up and down; and (3) cocurrent flow in which both gas (or vapor) and liquid go up.

  18. A primary high-pressure air flow measurement standard in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiunn-Haur Shaw; Fong-Ruey Yang; Yao-Fu Chen [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-pressure air-flow national measurement standard is constructed in Taiwan with a capacity of 8400 Nm{sup 3}/h and a projected measurement uncertainty of {plus_minus}0.2% in the pressure range of 1 {approximately} 84 bars. it is a blow-down type facility, and its main purpose is to serve as the primary standard of a larger-flowrate natural gas flow measurement facility to be built in the future by Chinese Petroleum Company (CPC). The system has a gyroscopic weighing platform suitable for high precision gravimetric measurements and several sonic nozzles with different throat diameters situated in a chamber to be the reference flow meters. A set of two turbine meters, 50mm and 100mm, are sued as the transfer standard. The facility has two test sections separated by the nozzle chamber and four different calibration modes could be arranged. To make calibration, the storage tank, the temperature control loop, and two sets of pressure regulating valve establish a pressurized air flow with stable temperature and pressure in the test section. The control of the air-flow diversion, connect-disconnect mechanism, sonic nozzle array is made through a hydraulic power unit operating at 200 bars. Real time measurements of temperature, pressure, flow signal, and time are collected through a Honeywell 9000-series PLC and a FIX DMAC data acquisition/control software. This paper describes the key components of the test facility and presents the preliminary results of performance assessment.

  19. Measuring the Muon Content of Air Showers with IceTop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Javier G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300m) from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  20. Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi, John R.

    the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). 1. Introduction Water vapor is the key atmosphericTen Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection ZHENGZHAO LUO, DIETER KLEY,* AND RICHARD H. JOHNSON

  1. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

  2. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  3. Attempt to estimate measurement uncertainty in the Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zettlemoyer, M.D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model is a Gaussian puff dispersion model that predicts plumes, concentrations, and hazard distances of toxic chemical spills. A measurement uncertainty propagation formula derived by Freeman et al. (1986) is used within AFTOX to estimate resulting concentration uncertainties due to the effects of data input uncertainties in wind speed, spill height, emission rate, and the horizontal and vertical Gaussian dispersion parameters, and the results are compared to true uncertainties as estimated by standard deviations computed by Monte Carlo simulations. The measurement uncertainty uncertainty propagation formula was found to overestimate measurement uncertainty in AFTOX-calculated concentrations by at least 350 percent, with overestimates worsening with increasing stability and/or increasing measurement uncertainty.

  4. Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade (SOG) home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

  5. Field Measurements of Efficiency and Duct Effectiveness in Residential Forced Air Distributions Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jump, D.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power for air conditioning, heat pumps and electricwith 13 air conditioners, eight heat pumps (one house hadPre Post * A C : air conditioning, HP : heat pump, GF : gas

  6. Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 April 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) Page 2 #12;Interim report Page 3 Table measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) Page 4 Foreword From May 2003 through April 2005Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003

  7. Proton-air cross section measurement with the ARGO-YBJ cosmic ray experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The proton-air cross section in the energy range 1-100 TeV has been measured by the ARGO-YBJ cosmic ray experiment. The analysis is based on the flux attenuation for different atmospheric depths (i.e. zenith angles) and exploits the detector capabilities of selecting the shower development stage by means of hit multiplicity, density and lateral profile measurements at ground. The effects of shower fluctuations, the contribution of heavier primaries and the uncertainties of the hadronic interaction models, have been taken into account. The results have been used to estimate the total proton-proton cross section at center of mass energies between 70 and 500 GeV, where no accelerator data are currently available.

  8. Measuring perceived air quality and intensity by a Sensor System, the European Project SysPAQ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    as it is perceived by humans to be used as a control device for indoor air quality. KEYWORDS Perceived air quality;because of the unmatched sensitivity to many odorous indoor air pollutants. One of the reasons indoor air pollutants that trigger human sensory response. The SysPAQ project builds upon current

  9. J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., vol 58, 2008, p. 45-54 On-board emission measurement of high loaded light duty vehicles in Algeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ; Nejjari et al., 2003, Atek et al., 2004). As a result, many stations of air pollution measurement and Boukadoum, 2005). Vehicle pollutant emissions constitute not only a problem of air quality in big citiesJ. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., vol 58, 2008, p. 45-54 On-board emission measurement of high loaded

  10. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross-Section at ?(s) = 57 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abrue, P

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [505±22(stat)-36+28(syst)]??mb is found.

  11. Measuring Welfare Loss Caused by Air Pollution in Europe: A CGE Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    To evaluate the socio-economic impacts of air pollution, we develop an integrated approach based on computable general equilibrium (CGE). Applying our approach to Europe shows that even there, where air quality is relatively ...

  12. CFD Simulation and Measurement Validation of Air Distribution at the Hunan International Exhibition Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, G.; Yuan, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hunan International Exhibition Center (HIEC) is a large space building. A stratified air-conditioning system on the second floor of the building has been adopted. Due to some problems with the air supply jet diffuser, CFD simulations were...

  13. A Laboratory Method For Measuring The Ozone Emission From In-duct Air Cleaners.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    : Emission rate, HVAC air cleaners, electrostatic precipitators, coronas, standard test method 1 Introduction Subchapter 8.7). However, in-duct air cleaners including electronic air cleaners, electrostatic precipitators of an ozone analyzer. Viner et al. (1992) studied commercial in-duct electrostatic precipitators and observed

  14. Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  15. The Microwave Air Yield Beam Experiment (MAYBE): measurement of GHz radiation for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Monasor; M. Bohacova; C. Bonifazi; G. Cataldi; S. Chemerisov; J. R. T. De Mello Neto; P. Facal San Luis; B. Fox; P. W. Gorham; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; R. Meyhandan; L. C. Reyes; B. Rouille D'Orfeuil; E. M. Santos; J. Pochez; P. Privitera; H. Spinka; V. Verzi; C. Williams; J. Zhou

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present first measurements by MAYBE of microwave emission from an electron beam induced air plasma, performed at the electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Coherent radio Cherenkov, a major background in a previous beam experiment, is not produced by the 3 MeV beam, which simplifies the interpretation of the data. Radio emission is studied over a wide range of frequencies between 3 and 12 GHz. This measurement provides further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps,and Validation of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat PumpC.W. (1994). Room Air Conditioner System Modeling, Air

  17. Measuring Diversity on a Low-Altitude UAV in a Ground-to-Air Wireless 802.11 Mesh Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kung, H. T.

    Measuring Diversity on a Low-Altitude UAV in a Ground-to-Air Wireless 802.11 Mesh Network H. T ground node and receivers on a small, low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in a 802.11 wireless as well. I. INTRODUCTION Small, low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have reached a development

  18. Abstract We present an inertial sensor based moni-toring system for measuring upper limb movements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Huosheng

    on the inertial mea- surements of the wrist motion. An efficient simulated annealing optimisation method to be quantified, and hence appropriate instruments for quantitative measurements are desirable to capture motion

  19. Measurement of normal thrust and evaluation of upper-convected Maxwell models for molten plastics in large amplitude oscillatory shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jason Glen

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Relaxation Spectrum Re- ported by Khan and Larson (1987) . IV. 5 Normal Thrust Measurements IV. 6 Mewts-Denn Model Compared With Normal Thrust Measure- ments 37 42 44 46 49 V CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX FIGURES . . APPENDIX Pa, ge B FIRST... tensor, this is also referred to as the Maxwell model. I. 5 1 Maxwell Model Dealy and Wissbrun (1990) give the Boltzmann superposition principle in the material objective (ie. frame indifferent) integral form in terms of a memory function...

  20. Measurement of genotoxic air pollutant exposures in street vendors and school children in and near Bangkok

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand) and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)]. E-mail: mathuros@tubtim.cri.or.th; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Settachan, Daam [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Tuntaviroon, Jantamas [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Buthbumrung, Nantaporn [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Sharma, Suman [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand)

    2005-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of air pollution on human health are a great concern, particularly in big cities with severe traffic problems such as Bangkok, Thailand. In this study, exposure to genotoxic compounds in ambient air was studied by analysis of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene through direct measurement of concentrations in air as well as through the use of different biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) for PAHs and urinary t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) for benzene. The study was conducted in various susceptible groups of the population with different occupations in 5 traffic-congested areas of Bangkok, as well as in primary school children. The level of total PAHs on the main roads at various sites ranged from 7.10 to 83.04 ng/m{sup 3}, while benzene levels ranged from 16.35 to 49.25 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels in nearby temples, the control sites, ranged from 1.67 to 3.04 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs and 10.16 to 16.25 ppb benzene. Street vendors selling clothes were exposed to 16.07 {+-} 1.64 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs and 21.97 {+-} 1.50 ppb benzene, levels higher than in monks and nuns residing in nearby temples (5.34 {+-} 0.65 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs and 13.69 {+-} 0.77 ppb benzene). Grilled-meat vendors in the same area were exposed to both total PAHs and benzene at even higher levels, possibly due to additional formation of PAHs during the grilling of meat (34.27 {+-} 7.02 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs; 27.49 {+-} 2.72 ppb benzene). At the end of the workday, urinary 1-OHP levels in street vendors (0.12 and 0.15 {mu}mol/mol creatinine in clothes and grilled-meat vendors, respectively) were significantly higher than in controls (0.04 {mu}mol/mol creatinine; P < 0.01). Afternoon urinary t,t-MA levels in both groups of street vendors (0.12 mg/g creatinine) were also significantly higher than in controls (0.08 mg/g creatinine; P < 0.05). School children from two schools in Bangkok were exposed to total PAHs and benzene at levels of 6.70 {+-} 0.47 ng/m{sup 3} and 4.71 {+-} 0.25 ppb, respectively, higher than those to which children living outside the city were exposed (1.25 {+-} 0.24 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs; 2.10 {+-} 0.16 ppb benzene). At the end of the school day, levels of urinary 1-OHP and t,t-MA were significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) in Bangkok school children (0.23 {mu}mol/mol creatinine and 0.27 mg/g creatinine, respectively) than in school children from outside Bangkok (0.10 {mu}mol/mol creatinine and 0.08 mg/g creatinine, respectively)

  1. Air/water subchannel measurements of the equilibrium quality and mass-flux distribution in a rod bundle. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterner, R.W.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subchannel measurements were performed in order to determine the equilibrium quality and mass flux distribution in a four rod bundle, using air/water flow. An isokinetic technique was used to sample the flow in the center, side and corner subchannels of this test section. Flow rates of the air and water in each sampled subchannel were measured. Experiments were performed for two test-section-average mass fluxes (0.333x10/sup 6/ and 0.666x10/sup 6/ lb/sub m//h-ft/sup 2/), and the test-section-average quality was varied from 0% to 0.54% for each mass flux. Single-phase liquid, bubbly, slug and churn-turbulent two-phase flow regimes were achieved. The observed data trends agreed with previous diabatic measurements in which the center subchannel had the highest quality and mass flux, while the corner subchannel had the lowest.

  2. Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughman, Christopher Reed.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

  3. Radio emission of highly inclined cosmic ray air showers measured with LOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jelena Petrovic LOPES collaboration

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    LOPES-10 (the first phase of LOPES, consisting of 10 antennas) detected a significant number of cosmic ray air showers with a zenith angle larger than 50$^{\\circ}$, and many of these have very high radio field strengths. The most inclined event that has been detected with LOPES-10 has a zenith angle of almost 80$^{\\circ}$. This is proof that the new technique is also applicable for cosmic ray air showers with high inclinations, which in the case that they are initiated close to the ground, can be a signature of neutrino events.Our results indicate that arrays of simple radio antennas can be used for the detection of highly inclined air showers, which might be triggered by neutrinos. In addition, we found that the radio pulse height (normalized with the muon number) for highly inclined events increases with the geomagnetic angle, which confirms the geomagnetic origin of radio emission in cosmic ray air showers.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ASHRAE, 1791of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Simulation Modelsfor Rating Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment,

  5. MERCURY FLUX MEASUREMENTS OVER AIR AND WATER IN KEJIMKUJIK NATIONAL PARK, NOVA SCOTIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    temperature, and this dependence was well described by an Arrhenius-type expression with an activation energy from the atmosphere are wet and dry deposition. Once entering a watershed via precipitation and dry deposition mercury can be transformed to more Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 122: 183­202, 2000. © 2000

  6. Detection of $^{133}$Xe from the Fukushima nuclear power plant in the upper troposphere above Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simgen, Hardy; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Kaether, Florian; Lindemann, Sebastian; Rauch, Ludwig; Schlager, Hans; Schlosser, Clemens; Schumann, Ulrich

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After the accident in the Japanese Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 large amounts of radioactivity were released and distributed in the atmosphere. Among them were also radioactive noble gas isotopes which can be used as tracers to probe global atmospheric circulation models. This work presents unique measurements of the radionuclide $^{133}$Xe from Fukushima in the upper troposphere above Germany. The measurements involve air sampling in a research jet aircraft followed by chromatographic xenon extraction and ultra-low background gas counting with miniaturized proportional counters. With this technique a detection limit of the order of 100 $^{133}$Xe atoms in liter-scale air samples (corresponding to about 100 mBq/m$^3$) is achievable. Our results proof that the $^{133}$Xe-rich ground level air layer from Fukushima was lifted up to the tropopause and distributed hemispherically. Moreover, comparisons with ground level air measurements indicate that the arrival of the radioactive plume in ...

  7. BEAULANT, Anne-Lise, PERRON, Gilles, KLEINPETER, Joseph, WEBER, Christiane, RANCHIN, Thierry, and WALD, Lucien. Adding virtual measuring stations to a network for urban air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , and WALD, Lucien. Adding virtual measuring stations to a network for urban air pollution mapping TO A NETWORK FOR URBAN AIR POLLUTION MAPPING A. L. Beaulant1* , G. Perron2 , J. Kleinpeter2 , C. Weber3 , T la Pollution atmosphérique en Alsace), 5 rue de Madrid, 67300 Schiltigheim, France 3 Laboratoire

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - air flow measurement Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 3 Diagnostics and Measurements of Infiltration...

  9. O{sub 2} rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge by radar resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Jordan; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 (United States); Adams, Steven F. [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RQQE), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RQQE), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonintrusive spatially resolved rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge are presented. The measurements were based on coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering (Radar) from resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular oxygen. The open air DC microdischarge source operated in a stable 'normal-glow' mode and pin-to-pin electrodes spaced 1.3 mm apart. The second harmonic of a tunable dye laser beam was focused between the two electrodes and scanned between 286 and 288 nm. Coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering was used to collect the two-photon rotational spectra of O{sub 2} at C{sup 3}{Pi}(v = 2) Leftwards-Arrow X{sup 3}{Sigma}(v Prime = 0) transitions. The Boltzmann plots from analyses of the O{sub 2} rotational lines determined local rotational temperatures at various axial locations between the electrodes. The molecular oxygen rotational temperature varied from {approx}1150 K to {approx}1350 K within the discharge area. The measurements had an accuracy of {approx}{+-}50 K.

  10. Modeled and measured effects of compressor downsizing in an existing air conditioner/heat pump in the cooling mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Rice, C.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is not uncommon to find oversized central air conditioners in residences. HVAC contractors sometimes oversize central air conditioners for one reason or another--some to the point that they may be 100% larger than needed to meet the load. Retrofit measures done to improve house envelope and distribution system efficiency also contribute to HVAC oversizing, as they reduce house heating and cooling loads. Proper sizing of an air conditioner or heat pump allows more efficient operation and provides a more comfortable environment than a highly oversized unit. Another factor that lowers operating efficiency is an improper refrigerant charge. Field inspections have revealed that about half of the units checked were not properly charged. An option available to homeowners with oversized air conditioners is to replace the existing compressor with a smaller, more efficient compressor, rather than purchasing a new, smaller unit. Such a retrofit may be economically justified, especially during a compressor failure, provided the oversizing of the existing unit is not too great. A used, 15-year old, single-package heat pump with a capillary tube expansion device on the indoor coil was purchased and tested in a set of environmental chambers to determine its cooling performance at various conditions. The system was also modeled to estimate its existing performance, and that with two different types of retrofitted state-of-the-art (SOA) efficient compressors with about 30% less capacity than the original compressor. This reduced the overall system cooling capacity by about 25%. Modeling estimated that the retrofit would increase system EER at 95 F by 30%, SEER by 34%, and reduce power demand by 39% compared to the existing unit. Reduced cycling losses account for the higher increase in SEER.

  11. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurements using smart meter household data produce theof program households. Smart meters lower the cost of usingsample sizes with smart meter data can be far larger than

  12. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60 deg. and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions we define X(mu)max as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of X(mu)max as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  13. Cloud Model Evaluation Using Radiometric Measurements from the Airborne Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (AirMISR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Marchand, Roger T.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed information on cloud properties is needed to vigorously test retrieval algorithms for satellite and ground-based remote sensors. The inherent complexity of clouds makes this information difficult to obtain from observations alone and cloud resolving models are often used to generating synthetic datasets that can be used as proxies for real data. We test the ability of a cloud resolving model to reproduce cloud structure in a case study of low-level clouds observed by the Earth Observing System (EOS) validation program in north central Oklahoma on March 3, 2000. A three-dimensional radiative transfer model is applied to synthetic cloud properties generated by a high-resolution three-dimensional cloud model in order to simulate the top of atmosphere radiances. These synthetic radiances are then compared with observations from the airborne Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (AirMISR), flown on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft.

  14. Experimental and numerical study of the accuracy of flame-speed measurements for methane/air combustion in a slot burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selle, L.; Ferret, B. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the velocities of premixed laminar flames with precision remains a controversial issue in the combustion community. This paper studies the accuracy of such measurements in two-dimensional slot burners and shows that while methane/air flame speeds can be measured with reasonable accuracy, the method may lack precision for other mixtures such as hydrogen/air. Curvature at the flame tip, strain on the flame sides and local quenching at the flame base can modify local flame speeds and require corrections which are studied using two-dimensional DNS. Numerical simulations also provide stretch, displacement and consumption flame speeds along the flame front. For methane/air flames, DNS show that the local stretch remains small so that the local consumption speed is very close to the unstretched premixed flame speed. The only correction needed to correctly predict flame speeds in this case is due to the finite aspect ratio of the slot used to inject the premixed gases which induces a flow acceleration in the measurement region (this correction can be evaluated from velocity measurement in the slot section or from an analytical solution). The method is applied to methane/air flames with and without water addition and results are compared to experimental data found in the literature. The paper then discusses the limitations of the slot-burner method to measure flame speeds for other mixtures and shows that it is not well adapted to mixtures with a Lewis number far from unity, such as hydrogen/air flames. (author)

  15. Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating emissions from R&D facilities using chemical inventory data.

  16. Measurement of the proton-air cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}=57$ TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration, Auger

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [505 {+-} 22(stat){sub -36}{sup +28}(syst)] mb is found.

  17. Air fluorescence measurements in the spectral range 300-420 nm using a 28.5 GeV electron beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Abbasi; T. Abu-Zayyad; K. Belov; J. Belz; Z. Cao; M. Dalton; Y. Fedorova; P. Huentemeyer; B. F. Jones; C. C. H. Jui; E. C. Loh; N. Manago; K. Martens; J. N. Matthews; M. Maestas; J. Smith; P. Sokolsky; R. W. Springer; J. Thomas; S. Thomas; P. Chen; C. Field; C. Hast; R. Iverson; J. S. T. Ng; A. Odian; K. Reil; D. Walz; D. R. Bergman; G. Thomson; A. Zech; F-Y. Chang; C-C. Chen; C-W. Chen; M. A. Huang; W-Y. P. Hwang; G-L. Lin

    2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements are reported of the yield and spectrum of fluorescence, excited by a 28.5 GeV electron beam, in air at a range of pressures of interest to ultra-high energy cosmic ray detectors. The wavelength range was 300 - 420 nm. System calibration has been performed using Rayleigh scattering of a nitrogen laser beam. In atmospheric pressure dry air at 304 K the yield is 20.8 +/- 1.6 photons per MeV.

  18. Free radially expanding liquid sheet in air: time- and space-resolved measurement of the thickness field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clara Vernay; Laurence Ramos; Christian Ligoure

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The collision of a liquid drop against a small target results in the formation of a thin liquid sheet that extends radially until it reaches a maximum diameter. The subsequent retraction is due to the air-liquid surface tension. We have used a time- and space-resolved technique to measure the thickness field of this class of liquid sheet, based on the grey level measurement of the image of a dyed liquid sheet recorded using a fast camera. This method enables a precise measurement of the thickness in the range $(10-450) \\, \\mathrm{\\mu m}$, with a temporal resolution equal to that of the camera. We have measured the evolution with time since impact, $t$, and radial position, $r$, of the thickness, $h(r,t)$, for various drop volumes and impact velocities. Two asymptotic regimes for the expansion of the sheet are evidenced. The scalings of the thickness with $t$ and $r$ measured in the two regimes are those that were predicted in \\citet{Rozhkov2004} fort the short-time regime and \\citet{Villermaux2011} for the long time regime, but never experimentally measured before. Interestingly, our experimental data also evidence the existence of a maximum of the film thickness $h_{\\rm{max}}(r)$ at a radial position $r_{\\rm{h_{max}}}(t)$ corresponding to the crossover of these two asymptotic regimes. The maximum moves with a constant velocity of the order of the drop impact velocity, as expected theoretically. Thanks to our visualization technique, we also evidence an azimuthal thickness modulation of the liquid sheets.

  19. Pion Production Cross-section Measurements in p+C Collisions at the CERN SPS for Understanding Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Szuba; for the NA61/SHINE Collaboration

    2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An important approach to studying high-energy cosmic rays is the investigation of the properties of extensive air showers; however, the lateral distribution of particles in simulations of such showers strongly depends on the applied model of low-energy hadronic interactions. It has been shown that many constraints to be applied to these models can be obtained by studying identified-particle spectra from accelerator collisions, in the energy range of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Here we present measurements of the pion production cross-section obtained by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the SPS, in proton-carbon collisions at the beam energy of 31 GeV from the year 2007. Further analyses of identified-particle yields in SHINE, in particular with a pion beam, are in preparation.

  20. A passive measurement of dissociated atom densities in atmospheric pressure air discharge plasmas using vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laity, George [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Frank, Klaus [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich–Alexander University at Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation degree of atmospheric pressure air discharges by measuring the self-absorption characteristics of vacuum ultraviolet radiation from O and N atoms in the plasma. The atom densities are determined by modeling the amount of radiation trapping present in the discharge, without the use of typical optical absorption diagnostic techniques which require external sources of probing radiation into the experiment. For an 8.0?mm spark discharge between needle electrodes at atmospheric pressure, typical peak O atom densities of 8.5?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} and peak N atom densities of 9.9?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} are observed within the first ?1.0?mm of plasma near the anode tip by analyzing the OI and NI transitions in the 130.0–132.0?nm band of the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum.

  1. Measurements of the structure of turbulent premixed and stratified methane/air flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeney, Mark

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Various measures of progress variable have been defined, with the majority using a normalization of temperature or chemical species Background 9 concentration to define c. Some commonly used progress variables are listed below: c (h) = h? hu hb ? hu (2... .1) c (T ) = T ? Tu Tb ? Tu (2.2) c (YO) = 1? YO ? YO b YO u ? YO b (2.3) c (YF) = 1? YF ? YF b YF u ? YF b (2.4) c (YP) = YP ? YP u YP b ? YP u (2.5) where YP is often taken to be Y[CO+CO2]. Equation 2.1 is often approximated by Equa- tion 2.2...

  2. Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at high wind speeds in the Southern Ocean: Implications for global parameterizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, David

    August 2006. [1] The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange (SAGE) Experiment was conducted in the western Pacific of air-sea gas exchange. Globally, the dominant control of air-sea gas exchange is turbulent energy as the primary source of energy for the atmospheric and oceanic molecular boundary layers have been derived from

  3. Apparatus for measuring the decontamination factor of a multiple filter air-cleaning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, J.P.

    1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the overall decontamination factors of first and second filters located in a plenum. The first filter separates the plenum's upstream and intermediate chambers. The second filter separates the plenum's intermediate and downstream chambers. The apparatus comprises an aerosol generator that generates a challenge aerosol. An upstream collector collects unfiltered aerosol which is piped to first and second dilution stages and then to a laser aerosol spectrometer. An intermediate collector collects challenge aerosol that penetrates the first filter. The filtered aerosol is piped to the first dilution stage, diluted, and then piped to the laser aerosol spectrometer which detects single particles. A downstream collector collects challenge aerosol that penetrates both filters. The twice-filtered aerosol is piped to the aerosol spectrometer. A pump and several valves control the movement of aerosol within the apparatus.

  4. The Impact of Refrigerant Charge, Air Flow and Expansion Devices on the Measured Performance of an Air-Source Heat Pump Part I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes extensive tests performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. The tests contain 150 steady-state performance tests, 18 cyclic tests and 18 defrost tests. During the testing work, the refrigerant charge level was varied from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value; the outdoor temperature was altered by three levels at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C); indoor air flow rates ranged from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate; and the expansion device was switched from a fixed-orifice to a thermal expansion value. Detailed performance data from the extensive steady state cyclic and defrost testing performed were presented and compared.

  5. Measurements of Ice Crystal Growth Rates in Air at -5C and -10C K. G. Libbrecht and H. M. Arnold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

    Measurements of Ice Crystal Growth Rates in Air at -5C and -10C K. G. Libbrecht and H. M. Arnold to: kgl@caltech.edu Abstract. We present experiments investigating the growth of ice crystals from produce large morphological changes at all scales. One popular example of this phenomenon is the formation

  6. Measurements of Fission Products from the Fukushima Daiichi Incident in San Francisco Bay Area Air Filters, Automobile Filters, Rainwater, and Food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, A R; Norman, E B; Hurley, D L; Lo, B T; Chan, Y D; Guillaumon, P V; Harvey, B G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of environmental media were analyzed for fallout radionuclides resulting from the Fukushima nuclear accident by the Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. Monitoring activities in air and rainwater began soon after the onset of the March 11, 2011 tsunami and are reported here through the end of 2012. Observed fallout isotopes include $^{131}$I, $^{132}$I,$^{132}$Te,$^{134}$Cs, $^{136}$Cs, and $^{137}$Cs. Isotopes were measured on environmental air filters, automobile filters, and in rainwater. An additional analysis of rainwater in search of $^{90}$Sr is also presented. Last, a series of food measurements conducted in September of 2013 are included due to extended media concerns of $^{134, 137}$Cs in fish. Similar measurements of fallout from the Chernobyl disaster at LBNL, previously unpublished publicly, are also presented here as a comparison with the Fukushima incident. All measurements presented also include natural radionuclides found...

  7. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. p-air cross-section measurement at 1018.5 for the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -section measurements using cos- mic ray data. The ultra-high energy cosmic ray flux inten- sity is very low and cosmic-section measurement using cosmic ray data was done us- ing an analysis of the form of the distribution of air showerRes) Collaboration. a Department of Physics, University of Utah, 201 JFB 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84112

  9. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data...

  10. Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE), Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 12 Reference Anderlind, G., 1985, "Energy Consumption due to Air Infiltration," Proceedings of the 3rd ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC Conference on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings, Clearwater Beach, FL, pp. 201-208 ASHRAE, 1981, "ASHRAE.... 1992c, "The Energy Impact of Combined Solar- Radiation/Infiltration/Conduction Effects in Walls and Attics," Proceedings of Thermal Guidelines for Measuring IHEE, P. 13 Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings, 5th ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC Conference...

  11. Engine piston having an insulating air gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarrett, Mark Wayne (Washington, IL); Hunold,Brent Michael (Apex, NC)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A piston for an internal combustion engine has an upper crown with a top and a bottom surface, and a lower crown with a top and a bottom surface. The upper crown and the lower crown are fixedly attached to each other using welds, with the bottom surface of the upper crown and the top surface of the lower crown forming a mating surface. The piston also has at least one centrally located air gap formed on the mating surface. The air gap is sealed to prevent substantial airflow into or out of the air gap.

  12. A New Method to Reconstruct the Energy and Determine the Composition of Cosmic Rays from the Measurement of Cherenkov Light and Particle Densities in Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lindner

    1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Monte-Carlo study to reconstruct energy and mass of cosmic rays with energies above 300 TeV using ground based measurements of the electromagnetic part of showers initiated in the atmosphere is presented. The shower properties determined with two detector arrays measuring the air Cherenkov light and the particle densities as realized at the HEGRA experiment are processed to determine the energy of the primary particle without the need of any hypothesis concerning its mass. The mass of the primary particle is reconstructed coarsely from the same observables in parallel to the energy determination.

  13. The Dwyer Series 640 air velocity transmitter is ideal for a wide range of HVAC measurement and control applications, particularly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    and control applications, particularly in complete building control and energy management systems. Designed and repeatability) to these types of demanding applications at a surprisingly low cost. With four field selectable tip so holes are parallel to and dot marks face air stream. Refer to etched inch markings on side

  14. Measurements of Fission Products from the Fukushima Daiichi Incident in San Francisco Bay Area Air Filters, Automobile Filters, Rainwater, and Food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. R. Smith; K. J. Thomas; E. B. Norman; D. L. Hurley; B. T. Lo; Y. D. Chan; P. V. Guillaumon; B. G. Harvey

    2013-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of environmental media were analyzed for fallout radionuclides resulting from the Fukushima nuclear accident by the Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. Monitoring activities in air and rainwater began soon after the onset of the March 11, 2011 tsunami and are reported here through the end of 2012. Observed fallout isotopes include $^{131}$I, $^{132}$I,$^{132}$Te,$^{134}$Cs, $^{136}$Cs, and $^{137}$Cs. Isotopes were measured on environmental air filters, automobile filters, and in rainwater. An additional analysis of rainwater in search of $^{90}$Sr is also presented. Last, a series of food measurements conducted in September of 2013 are included due to extended media concerns of $^{134, 137}$Cs in fish. Similar measurements of fallout from the Chernobyl disaster at LBNL, previously unpublished publicly, are also presented here as a comparison with the Fukushima incident. All measurements presented also include natural radionuclides found in the environment to provide a basis for comparison.

  15. Detection of $^{133}$Xe from the Fukushima nuclear power plant in the upper troposphere above Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy Simgen; Frank Arnold; Heinfried Aufmhoff; Robert Baumann; Florian Kaether; Sebastian Lindemann; Ludwig Rauch; Hans Schlager; Clemens Schlosser; Ulrich Schumann

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    After the accident in the Japanese Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 large amounts of radioactivity were released and distributed in the atmosphere. Among them were also radioactive noble gas isotopes which can be used as tracers to test global atmospheric circulation models. This work presents unique measurements of the radionuclide $^{133}$Xe from Fukushima in the upper troposphere above Germany. The measurements involve air sampling in a research jet aircraft followed by chromatographic xenon extraction and ultra-low background gas counting with miniaturized proportional counters. With this technique a detection limit of the order of 100 $^{133}$Xe atoms in litre-scale air samples (corresponding to about 100 mBq/m$^3$) is achievable. Our results provide proof that the $^{133}$Xe-rich ground level air layer from Fukushima was lifted up to the tropopause and distributed hemispherically. Moreover, comparisons with ground level air measurements indicate that the arrival of the radioactive plume at high altitude over Germany occurred several days before the ground level plume.

  16. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K.R. , Biofuels, Air Pollution and Health: A Global Review.K.R. , Biofuels, Air Pollution and Health: A Global Review.K.R. , Biofuels, Air Pollution and Health: A Global Review.

  17. Combustion Air Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    calibration and tune-up: ? A measure of combustion efficiency must be selected as a target operating goal for the combustion control system. Possible measures and typical targets include: Stack Gas Excess Air, 15% Stack Gas Opacity, 0.3 RN Stack Gas CO... Fuel Flows ? Preheater Inlet Temperature ? Btu Flow (Fuel Flow ? Preheater Outlet Temperature Controller Measurement) ? Ambient Temperature ? Oxygen in the Stack ? Boiler Master Controller Output ? Opac i ty Normalize the steam, air and fuel flow...

  18. Upper Oceanic Energy Response to Tropical Cyclone Passage JOHN A. KNAFF AND MARK DEMARIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Wayne H.

    Upper Oceanic Energy Response to Tropical Cyclone Passage JOHN A. KNAFF AND MARK DEMARIA NOAA is investigated using a 6-yr daily record of data-driven analyses of two measures of upper ocean energy content information and the upper ocean response. Upper oceanic energy decreases in these metrics are shown to persist

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - air temperature air Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measured as 74 per of air flowing through the turbine. The turbine operates... the ideal gas model for air, determine the turbine efficiency. Problem 2 ... Source: Bahrami, Majid -...

  20. Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, Ditte; Zhou, L.; Back, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, Michael

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain.

  1. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low-emitting and “conventional” materials as installed in newly constructed residential homes using both (1) highly controlled, short-term active samples to precisely characterize the building-related chemical emissions and building contents and (2) a week-long passive sample designed to capture the impact of occupant behavior and related activities on measured IAQ contaminant levels indoors. The combination of detailed short-term measurements with the home under controlled/consistent conditions during pre- and post-occupancy and the week-long passive sampling data provide the opportunity to begin to separate the different emission sources and help isolate and quantify variability in the monitored homes. Between April and August 2014, the research team performed pre-occupancy and post-occupancy sampling in one conventional home and two homes built with low-emitting materials that were generally consistent with EPA’s Indoor airPLUS guidelines. However, for a number of reasons, the full experimental plan was not implemented. The project was intended to continue for up to three years to asses long-term changes in IAQ but the project was limited to one calendar year. As a result, several of the primary research questions related to seasonal impacts and the long-term trends in IAQ could not be addressed. In addition, there were several unexpected issues related to recruiting, availability of home types, and difficulty coordinating with builders/realtors/homeowners. Several field monitoring issues also came up that provide “lessons learned” that led to improvements to the original monitoring plan. The project produced a good experimental plan that is expected to be be useful for future efforts collecting data to support answering these same or similar research questions.

  2. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

  3. Simulations of water isotope abundances in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gettelman, Andrew

    fractionation processes. The results indicate that water substance in the upper troposphere does not follow a Rayleigh distillation model due to the presence of condensed phase water. Stratospheric abundances and climate of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). It is broadly known that most of the air

  4. Upper Los Alamos Canyon Cleanup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    septic tanks, sanitary and industrial waste lines, storm drains, incinerators, transformer sites, and areas in which soil has been contaminated. The Upper Los Alamos Canyon...

  5. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  6. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  7. Draft Inventory Upper Snake Province

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draft Inventory Upper Snake Province Submitted To The Northwest Power and Conservation Council Portland, Oregon Prepared by December 2004 #12;BOI043620012.DOC/KG ii Contents Section Page Inventory

  8. Evaluation of beta partical densitometry for determination of self-absorption factors in gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity measurements on air particulate filter samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breida, Margaret A

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha and beta particles emitted from radioactive material collected on an air filter may be significantly attenuated by the mass (thickness) of collected dust. In this study, we determined the mass or thickness of the simulated dust deposit...

  9. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels and respiratoryTuberculosis and Indoor Biomass and Kerosene Use in Nepal: AR.D. Retherford, and K.R. Smith, Biomass cooking fuels and

  10. RESIDENTIAL LOCATION CHOICE AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    RESIDENTIAL LOCATION CHOICE AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIR QUALITY UC Davis-Caltrans Air control measure. #12;RESIDENTIAL LOCATION CHOICE AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIR QUALITY.......................................................... 3 2.2 The Role of Residential Location Choice

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Jennifer L. Peel pollution and respiratory outcomes. More refined assessment has been limited by study size and available air quality data. Methods: Measurements of 5 pollutants (particulate matter PM10 , ozone, nitrogen dioxide NO2

  12. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre theAdministratorCFM LEAPAgendaConditioning AirWhy » Air

  13. Evaluation of the Indoor Air Quality Procedure for Use in Retail Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Spencer M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    indoor pollutant source control measures and air cleaningof indoor pollutant source control measures or gas phase aircontrol indoor pollutants, by allowing lower energy costs from reduced outdoor air

  14. Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    NOx - 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;NOx - 2 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST INTRODUCTION Automobile engines

  15. Li et al., Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 418-429, 2006 UV-Absorption-Based Measurements of Ozone and Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    interferences. For example, CMMs based on atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) are subject to interferences of the Hg detection technique. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is one of the major techniques appliedLi et al., Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 418-429, 2006 UV-Absorption

  16. Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All manager or operator must submit the completed form to the air quality program manager before the project

  17. Regulations for Air Quality (Quebec, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Regulation establishes emission standards for particulates and gases, emission opacity standards, standards of air quality and control measures to prevent, eliminate or reduce the emission of...

  18. Net weekly variation of vertical temperature structure in the upper ocean layers (Autumn, North Atlantic)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilcrest, Robert A

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A a M COLLEGE OF TEXAS HET MEEKLY VARIATION OF VERTICAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE IN THE UPPER OCEAN LAYERS (AUTUMN, NORTH ATIANTIC) A Thesis RCHERT ALLEN GILCREST Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical... Temperature in the mixed layer Temperature in the mixed layer at the beginning of a week TD 4500 1" 500 Pw p s Ocean surface temperature Temperature at the level of no seasonal ohange Air temperature Air temperature at anemometer height Dew point...

  19. Hot Air Stratification of Ceiling Air Supply in a Large Space Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Liu, C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of different states of air supply and airflow patterns on temperature gradient distribution are calculated and analyzed with the help of FFSV3.0 software, using the LB models and LES and RANS methods. An experimental study with upper...

  20. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  1. Experimental measurements and modeling prediction of flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Fuman

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of methane in air using thermal criterion?????..50 4.8 Determination of LFL of ethylene in air using thermal criterion???...??..51 4.9 Lower flammability limits of methane and n-butane mixtures in air at standard conditions...????????????????????..56 4.14 Upper flammability limits of methane and n-butane mixtures in air at standard conditions?????????????..???????57 4.15 Upper flammability limits of methane and ethylene mixtures in air at standard conditions...

  2. Upper Great Plains Home page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearchScheduledProductionCCEIResearch Upper Great Plains Service

  3. Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

    &M measures. An introduction to the AIRMaster software is provided. Goals The project goals were to develop and test a method and tools to perform Compressed Air System audits. The audits should use only simple instrumentation during a relatively short... air system leaks. 2. AIRMaster Software and User's Manual. AIRMaster is a spreadsheet-based program that can model part load system operation with up to five rotary screw and reciprocating compressors operating simultaneously with varying...

  4. Using the Air Void Analyzer for Real-Time Quality Control Adjustments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- including volume of entrained air, size of air voids, and distribution of air voids--of fresh portland entraining agents are added to concrete mixtures to stabilize very small air bubbles in the concrete mixture-vibration. Conventional tests of air in concrete have not provided an effective method of measuring the entrained air

  5. Long-Term Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Rio Chagres Basin: Implications for Panama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, Kyle K.

    Chapter 19 Long-Term Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Rio Chagres Basin: Implications: We measured in situ-produced cosmogenic 10 Be in 17 sand-sized sediment samples (0.25 to 0.85 mm) to estimate the rate and distribution of sediment generation in the upper Chagres watershed over the last 10

  6. Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind Y. I. An updated empirical climatic zonally aver- aged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/ lower of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed

  7. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  8. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  9. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  10. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  11. Safeguarding indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, K.; Wesolowski, J.J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California has created and implemented the first state program devoted exclusively to the investigation of nonindustrial indoor air quality. The program is responsible for promoting and conducting research on the determining factors of healthful indoor environments and is structured to obtain information about emission sources, ventilation effects, indoor concentrations, human activity patterns, exposures, health risks, control measures and public policy options. Data are gathered by a variety of methods, including research conducted by staff members, review of the available scientific literature, participation in technical meetings, contractual agreements with outside agencies, cooperative research projects with other groups and consultation with experts. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  12. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - air sample extract Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -linked immunosorbent as- say (ELISA) to measure paraquat in human-exposure samples (air filters, personal air monitors... analysis, paraquat collected in ... Source: Hammock,...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - air study 1999-2001 Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Dayton Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 33 inAir: Measuring and Visualizing Indoor Air...

  15. Upper Cumberland EMC- Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Upper Cumberland Electric Membership Corporation (UCEMC), in collaboration with the Tennessee Valley Authority, offers incentives for its customers to purchase and install energy efficient...

  16. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  17. Measurements of radioxenon in ground level air in South Korea following the claimed nuclear test in North Korea on October 9, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringbom, Anders; Elmgren, K.; Lindh, Karin; Peterson, Jenny; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Panisko, Mark E.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Following the claimed nuclear test in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) on October 9, 2006, and a reported seismic event, a mobile system for sampling of atmospheric xenon was transported to the Republic of South Korea (ROK) in an attempt to detect possible emissions of radioxenon in the region from a presumed test. Five samples were collected in the ROK during October 11–14, 2006 near the ROK–DPRK border, and thereafter transported to the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) in Stockholm, Sweden, for analysis. Following the initial measurements, an automatic radioxenon sampling and analysis system was installed at the same location in the ROK, and measurements on the ambient atmospheric radioxenon background in the region were performed during November 2006 to February 2007. The measured radioxenon concentrations strongly indicate that the explosion in October 9, 2006 was a nuclear test. The conclusion is further strengthened by atmospheric transport models. Radioactive xenon measurement was the only independent confirmation that the supposed test was in fact a nuclear explosion and not a conventional (chemical) explosive.

  18. Distributed GIS for Monitoring and Modeling Urban Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeang, Chen-Hsiang, 1969-

    The progress of technology has made the measurement of air quality and the simulation of complex air pollution models both feasible and cost-effective. However, there is a long way to go in terms of facilitating widespread ...

  19. UW-Madison Youth Programs Air Quality Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    of Public Health Engineering -- 3 0.0 CEE 423 Air Pollution Effects, Measurement and Control Senior Status 3-Gel Chemistry Instructor consent 1-3 0.0 CEE 609 Special Topics: The Chemistry of Air Pollution Instructor

  20. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  1. Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EAS 6790 Home Work Assignment No. 2, Air Pollution Meteorology: Box Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EAS 6790 Fall 2008 Home Work Assignment No. 2, Air Pollution to interpret measurements made in Mexico City. Focus mainly on the discussions relating to nitrate aerosol

  2. Upper White River Watershed Alliance Upper White River Watershed Alliance (UWRWA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upper White River Watershed Alliance Upper White River Watershed Alliance (UWRWA) P.O. Box 2065 integrity of the White River ecosystem. To successfully accomplish the vision of UWRWA, a 16-county was formed. It exists to improve and protect water quality on a watershed basis in the larger Upper White

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  5. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  6. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Biegalski, S. [Univ. of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Bowyer, Ted W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, Matthew W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Korpach, E. [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yi, Jing [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miley, Harry S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); White, Brian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Woods, Vincent T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  7. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  8. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  9. The Air-Fluorescence Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; D. Garcia-Pinto; M. Ortiz; J. Rosado

    2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of the air-fluorescence radiation induced by the charged particles of extensive air showers is a well-established technique for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Fluorescence telescopes provide a nearly calorimetric measure of the primary energy. Presently the main source of systematic uncertainties comes from our limited accuracy in the fluorescence yield, that is, the number of fluorescence photons emitted per unit of energy deposited in the atmosphere by the shower particles. In this paper the current status of our knowledge on the fluorescence yield both experimental an theoretical will be discussed.

  10. Economizer Control Using Mixed Air Enthalpy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, J.; Liu, M.; Pang, W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enthalpy economizer can theoretically save more energy than temperature based economizer. However, the requirement of outdoor air humidity measurement in the traditional enthalpy economizer control made it impossible. A novel control sequence using...

  11. High upper critical field in disordered niobium nitride superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskaran, R., E-mail: baskaran@igcar.gov.in; Thanikai Arasu, A. V.; Amaladass, E. P.; Janawadkar, M. P. [Materials Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting Niobium Nitride thin films have been deposited on glass, aluminum nitride buffered glass, and oxidized silicon substrates by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at ambient substrate temperatures. The crystal structure of these thin films has been determined to be cubic fcc B1 structure by Glancing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction analysis. The superconducting transition temperatures of the thin films were measured to be greater than 11.6?K with a maximum of 13.4?K. The negative temperature coefficient of resistance observed in these thin films indicates the presence of disorder. Magneto-resistance measurements have been carried out on these thin films patterned into standard four probe geometry upto a maximum magnetic field of 12?T for two films and upto 15?T for the other two films. The dependence of transition temperature on the applied field is analyzed to estimate the upper critical field. The upper critical field for most of the films was estimated to exceed 35?T, while one of the most disordered films had an estimated upper critical field greater than 70?T.

  12. Tensor rank : some lower and upper bounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbes, Michael Andrew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of Strassen [25] and Raz [19] show that good enough tensor rank lower bounds have implications for algebraic circuit/formula lower bounds. We explore tensor rank lower and upper bounds, focusing on explicit ...

  13. Predicting Air Quality: Improvements through advanced methods to integrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    Predicting Air Quality: Improvements through advanced methods to integrate models and measurements of Mathematics and Statistics, Portland, OR 97207, USA Abstract Air quality prediction plays an important role chemical transport models can predict pollution in an urban air shed with spatial resolution less than

  14. Aesculap, Inc. Air Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napier, Terrence

    Aesculap, Inc. Air Products Air Products Foundation Alaric Compliance Services, LLC Alvin H. Butz & Herger, Inc. Sodexo Campus Services Sodexo Inc. and Affiliates Stupp Bros., Inc. Sugarbush Products, Inc

  15. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  16. Healthy Air Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

  17. air medical transport: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DEREGULATION CiteSeer Summary: Air passenger deregulation was driven in no small measure by purveyors of ideas. Academics identified the regulation of the airline...

  18. Intrinsic Chirality and Prochirality at Air/R-(+)- and S-(-)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at AirR-(+)- and S-(-)-Limonene Interfaces: Spectral Signatures with Interference Chiral Abstract: We report in this work detailed measurements on the chiral and achiral...

  19. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  20. Air Products effective way

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PE O A e s a b O T A O ENNST Overview Air Products effective way standard me Departm Shipping has recently y of shipping eans. Air Pro ontainer that es of this pro onduct mark eep accelera eep the cost tilize widely a earch and m m visited Air er needs wer model was cr m approache ms

  1. Air Quality Chapter Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Chapter 30 Air Quality Chapter Outline 1 Overview 2 1.1 Hazards / Impacts 2 1.2 Exposure Sources 3 Manual Chapter 30: Air Quality 7 References 20 8 Implementation 21 9 Ownership 22 1 Overview SLAC operations produce a wide range of air emissions. Sources of emissions include standard equipment

  2. MAD-AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with stress- related illness rather than the anwr that spells RELIEF. Air flow in, through ad arourd a house is an important concern in the building we call haw. !lb enhance air flow and change the various corditions or properties of the air, a variety...

  3. Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control...

  4. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice...

  5. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  6. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  7. REVIEW OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: CrystalFG36-08GO18149Speeding accessProposal Title: Community9747 Review of

  8. Analysis of Air Leakage Measurements from Residential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contributed by weatherization assistance programs and residential energy efficiency programs. We analyzed Interest Energy Research Program award number CEC-500-08-061 and the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the US Department of Energy under contract

  9. Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  11. Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.

  12. Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 APPENDIX 4-1--UPPER SNAKE PROVINCE PROJECT INVENTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 1 APPENDIX 4-1--UPPER SNAKE PROVINCE PROJECT INVENTORY The purpose of the project inventory is to provide a generalized picture of the types of fish and wildlife team participants through the project inventory website or through direct submission. Additional

  13. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of total nitrate and ammonia were made during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study using a steam

  14. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  15. Air-sea gas exchange of CO 2 and DMS in the North Atlantic by eddy covariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott D; Marandino, Christa A; De Bruyn, Warren; Saltzman, Eric S; McCormick, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurements of the air/sea flux of dimethylsulfide over the2008a), Open ocean DMS air/sea fluxes over the eastern SouthE. S. Saltzman (2008b), DMS air/sea flux and gas transfer

  16. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  17. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  18. POSTGRADUATE Upper Level, Otto Beit Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    FUNDING YOUR POSTGRADUATE STUDIES AT UCT Upper Level, Otto Beit Building University Avenue North, the Postgraduate Funding Office and Postgraduate Centre were established at the University of Cape Town to provide apply for funding from both the University and from as many other sources of support as possible

  19. Draft Management Plan Upper Snake Province

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .......................................................................................4-5 Consistency with Idaho's Water Quality Management Plan...........................4-5 303(dDraft Management Plan Upper Snake Province Submitted To The Northwest Power and Conservation Quality Anti-Degradation Policy (39-3603) ............................................4-8 ESA and CWA

  20. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  1. Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

  2. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  3. Performance of Supply Airflow Entrainment for Particles in an Underfloor Air Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, C.; Li, N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air measurement campaign in Helsinki, Finland 1999?the effect of outdoor air pollution on indoor air. Atmospheric Environment [J].2001;35: 1465?77. [6] C.Y.H. Chao, M.P. Wan. Airflow and air temperature distribution in the occupied region...

  4. Decadal variations of the relationship between the summer North Atlantic Oscillation and middle East Asian air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    East Asian air temperature Jianqi Sun,1 Huijun Wang,1 and Wei Yuan2 Received 20 November 2007; revised., 1998]. In turn, it affects upper ocean currents, distribution of sea surface temperature, and strength the summer (July­September) North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) and simultaneous East Asian air temperature

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - air station usa Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and WALD, Lucien. Adding virtual measuring stations to a network for urban air pollution Summary: , and WALD, Lucien. Adding virtual measuring stations to a network for...

  6. International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications Elisabeth Weisz presented and discussed in this paper demonstrate that the IMAPP AIRS retrieval product is rigorously parameters from the operational AIRS L2 product and data from other instruments. Keywords: AIRS, IMAPP

  7. AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh air that enters a house in a controlled manner to exhaust excess moisture and reduce odors and stuffiness. Air leakage, or infiltration, is outside air that enters a house uncontrollably through cracks

  8. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  9. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  10. Compressed Air System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  11. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 7 - Emission of Air Contaminant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the enjoyment of life and property. The criteria for determining compliance is listed in the regulations, and is based on other air pollution and ambient air standards...

  12. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  13. NOAA Data Report ERL PMEL-16 UPPER-AIR OBSERVATIONS IN THE VICINITY OF SHELIKOF STRAIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE FISHERY OCEANOGRAPHY EXPERIMENT (FOX), MARCH 1985 S. Allen Macklin Nora 1. Jenkins Andrew T. Roach Pacific OCEANOGRAPHY EXPERIMENT (FOX), MARCH 1985 1.0 INTRODUCTION S. Allen Macklin Nora I. Jenkins Andrew T. Roach

  14. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe OfficeUtility Fed. GovernmentFed. Government CommercialPollution, Air

  15. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

  16. Texas Clean Air Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act is designed to safeguard the state's air resources from pollution by requiring the control and abatement of air pollution and emissions of air contaminants, consistent with the protection...

  17. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  18. Real-time Air Quality Monitoring Through Mobile Sensing in Metropolitan Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iftode, Liviu

    . General Terms Measurement, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors. Keywords Air Quality, Pollution, Urban levels in the urban and suburban settings. According to the US EPA [3], the six common air pollutants. These are called the criteria pollutants and thus are required to be measured to tell us how healthy the air

  19. Upper internals arrangement for a pressurized water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Norman R; Altman, David A; Yu, Ching; Rex, James A; Forsyth, David R

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In a pressurized water reactor with all of the in-core instrumentation gaining access to the core through the reactor head, each fuel assembly in which the instrumentation is introduced is aligned with an upper internals instrumentation guide-way. In the elevations above the upper internals upper support assembly, the instrumentation is protected and aligned by upper mounted instrumentation columns that are part of the instrumentation guide-way and extend from the upper support assembly towards the reactor head in hue with a corresponding head penetration. The upper mounted instrumentation columns are supported laterally at one end by an upper guide tube and at the other end by the upper support plate.

  20. An Integrated Geophysical Analysis Of The Upper Crust Of The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of The Upper Crust Of The Southern Kenya Rift Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Integrated Geophysical Analysis Of The Upper...

  1. Ambient Air Quality Standards (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations set statewide ambient air quality standards for various contaminants. The state code follows the regulations set forth in the National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality...

  2. Retrofit Air Preheat Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goolsbee, J. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can...

  3. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  4. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  5. Padding with Compressed Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters...

  6. Air Carrier Flight Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Midkif, Alan H.

    Most air carriers operate under a system of prioritized goals including safety, customer service (on-time departures and arrivals) and operating economics. The flight operations department is responsible for the safe and ...

  7. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  8. Canned Air in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Not that long ago, coal smoke made the air here in Beijing so caustic that your nasal passages were seared with each breath. Those were the good old days: Car ownership was limited to government ...

  9. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  10. Quantitative imaging of the air-water flow fields formed by unsteady breaking waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belden, Jesse (Jesse Levi)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental method for simultaneously measuring the velocity fields on the air and water side of unsteady breaking waves is presented. The method is applied to breaking waves to investigate the physics of the air and ...

  11. Laboratory Test Report for ThermaStor Ultra-Aire XT150H Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Winkler, J.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the performance of the ThermaStor Ultra-Aire XT150H Dehumidifier. Its performance was measured across a wide range of inlet air conditions and fit to a numerical model.

  12. Pollutant measurements Nils Mole, Finn Palmgren & Hao Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mole, Nils

    as the only/main tool for control of com- pliance with limit values; but air pollution measure- ments we deal with measurement techniques and strategies appropriate to major pollutants in both air and water, and also with the effects of unavoidable measurement errors. Pollutant Measurements in Air

  13. Clearing the Air: "AIR" Training Session Wednesday, December 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    Clearing the Air: "AIR" Training Session Wednesday, December 18 12 p.m. ­ 1:00 p.m. Human Resources/Tobacco- Free! Join us for an interactive session and learn more about "AIR" (Approach, Inform, Refer, and safe campus environment. Visit Clearing the Air website (http://tobaccofree.ucr.edu/) for more

  14. Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems Kisup Lee* Zheng Jiang, Ph.D Qingyan Chen, Ph.D. Student Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE ABSTRACT Stratified air distribution systems such as Traditional Displacement Ventilation (TDV) and Under- Floor Air Distribution (UFAD

  15. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to severalAir Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

  16. Performance of underfloor air distribution: Results of a field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas

    2004-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include easy relocation of air supply diffusers, energy savings, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13 percent higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13 percent reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C (2-4 F). This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10 percent. The occupants level of satisfaction with thermal conditions w as well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  18. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  19. A study of fractionating inlet systems for the dichotomous air sampler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ripps, Gerald Joseph

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Aerosols in Ambient Air", Swedish Water and Air Pollu- tion Research Labs. , S-402 24, Gothenburg, Sweden, (1975). (8) Steen, B. , "The Influence of Different Parameters on the Sampling Efficiency of Some Commonly Used Devices for Measuring Particle... Concentrations in Ambient Air", Ph. D. Thesis, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, (1975). (9) Steen, B. , and Andreasson, K. , "Comparative Measure- ments of Particle Concentrations in Ambient Air Made at a Background Station...

  20. Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

    2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

  1. Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN WITH AIR PSE Developed by Prof. Donald Dabdub Computational Environmental Sciences Laboratory Mechanical COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical

  2. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

  3. Hadronic multiparticle production in extensive air showers and accelerator experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Meurer; J. Bluemer; R. Engel; A. Haungs; M. Roth

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Using CORSIKA for simulating extensive air showers, we study the relation between the shower characteristics and features of hadronic multiparticle production at low energies. We report about investigations of typical energies and phase space regions of secondary particles which are important for muon production in extensive air showers. Possibilities to measure relevant quantities of hadron production in existing and planned accelerator experiments are discussed.

  4. Residential HVAC Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential HVAC && Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2) Tav Commins #12;Contact Information · Energy construction, Additions /Alterations · Nonresidential and Residential #12;Residential HVAC && Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2) ·HVAC EfficiencyHVAC Efficiency ·Quality Installation (HERS Measures) S li b HERS R t

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  6. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  7. ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzeja, R.

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  8. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  9. New facts about muon production in Extended Air Shower simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pierog; K. Werner

    2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Whereas air shower simulations are very valuable tools for interpreting cosmic ray data, there is a long standing problem: is seems to be impossible to accommodate at the same time the longitudinal development of air showers and the number of muons measured at ground. Using a new hadronic interaction model (EPOS) in air shower simulations produces considerably more muons, in agreement with results from the HiRes-MIA experiment. We find that this is mainly due to a better description of baryon-antibaryon production in hadronic interactions. This is a new aspect of air shower physics which has never been considered so far.

  10. Standoff alpha radiation detection via excited state absorption of air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Jimmy; Yin, Stuart Shizhuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Brenizer, Jack [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Hui, Rongqing [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

    2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A standoff alpha radiation detection technique based on the physical mechanism of excited state absorption of air molecules was explored and is presented in this paper. Instead of directly detecting the radiation via measuring the intensity of radiation induced air fluorescence, the radiation is detected via the excited state absorption of alpha radiation excited/ionized air molecules. Both theoretical analyses and experimental verifications were conducted. The experimental results confirmed that the radiation could be detected via excited state absorption of radiation excited/ionized air molecules at a 10 m standoff distance, which was consistent with the theoretical analyses.

  11. The CitiSense Air Quality Monitoring Mobile Sensor Node Piero Zappi, Elizabeth Bales, Jing Hong Park, William Griswold and Tajana Simuni Rosing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    conditions than the national ambient air quality standard [1]. Current air pollutant measurement networks. For example, The San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) maintains only five air pollutant samplingThe CitiSense Air Quality Monitoring Mobile Sensor Node Piero Zappi, Elizabeth Bales, Jing Hong

  12. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capacity. Optional Morning Warm-up If connected to a liquid condenser bundle, the icemaking chiller can serve as a heat recovery heat pump. The chiller can freeze ice in the early morning to provide heat for morning warm-up, and use the ice... the cooling coil or drain pan re-evaporates and is delivered to occupied space during compressor off-cycles. Although heat recovery between the exhaust air and ventilation air can reduce the impact on the HVAC system, many buildings do not have central...

  13. Understanding nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kshetri, Ritesh [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064, India and Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia - 723101 (India); Sarkar, S. [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah - 711103 (India)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclei in the upper-sd shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A ? 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

  14. Using Ultrasound to Characterize Pulp Slurries with Entrained Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.

    2006-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of fast and practical methods for inspecting fiber suspensions is of great interest in the paper making industry. For process control and paper quality prediction, several elements of the refining process during paper making must be accurately monitored, including specific fiber properties, weight percent fiber (composition), degree of refining, amount of solids, and entrained air content. The results of previous ultrasonic studies applied to wood pulp provide guidance that ultrasound attenuation is information rich, and it does potentially provide a tool for consistency measurement. Ultrasound has the ability to penetrate dense suspensions such as wood pulp slurries. It is has been shown, in some studies, that ultrasound is sensitive to degree of refining. The effects of entrained air, additives, the origin and treatment of the fibers do however all influence the measured data. A series of measurements were made with hardwood and softwood slurries to evaluate the ability of measuring pulp consistency, solids, and entrained air. The attenuation through the slurry was measured as the ultrasound travels from one transducer through the slurry to the other. The measurements identified the presence of entrained air in the pulp samples. To better understand the effects of air, measurements were made at increasing pressures to show how increased pressure reduced the amount of air observed in the spectrum.

  15. A diffusion approximation approach to stochastic modeling of air conditioning type loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Teresa Henryka

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the air conditioning unit is on and off. In the followino equations, TNIN and TNAX are the lower and upper limit temperatures of the thermostat deadband and To is the outside temperature. Gi 2Gw To Tw Cw Ci $ QeXt To - outside temperature Tw - wall... temperature Ti - inside temperature Gw ? thermal conductance of wall Gi - thermal conductance of air Cw - thermal capacitance of wall Ci ? thermal capacitance of air Qe - rated capacity of cooling unit Xt - zero-one process describing the switching...

  16. 2012-13 Princeton Global Scholar Dr. Tong Zhu is a world leading researcher on the impact of air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of air pollution on public health, the mechanisms of atmospheric chemistry. His research spans the study research projects, he has led large international projects related to air pollution science, health impacts. Zhu led a team that formulated air pollution measures to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing

  17. Air Pollution Health Effects: Toward an Integrated Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Trent.

    Scientists and policy makers have become increasingly aware of the need to jointly study climate change and air pollution because of the interactions among policy measures and in the atmospheric chemistry that creates the ...

  18. Performance of underfloor air distribution in a fieldsetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.P.; Chao, C.; Wan, M.P.; Zagreus, L.; Webster, T.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include energy savings and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13% higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13% reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C. This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10%. The occupant's level of satisfaction with thermal conditions was well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - air surveillance air Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sample search results for: air surveillance air Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation Project Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE)...

  1. Sticking with air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, S.N. [Entergy (US). Independence Plant

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

  2. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh-Won [Texas Transportation Institute; Zietsman, Josias [Texas Transportation Institute; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza [Texas Transportation Institute; Li, Wen-Whai [University of Texas, El Paso; Olvera, Hector [University of Texas, El Paso; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Kranendonk, Laura [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  3. Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, E. L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

  4. Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

  5. Crust and Upper Mantle P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crust and Upper Mantle P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Valles Caldera, New Mexico- Results from the Jemez Teleseismic Tomography Experiment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  6. Upper crustal faulting in an obliquely extending orogen, structural...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eastern California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Upper crustal faulting in an obliquely extending orogen,...

  7. Schlumberger soundings in the Upper Raft River and Raft River...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Schlumberger soundings in the Upper Raft River and Raft River Valleys, Idaho and Utah Abstract In 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey made seventy Schlumberger resistivity...

  8. Upper crustal structure of an obliquely extending orogen, central...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Upper crustal structure of an obliquely extending orogen, central Coso Range, eastern California...

  9. Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, John B.

    Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

  10. Air Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit Wanyu R. Chan, Jeffrey,000 single-family detached homes have sufficient information for the analysis of air leakage in relation variability in normalized leakage. ResDB also contains the before and after retrofit air leakage measurements

  11. Session 3: Past, current and future exposure to air pollutants and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measurements and model to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in air pollution exposure and resulting health Examine health effects of this long-term exposure #12;Air pollution trends- past and future We can useSession 3: Past, current and future exposure to air pollutants and its effects Chris Dibben, Tom

  12. Air Entrainment by a Viscous Jet Plunging into a Bath Elise Lorenceau and David Quere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggers, Jens

    Air Entrainment by a Viscous Jet Plunging into a Bath E´lise Lorenceau and David Que´re´ Physique, we measure the amount of air entrained by a viscous jet over a wide range of parameters and explain.55.Dz, 47.85.­g Air entrainment is a common phenomenon that can be encountered in many environmental

  13. Tennessee Air Quality Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Air Quality Act (AQA) delegates the power to maintain air quality in the State to the Department of Environment and Conservation. Under the Department of the Environment and...

  14. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  15. Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

  16. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - air-borne power ultrasonic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    search results for: air-borne power ultrasonic Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Center for Industrial Sensors and Measurements Department Materials Science & Engineering Summary:...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - air-water bubbly flow Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ; Chemistry 6 Hydrodynamic and statistical parameters of slug flow Lev Shemer * Summary: identification from dynamic void fraction measurements in vertical air-water flows. Int....

  19. Fact #568: April 27, 2009 For Modern Cars, Replacing an Air Filter...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    February 2009 study conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory found that for modern computer-controlled, fuel-injected engines, changing a clogged air filter has no measurable...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - air injection systems Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems. Different methods for measuring air-leakage rates were also compared... , and Refrigeration ... Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy...

  1. Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad A. Shirazi; Mohsen Saadat; Bo Yan; Perry Y. Li; Terry W. Simon

    /expanders are crucial for the economical viability of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system such as the

  2. Metal-air battery assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Making Compressed Air System Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    spawned an entire industry dedicated to manufacturing equipment designed to remove moisture, lubricant, particulate and vapor contaminants from compressed air. Purification equipment, such as air dryers and filters, are used alone or in combination... to reduce the amount of contaminants in the compressed air to the desired purity. All compressed ESL-IE-96-04-32 Proceedings from the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 air purification equipment requires...

  4. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  5. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Japanese Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations,The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976, GeometAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  6. Review: Integrating Climate, Energy and Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, David E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate, Energy and Air Pollution By Gary Bryner with RobertEnergy, and Air Pollution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, The MITClimate, Energy, and Air Pollution provides a well-

  7. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

  8. Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bucher, Scott

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For example, “Air Pollution and Health – Studies in theAssessment of Air Pollution and Health” is illustrative inReview: Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing

  9. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  10. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  11. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  12. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  13. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  14. Air drilling has some pluses for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carden, R.S. (Grace, Shursen, Moore and Associates, Inc., Amarillo, TX (US))

    1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling horizontal wells with air as the circulating medium is not a common practice; however, air has come distinct advantages over drilling mud. They are: Significant increase in rate of penetration which leads to shorter drilling time. Elimination of lost circulation problems, especially in areas of very low bottom hole pressures. Continual drill stem test of potential producing formations. Minimal damage to the formation. Unfortunately, there are some disadvantages to drilling with air. Downhole motor life is shorter and less predictable. No measurement-while-drilling (MWD) system is currently available that will work consistently in air drilling environments. Hole cleaning is a problem at inclinations above 50{degree}. The horizontal section length is reduced because of the increased friction (drag) between the drillstring and borehole. The types of lithologies and targets are limited. Several horizontal wells have been successfully drilled with air or foam since 1986. At a minimum, operators drill the horizontal section with air or foam to eliminate lost circulation problems in low pressure or partially depleted reservoirs and to reduce formation damage due to drilling fluid invasion. However, problems have been encountered in drilling horizontal wells with air. Not all of the problems are unique to air drilling, but some may be exaggerated by the conditions in an air-drilled hole.

  15. Air Pollution Socio-Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

  16. Beta-dependent upper bound on ion temperature anisotropy in a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Paul A. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Scime, Earl E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Balkey, Matthew M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Boivin, Robert [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kline, John L. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Gary, S. Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements of ion temperatures, parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetic field, in the Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropies space simulation chamber (a steady-state, high beta, argon plasma) display an inverse correlation between the upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy and the parallel ion beta ({beta}=8{pi}nkT/B{sup 2}). These observations are consistent with in situ spacecraft measurements in the Earth's magnetosheath and with a theoretical/computational model that predicts that such an upper bound is imposed by scattering from enhanced fluctuations due to growth of the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability (the Alfven ion cyclotron instability). (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  17. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana; ,

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  18. Diversity in the upper management of leading Texas contractors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Anne Nicole

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the overall sample, Gender, Position, or Ethnicity categories. It was found that the Ethnic make up of upper management is not representative of the Ethnic make up of the Texas or national construction workforces, while the Gender make up of upper management...

  19. Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10-Managing Pediatric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Squire, Larry R.

    Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10- 05 1 Managing Pediatric Fractures Andrew Pennock, M extremity Fx's Sweden 10- 05 2 Children Are Not Miniature Adults! · Open Growth Plates · Remodeling is Changing "Citius, Altius, Fortius" - Faster, Higher, Stronger #12;Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10

  20. Upper bounds for multiphase composites in any dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis Silvestre

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove a rigorous upper bound for the effective conductivity of an isotropic composite made of several isotropic components in any dimension. This upper bound coincides with the Hashin Shtrikman bound when the volume ratio of all phases but any two vanish.

  1. Solubility and freezing effects of Fe2+ solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    determined the total equilibrium metal solubility ([Fe2+ ]T and [Mg2+ ]T) in 20­90 wt % sulfuric acidSolubility and freezing effects of Fe2+ and Mg2+ in H2SO4 solutions representative of upper solutions over the temperature range 200­300 K. We have measured solubilities using samples of MgSO4, FeSO4Á

  2. UN PROCD DE DOSAGE CONTINU DU RADON DANS L'AIR ATMOSPHRIQUE. APPLICATION A LA PROSPECTION DE L'URANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    : it permits measurement of the activity of radioactive products of radon in air ; the air permits pass through176 UN PROC�D� DE DOSAGE CONTINU DU RADON DANS L'AIR ATMOSPH�RIQUE. APPLICATION A LA PROSPECTION DE radon de l'air atmo- sphérique. Une pompe à grand débit aspire l'air à analyser à travers un papier

  3. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  4. Low dimensional GaAs/air vertical microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessler, J.; Steinl, T.; Fischer, J.; Höfling, S.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M. [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Mika, A.; S?k, G.; Misiewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrze?e Wyspia?skiego 27, 50-370 Wroc?aw (Poland)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the fabrication of gallium arsenide (GaAs)/air distributed Bragg reflector microresonators with indium gallium arsenide quantum wells. The structures are studied via momentum resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy which allows us to investigate a pronounced optical mode quantization of the photonic dispersion. We can extract a length parameter from these quantized states whose upper limit can be connected to the lateral physical extension of the microcavity via analytical calculations. Laser emission from our microcavity under optical pumping is observed in power dependent investigations.

  5. Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing several kinds of air-conditioning systems energy conservation measures, and according to the climate of the hot-summer and cold-winter region in China, this paper puts forward an overall conception for air-conditioning energy...

  6. Air Leakage of U.S. Homes: Model Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses a model developed from that database in conjunction with US Census Bureau data for estimating air leakage as a function of location throughout the US.

  7. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  8. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5)DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson P. Khosah; John P. Shimshock

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS), with Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Ohio University as subcontractors, was contracted by the NETL in September 1998 to manage the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), with a goal of characterizing the ambient fine particulate in this region, including examination of urban/rural variations, correlations between PM{sub 2.5} and gaseous pollutants, and influences of artifacts on PM{sub 2.5} measurements in this region. Two urban and two rural monitoring sites were included in the UORVP. The four sites selected were all part of existing local and/or state air quality programs. One urban site was located in the Lawrenceville section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at an air quality monitoring station operated by the Allegheny County Health Department. A second urban site was collocated at a West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) monitoring station at the airport in Morgantown, West Virginia. One rural site was collocated with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) at a former NARSTO-Northeast site near Holbrook, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The other rural site was collocated at a site operated by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OHEPA) and managed by the Ohio State Forestry Division in Gifford State Forest near Athens, Ohio. Analysis of data collected to date show that: (1) the median mass and composition of PM{sub 2.5} are similar for both Lawrenceville and Holbrook, suggesting that the sites are impacted more by the regional than by local effects; (2) there was no significant differences in the particulate trending and levels observed at both sites within seasons; (3) sulfate levels predominate at both sites, and (4) PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} mass concentration levels are consistently higher in summer than in winter, with intermediate levels being observed in the fall and spring. Data analysis focusing on relating the aerometric measurements to local and regional scale emissions of sources of primary and secondary fine particles using receptor-based air quality models will follow.

  9. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges,...

  10. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  11. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  12. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  13. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  14. Numerical study of hot-leg ECC injection into the upper plenum of a pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, B.J.; Torrey, M.D.; Rivard, W.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In certain pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, emergency core coolant (ECC) is injected through the hot legs into the upper plenum. The condensation of steam on this subcooled liquid stream reduces the pressure in the hot legs and upper plenum and thereby affects flow conditions throughout the reactor. In the present study, we examine countercurrent steam-water flow in the hot leg to determine the deceleration of the ECC flow that results from an adverse pressure gradient and from momentum exchange from the steam by interfacial drag and condensation. For the parameters examined in the study, water flow reversal is observed for a pressure drop of 22 to 32 mBar over the 1.5 m hot leg. We have also performed a three-dimensional study of subcooled water injection into air and steam environments of the upper plenum. The ECC water is deflected by an array of cylindrical guide tubes in its passage through the upper plenum. Comparisons of the air-water results with data obtained in a full scale experiment shows reasonable agreement, but indicates that there may be too much resistance to horizontal flow about the columns because of the use of a stair-step representation of the cylindrical guide tube cross section. Calculations of flow past single columns of stair-step, square and circular cross section do indicate excessive water deeentrainment by the noncircular column. This has prompted the use of an arbitrary mesh computational procedure to more accuratey represent the circular cross-section guide tubes. 15 figures.

  15. Statistical Confirmation of a Stellar Upper Mass Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Oey; C. J. Clarke

    2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the expectation value for the maximum stellar mass (m_max) in an ensemble of N stars, as a function of the IMF upper-mass cutoff (m_up) and N. We statistically demonstrate that the upper IMF of the local massive star census observed thus far in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds clearly exhibits a universal upper mass cutoff around 120 - 200 M_sun for a Salpeter IMF, although the result is more ambiguous for a steeper IMF.

  16. Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    contain instructions for the operation and monitoring of air pollution control equipment, as well as comments on procedures in the event of equipment breakdown, failure, and...

  17. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  18. Hadronic multiparticle production at ultrahigh energies and extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, Ralf; Engel, Ralph; Unger, Michael [Pennsylvania State University, Center for Particle Astrophysics, 104 Davey Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the nature of cosmic ray particles at the highest energies are based on the measurement of extensive air showers. Most cosmic ray properties can therefore be obtained only from the interpretation of air shower data and are thus dependent on predictions of hadronic interaction models at ultrahigh energies. We discuss different scenarios of model extrapolations from accelerator data to air shower energies and investigate their impact on the corresponding air shower predictions. To explore the effect of different extrapolations by hadronic interaction models we developed an ad hoc model. This model is based on the modification of the output of standard hadronic interaction event generators within the air shower simulation process and allows us to study the impact of changing interaction features on the air shower development. In a systematic study we demonstrate the resulting changes of important air shower observables and also discuss them in terms of the predictions of the Heitler model of air shower cascades. It is found that the results of our ad hoc modifications are, to a large extent, independent of the choice of the underlying hadronic interaction model.

  19. Entrainment of refrigerated air curtains down a wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Brandon S.; Loth, Eric [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerated air curtains are used in open supermarket display cases as a barrier between the warm ambient air and the cold refrigerated air. Entrainment of ambient air into the curtain by shear layer mixing contributes to both the sensible and the latent heat load on the display case. To better understand the fluid dynamics which govern entrainment, velocity and temperature measurements of the curtains were made in a refrigerated display case, which was modified to allow a more fundamental flow. In particular, a vertical solid wall was installed to approximately represent a fully-stocked configuration. As such, negatively-buoyant wall jets (with high inflow turbulence) in the Reynolds number range of 4200-8000 and in the Richardson number range of 0.13-0.58 were examined. To define the air curtain vortex structures, flow visualization of the curtain interface was employed. The results of which showed that the entrainment of the ambient air was found to be governed by a variety of eddy engulfing structures. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to examine the velocity profiles of the air curtains in a non-intrusive manner, the measurements of which indicated negatively-buoyant acceleration following the jet exhaust, followed by a more linear curtain growth characteristic of isothermal wall jets. In addition, thermocouples were used to obtain the net increase in temperature of the curtain due to entrainment, where it was found that the dimensionless thermal energy loss decreased with decreasing Reynolds number.

  20. Effect of wind speed on the growth of the upper convective zone in a solar pond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMinn, Steven Lee

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER Page 111 Vi I INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW III EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS IV RESULTS 14 21 V ENTRAINMENT AS A FUNCTION OF RICHARDSON NUMBER 32 VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 44 REFERENCES APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2... speed. 11. Thickness of UCZ for 9. 6 m/s wind speed. 12. Thickness of UCZ for 15. 0 m/s wind speed. 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 13. Horizontal and vertical coordinates of 25 locations for measuring cross section air velocities. . . . . . 59 14. Air...

  1. Implementation of the Laboratory Air Handling Unit Systems (LAHU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementation of the Laboratory Air Handling Unit Systems (LAHU) Y. Cui Graduate Student Energy Systems Laboratory University of Nebraska-Lincoln Omaha, NE, USA M. Liu, Ph.D., P.E. Associate Professor Energy Systems Laboratory...-around coils [18, 19], the variable air volume (VAV) fume hoods [8-16] and the usage-based control devices (UBC) [17]. These measures have effectively reduced the cooling energy, preheat energy and fan power consumption, and sometime, improved indoor...

  2. A Preliminary Look at the Crust and Upper Mantle of North Africa Using Libyan Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasyanos, M

    2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, LLNL has been developing methods to jointly invert both surface wave dispersion data and teleseismic receiver functions. The technique holds great promise in accurately estimating seismic structure, including important tectonic parameters such as basin thickness, crustal thickness, upper mantle velocity, etc. We proposed applying this method to some recently available data from several Libyan stations, as we believe the technique has not been applied to any stations in Libya. The technique holds the promise of improving our understanding of the crust and upper mantle in Libya and North Africa. We recently requested seismic data from stations GHAR (Gharyan) and MARJ (Al Marj) in Libya for about 20 events. The events were large events at regional distances suitable for making dispersion measurements. An example of waveforms recorded at the two stations from an earthquake in Italy is shown in Figure 1. The paths traverse the Ionian Sea. Notice the slow short period group velocities of the surface waves across the Mediterranean, particularly to the easternmost station MARJ. However, because of data availability, signal-to-noise ratio, etc. we were unable to make measurements for every one of these events at both stations. Figure 2 shows a map of paths for 20 sec Rayleigh waves in the eastern Mediterranean region. Paths measured at the two Libyan stations are shown in green. Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements at 20 sec period are sensitive to velocities in the upper 20 km or so, and reveal sediment thickness, crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. Tomographic inversions reveal the sharp group velocity contrast between regions with deep sedimentary basins and those without. Figure 3, the result of an inversion made before adding the new dispersion measurements, shows slow group velocities in the Black Sea, Adriatic Sea, and Eastern Mediterranean. In general, these features correspond well with the sediment thickness model from Laske, shown in Figure 4. Details in and around the Sirt (Sirte) Basin in northern Libya, however, are poorly defined.

  3. Buoyancy of the continental upper mantle Robyn K. Kelly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buoyancy of the continental upper mantle Robyn K. Kelly Department of Geology and Geophysics, MIT). Received 21 June 2002; Revised 11 October 2002; Accepted 15 October 2002; Published 18 February 2003. Kelly

  4. Upper bound analysis for drag anchors in soft clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byoung Min

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an upper bound plastic limit analysis for predicting drag anchor trajectory and load capacity. The shank and fluke of the anchor are idealized as simple plates. The failure mechanism involves the motion of the anchor about a...

  5. Characterization of Sea Turtle Nesting on the Upper Texas Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Christi Lynn

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Nearly annual record Kemp’s ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) nesting activity on the upper Texas coast (UTC; defined as beaches from Sabine Pass to Matagorda Peninsula), where scientifically verifiable nesting commenced in 2002, has occurred...

  6. Hydrology and Glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Winston

    Examines the state of the science associated with the snow and ice hydrology in the Upper Indus Basin (IUB), reviewing the literature and data available on the present and projected role of glaciers, snow fields, and stream ...

  7. Improvable upper bounds to the piezoelectric polaron ground state energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Soldatov

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It was shown that an infinite sequence of improving non-increasing upper bounds to the ground state energy (GSE) of a slow-moving piezoeletric polaron can be devised.

  8. Upper bounds on minimum distance of nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Santosh

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most popular class of quantum error correcting codes is stabilizer codes. Binary quantum stabilizer codes have been well studied, and Calderbank, Rains, Shor and Sloane (July 1998) have constructed a table of upper bounds on the minimum distance...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy-Water Planning Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSiM) Contact Jesse Roach jdroach@sandia.gov (505) 284-9367 Last Updated: April 23, 2012 Go To Top ...

  10. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  11. Oklahoma Clean Air Act (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes the authority for the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to administer programs to maintain and monitor air quality across Oklahoma. The Department monitors...

  12. Nebraska Air Quality Regulations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to ambient air quality standards, pollution source operating permits, emissions reporting,...

  13. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

  14. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production home builder K. Hovnanian to conduct testing at a single-family home in Waldorf, Maryland, constructed in accordance with the 2009 International Residential Code. The team used automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques to conduct a series of 25 tests to measure the garage and house air leakage and pressure relationships and the garage-to-house air leakage.

  15. Diurnal cycle of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panday, Arnico K.

    During the dry season of 2004–2005 we carried out field measurements of air pollution and meteorology in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, a bowl-shaped urban basin in the Himalayan foothills of Nepal. We measured the trace ...

  16. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  17. An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20C air at a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haimei

    An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80°C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20°C air at a pressure of 90kPa. The valve is opened, and air flows into the tank. Determine the final temperature of the air in the tank and the mass of air that enters the tank if the valve is left

  18. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the impacts on air pollution and health of urban areaas a proxy for air pollution health effects (Bennett etFuel combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: The

  19. Geology, volcanology and geochemistry Drainage pattern and regional morphostructure at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia) ........................83

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia) ........................83 Guillaume Bardin, Jean-Paul Raynal, Guy Kieffer Volcanic markers in coarse alluvium at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia (Upper Awash, Ethiopia) ....................................................103 Gérard Poupeau, Guy

  20. Air Force Enhanced Use Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2...

  1. Environmental Aspects of Air Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Innovation Center #12;2 Aviation and Climate #12;3 Combustion Products Commercial jet fuel is essentially FOR AIR TRANSPORTATIONCENTER FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCHSYSTEMS RESEARCH Metron Aviation GMU, and the process inside real engines is considerably more complex. Typical emission rates for jet aircraft (grams

  2. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics Air Force Energy Use Air Force Facility Energy Center Current RE...

  3. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  4. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  5. Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day?km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by the cloud radiative heating profiles. However, the height of the radiative heating maxima and gradient of the heating profiles are important to determine the sign and patterns of the horizontal circulation anomaly driven by radiative heating at upper levels.

  6. From Borne On Air: Essays by Idaho Writers, Mary Clearman Blew and Phil Druker, eds. (Cheney, WA: Eastern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Michael P.

    , it becomes steam, then smoke, then fire, then sky, and then the heavens themselves. As air becomes condensed Anaximander's challenge to Thales head-on: all elements of the universe display the qualities of air determined that air is a god and that it comes to be and is without measure, infinite and always in motion

  7. Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation Project Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation Project Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project Evaluating, Developing, and Delivering Air Quality Characterization Data to Environmental Public Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Network. The EPA is developing routinely available air quality information

  8. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  9. AIR LECTURES HANDOUT 3 P Rhines 21 Feb 03 AIR: THE SMALL (AIR POLLUTION)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ coal smoke in winter (home heating) with clear air, radiational cooling stratifies air SMOG- warm of Science Technology and Environment ( www.pcd.go.th ). Site Location SO2 SO2 * NO2 NO2 * CO (1hr) CO (1hr small for this fluid cleaning mechanism to work. It is the smallest particles that can reach

  10. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

  11. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  12. AIR LEAKAGE OF NEWLY INSTALLED RESIDENTIAL WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidt, John

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tables 2.0.2a 2.0.2b PAGE Air Leakage Through Sash/FrameOperation Types . . . . . Air Leakage of Installed WindowsComparison of Window Types Air Leakage Performance of

  13. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Movement – Good or Bad? Indoor Air 14: 40-45. Toftum, J (Quality Survey. Indoor Air 14 (8): 65–74. Internationalon the Perception of Indoor Air Quality during Immediate and

  14. Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

    plant energy use. Furthermore, air compression is inefficient with up to 95% of compressor power dissipated as heat. Thus even minor improvements in system operation, control strategies, and efficiency can yield large energy savings and significant non-energy...

  15. Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the direction of the gravitation force in the horizontal iodine air filter are orthogonal, hence the effective accumulation of the small dispersive coal dust particles takes place at the bottom of absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter. It is found that the air dust aerosol stream flow in the horizontal iodine air filter is not limited by the appearing structures, made of the precipitated small dispersive coal dust particles, in distinction from the vertical iodine air filter, in the process of long term operation of the iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant.

  16. Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    9/14/12 1 Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health;9/14/12 2 Air Quality Engineering H Air Quality Engineering H #12;9/14/12 3 Really? Air pollution running out of coffins and florists were running out of flowers. -- BBC #12;9/14/12 4 Air pollution

  17. Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Iain S. Walker, Mike Lubliner, Darryl Dickerhoff,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers of California. #12;1 Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Iain S. Walker, LBNL Mike Lubliner, Washington been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air

  18. U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes four,796 new Second Lieutenants who entered active duty in the United States Air Force. Organization Air Force

  19. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide and lead are common air

  20. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  1. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  2. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, Katharine H. (13150 Wenonah SE. Apt. 727, Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  3. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  4. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domestic automobiles and trucks because of its proven success. This system requires approximately 4 hp (2. 983 kW)[3] for operation snd employs a pressurized fluorinated hydrocarbon (R-12), hereafter fluorocarbon, as a refrigerant. Most of the research... extraction and avoid the use of a fluorocarbon refrigerant. The maJority of work involved with the new units has associated itself in the area of utilizing an absorption cycle or air cycle. The absorption air conditioning unit differs significantly from...

  5. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of particle air filtration technologies." Indoor Air 12(4):2011a). New air cleaning technologies for reduced commercialnumber 2 Integrated technology air cleaner High efficiency

  6. Reference Inside KS1992 Tray Inside Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    Reference Inside KS1992 0.2 Tray Inside Air 0.5 Tray Inside Air 0.8 Tray Inside Air 0.2 Tray Side Wall Inner 0.2 Tray Side Wall Inner Under TAMP near sensor pos4 Under TAMP near sensor pos4 Air Gap Below TDIG pos1 Air Gap Below TDIG pos4 Air Gap Below TDIG pos6 HPTDC1 Chip pos6 HPTDC4 Chip pos6 HPTDC2

  7. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Shannon P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Debra C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Burgandy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coronado, Melissa A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dewart, Jean M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fuehne, David P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, Milan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Green, Andrew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lujan, Joan J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacDonell, Carolyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  8. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  9. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. GeometNovakov, T. : Formation of Pollution Particulate NitrogenGENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Dr. C. D. Hollowell, Dr. R.

  10. Stochastic Microenvironment Models for Air Pollution Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naihua Duan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    human exposure to air pollution." SIMS Technical Report No.human exposure to air pollution." Environment International.Annual Meeting of the A i r Pollution Control Association,

  11. Colorado Air Pollution Control Division - Construction Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Air Pollution Control Division - Construction Permits Forms and Air Pollutant Emission...

  12. Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  13. Kansas Air Quality Regulations (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All new air contaminant emission sources or alterations to emission sources that are required to be reported shall be in compliance with all applicable emission control regulations at the time that...

  14. Kansas Air Quality Act (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    No person shall construct, own, operate, install, alter or use any air contaminant emission stationary source which, in accordance with rules and regulations, the secretary finds may cause or...

  15. Missouri Air Conservation Law (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law's purpose is to maintain the purity of the air resources of the state to protect the health, general welfare and physical property of the people, maximum employment and the full industrial...

  16. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on a 3-ton residential air conditioner are then presented to intuitively understand the effect of expansion valve and evaporator fan cycling in a real system. A real time optimization method is explored and the feasibility, recommendations for a...

  17. Computer Room Fresh Air Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenger, J. D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the concept of a computer room fresh air cooling system with evaporative humidification. The system offers significantly lower energy consumption than conventional cooling units, with 24% reduction for Dallas and 56% reduction...

  18. Optimising the Fresh Air Economiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biship, R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , S., ?Economizers in Air Handling Systems?, CED Engineering Course M01-014, Stony Point New York, 2000. Moser, D., ?Free Cooling: Don?t Let Savings Slip Away?, Portland Energy Conservation Inc., published in Building Operating Management.... New Zealand, Standard NZS 4303:1990, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Standards Association of New Zealand, Wellington. Portland Energy Conservation Inc., from Functional Testing Guide on website: (http...

  19. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.

    2011-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  20. Architecture of the upper Sego Sandstone, Book Cliffs, Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkhead, Stanley Scott

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................................................... 22 SEDIMENTOLOGY.................................................................................................... 26 Marine Shale with Wavy Sandstones............................................................... 26 Highly... surfaces. The cross-section defines an 8.5 kilometer section that begins in Sego Canyon outside of Thompson Springs, Figure 12-Bedding diagram of major facies transitions with sedimentary logs overlain. SEDIMENTOLOGY Upper Sego Sandstone deposits can...

  1. Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 6. Participants and Affiliations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the Upper Snake Provincial Assessment Idaho Department of Fish and Game: Gregg Servheen Jon Beals Lance Chad Colter Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Larry Dickerson US Fish and Wildlife Service John Fred Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Jim Fredericks Idaho Fish and Game Dan Garren Idaho Fish and Game Lauri Hanauska-Brown Idaho Fish

  2. Simulating Sustainability: Conjunctive Land and Water Management in the Upper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Simulating Sustainability: Conjunctive Land and Water Management in the Upper Santa Cruz River Water Issue: Introduction and Context This research project addresses a chronic water management issue in Arizona: management and allocation of water supplies in areas undergoing rapid growth and land use changes

  3. METHANE SOURCES AND SINKS IN UPPER OCEAN WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Douglas S.

    METHANE SOURCES AND SINKS IN UPPER OCEAN WATERS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION the distribution of dissolved methane in ocean surface waters were investigated. Water column and sediment trap and Antarctic waters to the oliogotrophic ocean off Hawaii. The methane concentrations in most of the surface

  4. Transdichotomous algorithms without multiplication some upper and lower bounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodnik, Andrej "Andy"

    Trans­dichotomous algorithms without multiplication ­ some upper and lower bounds Andrej Brodnik 1 that on a RAM with addition, subtraction, bitwise Boolean operations and shifts, but no multiplication; 1g w of w­bit bit strings (or numbers between 0 and 2 w \\Gamma 1). An increasingly popular

  5. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  6. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  7. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  8. Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Global update 2005. Primary sources of air pollutants include combustion products from power generationIntroduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide Air pollution can be defined as "the presence effects to man and/or the environment". (DEFRA) "Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement

  9. Air UCI Summer Training Program in Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Air UCI Summer Training Program in Environmental Chemistry for Science Teachers I. July 11 ­ July · Lectures by AirUCI faculty · Lab tours of AirUCI laboratories · Follow-up for several years Distribution Models and predictions. Syllabus: Lectures Every AirUCI faculty member is actively involved

  10. Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 REACTIONS BETWEEN OZONE AND BUILDING PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 2118 REACTIONS BETWEEN OZONE AND BUILDING PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON PRIMARY of reactions of ozone on building products and on their emissions in indoor air. For this purpose, 12 building products were exposed to ozone in a dedicated experimental setup. The measured ozone removal rate

  11. BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons NOAA and CIRES here at CU went to the oil spill in an aircraft that was equipped with instruments to measure the air quality. 1/3 of the oil dissolved into the water column (methane completely, benzene and ethane almost completely) Showed

  12. Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    DS-06-1351 Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network Tomás dynamics of gasoline engines during transient operation. With a collection of input-output data measured;Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network I. INTRODUCTION

  13. Effect of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves on intake and digestion by sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves on intake and digestion by sheep H Abdouli-dried. The aim of the present study was to compare fresh to air-dried leaves for their intake, digestibility to the diets for the first 15 days and intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters were measured

  14. Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures Eric Abstract Global burning velocities of methane-air-steam mixtures are measured on prismatic laminar Bunsen flames and lifted turbulent V-flames for various preheating temperatures, equivalence ratios and steam

  15. AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS: 0 LBL-35700 AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. dwellings over the past decade; LBL has collect- ed the available data into its air leakage database. This report documents what is in that database and then uses that data to determine relevant leakage charac on to summarize the current measurements, it may be instructive to briefly review the history of fan

  16. Production and propagation of heavy hadrons in air-shower simulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Garcia Canal; J. I. Illana; M. Masip; S. J. Sciutto

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Very energetic charm and bottom hadrons may be produced in the upper atmosphere when a primary cosmic ray or the leading hadron in an extensive air shower collide with a nucleon. At $E\\approx 10^8$ GeV their decay length becomes of the order of 10 km, implying that they tend to interact in the air instead of decaying. Since the inelasticity in these collisions is much smaller than the one in proton and pion collisions, there could be rare events where a heavy-hadron component transports a significant amount of energy deep into the atmosphere. We have developed a module for the detailed simulation of these processes and have included it in a new version of the air shower simulator AIRES. We study the frequency, the energy distribution and the depth of charm and bottom production, as well as the depth and the energy distribution of these quarks when they decay. As an illustration, we consider the production and decay of tau leptons (from $D_s$ decays) and the lepton flux at PeV energies from a 30 EeV proton primary. The proper inclusion of charm and bottom hadrons in AIRES opens the possibility to search for air-shower observables that are sensitive to heavy quark effects.

  17. An application of a meteorological data assimilation system to an air quality simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, D.; Pai, P.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to calculate air pollutant exposure metrics for longer time periods, i.e., seasonal and annual, has generated a need to conduct long-term simulations using regional-scale Eulerian air quality models. Hourly-resolved meteorological and micro-meteorological fields for an entire year are required as input to the air quality models. In this paper, the authors describe the application of a meteorological data assimilation system to provide high-quality fields to drive a regional air quality model. The process of assimilation blends multiple data sources (large-scale gridded data, surface and upper air observations, satellite imagery, and radar data) into a unified atmospheric representation. The authors have used an assimilation system developed at the Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms at the University of Oklahoma. The modeling domain covers most of North America and 1995 was chosen as the simulation year. The data used in the assimilation include the NCAR/NCEP global reanalysis fields combined with North American surface and radiosonde data. The authors will describe modifications made to the assimilation system to enable estimation of a number of air-quality related quantities not normally calculated, such as Monin-Obhukov length and friction velocity. While the system supports a state-of-the-art three-dimensional cloud and hydrometeor field analysis based on background fields, surface observations, satellite, and radar; a simpler approach was developed in this study to estimate cloud fractional coverage based on the gridded relative humidity values.

  18. Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

  19. Mixed water phreatic dolomitization of Jurassic oolites in the Upper Smackover Member, East Texas Basin: petrologic and isotopic evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, Keith Douglas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extensively dolomitized. They comprise up to 702 of the rock in the upper and lowermost grainstone units. Ooids display a mean size between 250-500 u. Most ooids have a radial crystalline fabric. The radial fabric suggests that the ooids were composed... dolomitized sections and near the tops of the ooid grainstone 20 Distribution of depositional particles and their mean size and standard deviation. Standard deviation is a measure of sorting. Values are reported as percentage of total rock volume except...

  20. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    implications for indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations."concentrations of indoor nitrogen dioxide in Hamburg (westand concentrations of indoor nitrogen dioxide in Barcelona,

  1. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    etha nol tetra chl oroetha ne, 1,1,2,2- not a ppl i ca ble not a ppl i ca bl e C C/NC C C C C C NC C C hi gh hi gh hi

  2. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, J.V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secretary for Conservation and Solar Energy of the U.S.Secretary for Conservation and Solar Energy of the U.S.

  3. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference & Exhibition Healthy Buildings 2009, Syracuse, NYConference & Exhibition Healthy Buildings 2009, Syracuse, NYproceedings from the 2009 Healthy Building Conference held

  4. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collection Methods, Health Effects Institute, Mickely LelandMatter Species, Health Effects Institute:HEI 130 Pt 2

  5. Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (botOpen6Kentwood,GeorgeKlimaschutz e V Jump

  6. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratorySpeedingOptimizingTools Software and Tools Chos ChosPETSc PETScPFT

  7. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  8. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zénó Farkas

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  9. Air Pollution 7.1 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    CHAPTER 7 Air Pollution 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 OVERVIEW OF EMISSIONS 7.3 THE CLEAN AIR ACT 7.4 THE POLLUTANT STANDARDS INDEX 7.5 CRITERIA POLLUTANTS 7.6 TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS 7.7 AIR POLLUTION IN THE WORLD'S MEGACITIES 7.8 MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS 7.9 STATIONARY SOURCES 7.10 AIR POLLUTION AND METEOROLOGY 7

  10. Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model of a room in which whole-field supply air mixing maps of two vertical planes were measured using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent dye was used to simulate the supply airflow; and the resulting concentrations within the water filled model show how the supply air mixes with the room air and are an analog for temperature (for thermal loads) or fresh air (for ventilation). In addition to performing experiments over a range of flow rates, we also changed register locations and examined the effects for both heating and cooling operation by changing the water density (simulating air density changes due to temperature changes) using dissolved salt.

  11. Impact of Uncertainties in Hadron Production on Air-Shower Predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pierog; R. Engel; D. Heck

    2006-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    At high energy, cosmic rays can only be studied by measuring the extensive air showers they produce in the atmosphere of the Earth. Although the main features of air showers can be understood within a simple model of successive interactions, detailed simulations and a realistic description of particle production are needed to calculate observables relevant to air shower experiments. Currently hadronic interaction models are the main source of uncertainty of such simulations. We will study the effect of using different hadronic models available in CORSIKA and CONEX on extensive air shower predictions.

  12. Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.

    2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicle air-conditioning can significantly impact fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of conventional and hybrid electric vehicles and reduce electric vehicle range. In addition, a new US emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure, has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the US. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. Current air-conditioning systems can reduce the fuel economy of high fuel-economy vehicles by about 50% and reduce the fuel economy of today's mid-sized vehicles by more than 20% while increasing NOx by nearly 80% and CO by 70%.

  13. AIRS Version 6 Release Level 2 Product User Guide AIRS/AMSU/HSB Version 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    AIRS Version 6 Release Level 2 Product User Guide Page 1 AIRS/AMSU/HSB Version 6 Level 2 Product Questions to: http://airs.jpl.nasa.gov/AskAirs #12;AIRS Version 6 Release Level 2 Product User Guide Page 2............................................................................................. 7 1.1 EXAMPLE: LEVEL 2 PHYSICAL RETRIEVAL PRODUCT FILE NAMES

  14. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven Unitary  Air?Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment”.  Air Conditioning &  Air?source Heat Pump Equipment.  Air?apply to the air handlers of heat pumps and electric 

  15. Hadron Production at Fixed Target Energies and Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Unger; for the NA61/SHINE Collaboration

    2010-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    NA61/SHINE is a fixed-target experiment to study hadron production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS. Due to the very good acceptance and particle identification in forward direction, NA61/SHINE is well suited for measuring particle production to improve the reliability of air shower simulations. Data with proton and pion beams have been taken in 2007 and 2009. First analysis results for the pion yield in proton-carbon interactions at 31 GeV will be shown and compared to predictions from models used in air shower simulations.

  16. Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    leadership in the demanding environment of Joint operations -Meet medical standards for Ground Based Control as an ALO. Joint Air Operations Command and Control Course: The JAOC2C will provide the 13L ALO an overview, Ranger School, the Joint Operational Fires and Effects Course, and others. initiAL trAining AdvAnced tr

  17. An Assessment of Air Service Accessibility in U.S. Metropolitan Regions, 2007-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wittman, M.D.

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional accessibility to air transportation is often of interest to airport executives, politicians, and the general public due to the positive economic impacts of frequent commercial airline service. However, measuring ...

  18. Technical Data Sheet: TDS 15 DIFRAM100: RAPID AIR MONITOR -NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Technical Data Sheet: TDS 15 DIFRAM100: RAPID AIR MONITOR - NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2). Description: A plastic (H.D.P.E.) circular diffusive sampler containing a sorbent for measuring gaseous nitrogen dioxide

  19. Laser Sheet Light Flow Visualization For Evaluating Room Air Flows From

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-56483 Laser Sheet Light Flow Visualization For Evaluating Room Air Flows From Registers Iain S using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent

  20. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based on System Audit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy efficiency goals and adopt energy conservation measures. Application of the types of compressed air best practicesEnergy Efficiency and Market Potential of Electric Motor System in China. China Machine Pressu re, [4] Best Practices

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - air void structure Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the coherent structures below trough level e.g., Cox and Anderson 2001 where the air entrainment is lower... Laboratory Measurements of Void Fraction and Turbulence in the...

  2. EIS-0408: Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Programmatic EIS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS, being prepared jointly by DOE's Western Area Power Administration and the Department of the Interior’s Fish and Wildlife Service, will evaluate the environmental impacts of wind energy development in Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota – Western’s Upper Great Plains customer service region. Western will use the EIS to implement a comprehensive regional program to manage interconnection requests for wind energy projects.

  3. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  4. Review: Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joseph

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China Mun S. Ho andEconomic Damages of Air Pollution in China. Cambridge, MA:the assessment of air pollution and its health and economic

  5. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions 7.3 Impacts of LNG on Air Quality 8. References 9.El Paso at Blythe. Chapter 3: Air Quality Impact AssessmentRespect to the South Coast Air Quality Management District

  6. Review: Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joseph

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the assessment of air pollution and its health and economiclargest source of health damages of air pollution in China,to air pollution, and the economic evaluations of health

  7. Filtered Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for multi-parameter thermal-fluids measurements : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Grasser, Thomas W.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Schefer, Robert W.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation-based life-cycle-engineering and the ASCI program have resulted in models of unprecedented size and fidelity. The validation of these models requires high-resolution, multi-parameter diagnostics. Within the thermal-fluids disciplines, the need for detailed, high-fidelity measurements exceeds the limits of current engineering sciences capabilities and severely tests the state of the art. The focus of this LDRD is the development and application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for high-resolution, nonintrusive measurement of gas-phase velocity and temperature. With FRS, the flow is laser-illuminated and Rayleigh scattering from naturally occurring sources is detected through a molecular filter. The filtered transmission may be interpreted to yield point or planar measurements of three-component velocities and/or thermodynamic state. Different experimental configurations may be employed to obtain compromises between spatial resolution, time resolution, and the quantity of simultaneously measured flow variables. In this report, we present the results of a three-year LDRD-funded effort to develop FRS combustion thermometry and Aerosciences velocity measurement systems. The working principles and details of our FRS opto-electronic system are presented in detail. For combustion thermometry we present 2-D, spatially correlated FRS results from nonsooting premixed and diffusion flames and from a sooting premixed flame. The FRS-measured temperatures are accurate to within {+-}50 K (3%) in a premixed CH4-air flame and within {+-}100 K for a vortex-strained diluted CH4-air diffusion flame where the FRS technique is severely tested by large variation in scattering cross section. In the diffusion flame work, FRS has been combined with Raman imaging of the CH4 fuel molecule to correct for the local light scattering properties of the combustion gases. To our knowledge, this is the first extension of FRS to nonpremixed combustion and the first use of joint FRS-Raman imaging. FRS has been applied to a sooting C2H4-air flame and combined with LII to assess the upper sooting limit where FRS may be utilized. The results from this sooting flame show FRS temperatures has potential for quantitative temperature imaging for soot volume fractions of order 0.1 ppm. FRS velocity measurements have been performed in a Mach 3.7 overexpanded nitrogen jet. The FRS results are in good agreement with expected velocities as predicted by inviscid analysis of the jet flowfield. We have constructed a second FRS opto-electronic system for measurements at Sandia's hypersonic wind tunnel. The details of this second FRS system are provided here. This facility is currently being used for velocity characterization of these production hypersonic facilities.

  8. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  9. Indoor air pollution in rural China: Cooking fuels, stoves, and health status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peabody, J.W.; Riddell, T.J.; Smith, K.R.; Liu, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.Y.; Gong, J.H.; Milet, M.; Sinton, J.E. [Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in less developed countries the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. The authors conducted a large cross-sectional study of rural Chinese households to determine associations between individual health status and domestic cooking as a source of indoor air pollution. The study included measures of health status as well as measures of indoor air-pollution sources, such as solid cooking fuels and cooking stoves. Compared with other fuel types, coal was associated with a lower health status, including negative impacts on exhaled carbon monoxide level, forced vital capacity, lifetime prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and health care utilization. Decreasing household coal use, increasing use of improved stove technology, and increasing kitchen ventilation may decrease the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution.

  10. Muon production in extensive air showers and its relation to hadronic interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Meurer; J. Bluemer; R. Engel; A. Haungs; M. Roth

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the relation between muon production in extensive air showers and features of hadronic multiparticle production at low energies is studied. Using CORSIKA, we determine typical energies and phase space regions of secondary particles which are important for muon production in extensive air showers and confront the results with existing fixed target measurements. Furthermore possibilities to measure relevant quantities of hadron production in existing and planned accelerator experiments are discussed.

  11. I) EXAS AIR CONTROL BLAR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I) EXAS AIR CONTROL BLAR 6330 HWY. 290 EAST, AUSTIN, TEXAS 78723, 512451-5711 DICK WHmINGTON, P.E. JOHN L. BLAIR CHAIRMAN MARCUS M. KEY, M.D. CALVIN 8. PARNELL, JR., Ph.D., P.E....

  12. Micromachinable Leaky Wave Air Transducers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

    reflection coefficient can also in a thin plate as a meam of efficient coupling of ultrasonic energy to air of the ultrasonic energy is a function of the elastic properties of the plate andmost dominantly determinedby lowerleak rates as compared to silicon and aluminum. Since these thin dates aremuch easier to fabricate wine

  13. Air Quality Conformity Trip Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    Management Districts (AQMDs) and Air Pollution Control Districts (APCDs) #12;Source: http standards #12;PROBLEM #12;http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2008/graphics/Figure3.gif Progress! #12;http_graph.html #12;http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2008/graphics/HighlightsNumber.gif Number of people living in non

  14. Lead reduction in ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.; Kiehn, O.A.; Wilburn, D.R.; Bowyer, R.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bureau of Mines evaluated the emission control methods, including the capital investments and operating cost, necessary for further reducing lead levels in ambient air at the Glover, Herculaneum, and Buick smelter-refineries in Missouri and the East Helena, MT, smelter. This report presents theoretically achievable lead emission reductions and estimated capital and operating costs.

  15. Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, R.L.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger is described which includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications. 3 figures.

  16. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2010 Viscosity Measurement of Troublesome Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Fluids Overview Air Products completes many batches of a variety of different fluids every year takes Air Products 2-3 hours to obtain a viscosity measurement. The goal of this project is to design a process that will shorten the time it takes Air Products to obtain a viscosity measurement, without

  17. CATEE: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillman, S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and musts often resort to drugs to alleviate symptoms. • Research shows that people spend over 50% of their time at home indoors. • Consumer awareness of IAQ is growing Why IAQ Matters © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc Sources: EPA, State of the Air... • Household cleaners © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc ESL-KT-14-11-27 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Current Filtration Systems © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc • The increased need for indoor air quality...

  18. Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wang, P. [Beijing Sciample Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - air-to-air heat pumps Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions... data on the seasonal performance of air-to-air residential heat pump systems. The purpose of this paper... of operation 10, 197778, the Control House ......

  20. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  1. THE FALLACY OF UPPER SNAKE FLOW AUGMENTATION THERE IS NO NEED TO DRAIN IDAHO FOR SALMON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX 1 THE FALLACY OF UPPER SNAKE FLOW AUGMENTATION THERE IS NO NEED TO DRAIN IDAHO FOR SALMON.......................................................................................................................... 7 Historical Stream Flow Records........................................................................................................ 13 Fish Survival and Upper Snake Flow Augmentation

  2. Cognitive Issues in Upper-Division Electricity & Magnetism Steven J. Pollock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    interventions ­at the upper division. Keywords: physics education research, course reform, electricityCognitive Issues in Upper-Division Electricity & Magnetism Steven J. Pollock and Stephanie V. Chasteen* * Science Education Initiative, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA Department

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - amputated upper limb Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    daily tasks 7-9. Currently, rotation of upper-limb prostheses... of a small permanent magnet into the distal residual bone of an upper-limb amputee 9. The magnet...

  4. Upper Adjoints for Fast Interprocedural Variable Markus MullerOlm 1 and Helmut Seidl 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller-Olm, Markus

    Upper Adjoints for Fast Inter­procedural Variable Equalities Markus MË?uller­Olm 1 and Helmut Seidl

  5. B.Jhne and E. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water GasTransfer, 1995 by AEON Verlag I Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    W. K. Melville E. Terrill L. Ding Field Measurements of Air Entrainment by Breaking Waves D. FarmerB.Jähne and E. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water GasTransfer, © 1995 by AEON Verlag I Physical and Chemical Mechanisms B. Jähne Impact of Quantitative Visualization and Image Processing on the Study of Small-Scale Air

  6. Evolution of US air cargo productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donatelli, David J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis provides an overview of the US air cargo industry since airline deregulation in 1978, including a brief overview of the historical evolution of air cargo transport in the US from the early 1900s until the late ...

  7. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  8. Air America: Upholding the Airmen's Bond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilgard, Michael P.

    . Ed Adams, Air America, Conducted rescue operations in Laos and South Vietnam Mr. Marius Burke, Air America, Conducted rescue operations in Laos and South Vietnam Mr. Robert Grealy, CIA, Retired Senior

  9. Master Control of Multiple Air Compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petzold, M. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single master air pressure controller for several machines can reduce air pressure variation by having a single set-point for all machines. This master control when coupled to a sequencing control package allows positively loading the combination...

  10. Chapter 53 Ambient Air Quality (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation Chapter 53, entitled Ambient Air Quality, is promulgated under the authority of the Division of Air Quality within the Energy and Environment Cabinet’s Department...

  11. Clean Air Act of Montana (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Clean Air Act of Montana is to achieve and maintain levels of air quality to "protect human health and safety and, to the greatest degree practicable, prevent injury to plant and...

  12. Ambient Air Quality Criteria (Manitoba, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Manitoba Ambient Air Quality Criteria schedule lists maximum time-based pollutant concentration levels for the protection and preservation of ambient air quality within the Province of Manitoba...

  13. General Provisions on Air Pollution Control (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency outlines the air pollution rules to secure and maintain levels of air quality that are consistent with the...

  14. 2012 National Tribal Forum on Air Quality

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) and the National Tribal Air Association (NTAA) would like to invite you to attend their joint air quality conference, the National Tribal...

  15. A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravenstreter, T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -dryer Systems Division, has marketed industrial drying machinery. These heat reactivated dryers can handle latent loads in industrial air conditioning systems. Through waste heat conservation, air conditioning costs can be reduced 25 to 50%, with applications...

  16. Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This training is designed to help end users as well as industry solution providers learn...

  17. EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

  18. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanneschlager, R. E.

    Congress is currently debating amendments to the Clean Air Act which would strengthen and enhance the current Clean Air Act. The bill would guarantee a reduction of 10 million tons of sulfur dioxide from 1980 levels; would sharply reduce pollutants...

  19. Air Sealing Your Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for air leaks in common trouble spots in your home. What does this mean for me? Save money and energy by air sealing your house. Caulking and weatherstripping are simple,...

  20. Arkansas Air Pollution Control Code (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arkansas Air Pollution Control code is adopted pursuant to Subchapter 2 of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-4-101). ) By authority of the same State...

  1. Georgia Air Quality Control Act (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Air Quality Control Act (AQCA) is a set of environmental regulations, permitting requirements, and air quality standards that control the amount of pollutants emitted and who emits them...

  2. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the walls, floors, and ceilings; it carries the air from your home's furnace and central air conditioner to each room. Ducts are made of sheet metal, fiberglass, or other...

  3. Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the directi...

  4. SECTION 34 Table of Contents 34 Upper Columbia Management Plan..............................................................2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and formation of the Subbasin Work Teams and the process used to develop and adopt the management plan can34-1 SECTION 34 ­ Table of Contents 34 Upper Columbia Management Plan .........................................................................25 #12;34-2 34 Upper Columbia Management Plan The Upper Columbia Subbasin Management Plan

  5. Upper Digestive Disorders Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee 02/2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    Upper Digestive Disorders Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee 02/2012 Revised 02/08/12 Page 1 of 2 Upper Digestive Tract Anatomy Esophagus: A long muscular tube in the chest area occurs in the duodenum. Upper Digestive Disorders Reflux with Esophagitis: The flowing back (or reflux

  6. Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Zhongping

    Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters in the upper ocean, the vertical distribution of solar radiation (ESR) in the shortwave domain plays (2005), Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal

  7. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

  8. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Baseline Efficient Air Conditioners . . . . . . 28 AverageEfficient Air Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Btu/h Commercial Air Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  9. Air Pollution Issues of the 1990's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, J. C.

    of 1990 will contain. However, many political and economic battles remain to be fought. Currently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that more than $30 billion a year is being spent to control air pollution in this country (1... or simply air toxics. Like ambient ozone nonattainment, air toxics exemplify the pollution problems of the 1990's. Toxic air emissions often occur in tiny amounts compared to criteria pollutants. The causes and effects can vary dramatically from city...

  10. Compressed Air Energy Storage for Offshore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry Y. Li; Eric Loth; Terrence W. Simon; James D. Van De Ven; Stephen E. Crane

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transmitting peak power levels. A solution to these issues is a novel high-efficiency compressed air energy

  11. FAA Air Traffic Organization Safety Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Mark DeNicuolo, Manager Performance and Analyses Air Traffic Organization Safety and Technical Training Federal Aviation Administration

  12. Climate Change, the Clean Air Act, and Industrial Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaswan, Alice

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Act, and Industrial Pollution Professor Alice Kaswan* I.a. Existing Air Pollution. . b. Do Climate Policieson Cli- mate Change, Pollution, and the Clean Air Act." I

  13. air bag parameter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  14. Air movement as an energy efficient means toward occupant comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Pasut, Wilmer; Zhai, Yongchao; Hoyt, Tyler; Huang, Li

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. and E. Arens E. 1993. Air movement and thermal comfort.1994. Locally controlled air movement preferred in warmR, Bittencourt L. 2010. Air movement acceptability limits

  15. Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Webinar. Presentation More Documents & Publications...

  16. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field Evaluation of Cold Air Distribution Systems. EPRIand J.S. Elleson. 1988. Cold Air Distribution Design Guide.Field Evaluation of a Cold Air Distribution System. EPRI

  17. V-090: Adobe Flash Player / AIR Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0: Adobe Flash Player AIR Multiple Vulnerabilities V-090: Adobe Flash Player AIR Multiple Vulnerabilities February 13, 2013 - 12:14am Addthis PROBLEM: Adobe Flash Player AIR...

  18. Local air pollutants threaten Lake Tahoe’s clarity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AS (eds. ). Effects of Air Pollution on Western Forests.Air Waste Management Assoc, Transactions Ser No 16, p 279-and support. (California Air Resources Board) for their

  19. HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    their air sealing practices to reduce the amount of air leaking at ducts and duct boots, testing showed that distribution systems still leaked at air handlers and furnace...

  20. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air conditioning unit in place in a window frame. Window air conditioners are inexpensive,...