National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for upland surface soil

  1. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and

  2. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505)...

  3. EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riha, B

    2005-10-31

    The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a full-scale implementation. The SVE well, monitoring point arrays and four fracturing wells were installed and the well testing has been completed. Four fractures were successfully created the week of July 25, 2005. The fractures were created in an open area at the bottom of steel well casing by using a water jet to create a notch in the soil and then injecting a guar-sand slurry into the formation. The sand-filled fractures increase the effective air permeability of the subsurface formation diffusion path lengths for contaminant removal. The primary metrics for evaluation were an increase in SVE flow rates in the zone of contamination and an increase in the zone of influence. Sufficient testing has been performed to show that fracturing in the Upland Unit accelerates SVE solvent remediation and fracturing can increase flow rates in the Upland Unit by at least one order of magnitude.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation External Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs...

  5. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar ...

  6. Soils Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Soils Soil Series and Phase D Fa D LaB TrB D TrC VeC .Wm '" Vegetation Compartment 28 Community D Mixed PineHardwood D Upland Hardwod D Bottomland Hardwood Water D Sandhill...

  7. Geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.L; Rogers, V.A.; Conner, S.P.; Cummings, C.L.; Gladden, J.B.; Weber, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, is a nuclear production facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). To facilitate future human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies for its wetland areas, SRS needs a database of background geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils. These data are needed for comparison to data collected from wetland soils that may have been affected by SRS operations. SRS contains 36,000 acres of wetlands and an additional 5,000 acres of bottom land soils subject to flooding. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste units at SRS show that some wetlands have been impacted by releases of contaminants resulting from SRS operations (WSRC, 1992). Waste waters originating from the operations facilities typically have been discharged into seepage basins located in upland soils, direct discharge of waste water to wetland areas has been minimal. This suggests that impacted wetland areas have been affected indirectly as a result of transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, groundwater seeps, fluvial or sediment transport, and leaching. Looney et al. (1990) conducted a study to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of upland soils and shallow sediments on the SRS. A primary objective of the upland study was to collect the data needed to assess the qualitative and quantitative impacts of SRS operations on the environment. By comparing the upland soils data to data collected from waste units located in similar soils, SRS impacts could be assessed. The data were also intended to aid in selection of remediation alternatives. Because waste units at SRS have historically been located in upland areas, wetland soils were not sampled. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Variations in clay mineralogy and sediment texture of salt marsh soils on the Eastern Shore of Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, S.E.; Furman, T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    On the Eastern Shore of VA, relative sea level rise has resulted in encroachment of marsh onto upland areas. The amount and type of sediment determines the morphologic environment of the system: lagoon, mudflat, low marsh, high marsh or upland. This research is part of a study to examine the relationship between marsh soil characteristics and the production of Spartina alterniflora. The productivity of marsh vegetation depends on the import and entrapment of sediments that maintain marsh elevation and control water and nutrient availability. This work focused on distribution patterns of sediment texture and mineralogy. One meter deep cores were taken at marsh sites with 10 cm intervals homogenized for analysis. In order to distinguish potential sediment sources, samples were also taken from upland soil pits on the mainland and dredged one-half mile seaward of the barrier islands. Samples have undergone size analysis with a hydrometer and the clay fraction has been analyzed by XRD. Results from the marsh surface indicate large variations in sediment texture, but only slight differences in clay mineralogy between marshes. Barrier island marshes contain a higher average sand content than mainland marshes because of their closer proximity to barrier island beaches and inputs from overwash deposits. The clay minerals found in all marsh surface deposits are illite and chlorite, indicative of oceanic clays. The clay mineralogy of upland soils (kaolinite, chlorite, illite, vermiculite mixed-layer clay) differs from marsh surface clays, indicating that recent sediment deposited on the marsh surface is no upland soil but rather material brought in through tidal inlets. The sediment texture and clay mineralogy at different depths varies as a function of the past geomorphic and depositional history of the site. These data will be used to determine the timing of marsh development on flooded upland sites and to determine the pre-Holocene source of inorganic sediment inputs.

  9. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1990-08-01

    Protective barriers have been identified as integral components of plans to isolate defense waste on the Hanford Site. The use of natural materials to construct protective barriers over waste site is being considered. Design requirements for protective barriers include preventing exposure of buried waste, and restricting penetration or percolation of surface waters through the waste zone. Studies were initiated to evaluate the effects of wind erosion on candidate protective barrier surfaces. A wind tunnel was used to provide controlled erosive stresses and to investigate the erosive effects of wind forces on proposed surface layers for protective barriers. Mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared and tested for resistance to wind erosion at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Aerosol Wind Tunnel Research Facility. These tests were performed to investigate surface deflation caused by suspension of soil from various surface layer configurations and to provide a comparison of the relative resistance of the different surfaces to wind erosion. Planning, testing, and analyzing phases of this wind erosion project were coordinated with other tasks supporting the development of protective barriers. These tasks include climate-change predictions, field studies and modeling efforts. This report provides results of measurements of deflation caused by wind forces over level surfaces. Section 2.0 reviews surface layer characteristics and previous relevant studies on wind erosion, describes effects of erosion, and discusses wind tunnel modeling. Materials and methods of the wind tunnel tests are discussed in Section 3.0. Results and discussion are presented in Section 4.0, and conclusions and recommendations Section 5.0. 53 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the

  11. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, Peter; Button, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen

    2015-06-14

    The goals of the project were: Determine applicability of transmission line method (TLM) to evaluate sheet resistance of soils on module glass;
    Evaluate various soils on glass for changes in surface resistance and their ability to promote potential-induced degradation with humidity (PID);
    Evaluate PID characteristics, rate, and leakage current increases on full-size mc-Si modules associated with a conductive soil on the surface.

  12. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: ... Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for ... of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 ...

  13. The use of plants to enhance microbial degradation of de-icing agents in soil and surface water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.J.; Coats, J.R.; Anderson, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant quantities of ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) enter the environment through de-icing of aircraft, spills, and improper disposal of used antifreeze. An estimated 80% of the de-icing fluids spill onto the ground, which may lead to the contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater. EG and PG contamination of surface waters creates a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) that can adversely impact aquatic communities. Plants and rhizosphere soils have been shown to enhance the degradation of organic pollutants in the soil. The research investigates the use of vegetation to enhance the transformation of EG and PG in soil by studying the fate of these chemicals in nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils at three temperatures ({minus}10 C, 0 C, 20 C). Terrestrial and aquatic emergent plants were evaluated as a cost-effective and aesthetically pleasing way to remediate and restore soil and surface waters contaminated with chemical de-icing agents. Additional surface runoff and vegetated undisturbed soil column studies were used to determine the influence of vegetation on the prevention of offsite movement by surface runoff and infiltration. Enhanced degradation of EG occurred in all the rhizosphere soils in comparison to the nonrhizosphere and autoclaved soils. After 28 days at 0 C, 40%, 41%, and 18% of applied EG degraded to CO{sub 2} in the Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) rhizosphere soil, and nonrhizosphere soil, respectively.

  14. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-03-15

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  15. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  16. Experimental observation of signature changes in bulk soil electrical conductivity in response to engineered surface CO2 leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou X.; Wielopolski L.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Apple, M.; Dobeck, L. M.; Gullickson, K.; Shaw, J. A.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L. H.

    2012-03-01

    Experimental observations of signature changes of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC) due to CO{sub 2} leakage were carried out at a field site at Bozeman, Montana, to investigate the change of soil geophysical properties in response to possible leakage of geologically sequestered CO{sub 2}. The dynamic evolution of bulk soil EC was measured during an engineered surface leakage of CO{sub 2} through in situ continuous monitoring of bulk soil EC, soil moisture, soil temperature, rainfall rate, and soil CO{sub 2} concentration to investigate the response of soil bulk EC signature to CO{sub 2} leakage. Observations show that: (1) high soil CO{sub 2} concentration due to CO{sub 2} leakage enhances the dependence of bulk soil EC on soil moisture. The bulk soil EC is a linear multivariate function of soil moisture and soil temperature, the coefficient for soil moisture increased from 2.111 dS for the non-leaking phase to 4.589 dS for the CO{sub 2} leaking phase; and the coefficient for temperature increased from 0.003 dS/C for the non-leaking phase to 0.008 dS/C for the CO{sub 2} leaking phase. The dependence of bulk soil EC on soil temperature is generally weak, but leaked CO{sub 2} enhances the dependence, (2) after the CO{sub 2} release, the relationship between soil bulk EC and soil CO{sub 2} concentration observes three distinct CO{sub 2} decay modes. Rainfall events result in sudden changes of soil moisture and are believed to be the driving forcing for these decay modes, and (3) within each mode, increasing soil CO{sub 2} concentration results in higher bulk soil EC. Comparing the first 2 decay modes, it is found that the dependence of soil EC on soil CO{sub 2} concentration is weaker for the first decay mode than the second decay mode.

  17. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

    1997-10-28

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

  18. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.

    1997-01-01

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

  19. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  20. Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W J

    1996-05-01

    Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind`s interactions with a building`s superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport.

  1. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spartaru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-12-03

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 order of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  2. Diurnal activity of soil surface arthropods in agroecosystems: design for an inexpensive time-sorting pitfall trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, A.Y.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The design for an inexpensive time-sorting pitfall trap is presented. The basis of the mechanism is a rotary stepping solenoid powered by lantern batteries. Traps were utilized to sample soil surface arthropods at two hour intervals for five 24 hr periods in 1983. One trap each was placed in conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) agroecosystems. Soil arthropod surface activity was greatest in CT on 9 July during the dawn and dusk periods but the data did not indicate other dominant trends. Activity in NT was greatest during dusk on 27 June, but again no other dominant trends were evident. When CT and NT are combined over the sample dates, surface soil arthropod activity peaked during dusk, with a smaller activity peak at dawn. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several tropical forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Koven, C. D.

    2015-03-05

    Soil is a complex system where biotic (e.g., plant roots, micro-organisms) and abiotic (e.g., mineral surfaces) consumers compete for resources necessary for life (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus). This competition is ecologically significant, since it regulates the dynamics of soil nutrients and controls aboveground plant productivity. Here we develop, calibrate, and test a nutrient competition model that accounts for multiple soil nutrients interacting with multiple biotic and abiotic consumers. As applied here for tropical forests, the Nutrient COMpetition model (N-COM) includes three primary soil nutrients (NH4+, NO3?, and POx (representing the sum of PO43?, HPO42?, and H2PO4?)) and five potential competitors (plantmoreroots, decomposing microbes, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and mineral surfaces). The competition is formulated with a quasi-steady-state chemical equilibrium approximation to account for substrate (multiple substrates share one consumer) and consumer (multiple consumers compete for one substrate) effects. N-COM successfully reproduced observed soil heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions, free phosphorus, sorbed phosphorus, and free NH4+ at a tropical forest site (Tapajos). The overall model posterior uncertainty was moderately well constrained. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that soil nutrient competition was primarily regulated by consumer-substrate affinity rather than environmental factors such as soil temperature or soil moisture. Our results imply that the competitiveness (from most to least competitive) followed this order: (1) for NH4+, nitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (2) for NO3?, denitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (3) for POx, mineral surfaces > decomposing microbes ~ plant roots. Although smaller, plant relative competitiveness is of the same order of magnitude as microbes. We then applied the N-COM model to analyze field nitrogen and phosphorus perturbation experiments in two tropical forest sites (in Hawaii and Puerto Rico) not used in model development or calibration. Under soil inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus elevated conditions, the model accurately replicated the experimentally observed competition among different nutrient consumers. Although we used as many observations as we could obtain, more nutrient addition experiments in tropical systems would greatly benefit model testing and calibration. In summary, the N-COM model provides an ecologically consistent representation of nutrient competition appropriate for land BGC models integrated in Earth System Models.less

  4. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. CO2 and CH4 Surface Flux, Soil Profile Concentrations, and Stable Isotope Composition, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Curtis, J.B.; Vaughn, L.S.; Torn, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Chafe, O.; Bill, M.

    2015-12-31

    In August-October 2012 and June-October 2013, co-located measurements were made of surface CH4 and CO2 flux, soil pore space concentrations and stable isotope compositions of CH4 and CO2, and subsurface temperature and soil moisture. Measurements were made in intensive study site 1 areas A, B, and C, and from the site 0 and AB transects, from high-centered, flat-centered, and low-centered polygons, from the center, edge, and trough of each polygon.

  6. Surface radiation survey and soil sampling of the 300-FF-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, southeastern Washington: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teel, S.S.; Olsen, K.B.

    1990-10-01

    The methods used for conducting a radiological characterization of the soil surface for the Phase I Remedial Investigation of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site is presented via a case study. The study site is an operable unit (300-FF-1) located in and adjacent to the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operable unit contains liquid and solid waste disposal facilities associated with nuclear fuels fabrication. Continuous surface radiation surveying and soil sampling of selected locations were conducted. Contamination was found in several locations within the operable unit including areas near the liquid and solid waste disposal facilities. Instruments used during surveying included portable beta/gamma (P-11) detectors, and the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System using an NaI (Tl) detector. Laboratory analyses results indicate that above-background radiation levels were primarily due to the presence of uranium. Both types of field instruments used in the study were effective in detecting surface contamination from radionuclides; however, each had specific advantages. Guidelines are presented for the optimum use of these instruments when performing a radiological characterization of the soil surface. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Soils Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D Upland Hardwood D Bonomland Hardwood iiiI Bonomland HardwoodlPine N Streams * TES Plants (1) D TES Plants (2) U Monitoring Wells o SRS Bays 6 Utili1y ROW . Openwells...

  8. Resolving Carbon's Rainbow from Uplands to the Deep-sea | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolving Carbon's Rainbow from Uplands to the Deep-sea Event Sponsor: Environmental Science Division Seminar Start Date: Sep 17 2015 - 11:00am BuildingRoom: Building 240Room...

  9. ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range...

  10. Artificial Soiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Artificial Soiling of Photovoltaic Module Surfaces using Traceable Soil Components Patrick D. Burton and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque NM 87185 USA Email: pdburto@sandia.gov Abstract-Effective evaluation and prediction of photovoltaic performance loss due to soiling requires consistent test methods. Natural grime accumulation is time-consuming and location- specific, and thus does not provide reproducible results across different geographic regions. Therefore, we have

  11. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, T.A. ); Walton, B.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  12. Riparian and Upland Restoration at the U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site - 12360

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2012-07-01

    Remedial investigation and cleanup at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site was completed in 2005. Uplands, riparian, and wetland habitat were disturbed during cleanup and closure activities and required extensive revegetation. Unavoidable disturbances to habitat of the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (a federally listed species) and wetlands required consultation with regulatory agencies and mitigation. Mitigation wetlands were constructed in two drainages, and a third developed naturally where a soil borrow area intercepted the groundwater table. During the 50-plus years of site operations, 12 ponds were constructed in three drainages to manage and retain runoff and sewage treatment plant discharges prior to release off site. A batch-release protocol has been used for the past several decades at the terminal ponds, which has affected the riparian communities downstream. To return the hydrologic regime to a more natural flow-through system similar to the pre-industrial-use conditions, seven interior dams (of 12) have been breached, and the remaining five dams are scheduled for breaching between 2011 and 2020. At the breached dams, the former open water areas have transformed to emergent wetlands, and the stream reaches have returned to a flow-through system. Riparian and wetland vegetation has established very well. The valves of the terminal ponds were opened in fall 2011 to begin flow-through operations and provide water to the downstream plant communities while allowing reestablishment of vegetation in the former pond bottoms prior to breaching. A number of challenges and issues were addressed during the revegetation effort. These included reaching an agreement on revegetation goals, addressing poor substrate quality and soil compaction problems, using soil amendments and topsoil, selecting seeds, determining the timing and location of revegetation projects relative to continuing closure activities, weed control, erosion control, revegetation project field oversight, and contractual limitations. A variety of ecological restoration techniques were conducted at the site to meet these challenges. These efforts have resulted in vegetation becoming well established in most locations. (author)

  13. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. > BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. > Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. > At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. > The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  14. ARM - Instrument - soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Soil Measurement from the SGP (SOIL) Instrument Categories SurfaceSubsurface Properties...

  15. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  16. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R.; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C.

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 2030% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  17. THE RESILIENCE OF UPLAND-OAK FOREST CANOPY TREES TO CHRONIC AND ACUTE PRECIPITATION MANIPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Paul J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Todd Jr, Donald E; Auge, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Implications of chronic ( 33 percent) and acute (-100 percent) precipitation change were evaluated for trees of upland-oak forests of the eastern United States. Chronic manipulations have been conducted since 1993, and acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were initiated in 2003. Through 12 years of chronic manipulations tree growth remained unaffected by natural or induced rainfall deficits even though severe drought conditions dramatically reduced canopy function in some years. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between tree growth phenology and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited growth reductions from 2003 through 2005. Elimination of lateral root water sources for the acute treatment trees, via trenching midway through the 2004 growing-season, forced the conclusion that deep rooting was a key mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought.

  18. In-situ vitrification of soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brouns, Richard A.; Buelt, James L.; Bonner, William F.

    1983-01-01

    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

  19. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance. Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Ban-Weiss, George; Gilbert, Haley E.; François, David; Berdahl, Paul; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Destaillats, Hugo; Levinson, Ronnen

    2011-12-01

    The use of highly reflective “cool” roofing materials can decrease demand for air conditioning, mitigate the urban heat island effect, and potentially slow global warming. However, initially high roof solar reflectance can be degraded by natural soiling and weathering processes. We evaluated solar reflectance losses after three years of natural exposure reported in two separate databases: the Rated Products Directory of the US Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) and information reported by manufacturers to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s ENERGY STAR® rating program. Many product ratings were culled because they were duplicative (within a database) or not measured. Amore » second, site-resolved version of the CRRC dataset was created by transcribing from paper records the site-specific measurements of aged solar reflectance in Florida, Arizona and Ohio. Products with high initial solar reflectance tended to lose reflectance, while those with very low initial solar reflectance tended to become more reflective as they aged. Within the site-resolved CRRC database, absolute solar reflectance losses for samples of medium-to-high initial solar reflectance were 2 - 3 times greater in Florida (hot and humid) than in Arizona (hot and dry); losses in Ohio (temperate but polluted) were intermediate. Disaggregating results by product type, factory-applied coating, field-applied coating, metal, modified bitumen, shingle, singleply membrane and tile, revealed that absolute solar reflectance losses were largest for fieldapplied coating, modified bitumen and single-ply membrane products, and smallest for factoryapplied coating and metal products.The 2008 Title 24 provisional aged solar reflectance formula overpredicts the measured aged solar reflectance of 0% to 30% of each product type in the culled public CRRC database. The rate of overprediction was greatest for field-applied coating and single-ply membrane products and least for factory-applied coating, shingle, and metal products. New product-specific formulas can be used to estimate provisional aged solar reflectance from initial solar reflectance pending measurement of aged solar reflectance. The appropriate value of soiling resistance varies by product type and is selected to attain some desired overprediction rate for the formula. The correlations for shingle products presented in this paper should not be used to predict aged solar reflectance or estimate provisional aged solar reflectance because the data set is too small and too limited in range of initial solar reflectance.« less

  20. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several...

  1. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  2. Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H.

    1998-02-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons.

  3. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  4. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil Friday, G. P. 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SEDIMENTS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. Mass Transport within Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physical properties of the substance of interest, and (3) transformation rates in soil. Our particular focus is on approaches for constructing soil-transport algorithms and soil-transport parameters for incorporation within multimedia fate models. We show how MTC's can be developed to construct a simple two-compartment air-soil system. We then demonstrate how a multi-layer-box-model approach for soil-mass balance converges to the exact analytical solution for concentration and mass balance. Finally, we demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to the specimen chemicals benzene, hexachlorobenzene, lindane gammahexachlorocyclohexane, benzo(a)pyrene, nickel, and copper.

  6. ARM - Campaign Instrument - soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentssoil Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Soil Measurement from the SGP (SOIL) Instrument Categories Surface/Subsurface Properties Campaigns COSMOS Network [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2010.08.05 - 2017.03.01 Cloud LAnd Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2007.06.01 - 2007.06.30 Cloud LAnd Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) [ Download Data ]

  7. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  8. Monitoring Soil Erosion on a Burned Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Final Report for the Jacob Fire Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne DRI; Etyemezian, Vic DRI; Cablk, Mary E. DRI; Shillito, Rose DRI; Shafer, David DOE Grand Junction, Colorado

    2013-06-01

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in the U.S. southwestern deserts is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. The shortened return interval, which translates to an increase in fires, has implications for management of Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) and Corrective Action Sites (CASs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office has responsibility. A series of studies was initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob Fire site approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) north of Hiko, Nevada. A lightning-caused fire burned approximately 200 hectares during August 6-8, 2008. The site is representative of a transition between Mojave and Great Basin desert ecoregions on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where the largest number of Soil CAUs/CASs are located. The area that burned at the Jacob Fire site was primarily a Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush) and Ephedra nevadensis (Mormon tea) community, also an abundant shrub assemblage in the similar transition zone on the NNSS. This report summarizes three years of measurements after the fire. Seven measurement campaigns at the Jacob Fire site were completed. Measurements were made on burned ridge (upland) and drainage sites, and on burned and unburned sites beneath and between vegetation. A Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL) was used to estimate emissions of suspended particles at different wind speeds. Context for these measurements was provided through a meteorological tower that was installed at the Jacob Fire site to obtain local, relevant environmental parameters. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Runoff and water erosion were quantified through a series of rainfall/runoff simulation tests in which controlled amounts of water were delivered to the soil surface in a specified amount of time. Runoff data were collected from understory and interspace soils on burned ridge and drainage areas. Runoff volume and suspended sediment in the runoff were sampled; the particle size distribution of the sediment was determined by laboratory analysis. Several land surface and soil characteristics associated with runoff were integrated by the calculation of site-specific curve numbers. Several vegetation surveys were conducted to assess post-burn recovery. Data from plots in both burned and unburned areas included species identification, counts, and location. Characterization of fire-affected area included measures at both the landscape scale and at specific sites. Although wind erosion measurements indicate that there are seasonal influences on almost all parameters measured, several trends were observed. PI-SWERL measurements indicated the potential for PM10 windblown dust emissions was higher on areas that were burned compared to areas that were not. Among the burned areas, understory soils in drainage areas were the most emissive, and interspace soils along burned ridges were least emissive. By 34 months after the burn (MAB), at the end of the study, emissions from all burned soil sites were virtually indistinguishable from unburned levels. Like the amount of emissions, the chemical signature of the fire (indicated by the EC-Soil ratio) was elevated immediately after the fire and approached pre-burn levels by 24 MAB. Thus, the potential for wind erosion at the Jacob Fire site, as measured by the amount and type of emissions, increased significantly after the fire and returned to unburned levels by 24 MAB. The effect of fire on the potential for water erosion at the Jacob Fire site was more ambiguous. Runoff and sediment from ridge interspace soils and unburned interspace soils were similar throughout the study period. Seldom, if ever, did runoff and sediment occur in burned drainage area soils. Fo

  9. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Phelan, James M.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  10. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  11. Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services » Soil and Groundwater Soil and Groundwater Soil and Groundwater Legacy soil and groundwater remediation activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are conducted in accordance with regulatory requirements, DOE regulations, and other applicable environmental laws. The scope of work requires investigation and remediation of contaminated sites known as solid waste management units (SWMUs) or areas of concern (AOCs). The protection of surface water and groundwater is also within

  12. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M.

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. AX Tank farm closure settlement estimates and soil testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECKER, D.L.

    1999-03-25

    This study provides a conservative three-dimensional settlement study of the AX Tank Farm closure with fill materials and a surface barrier. The finite element settlement model constructed included the interaction of four tanks and the surface barrier with the site soil and bedrock. Also addressed are current soil testing techniques suitable for the site soil with recommendations applicable to the AX Tank Farm and the planned cone penetration testing.

  14. Thermal properties of soils and soils testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-17

    The thermal properties of soils are reviewed with reference to the use of soils as heat sources, heat sinks, or thermal storage. Specific heat and thermal conductivity are discussed. (ACR)

  15. Soils | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Soils Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSoils&oldid612253" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference...

  16. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clodfelter, C.

    1995-12-31

    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion.

  17. Soil & Groundwater Home - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil & Groundwater Home Soil & Groundwater Home Annual Reports Environmental Data Access Administrative Record Soil & Groundwater Home Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text...

  18. Exfiltrometer apparatus and method for measuring unsaturated hydrologic properties in soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Schafer, Annette L.

    2006-01-17

    Exfiltrometer apparatus includes a container for holding soil. A sample container for holding sample soil is positionable with respect to the container so that the sample soil contained in the sample container is in communication with soil contained in the container. A first tensiometer operatively associated with the sample container senses a surface water potential at about a surface of the sample soil contained in the sample container. A second tensiometer operatively associated with the sample container senses a first subsurface water potential below the surface of the sample soil. A water content sensor operatively associated with the sample container senses a water content in the sample soil. A water supply supplies water to the sample soil. A data logger operatively connected to the first and second tensiometers, and to the water content sensor receives and processes data provided by the first and second tensiometers and by the water content sensor.

  19. VARIATION IN EROSION/DEPOSITION RATES OVER THE LAST FIFTTY YEARS ON ALLUVIAL FAN SURFACES OF L. PLEISTOCENE-MID HOLOCENE AGE, ESTIMATIONS USING 137CS SOIL PROFILE DATA, AMARGOSA VALLEY, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Harrington; R. Kelly; K.T. Ebert

    2005-08-26

    Variations in erosion and deposition for the last fifty years (based on estimates from 137Cs profiles) on surfaces (Late Pleistocene to Late Holocene in age) making up the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan south of Yucca Mountain, is a function of surface age and of desert pavement development or absence. For purposes of comparing erosion and deposition, the surfaces can be examined as three groups: (1) Late Pleistocene surfaces possess areas of desert pavement development with thin Av or sandy A horizons, formed by the trapping capabilities of the pavements. These zones of deposition are complemented by coppice dune formation on similar parts of the surface. Areas on the surface where no pavement development has occurred are erosional in nature with 0.0 +/- 0.0 cm to 1.5 +/- 0.5 cm of erosion occurring primarily by winds blowing across the surface. Overall these surfaces may show either a small net depositional gain or small erosional loss. (2) Early Holocene surfaces have no well-developed desert pavements, but may have residual gravel deposits in small areas on the surfaces. These surfaces show the most consistent erosional surface areas on which it ranges from 1.0 +/-.01 cm to 2.0+/- .01 cm. Fewer depositional forms are found on this age of surface so there is probably a net loss of 1.5 cm across these surfaces. (3) The Late Holocene surfaces show the greatest variability in erosion and deposition. Overbank deposition during floods cover many edges of these surfaces and coppice dune formation also creates depositional features. Erosion rates are highly variable and range from 0.0 +/- 0.0 to a maximum of 2.0+/-.01. Erosion occurs because of the lack of protection of the surface. However, the common areas of deposition probably result in the surface having a small net depositional gain across these surfaces. Thus, the interchannel surfaces of the Fortymile Wash fan show a variety of erosional styles as well as areas of deposition. The fan, therefore, is a dynamic system that primarily responds to the incising of the channels into the upper fan surface, and the development of protecting desert pavements with time.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Soil characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Soil characteristics Includes available water capacity, bulk density, permeability, porosity, rock fragment classification, rock fragment volume, percent clay,...

  1. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biosecurity, and Health Environmental Microbiology Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding...

  2. Effect of soiling in CPV systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivar, M.; Herrero, R.; Anton, I.; Martinez-Moreno, F.; Moreton, R.; Sala, G.

    2010-07-15

    The effect of soiling in flat PV modules has been already studied, causing a reduction of the electrical output of 4% on average. For CPV's, as far as soiling produces light scattering at the optical collector surface, the scattered rays should be definitively lost because they cannot be focused onto the receivers again. While the theoretical study becomes difficult because soiling is variable at different sites, it becomes easier to begin the monitoring of the real field performance of concentrators and then raise the following question: how much does the soiling affect to PV concentrators in comparison with flat panels?' The answers allow to predict the PV concentrator electrical performance and to establish a pattern of cleaning frequency. Some experiments have been conducted at the IES-UPM and CSES-ANU sites, consisting in linear reflective concentration systems, a point focus refractive concentrator and a flat module. All the systems have been measured when soiled and then after cleaning, achieving different increases of I{sub SC}. In general, results show that CPV systems are more sensitive to soiling than flat panels, accumulating losses in I{sub SC} of about 14% on average in three different tests conducted at IES-UPM and CSES-ANU test sites in Madrid (Spain) and Canberra (Australia). Some concentrators can reach losses up to 26% when the system is soiled for 4 months of exposure. (author)

  3. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  4. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    2015-01-14

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  5. Soil and Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Legacy soil and groundwater remediation activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are conducted in accordance with regulatory requirements, DOE regulations, and other applicable environmental laws.

  6. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Sarah L.; Iversen, Colleen M

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a wide range of soil processes, from the exudation of labile C compounds to the development of fungal associations. For example, Zoe Cardon demonstrated that the root-mediated redistribution of deep soil water to relatively dry shallower soil, increased soil CO{sub 2} efflux and nutrient cycling near the surface in an arid ecosystem. Andrew Kulmatiski also discussed the importance of rooting distribution throughout the soil profile for strategies of water uptake by different species in an African savanna. Later, Julie Jastrow demonstrated that living roots shape soil physical structure by promoting the formation of soil aggregates, which facilitated accrual of SOM in restored grasslands. Taken together, the evidence is compelling that living roots, and organic matter derived from root detritus, are important parts of the continuum of organic matter in the soil. Larger soil organisms (i.e. 50 {micro}m to many cm in body size) play an important role in the root-SOM continuum by grazing on roots and microbes, comminuting organic matter and aggregating soil in fecal pellets. However, litterbag and soil incubation studies necessarily exclude invertebrates, and research on faunal activity and trophic dynamics tends to be independent from research on the biogeochemistry of SOM cycling. Tim Filley used plant-derived biomarkers in invertebrate residues to bridge the gap between larger soil organisms, such as earthworms and beetle larvae, and SOM distribution. He found that larger soil organisms help to stabilize root-derived organic matter in soil aggregates. Similar coupling of biogeochemistry with food web studies could prove fruitful for describing mechanisms that underlie critical ecosystem processes. Despite considerable research efforts, the breadth of the microbial role in the root-SOM continuum remains unresolved. Using advanced pyrosequencing techniques, David Nelson demonstrated the importance of archea as nitrifiers in agricultural systems exposed to elevated [CO{sub 2}]. Rising atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and other changing environmental factors add a layer of complexity t

  7. Chemical-Specific Representation of Air-Soil Exchange and Soil Penetration in Regional Multimedia Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.

    2002-08-01

    In multimedia mass-balance models, the soil compartment is an important sink as well as a conduit for transfers to vegetation and shallow groundwater. Here a novel approach for constructing soil transport algorithms for multimedia fate models is developed and evaluated. The resulting algorithms account for diffusion in gas and liquid components; advection in gas, liquid, or solid phases; and multiple transformation processes. They also provide an explicit quantification of the characteristic soil penetration depth. We construct a compartment model using three and four soil layers to replicate with high reliability the flux and mass distribution obtained from the exact analytical solution describing the transient dispersion, advection, and transformation of chemicals in soil with fixed properties and boundary conditions. Unlike the analytical solution, which requires fixed boundary conditions, the soil compartment algorithms can be dynamically linked to other compartments (air, vegetation, ground water, surface water) in multimedia fate models. We demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, MTBE, TCDD, and tritium.

  8. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-09-04

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing ofmore » ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.« less

  9. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-09-04

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  10. Soil & Groundwater Remediation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages one of the largest groundwater and soil remediation efforts in the world.  The inventory at the DOE sites includes 6.5 trillion liters of contaminated...

  11. Microsoft Word - S06584StSoil.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    University of Arizona Letter This page intentionally left blank December 17, 2009 Memo to: Jody Waugh Regarding: Uranium in Former Evaporation Pond Area at Monument Valley We analyzed the stained surface soils in the former evaporation pond area and extended field west in the subpile soil area for a suite of heavy metals to determine if potential toxic substances were associated with the chemical stains observed in some areas of the site. This was part of Task 6, Mn Toxicity Field Study. Our

  12. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

    2003-07-29

    A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

  13. Maybell Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Maybell Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Maybell Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Maybell Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Maybell - Maybell...

  14. Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Amchitka -...

  15. Ashtabula Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ashtabula Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Ashtabula Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Ashtabula Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Ashtabula -...

  16. Shiprock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Shiprock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Shiprock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Shiprock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Shiprock -...

  17. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles5 are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets7. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemicalmore » composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. Lastly, we suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events8.« less

  18. Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports ...

  19. Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald ...

  20. Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil ...

  1. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-09-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation of Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought.

  2. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  3. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost regionmore » is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.« less

  4. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost region is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.

  5. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Bradley M.; Smith, Ann Marie; Hanson, Richard W.; Hodges, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

  6. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 17 figs.

  7. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore » this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  8. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  9. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  10. FRACTURE ENHANCED SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION AT THE A-014 OUTFALL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Richard Hall , R

    2008-03-12

    Data collected during this study show that the performance of hydraulically fractured wells (with respect to mass removal rates) may tend to decrease with time following precipitation events. These effects are due to temporary increases in water saturation in the formation within the vicinity of the fractures, therefore, the wells should tend to rebound during subsequent dry periods. The data available for fractured well versus conventional well performance (with respect to flow rate versus vacuum pressure) are limited in this study. However, the data that we have to draw from suggest that, with the possible exception of a few extreme examples, hydraulically fractured wells tend to perform better than conventional wells during soil vapor extraction (SVE) operation at the A-14 Outfall. The pancake like geometry associated with hydraulic fractures also leads to a significant increase in zone of influence (ZOI), as compared to conventional wells. The increase in ZOI is due to the radially extending, horizontal, high-permeability conduit nature of the hydraulic fracture, however, air-flow into the fracture is predominately vertical (occurring at right angles to the fracture plane). Flow rates from above and below the fracture will tend to be equivalent when the formation is homogeneous, however, in the case of directionally fining depositional sequences flow rates will be greater from the direction of increasing permeability. The Upland Unit is a fining upward sequence, therefore flow rates (and contaminant mass flow rates) will tend to be higher below the fracture. This suggests that emplacing the fractures slightly above the source zone is an important strategy for accelerating contaminant removal at the A-014 Outfall site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. However, due to the multitude of previous borings at the A-014 Outfall site, the shallower fractures failed. More than 2500 lbs of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) were removed during approximately 6 months of fractured well SVE operation at the A-014 field site. Plotting total mass removed over this time period shows a roughly linear relationship Figure 7. This occurs because the mass removal rate remains fairly constant with time. When mass removal comes predominately from cVOCs stored in the vapor phase there is a marked decline in mass removal rate over a short period of time due to the limiting nature of diffusion. Constant mass removal rates suggest that a source zone has been directly targeted and, therefore, is providing a constant supply of cVOC that partitions into the vapor phase and is removed through the well. Directly targeting and removing source zones is the most efficient approach to remediating contaminated sites. Results of this study show that utilization of hydraulic fractures during SVE is an effective approach for increasing remediation efficiency at the A-014 Outfall field site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. Hydraulically fractured wells tend to produce greater flow rates and create larger ZOI's than do conventional wells. These attributes allow fractured wells to effectively treat larger volumes of formation. The unique sand-emplacement geometry associated with hydraulically fractured wells also allows direct targeting of multiple zones located at similar elevations within a fairly large radius of the well. The ability to directly target source zones significantly decreases diffusion pathways, therefore, significantly decreasing the time required to reach remediation goals.

  11. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Word Cloud ...

  12. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. ... Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. ...

  13. The Effect of Steady Winds on Radon-222 Entry from soil into houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Bonnefous, Y.C.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1994-10-01

    Wind affects the radon-222 entry rate from soil into buildings and the resulting indoor concentrations. To investigate this phenomenon, we employ a previously tested three-dimensional numerical model of soil-gas Bow around houses, a commercial computational fluid dynamics code, an established model for determining ventilation rates in the presence of wind, and new wind tunnel results for the ground-surface pressure field caused by wind. These tools and data, applied under steady-state conditions to a prototypical residential building, allow us (1) to determine the complex soil-gas flow patterns that result from the presence of wind-generated ground-surface pressures, (2) to evaluate the effect of these flows on the radon concentration in the soil, and (3) to calculate the effect of wind on the radon entry rate and indoor concentration. For a broad range of soil permeabilities, two wind speeds, and two wind directions, we quantify the"flushing" effect of wind on the radon in the soil surrounding a house, and the consequent sharp decrease in radon entry rates. Experimental measurements of the time-dependent radon concentration in soil gas beneath houses confirm the existence of wind-induced flushing. Comparisons are made to modeling predictions obtained while ignoring the effect of the wind-generated ground-surface pressures. These investigations lead to the conclusion that wind-generated ground-surface pressures play a significant role in determining radon entry rates into residential buildings. [References: 26

  14. Soil Density/Moisture Gauge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 -...

  15. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2014-10-30

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous OC stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global C cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil OC stocks to changing climatic conditions. In this review,more » we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of OC stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this OC to permafrost thaw under a warming climate.« less

  16. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow Prev Next Title: Contrasting soil microbial community...

  17. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  18. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  19. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  20. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366) FY2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site (CAU 370) suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). In Area 11, several low-level airborne surveys of the Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites (CAU 366) show plumes of Americium 241 (Am-241) extending along ephemeral channels (Figure 1, marker numbers 5 and 6) below Corrective Action Site (CAS) 11-23-03 (marker number 3) and CAS 11 23-04 (marker number 4) (Colton, 1999). Plutonium Valley in Area 11 of the NNSS was selected for the study because of the aerial survey evidence suggesting downstream transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil. The aerial survey (Figure 1) shows a well defined finger of elevated radioactivity (marker number 5) extending to the southwest from the southernmost detonation site (marker number 4). This finger of contamination overlies a drainage channel mapped on the topographic base map used for presentation of the survey data suggesting surface runoff as a likely cause of the contaminated area. Additionally, instrumenting sites strongly suspected of conveying soil from areas of surface contamination offers the most efficient means to confirm that surface runoff may transport radioactive contamination as a result of ambient precipitation/runoff events. Closure plans being developed for the CAUs on the NNSS may include post-closure monitoring for possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils under ambient meteorological conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  1. Surface mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

  2. In situ formation of magnetite reactive barriers in soil for waste stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Reactive barriers containing magnetite and methods for making magnetite reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil contaminants including actinides and heavy metals, organic materials, iodine and technetium are disclosed. According to one embodiment, a two-step reagent introduction into soil takes place. In the first step, free oxygen is removed from the soil by separately injecting into the soil aqueous solutions of iron (II) salt, for example FeCl.sub.2, and base, for example NaOH or NH.sub.3 in about a 1:1 volume ratio. Then, in the second step, similar reagents are injected a second time (however, according to about a 1:2 volume ratio, iron to salt) to form magnetite. The magnetite formation is facilitated, in part, due to slow intrusion of oxygen into the soil from the surface. The invention techniques are suited to injection of reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source allowing in situ formation of the reactive barrier at the location of waste or hazardous material. Mixing of reagents to form. precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  3. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  4. Soil Stabilization Methods with Potential for Application at the Nevada National Security Site: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillito, Rose; Fenstermaker, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has resulted in large areas of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Much of the radionuclide contamination is found at or near the soil surface, and due to the dry climate setting, and the long half-life of radioactive isotopes, soil erosion poses a long-term health risk at the NNSS. The objective of this literature review is to present a survey of current stabilization methods used for minimizing soil erosion, both by water and wind. The review focuses on in situ uses of fundamental chemical and physical mechanisms for soil stabilization. A basic overview of the physical and chemical properties of soil is also presented to provide a basis for assessing stabilization methods. Some criteria for stabilization evaluation are identified based on previous studies at the NNSS. Although no specific recommendations are presented as no stabilization method, alone or in combination, will be appropriate in all circumstances, discussions of past and current stabilization procedures and specific soil tests that may aid in current or future soil stabilization activities at the NNSS are presented. However, not all Soils Corrective Action Sites (CASs) or Corrective Action Units (CAUs) will require stabilization of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Each Soils CAS or CAU should be evaluated for site-specific conditions to determine if soil stabilization is necessary or practical for a given specific site closure alternative. If stabilization is necessary, then a determination will be made as to which stabilization technique is the most appropriate for that specific site.

  5. Grounding electrode and method of reducing the electrical resistance of soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehmstedt, Paul L.

    1980-01-01

    A first solution of an electrolyte is injected underground into a volume of soil having negative surface charges on its particles. A cationic surfactant suspended in this solution neutralizes these surface charges of the soil particles within the volume. Following the first solution, a cationic asphalt emulsion suspended in a second solution is injected into the volume. The asphalt emulsion diffuses through the volume and electrostatically bonds with additional soil surrounding the volume such that an electrically conductive water repellant shell enclosing the volume is formed. This shell prevents the leaching of electrolyte from the volume into the additional soil. The second solution also contains a dissolved deliquescent salt which draws water into the volume prior to the formation of the shell. When electrically connected to an electrical installation such as a power line tower, the volume constitutes a grounding electrode for the tower.

  6. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  7. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2000-01-01

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  8. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  9. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  10. ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil heat flux A quantity ...

  11. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon cycling to improve climate modeling and carbon management. Get Expertise Principle Investigator Cheryl Kuske Bioscience Division 505 665 4800 Email Get Expertise John Dunbar Bioscience Division Email Get Expertise Chris Yeager Bioscience Division Email Get Expertise Jean Challacombe Bioscience Division Email This

  12. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  13. Multi-omics of Permafrost, Active Layer and Thermokarst Bog Soil

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbiomes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Multi-omics of Permafrost, Active Layer and Thermokarst Bog Soil Microbiomes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multi-omics of Permafrost, Active Layer and Thermokarst Bog Soil Microbiomes Over 20% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, if thawed may represent the largest future transfer of C from the biosphere to the atmosphere 1. This

  14. Soil Moisture Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil & Groundwater Remediation Soil & Groundwater Remediation Soil & Groundwater Remediation The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages one of the largest groundwater and soil remediation efforts in the world. The inventory at the DOE sites includes 6.5 trillion liters of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to about four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic meters of soil and debris contaminated with radionuclides, metals, and organics. The Office of

  15. Comprehensive appraisal of {sup 239+240}Pu in soils around Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litaor, M.I.; Allen, L.; Ellerbroek, D.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium contamination of soils around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site, near Golden, Colorado, resulted from past outdoor storage practices and subsequent remobilization due to inadequate cleanup practices. Until now human-health risk assessment has not been performed because of a lack of sufficient information regarding the spatial extent of {sup 239+240}Pu in soils. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the extent of plutonium contamination in surface soils, and to assess the uncertainty associated with the spatial distribution of {sup 239+240}Pu around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site.

  16. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  17. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns of dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.

  18. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns ofmore » dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.« less

  19. Category:Soil Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Soil Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Soil Gas Sampling page? For detailed information on Soil Gas...

  20. STRUCTURE-SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION AT SRS | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    STRUCTURE-SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION AT SRS STRUCTURE-SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION AT SRS Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction at SRS Structural Mechanics - SRS October 25, 2011 PDF...

  1. Treatment of radionuclide contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettis, S.A.; Kallas, A.J.; Kochen, R.L.; McGlochlin, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    Rockwell, International, Rocky Flats Plants, is committed to remediating within the scope of RCRA/CERCLA, Solid Waste Managements Units (SWMUs) at Rocky Flats found to be contaminated with hazardous substances. SWMUs fund to have radionuclide (uranium, plutonium, and/or americium) concentrations in the soils and/or groundwater that exceed background levels or regulatory limits will also be included in this remediation effort. This paper briefly summarizes past and present efforts by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, to identify treatment technologies appropriate for remediating actinide contaminated soils. Many of the promising soil treatments evaluated in Rocky Flats' laboratories during the late 1970's and early 1980's are currently being revisited. These technologies are generally directed toward substantially reducing the volume of contaminated soils, with the subsequent intention of disposing of a small remaining concentrated fraction of contaminated soil in a facility approved to receive radioactive wastes. Treatment processes currently will be treated to remove actinides, and recycled back to the process. Past investigations have included evaluations of dry screening, wet screening, scrubbing, ultrasonics, chemical oxidation, calcination, desliming, flotation, and heavy-liquid density separation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Lasagna{trademark} soil remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna{trademark} is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna{trademark} is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH.

  3. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie

    2008-11-15

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raich, J.W.

    2003-09-15

    We used a climate-driven regression model to develop spatially resolved estimates of soil-CO{sub 2} emissions from the terrestrial land surface for each month from January 1980 to December 1994, to evaluate the effects of interannual variations in climate on global soil-to-atmosphere CO{sub 2} fluxes. The mean annual global soil-CO{sub 2} flux over this 15-y period was estimated to be 80.4 (range 79.3-81.8) Pg C. Monthly variations in global soil-CO{sub 2} emissions followed closely the mean temperature cycle of the Northern Hemisphere. Globally, soil-CO{sub 2} emissions reached their minima in February and peaked in July and August. Tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests contributed more soil-derived CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than did any other vegetation type ({approx}30% of the total) and exhibited a biannual cycle in their emissions. Soil-CO{sub 2} emissions in other biomes exhibited a single annual cycle that paralleled the seasonal temperature cycle. Interannual variability in estimated global soil-CO{sub 2} production is substantially less than is variability in net carbon uptake by plants (i.e., net primary productivity). Thus, soils appear to buffer atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations against far more dramatic seasonal and interannual differences in plant growth. Within seasonally dry biomes (savannas, bushlands, and deserts), interannual variability in soil-CO{sub 2} emissions correlated significantly with interannual differences in precipitation. At the global scale, however, annual soil-CO{sub 2} fluxes correlated with mean annual temperature, with a slope of 3.3 PgCY{sup -1} per degree Celsius. Although the distribution of precipitation influences seasonal and spatial patterns of soil-CO{sub 2} emissions, global warming is likely to stimulate CO{sub 2} emissions from soils.

  5. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces betweenmore » plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration reported in broader meta-analyses of N amendment effects in mesic ecosystems. The large effect sizes at low N addition rates indicate that arid ecosystems are sensitive to modest increments in anthropogenic N deposition.« less

  6. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces between plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration reported in broader meta-analyses of N amendment effects in mesic ecosystems. The large effect sizes at low N addition rates indicate that arid ecosystems are sensitive to modest increments in anthropogenic N deposition.

  7. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Automated soil gas monitoring chamber A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within ...

  8. Soil Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "normal" background soil gas contents of a particular geothermal area. References Toxic Substances Hydrology Program 2.0 2.1 The Application of Soil-Gas Technique to...

  9. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  10. Interpretation of storage field well casing surface potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1987-01-01

    The shape of a well casing-to-soil potential gradient surface profile is influenced by many variables. Hence, the interpretation of such field data can be difficult. The paper illustrates how such factors as layered ground resistivity, polarization potential variations with depth, and external interference affect the profiles and, therefore, the interpretation of field data.

  11. South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon South Valley - South Valley Plume More Documents & Publications Slick Rock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Tuba City Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports

  12. Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Spook - Spook More Documents & Publications Tuba City Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Slick Rock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Weldon Spring Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports

  13. Qualitative evaluation of heavy metals in soils using portable XRF instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCain, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Portable isotope-source energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers can provide rapid on site screening for heavy metals in soils. Their use generally involves empirical calibration to a suite of representative soil samples spiked with a range of concentrations of the analytes of interest. In most cases, only a limited number of analytes can be measured with this approach, because of constraints imposed by the operational software and costs associated with preparing the calibration suite. A simple approach is described that provides a qualitative indication of anomalous concentrations of heavy metals based on numeric comparison of gross count rates to background values. This approach can rapidly identify contaminated soils and does not depend on a suite of calibration samples. Direct measurements can be made to rapidly map soil contamination without sample collection, and the method can also be applied to other surfaces such as concrete.

  14. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury contamination and to increase the TCLP mercury values. IT/NFS investigated ambient temperature amalgamation/stabilization/fixation of mercury-contaminated soils to meet these objectives. Treatment ranged in size from a few ounces to 10 pounds. The treatability study philosophy was to develop working envelops of formulations where reasonable minimum and maximum amounts of each reagent that would successfully treat the contaminated soil were determined. The dosages investigated were based on ratios of stoichiometric reactions and applications of standard sets of formulations. The approach purposely identified formulations that failed short or longer cure-time performance criteria to define the limits of the envelope. Reagent envelops successfully met the project requirements one day after treatment and after greater than 30-day cures. The use of multiple levels of spikes allowed the establishment of reagent dosages that were successful across a broad range of mercury values, e.g., 50 to 6000 mg/kg mercury. The treatment products were damp to slightly wet material. Enough drying reagent, e.g., Portland cement or lime by-product, were added to some formulations to control the leachability of uranium and other hazardous metals and to ensure the product passed the paint filter test. Cost analyzes and conceptual designs for four alternatives for full-scale treatments were prepared. The alternatives included two in-situ treatments and two ex-situ treatments. The cost estimates were based on the results from the bench-scale study. All four alternatives treatment costs were well below the baseline costs.

  15. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Innovative Vitrification for Soil Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnat, James G.; Patten, John S.; Jetta, Norman W.

    1996-12-31

    Vortec has successfully completed Phases 1 and 2 of a technology demonstration program for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation.'' The principal objective of the program is to demonstrate the ability of a Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS) to remediate DOE contaminated soils and other waste forms containing TM RCRA hazardous materials, low levels of radionuclides and TSCA (PCB) containing wastes. The demonstration program will verify the ability of this vitrification process to produce a chemically stable glass final waste form which passes both TCLP and PCT quality control requirements, while meeting all federal and state emission control regulations. The demonstration system is designed to process 36 ton/day of as-received drummed or bulk wastes. The processing capacity equates to approximately 160 barrels/day of waste materials containing 30% moisture at an average weight of 450 lbs./barrel.

  17. Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 1 - Simulations of beneficial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mae Sexauer Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George C. Fernandez

    2008-05-15

    This paper describes a project that assessed the potential for mercury (Hg) release to air and water from soil amended with combustion products to simulate beneficial use. Combustion products (ash) derived from wood, sewage sludge, subbituminous coal, and a subbituminous coal-petroleum coke mixture were added to soil as agricultural supplements, soil stabilizers, and to develop low permeability surfaces. Hg release was measured from the latter when intact and after it was broken up and mixed into the soil. Air-substrate Hg exchange was measured for all materials six times over 24 hr, providing data that reflected winter, spring, summer, and fall meteorological conditions. Dry deposition of atmospheric Hg and emission of Hg to the atmosphere were both found to be important fluxes. Measured differences in seasonal and diel (24 hr) fluxes demonstrated that to establish an annual estimate of air-substrate flux from these materials data on both of these time steps should be collected. Air-substrate exchange was highly correlated with soil and air temperature, as well as incident light. Hg releases to the atmosphere from coal and wood combustion product-amended soils to simulate an agricultural application were similar to that measured for the unamended soil, whereas releases to the air for the sludge-amended materials were higher. Hg released to soil solutions during the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure for ashamended materials was higher than that released from soil alone. On the basis of estimates of annual releases of Hg to the air from the materials used, emissions from coal and wood ash-amended soil to simulate an agricultural application could simply be re-emission of Hg deposited by wet processes from the atmosphere; however, releases from sludge-amended materials and those generated to simulate soil stabilization and disturbed low-permeability pads include Hg indigenous to the material. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Multi-analytical approach reveals potential microbial indicators in soil for sugarcane model systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui; Lehman, R. Michael

    2015-06-09

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N) and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C) in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that weremore » correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%), Planctomycetes (12.3%), Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%), Alphaproteobacteria (12.0%) and Betaproteobacteria (11.1%) were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, and their subgroups acted as early-warning indicators of N+V amendments and straw retention in sugarcane-cultivated soils, which can alter the soil chemical factors.« less

  19. Multi-analytical approach reveals potential microbial indicators in soil for sugarcane model systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui; Lehman, R. Michael

    2015-06-09

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N) and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C) in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%), Planctomycetes (12.3%), Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%), Alphaproteobacteria (12.0%) and Betaproteobacteria (11.1%) were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, and their subgroups acted as early-warning indicators of N+V amendments and straw retention in sugarcane-cultivated soils, which can alter the soil chemical factors.

  20. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Methods for Determining the Quasi-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory and field ponded infiltration tests in quasi-saturated soils (containing entrapped air) exhibit the same three-stage temporal variability for the flow rate and hydraulic conductivity. However, the values for the hydraulic conductivity may differ by as much as two orders of magnitude due to differences in the geometry and physics of flow when different laboratory and field methods are applied. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this variability using a comparison of results of ponded infiltration tests conducted under laboratory conditions using confined cores, with results of field tests conducted using partially isolated cores and double-ring infiltrometers. Under laboratory conditions in confined cores, during the firs stage, the water flux decreases over time because entrapped air plugs the largest pores in the soils; during the second stage, the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity increases by one to two orders of magnitude, essentially reaching the saturated hydraulic conductivity, when entrapped air is discharged from the soils; during the third stage, the hydraulic conductivity decreases to minimum values due to sealing of the soil surface and the effect of biofilms sealing the pores within the wetted zone. Under field conditions, the second stage is only partially developed, and when the surface sealing process begins, the hydraulic pressure drops below the air entry value, thereby causing atmospheric air to enter the soils. As a result, the soils become unsaturated with a low hydraulic conductivity, and the infiltration rate consequently decreases. Contrary to the laboratory experiments in confined cores, the saturated hydraulic conductivity cannot be reached under field conditions. In computations of infiltration one has to take into account the variations in the quasi-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, moisture and entrapped air content, and the hydraulic gradient in the quasi-saturated or unsaturated soils.

  1. Code System Calculate One-Dimensional Vertical Transport Unsaturated Soil Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-03-01

    SESOIL, as an integrated screening-level soil compartment model, is designed to simultaneously model water transport, sediment transport, and pollutant fate. SESOIL is a one-dimensional vertical transport model for the unsaturated soil zone. Only one compound at a time can be considered. The model is based on mass balance and equilibrium partitioning of the chemical between different phases (dissolved, sorbed, vapor, and pure). The SESOIL model was designed to perform long-term simulations of chemical transport andmore » transformations in the soil and uses theoretically derived equations to represent water transport, sediment transport on the land surface, pollutant transformation, and migration of the pollutant to the atmosphere and groundwater. Climatic data, compartment geometry, and soil and chemical property data are the major components used in the equations. SESOIL was developed as a screening-level model, utilizing less soil, chemical, and meteorological values as input than most other similar models. Output of SESOIL includes time-varying pollutant concentrations at various soil depths and pollutant loss from the unsaturated zone in terms of surface runoff, percolation to the groundwater, volatilization, and degradation. The February 1995 release corrects an error that caused the code to fail when average monthly air temperature was -10C and includes an improved iteration procedure for the mass balance equations in the model. PLEASE NOTE: The RISKPRO information management software (see OTHER PROG/OPER SYS INFO) was used by the developers of the New SESOIL User''s Guide in their study and revisions of SESOIL. Using RISKPRO in conjunction with SESOIL is an option, and it may provide the easiest way to use SESOIL. The other option, use of SESOIL in stand-alone mode, has been tested and used. The stand-alone option is covered in ''Instructions for Running Stand-Alone SESOIL Code'', and in ''A Seasonal Soil Compartment Model''.« less

  2. Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Workers at the Hanford site are digging deep into several waste sites near the Columbia River to remove soil contaminated with chromium.

  3. Soil Machine Dynamics Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Machine Dynamics Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Soil Machine Dynamics Ltd Region: United Kingdom Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the...

  4. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow Prev Next Title: Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine...

  5. Enhanced durability transparent superhydrophobic anti-soiling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Enhanced durability transparent superhydrophobic anti-soiling coatings for CSP applications Authors: Polyzos, Georgios 1 ; Schaeffer, Daniel A 1 ; Smith, Barton Barton ...

  6. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlgran, J.R.

    1999-08-17

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

  7. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  8. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is expected that Tc-99 and nitrate will remain with the water residual that is not removed, or remain as a salt bound to the soil particles. In addition, the SDPT will be conducted at lower extraction velocities to preclude pore water entrainment and thus, the extracted air effluent should be free of the contaminant residual present in the targeted moist zone. However, to conservatively bound the planned activity for potential radionuclide air emissions, it is assumed, hypothetically, that the Tc-99 does not remain in the zone of interest, but that it instead travels with the evaporated moisture to the extraction well and to the test equipment at the land surface. Thus, a release potential would exist from the planned point source (powered exhaust) for Tc-99 in the extracted moist air. In this hypothetical bounding case there would also be a potential for very minor fugitive emissions to occur due to nitrogen injection into the soil. The maximum value for Tc-99, measured in the contaminated moist zone, is used in calculating the release potential described in Section 2.3. The desiccation mechanism will be evaporation. Nitrate is neither a criteria pollutant nor a toxic air pollutant. It would remain nitrate as a salt adhered to sand and silt grains or as nitrate dissolved in the pore water. Nitrogen, an inert gas, will be injected into the ground during the test. Tracer gasses will also be injected near the beginning, middle, and the end of the test. The tracer gasses are sulfur hexafluoride, trichlorofluoromethane, and difluoromethane.

  9. In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  10. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  11. Fluorinated silica microchannel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy Jon

    2005-03-15

    A method for surface modification of microchannels and capillaries. The method produces a chemically inert surface having a lowered surface free energy and improved frictional properties by attaching a fluorinated alkane group to the surface. The coating is produced by hydrolysis of a silane agent that is functionalized with either alkoxy or chloro ligands and an uncharged C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 fluorinated alkane chain. It has been found that the extent of surface coverage can be controlled by controlling the contact time from a minimum of about 2 minutes to a maximum of 120 minutes for complete surface coverage.

  12. Identification of sediment sources in forested watersheds with surface coal mining disturbance using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.F.

    2009-10-15

    Sediments and soils were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry and carbon and nitrogen elemental analyses to evaluate the their ability to indicate land-use and land management disturbance and pinpoint loading from sediment transport sources in forested watersheds disturbed by surface coal mining. Samples of transported sediment particulate organic matter were collected from four watersheds in the Southern Appalachian forest in Kentucky. The four watersheds had different surface coal mining history that were classified as undisturbed, active mining, and reclaimed conditions. Soil samples were analyzed including reclaimed grassland soils, undisturbed forest soils, geogenic organic matter associated with coal fragments in mining spoil, and soil organic matter from un-mined grassland soils. Statistically significant differences were found for all biogeochemical signatures when comparing transported sediments from undisturbed watersheds and surface coal mining disturbed watersheds and the results were attributed to differences in erosion sources and the presence of geogenic organic matter. Sediment transport sources in the surface coal mining watersheds analyzed using Monte Carlo mass balance un-mixing found that: {delta}{sup 15}N showed the ability to differentiate streambank erosion and surface soil erosion; and {delta} {sup 13}C showed the ability to differentiate soil organic matter and geogenic organic matter. This suggests that streambank erosion downstream of surface coal mining sites is a significant source of sediment in coal mining disturbed watersheds. The results suggest that the sediment transport processes governing streambank erosion loads are taking longer to reach geomorphologic equilibrium in the watershed as compared with the surface erosion processes.

  13. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  14. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Surface condition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARA-DIMONA : Airborne Research Australia Dimona Aircraft Laser Altimeter and Fluxes ETA : ... : Research Scanning Polarimeter MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation ...

  16. Data management system for organic soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinnette, P.

    1999-07-01

    A Data Management System for Organic Soil (DMSOS) has been developed that enables the acquisition, management and analysis of organic soil data as well as the presentation of results to be conducted effectively through a common interface. This development was in response to the data management needs of research investigating the engineering properties of organic soil and its extension to the stabilization of organic soil through dynamic replacement (DR). It is shown how the above functions are implemented efficiently using Windows-based software to perform comprehensive data management and analysis of data gathered from both laboratory and field tests. When the engineering properties of a given organic soil deposit are needed, a build-in Computer Advisor for Organic Soil Projects (CAOSP) predicts the properties from DMSOS based correlations. A unique and useful feature of the CAOSP is its ability to estimate the anticipated ultimate settlement of an organic soil deposit given the loading conditions and the moisture or organic content. Also incorporated in the DMSOS is a quality control system that utilizes computerized data acquisition/data management techniques in order to evaluate the degree of improvement of an organic soil layer at a given stage of treatment using DR.

  17. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod L.

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  19. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  20. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation, Barrow, 2013-2014 (Dataset) | Data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Soil Organic Carbon Degradation, Barrow, 2013-2014 Title: Soil Organic Carbon Degradation, Barrow, 2013-2014 This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic

  1. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-02-27

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume tracking methodology helped the USACE Buffalo District track soil quantity changes from projected excavation work over time and across space, providing the basis for an explanation of some of the project cost and schedule variances.

  2. Clean soil at Eniwetok and Johnston Atolls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bramlitt, E.T.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency has managed two large-scale soil cleanups (landmass decontaminations) of plutonium contamination. Both are at Pacific Ocean atolls formerly used for nuclear weapons tests. The Eniwetok Atoll (EA) cleanup between 1977 and 1980 evaluated 390 ha of contaminated land and cleaned 50 ha by removing 80,000 m[sup 3] of contaminated soil. The Johnston Atoll (JA) cleanup is in process. It has checked 270 ha, will clean 15 ha, and plans for removal of 80,000 m[sup 3] of soil. The cleanups are similar in other respects including carbonate-based soil, in situ radiation surveys, contamination characteristics, soil excavation methods, safety, and weather. The two cleanups are in contrast relative to planning time, agencies involved, funding, documentation, environmental considerations, cleanup workforce, site beneficiaries, waste characterization, regulatory permits, management, and project duration. The most noteworthy differences are the rationale for cleanup, the cleanup process, the definition of clean, and the cost.

  3. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Svoboda, John M.; Sawyer, J. Wayne; Hess, John R.; Hess, J. Richard

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  4. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky...

  5. Soil Sampling At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Soil Sampling At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Sampling At Yellowstone Region...

  6. After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wise, Juan Aguilar, Doug Rybarski, and Christina Agular. The soil vapor extraction trailer is shown near Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant. The soil vapor extraction...

  7. Evaluation of the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration Techniques Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Evaluation of the Mercury Soil...

  8. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial Blueprint for Root-carbon Transformations in Soil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mapping...

  9. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-Document Search Title: Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial Blueprint for Root-carbon Transformations in Soil Erin Nuccio, Lawrence...

  10. EM Soil and Groundwater Database Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EM Soil and Groundwater Database Reports EM Soil and Groundwater Database Reports Brookhaven National Laboratory - HFBR Tritium Groundwater Database Report - Brookhaven National ...

  11. System for Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction (SASSI) Verification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the System for Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction, a computer code for performing finite element analyses of soil-structure interaction during seismic ground motions. It was...

  12. Plant stimulation of soil microbial community succession: how...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plant stimulation of soil microbial community succession: how sequential expression mediates soil carbon stabilization and turnover Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plant...

  13. Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel production: empirical evidence Title Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel...

  14. Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossabi, Joseph; May, Christopher P.; Pemberton, Bradley E.; Shinn, Jim; Sprague, Keith

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

  15. Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossabi, J.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Shinn, J.; Sprague, K.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus. 8 figs.

  16. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  17. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2009-02-01

    DOEs Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier.

  18. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY09 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-01-01

    DOEs Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier. Each instrument nest is composed of a capacitance probe (CP) with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units (HDUs), and a neutron probe (NP) access tube. The monitoring results in FY09 are summarized below. The solar panels functioned normally and could provide sufficient power to the instruments. The CP in Nest C after September 20, 2009, was not functional. The CP sensors in Nest B after July 13 and the 0.9-m CP sensor in Nest D before June 10 gave noisy data. Other CPs were functional normally. All the HDUs were functional normally but some pressure-head values measured by HDUs were greater than the upper measurement-limit. The higher-than-upper-limit values might be due to the very wet soil condition and/or measurement error but do not imply the malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 and FY08, in FY09, the soil under natural conditions (Nest A) was generally recharged during the winter period (October-March) and discharged during the summer period (April-September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the surface barrier was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the surface barrier (Nests C and D), the CP measurements showed that water content at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was very stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water condition beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage seemed occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) in FY09. The HDU-measured water pressure decreased consistently in the soil above 5-m depth, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the surface barrier (Nest B), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year except at the 0.9-m depth; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than those in Nests C and D; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes in FY09 in Nest B were less than those for C and D but more than those for A. The soil-water-pressure head was more sensitive to soil water regime changes under dry conditions. In the soil beneath the barrier, the theoretical steady-state values of pressure head is equal to the negative of the distance to groundwater table. Hence, it is expected that, in the future, while the water content become stable, the pressure head will keep decreasing for a long time (e.g., many years). These results indicate that the T Tank Farm surface barrier was performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil and the soil was becoming drier gradually. The barrier also has some effects on the soil below the barrier edge but at a reduced magnitude.

  19. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB`s as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology.

  20. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  1. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  2. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of four units to batch treat concrete rubble and soil. Post treatment sampling verified that the activity in the treated soil and concrete met the treatment standards for each medium which allowed the treated concrete rubble and soil to be disposed of on-site as backfill. During testing and operations a total of 1,261-m{sup 3} (1,650-yd{sup 3}) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m{sup 3} ($2,412/yd{sup 3}). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management. (authors)

  3. Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans in the soil near the municipal incinerator of Florence, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berlincioni, M.; di Domenico, A.

    1987-11-01

    Tetra- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) emissions from the municipal incinerator near Florence were monitored during 1980-1985. Typical PCDD or PCDF series concentrations in vapors and smokes ranged from 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 3/ ng/m/sup 3/. The more chlorinated congeners generally exhibited levels remarkably higher than the less chlorinated ones. Contrary to earlier findings, fly ash in 1985 contributed <10% of overall PCDD and PCDF emissions. Most topsoil sampling sites in the study area were within approximately 1 km of the incineration plant. Findings from 1979 to 1985 indicated the presence of widespread contamination: this was due to the more chlorinated PCDD and PCDF congeners, in particular. The maximum level found was in the order of 2 x 10/sup 4/ ng/m/sup 2/ of soil surface. In late 1985, five soil sampling sites were selected near the site that had previously shown the highest PCDD and PCDF levels. Each soil specimen was obtained by coring the 20 cm thick upper layer. Results were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent and confirmed the prevailing presence of the more chlorinated congeners. Maximum PCDD content was approximately 7 x 10/sup 4/ ng/m/sup 2/ of soil surface. 18 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Spray-on anti-soiling coatings that exhibit high transparency and mechanical durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaeffer, Daniel A; Polyzos, Georgios; Smith, Barton; Lee, Dominic F; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2014-01-01

    A superhydrophobic (SH) surface has many characteristics, one of which is its self-cleaning, anti-soiling functionality, that are desirable across various industries. A transparent, self-cleaning surface utilizes the right combination of surface chemistry and roughness that force water droplets to form high water contact angles (CA). This in turn allows droplets to easily roll off and pick up dirt and debris across the surface. In theory this is simple but in practice this can be very difficult as superhydrophobicity and optical transparency are competitive. We have developed a simple, spray-on coating based on functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles that can easily be applied to surfaces whose application requires high transparency including, but not limited to, optical sensors, photovoltaics, sights, and lenses. In addition, these coatings exhibit practical mechanical and environmental durability that allow prolonged use of the coatings in harsh environments.

  5. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site.

  6. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, J.R.; Ruzic, D.N.; Moore, R.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Manos, D.M.

    1982-06-16

    A method is described for treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1..mu.. to 5..mu.. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  7. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, John R.; Ruzic, David N.; Moore, Richard L.; Cohen, Samuel A.; Manos, Dennis M.

    1983-01-01

    A method of treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1.mu. to 5.mu. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  8. Appendix PORSURF: Porosity Surface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PORSURF-2014 Porosity Surface United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix PORSURF-2014 Table of Contents PORSURF-1.0 Introduction PORSURF-2.0 Creep Closure Method PORSURF-3.0 Conceptual Model for Porosity Surface PORSURF-4.0 SANTOS Numerical Analyses PORSURF-5.0 Implementation of Porosity Surface in BRAGFLO PORSURF-6.0 Dynamic Closure of the North End and Hallways PORSURF-7.0

  9. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fantozzi, L.; Dini, F.; Tamburello, L.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange from grass covered soil is different from bare soil. ► Light enhances mercury emissions and is the main parameter driving the process. ► The presence of wild vegetation covering the soil reduces mercury emission. ► Vegetative covers could be a solution to reduce atmospheric mercury pollution.

  10. Incompressible Flows Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    NASA-VOF3D is a three-dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slipmore » wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary.« less

  11. Selected heavy metals and other constituents in soil and stormwater runoff at the Interstate 95 interchange near Atlee, Virginia, April 1993--May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speiran, G.K.

    1998-12-31

    Concentrations of the heavy metals copper, lead, and zinc, and other constituents, were measured in soil and runoff before and after construction of a stormwater detention basin at the Interstate 95-State Route 656 interchange near Atlee, VA, from April 1993 through May 1997. The spatial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil indicate that the paved traffic lanes of the interstate highway are a source of the metals. Concentrations of the metals in soil decrease with increasing soil depth below the ground surface and with increasing distance from the highway lanes. Of the three metals for which samples were analyzed, lead was generally present at the greatest concentration, and copper was at the lowest concentration in the soil.

  12. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface...

  15. Post-Closure Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2004-04-02

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and the 1324-NA Percolation Pond, located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, are regulated under the Resource Consevation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Surface and underground features of the facilities have been removed and laboratory analyses showed that soil met the closure performance standards. These sites have been backfilled and revegetated.

  16. Identification of slip surface location by TLS-GPS datafor landslide mitigation case study: Ciloto-Puncak, West Java

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadarviana, Vera Hasanuddin, A. Z.; Joenil, G. K.; Irwan; Wijaya, Dudy; Ilman, H.; Agung, N.; Achmad, R. T.; Pangeran, C.; Martin, S.; Gamal, M.; Santoso, Djoko

    2015-04-24

    Landslide can prevented by understanding the direction of movement to the safety evacuation track or slip surface location to hold avalanches. Slip surface is separating between stable soil and unstable soil in the slope. The slip surface location gives information about stable material depth. The information can be utilize to mitigate technical step, such as pile installation to keep construction or settlement safe from avalanches.There are two kinds landslide indicators which are visualization and calculation. By visualization, landslide identified from soil crack or scarp. Scarp is a scar of exposed soil on the landslide. That identification can be done by Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) Image. Shape of scarp shows type of slip surface, translation or rotational. By calculation, kinematic and dynamic mathematic model will give vector, velocity and acceleration of material movement. In this calculation need velocity trend line at GPS point from five GPS data campaign. From intersection of trend lines it will create curves or lines of slip surface location. The number of slip surface can be known from material movement direction in landslide zone.Ciloto landslide zone have complicated phenomenon because that zone have influence from many direction of ground water level pressure. The pressure is causes generating several slip surface in Ciloto zone. Types of Ciloto slip surface have mix between translational and rotational type.

  17. Climate-change effects on soils: Accelerated weathering, soil carbon and elemental cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-04-01

    Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (≥400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2, and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils are the subject of active current investigations, with great concern over the influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries, identifies key research needs, and highlights opportunities offered by the climate-change effects on soils.

  18. ASTM sampling methods and analytical validation for lead in paint, dust, soil, and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashley, K.; Schlecht, P.C.; Song, R.; Feng, A.; DeWalt, G.; McKnight, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    ASTM Subcommittee E06.23 on Abatement/Mitigation of Lead Hazards has developed a number of standards that are concerned with the sampling of leas in environmental media, namely paint, dust, soil and airborne particulate. An ASTM practice for the collection of airborne particulate lead in the workplace has been published. New ASTM standards for the collection of dry paint film samples, surface soil samples, and surface dust wipe samples for subsequent lead analysis have also been promulgated. Other draft standards pertinent to lead sampling are under development. The ASTM standards concerned with lead sample collection are accompanied by separate sample preparation standard practices and a standard analysis method. Sample preparation and analytical methods have been evaluated by interlaboratory testing; such analyses may be used to assess the efficacy of sampling protocols.

  19. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-10-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental sites. Soil samples were analyzed for the soil carbon and nitrogen contents, texture, water stable aggregation, and mean weight and geometric mean diameter of aggregates. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978 and managed under grass (Wilds) and forest (Cumberland) cover, respectively. The trees were planted in 1982 in the Cumberland site. The analyses of data on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were presented in the third quarter report. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, available water capacity (AWC) of soil, particle size distribution, and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and coal carbon contents. The SIC content ranged from 0.04 to 1.68% in Cumberland tree site and 0.01 to 0.65% in the Wilds. The coal content assumed to be the carbon content after oven drying the sample at 350 C varied between 0.04 and 3.18% for Cumberland and 0.06 and 3.49% for Wilds. The sand, silt and clay contents showed moderate to low variability (CV < 0.16) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The volume of transmission (VTP) and storage pores (VSP) also showed moderate to high variability (CV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 for Wilds and 0.17 to 0.36 for Cumberland). The CV for SIC was high (0.7) in Cumberland whereas that for coal content was high (0.4) in the Wilds. The steady state infiltration rates (i{sub c}) also showed high variability (CV > 0.6) and ranged from 0.01 to 0.98 cm min{sup -1} in Cumberland and 0.1 to 1.68 cm min{sup -1} in Wilds. The cumulative infiltration (I) was highly variable (CV > 0.6) and ranged from 4.2 to 110 cm in Cumberland and 17.4 to 250 cm in Wilds. The AWC for 0-15 cm depth also showed moderate variability (CV = 0.3) for Cumberland but high for Wilds (CV = 0.4). The sand and silt contents showed strong spatial dependence with nugget-sill ratio of 15 and 23%, respectively with a range of 50 m in Cumberland site. Strong spatial dependence for sand content was also obtained for Wilds. The VSP, AWC, I, clay content, VTP, and i{sub c}, showed moderate to low spatial dependence (nugget-sill ratio varied from 32 to 72% in Cumberland and 37 to 88% in Wilds). These preliminary results along with those reported earlier during the third quarter suggest that the management effects are important and indicative of these sources of variability.

  20. Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-03-25

    Soil respiration (RS), the flux of CO2 from the soil surface to the atmosphere, comprises the second-largest terrestrial carbon flux, but its dynamics are incompletely understood, and the global flux remains poorly constrained. Ecosystem warming experiments, modelling analyses, and biokinetics all suggest that RS should change with climate. This has been difficult to confirm observationally because of the high spatial variability of RS, inaccessibility of the soil medium, and inability of remote sensing instruments to measure large-scale RS fluxes. Given these constraints, is it possible to discern climate-driven changes in regional or global RS fluxes in the extant four-decade record of RS chamber measurements? Here we use a database of worldwide RS observations, matched with high-resolution historical climate data, to show a previously unknown temporal trend in the RS record after accounting for mean annual climate, leaf area, nitrogen deposition, and changes in CO2 measurement technique. Air temperature anomaly (deviation from the 1961-1990 mean) is significantly and positively correlated with changes in RS fluxes; both temperature and precipitation anomalies exert effects in specific biomes. We estimate that the current (2008) annual global RS flux is 9812 Pg and has increased 0.1 Pg yr-1 over the last 20 years, implying a global RS temperature response (Q10) of 1.5. An increasing global RS flux does not necessarily constitute a positive feedback loop to the atmosphere; nonetheless, the available data are consistent with an acceleration of the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to global climate change.

  1. Upscaling of Bio-mediated Soil Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. T. DeJong; B. C. Martinez; B. M. Mortensen; D. C. Nelson; J. T. Waller; M. H. Weil; T. R. Ginn; T. Weathers; T. Barkouki; Y. Fujita; G. Redden; C. Hunt; D. Major; B. Tunyu

    2009-10-01

    As demand for soil improvement continues to increase, new, sustainable, and innocuous methods are needed to alter the mechanical properties of soils. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of bio-mediated soil improvement for geotechnical applications (DeJong et al. 2006, Whiffin et al. 2007). Upscaling the bio-mediated treatment process for in situ implementation presents a number of challenges to be addressed, including soil and pore fluid interactions, bioaugmentation versus biostimulation of microbial communities, controlled distribution of mediated calcite precipitation, and permanence of the cementation. Current studies are utilizing large-scale laboratory experiments, non-destructive geophysical measurements, and modeling, to develop an optimized and predictable bio-mediated treatment method.

  2. Effects of soil moisture on the responses of soil temperatures to climate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    change in cold regions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effects of soil moisture on the responses of soil temperatures to climate change in cold regions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of soil moisture on the responses of soil temperatures to climate change in cold regions Authors: Subin, Z. M. ; Koven, C. D. ; Riley, W. J. ; Torn, M. S. ; Lawrence, D. M. ; Swenson, S. C. Publication Date: 2012-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 1171497 Report Number(s): LBNL-6423E DOE Contract

  3. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  4. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  5. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  6. Formation of Zn-rich phyllosilicate, Zn-layered double hydroxide and hydrozincite in contaminated calcareous soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquat, Olivier; Voegelin, Andreas; Villard, Andre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-10-15

    Recent studies demonstrated that Zn-phyllosilicate- and Zn-layered double hydroxide-type (Zn-LDH) precipitates may form in contaminated soils. However, the influence of soil properties and Zn content on the quantity and type of precipitate forming has not been studied in detail so far. In this work, we determined the speciation of Zn in six carbonate-rich surface soils (pH 6.2 to 7.5) contaminated by aqueous Zn in the runoff from galvanized power line towers (1322 to 30090 mg/kg Zn). Based on 12 bulk and 23 microfocused extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, the number, type and proportion of Zn species were derived using principal component analysis, target testing, and linear combination fitting. Nearly pure Zn-rich phyllosilicate and Zn-LDH were identified at different locations within a single soil horizon, suggesting that the local availabilities of Al and Si controlled the type of precipitate forming. Hydrozincite was identified on the surfaces of limestone particles that were not in direct contact with the soil clay matrix. With increasing Zn loading of the soils, the percentage of precipitated Zn increased from {approx}20% to {approx}80%, while the precipitate type shifted from Zn-phyllosilicate and/or Zn-LDH at the lowest studied soil Zn contents over predominantly Zn-LDH at intermediate loadings to hydrozincite in extremely contaminated soils. These trends were in agreement with the solubility of Zn in equilibrium with these phases. Sequential extractions showed that large fractions of soil Zn ({approx}30% to {approx}80%) as well as of synthetic Zn-kerolite, Zn-LDH, and hydrozincite spiked into uncontaminated soil were readily extracted by 1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} followed by 1 M NH{sub 4}-acetate at pH 6.0. Even though the formation of Zn precipitates allows for the retention of Zn in excess to the adsorption capacity of calcareous soils, the long-term immobilization potential of these precipitates is limited.

  7. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    material (norm), uranium and thorium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit

  8. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Leaching of BTEX from Aged Crude Oil Contaminated Model Soils: Experimental and Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally assumed that soil properties such as organic matter content, porosity, and mineral surface area have a significant effect on the bioavailability and leachability of aged petroleum hydrocarbons. In order to test this hypothesis, nine model soils or sorbents (i.e., fine and coarse quartz sand, montmorillonite and kaolinite clay, peat, 60? and 150? silica gel, a loam soil, and non-porous glass beads) were spiked with a crude oil, aged for 27 months in the laboratory, and transferred to glass columns for the performance of continuous flow leaching experiments. The column effluents were periodically sampled for 43 days and analyzed for BTEX. A one-dimensional flow model for predicting the dissolution and dispersion of individual hydrocarbons from a multi-component NAPL such as crude oil was used to fit the leaching data (i.e., the BTEX concentration versus time curves) by adjusting the equilibrium oil-leachate partitioning coefficient (Kol) for each respective hydrocarbon. The Peclet number, which is a measure of dispersion and a required modeling parameter, was measured in separate chloride tracer experiments for each soil column. Results demonstrate that soil properties did not significantly affect the leaching kinetics of BTEX from the columns. Instead, BTEX leaching curves could be successfully fitted with the one-dimensional NAPL dissolution flow model for all sorbents with the exception of montmorillonite clay. The fitting parameter Kol for each hydrocarbon was found to be similar to the Kol values that were independently measured for the same crude oil by Rixey et al. (Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 65: 137-156, 1999). In addition, the fitted Kol values were very similar for BTEX leaching from aged compared to freshly spiked loam soil. These findings indicate that leaching of BTEX in the aged soils that are contaminated with crude oil at the high concentrations commonly found in the environment (i.e., >20,000 mg/kg) was not affected by soil properties or aging but rather was governed by the equilibrium dissolution of these hydrocarbons from the crude oil NAPL that is coating the soil particles.

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Seismic Soil Structure Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-06-01

    Risk calculations should focus on providing best estimate results, and associated insights, for evaluation and decision-making. Specifically, seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRAs) are intended to provide best estimates of the various combinations of structural and equipment failures that can lead to a seismic induced core damage event. However, in some instances the current SPRA approach has large uncertainties, and potentially masks other important events (for instance, it was not the seismic motions that caused the Fukushima core melt events, but the tsunami ingress into the facility). SPRA’s are performed by convolving the seismic hazard (this is the estimate of all likely damaging earthquakes at the site of interest) with the seismic fragility (the conditional probability of failure of a structure, system, or component given the occurrence of earthquake ground motion). In this calculation, there are three main pieces to seismic risk quantification, 1) seismic hazard and nuclear power plants (NPPs) response to the hazard, 2) fragility or capacity of structures, systems and components (SSC), and 3) systems analysis. Two areas where NLSSI effects may be important in SPRA calculations are, 1) when calculating in-structure response at the area of interest, and 2) calculation of seismic fragilities (current fragility calculations assume a lognormal distribution for probability of failure of components). Some important effects when using NLSSI in the SPRA calculation process include, 1) gapping and sliding, 2) inclined seismic waves coupled with gapping and sliding of foundations atop soil, 3) inclined seismic waves coupled with gapping and sliding of deeply embedded structures, 4) soil dilatancy, 5) soil liquefaction, 6) surface waves, 7) buoyancy, 8) concrete cracking and 9) seismic isolation The focus of the research task presented here-in is on implementation of NLSSI into the SPRA calculation process when calculating in-structure response at the area of interest. The specific nonlinear soil behavior included in the NLSSI calculation presented in this report is gapping and sliding. Other NLSSI effects are not included in the calculation. The results presented in this report document initial model runs in the linear and nonlinear analysis process. Final comparisons between traditional and advanced SPRA will be presented in the September 30th deliverable.

  11. GAMMA DETECTOR RESPONSE/SOIL CONCENTRATION CORRELATION STUDY AT THE AAR MANUFACTURING, INC. SITE, LIVONIA, MICHIGAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2013-03-22

    At the NRC�s request, ORAU conducted surveys of the AAR Manufacturing site during the period of September 25 through September 27, 2012. The survey activities included walkover surveys and sampling activities. Once the survey team was onsite, the NRC personnel decided to forgo survey activities in the �New Addition� and the pickling area. Areas of the planned study boundary were inaccessible due to overgrowth/large pieces of concrete covering the soil surface; therefore, the study boundary was redefined. Gamma walkover scans of the site boundary and �front yard� identified multiple areas of elevated gamma radiation. As a result, two judgmental samples were collected. Sample results were above thorium background levels The answer to the PSQ relating to the relationship between thorium concentration in soil and NaI instrument response is �Yes.� NaI instrument response can be used as a predictor of Th-232 concentration in the 0 to 1 m layer. An R2 value of 0.79 was determined for the surface soil relationship, thus satisfying the DQOs. Moreover, the regression was cross-checked by comparing the predicted Th-232 soil core concentration to the average Th-232 concentration (Section 5.3.2). Based on the cross-check, the regression equation provides a reasonable estimate for the Th-232 concentration at the judgmental locations. Consideration must be given when applying this equation to other soil areas of the site. If the contamination was heterogeneously distributed, and not distributed in a discrete layer as it was in the study area, then using the regression equation to predict Th-232 concentration would not be applicable.

  12. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  13. Bayesian hierarchical models for soil CO{sub 2} flux and leak detection at geologic sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ya-Mei; Small, Mitchell J.; Junker, Brian; Bromhal, Grant S.; Strazisar, Brian; Wells, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Proper characterizations of background soil CO{sub 2} respiration rates are critical for interpreting CO{sub 2} leakage monitoring results at geologic sequestration sites. In this paper, a method is developed for determining temperature-dependent critical values of soil CO{sub 2} flux for preliminary leak detection inference. The method is illustrated using surface CO{sub 2} flux measurements obtained from the AmeriFlux network fit with alternative models for the soil CO{sub 2} flux versus soil temperature relationship. The models are fit first to determine pooled parameter estimates across the sites, then using a Bayesian hierarchical method to obtain both global and site-specific parameter estimates. Model comparisons are made using the deviance information criterion (DIC), which considers both goodness of fit and model complexity. The hierarchical models consistently outperform the corresponding pooled models, demonstrating the need for site-specific data and estimates when determining relationships for background soil respiration. A hierarchical model that relates the square root of the CO{sub 2} flux to a quadratic function of soil temperature is found to provide the best fit for the AmeriFlux sites among the models tested. This model also yields effective prediction intervals, consistent with the upper envelope of the flux data across the modeled sites and temperature ranges. Calculation of upper prediction intervals using the proposed method can provide a basis for setting critical values in CO{sub 2} leak detection monitoring at sequestration sites.

  14. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2011-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energys Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers. Except for occasional times for TC and TD and planned dates for TYB, during FY10, the battery voltage at the TMS and instrument Nests in both T and TY tank farms remained above 12.0 V, denoting that the battery voltages were sufficient for the stations to remain functional. All the HDUs were functioning normally, but some pressure-head values were greater than the upper measurement limit. The values that exceeded the upper limit may indicate wet soil conditions and/or measurement error, but they do not imply a malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 through FY09, in FY10, the soil under natural conditions in the T Farm (Nest TA) was generally recharged during the winter period (OctoberMarch), and they discharged during the summer period (AprilSeptember). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP, and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the TISB was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the TISB (Nests TC and TD), the CP-measured water content showed that ? at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water conditions beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) since the completion of the barrier decreased by 0.007 to 0.014 m3 m-3. The HDU-measured soil-water pressure at 1-m, 2-m, and 5-m depths decreased by 0.7 to 2.4 m, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the TISB (Nest TB), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than in Nests TC and TD; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes at Nest TB since the completion of the barrier were generally less than those at TC and TD, but more than those at TA. These results indicate that the TISB is performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil, and the soil is becoming drier gradually. The barrier also had some effects on the soil below the barrier edge, but at a reduced magnitude. There was no significant difference in soil-water regime between the two nests in the TY tank farm because the barrier at the TY Farm was just completed one month before the end of the FY.

  15. Electrokinetic electrode system for extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-07-25

    An electrokinetic electrode assembly is described for use in extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soil in situ. The assembly includes a housing for retaining a liquid comprising an electrolyte solution, pure water, and soil water, the housing being in part of porous material capable of holding a vacuum. An electrode is mounted in the housing. The housing is provided with a vacuum orifice for effecting a vacuum within the housing selectively to control flow of soil water through the housing into the chamber and to control outflow of the liquid from the chamber. The assembly further includes conduit means for removing the liquid from the housing and returning the electrolyte solution to the housing, and a conduit for admitting pure water to the housing. An electrode system and method are also revealed for extraction of soil contaminants. The system and method utilize at least two electrode assemblies as described above. 5 figs.

  16. Electrokinetic electrode system for extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    1995-01-01

    There is presented an electrokinetic electrode assembly for use in extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soil in situ. The assembly includes a housing for retaining a liquid comprising an electrolyte solution, pure water, and soil water, the housing being in part of porous material capable of holding a vacuum. An electrode is mounted in the housing. The housing is provided with a vacuum orifice for effecting a vacuum within the housing selectively to control flow of soil water through the housing into the chamber and to control outflow of the liquid from the chamber. The assembly further includes conduit means for removing the liquid from the housing and returning the electrolyte solution to the housing, and a conduit for admitting pure water to the housing. There is further presented an electrode system and method for extraction of soil contaminants, the system and method utilizing at least two electrode assemblies as described above.

  17. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  18. Handsfree Surface Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-11-01

    The HANDSFREE SURFACE ANALYSIS software code enables unattended analysis of surfaces by desorption electrospray (DESI) and liquid-junction surface sampling probe (SSP) mass spectrometry. The software allows automated lane scanning, imaging (e.g. lane rastering), spot and array sampling, and array scanning methods by controlling the movement of the sample attached to a computer-controlled stage. The software is able to collect, visualize and analyze mass spectrometry data real-time for surface analysis purposes by interacting with mass spectrometrymore » instrumentation software. The software also enables data post processing for imaging and other analytical purposes. The software also contains image analysis approaches to control the sampling capillary-to-surface distance when used with DESI, and for automated formation and real-time reoptimization of the sampling probe-to-surface liquid microjunction when used with SSP. Control of these distances is essential to automated, hands-free operation of a DESI or SSP mass spectrometry system.« less

  19. Recovery of Depleted Uranium Fragments from Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, C.P.; Alecksen, T.J.; Heronimus, R.S.; Simonds, M.H.; Farrar, D.R.; Baker, K.R.; Miller, M.L.

    2008-07-01

    A cost-effective method was demonstrated for recovering depleted uranium (DU) fragments from soil. A compacted clean soil pad was prepared adjacent to a pile of soil containing DU fragments. Soil from the contaminated pile was placed on the pad in three-inch lifts using conventional construction equipment. Each lift was scanned with an automatic scanning system consisting of an array of radiation detectors coupled to a detector positioning system. The data were downloaded into ArcGIS for data presentation. Areas of the pad exhibiting scaler counts above the decision level were identified as likely locations of DU fragments. The coordinates of these locations were downloaded into a PDA that was wirelessly connected to the positioning system. The PDA guided technicians to the locations where hand-held trowels and shovels were used to remove the fragments. After DU removal, the affected areas were re-scanned and the new data patched into the data base to replace the original data. This new data set along with soil sample results served as final status survey data. (authors)

  20. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.

    1991-03-04

    A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants. This method includes: Placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container; placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours; retrieving the container and collecting its contents; microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to innoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

  1. Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

  2. Adsorption behavior of copper and zinc in soils: Influence of pH on adsorption characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Msaky, J.J. ); Calvet, R. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors studied adsorption of copper and zinc on three different soils: a brown silty soil, an Oxisol, and a Podzol. They determined the amounts adsorbed and the shapes of adsorption isotherms as a function of the pH of the adsorbing medium at a constant ionic strength. The adsorbed amount-pH relationship depended strongly on the natures of the metallic cation and of the soil. The pH greatly influenced the characteristics of adsorption isotherms. They based interpretation on the variations with the pH of both adsorbent affinity for the metal in relation to the surface electric charge and chemical speciation in solution. The adsorption mechanism in the Oxisol probably involves monohydroxylated cations but is more determined by bivalent cations in the brown silty soil and the Podzol. From a general point of view, adsorption of copper and zinc cannot be represented with a single adsorption constant, but should be described by adsorption isotherms obtained at various pH values.

  3. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  4. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  5. Dual surface interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  6. Dual surface interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pardue, Robert M.; Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarter-wave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  7. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Spence, Paul A.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  8. Surface controlled blade stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Larry R.

    1983-01-01

    Drill string stabilizer apparatus, controllable to expand and retract entirely from the surface by control of drill string pressure, wherein increase of drill string pressure from the surface closes a valve to create a piston means which is moved down by drill string pressure to expand the stabilizer blades, said valve being opened and the piston moving upward upon reduction of drill string pressure to retract the stabilizer blades. Upward and downward movements of the piston and an actuator sleeve therebelow are controlled by a barrel cam acting between the housing and the actuator sleeve.

  9. Geochemical Analyses of Surface and Shallow Gas Flux and Composition Over a Proposed Carbon Sequestration Site in Eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Parris; Michael Solis; Kathryn Takacs

    2009-12-31

    Using soil gas chemistry to detect leakage from underground reservoirs (i.e. microseepage) requires that the natural range of soil gas flux and chemistry be fully characterized. To meet this need, soil gas flux (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and the bulk (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and isotopic chemistry ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) of shallow soil gases (<1 m, 3.3 ft) were measured at 25 locations distributed among two active oil and gas fields, an active strip mine, and a relatively undisturbed research forest in eastern Kentucky. The measurements apportion the biologic, atmospheric, and geologic influences on soil gas composition under varying degrees of human surface disturbance. The measurements also highlight potential challenges in using soil gas chemistry as a monitoring tool where the surface cover consists of reclaimed mine land or is underlain by shallow coals. For example, enrichment of ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) and high CH{sub 4} concentrations in soils have been historically used as indicators of microseepage, but in the reclaimed mine lands similar soil chemistry characteristics likely result from dissolution of carbonate cement in siliciclastic clasts having {delta}{sup 13}C values close to 0{per_thousand} and degassing of coal fragments. The gases accumulate in the reclaimed mine land soils because intense compaction reduces soil permeability, thereby impeding equilibration with the atmosphere. Consequently, the reclaimed mine lands provide a false microseepage anomaly. Further potential challenges arise from low permeability zones associated with compacted soils in reclaimed mine lands and shallow coals in undisturbed areas that might impede upward gas migration. To investigate the effect of these materials on gas migration and composition, four 10 m (33 ft) deep monitoring wells were drilled in reclaimed mine material and in undisturbed soils with and without coals. The wells, configured with sampling zones at discrete intervals, show the persistence of some of the aforementioned anomalies at depth. Moreover, high CO{sub 2} concentrations associated with coals in the vadose zone suggest a strong affinity for adsorbing CO{sub 2}. Overall, the low permeability of reclaimed mine lands and coals and CO2 adsorption by the latter is likely to reduce the ability of surface geochemistry tools to detect a microseepage signal.

  10. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed A large ...

  11. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

  12. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation, Barrow, 2013-2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    2015-03-30

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation

  13. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria Title: Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants. This method includes: Placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container; placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours; retrieving the container and collecting its

  14. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation, Barrow, 2013-2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation

  15. Data from one-, two-, and three-dimensional temperature fields in the soil surrounding an earth-sheltered house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bligh, T.P.; Knoth, T.P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents data from one-, two-, and three-dimensional temperature fields in the soil surrounding an earth-sheltered house. The construction and installation of the temperature sensors is discussed, and the sources of error are evaluated. The precision of the measured temperatures is shown to be + or - 0.12/sup 0/C. Twenty-four hours of data from the one-dimensional temperature field in the roof soil are presented in the form of tautochrones. Data from cross-sections of the two- and three-dimensional temperature fields are presented as isotherms taken at approximately one-month intervals during winter and spring. The data show that extended roof insulation impedes heat flow to the ground surface in winter but allows heat to flow to the cool soil depths in summer.

  16. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  17. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childs, Everett L.

    1984-11-06

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  19. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, C.V.

    1991-02-05

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

  20. Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Amchitka Ashtabula Fernald Environmental Management Project Maybell Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Shiprock Slick Rock South Valley Spook Tuba City Weldon Spring Miscellaneous

  1. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Cyril V.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

  2. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  3. Sidewall tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2001-01-01

    A sidewall tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body adapted for insertion into an opening in earthen soil below grade, the body having lateral sidewalls; b) a laterally oriented porous material provided relative to the body lateral sidewalls, the laterally oriented porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body; c) a pressure a sensor in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; and d) sidewall engaging means for engaging a portion of a sidewall of an earth opening to laterally urge the porous material into hydraulic communication with earthen soil of another portion of the opening sidewall. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  4. Wind-induced Ground-surface Pressures Around a Single-Family House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1996-02-01

    Wind induces a ground-surface pressure field around a building that can substantially affect the flow of soil gas and thereby the entry of radon and other soil-gas contaminants into the building. To quantify the effect of the wind-induced groundsurface pressure field on contaminant entry rates, the mean ground-surface pressure field was experimentally measured in a wind tunnel for several incidence angles of the wind, two atmospheric boundary layers, and two house geometries. The experimentally measured ground-surface pressure fields are compared with those predicted by a k-e turbulence model. Despite the fundamental limitations in applying a k-e model to a system with flow separation, predictions from the numerical simulations were good for the two wind incidence angles tested.

  5. Surface contamination detection by means of near-infrared stimulation of thermal luminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrieri, Arthur H.; Roese, Erik S

    2006-02-01

    A method for remotely detecting liquid chemical contamination on terrestrial surfaces is presented. Concurrent to irradiation by an absorbing near-infrared beam, the subject soil medium liberates radiance called thermal luminescence (TL) comprising middle-infrared energies (numir) that is scanned interferometrically in beam duration tau. Cyclic states of absorption and emission by the contaminant surrogate are rendered from a sequential differential-spectrum measurement [deltaS(numir,tau)] of the scanned TL. Detection of chemical warfare agent simulant wetting soil is performed in this manner, for example, through pattern recognition of its unique, thermally dynamic, molecular vibration resonance bands on display in the deltaS(numir,tau) metric.

  6. Letter: Preliminary Sampling for Surface Soil at the Katy Trail Area.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  7. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2 pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, COsub 2 ... 2 pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, COsub 2 ...

  8. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas; Klann, Raymond

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  9. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energys (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercurys toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size from friction of the soil mixing, which creates more surface area for chemical conversion. This was corroborated by the fact that the same waste loading pre-treated by ball milling to reduce particle size prior to SPSS processing yielded TCLP concentrations almost 30 times lower, and at 8.5 ppb Hg was well below EPA limits. Pre-treatment by ball milling also allowed a reduction in the time required for stabilization, thus potentially reducing total process times by 30%.Additional performance testing was conducted including measurement of compressive strength to confirm mechanical integrity and immersion testing to determine the potential impacts of storage or disposal under saturated conditions. For both surrogate and actual Y-12 treated soils, waste form compressive strengths ranged between 2,300 and 6,500 psi, indicating very strong mechanical integrity (a minimum of greater than 40 times greater than the NRC guidance for low-level radioactive waste). In general, compressive strength increases with waste loading as the soil acts as an aggregate in the sulfur concrete waste forms. No statistically significant loss in strength was recorded for the 30 and 40 wt% surrogate waste samples and only a minor reduction in strength was measured for the 43 wt% waste forms. The 30 wt% Y-12 soil did not show a significant loss in strength but the 50 wt% samples were severely degraded in immersion due to swelling of the clay soil. The impact on Hg leaching, if any, was not determined.

  10. Chemical changes to nonagrregtaed particulate soil organic matter following grassland-to woodland transition ina subtropical savanna.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.; Jastrow, J. D.; Gamblin, D. E.; Biosciences Division; Purdue Univ.; Texas A&M

    2008-07-19

    Encroachment of thorn woodlands into grasslands of southern Texas has resulted in greater aboveground and belowground biomass and greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Our previous studies showed that a large percentage of the SOC accrued under invading woody clusters was not stabilized within protective soil aggregates or on mineral-surfaces. Here we evaluated lignin and cutin- and suberin-derived substituted fatty acid (SFA) chemistry to determine if the accrual of nonaggregated particulate organic matter (POM) in woodlands was promoted by inherently greater recalcitrance of tissues from woody versus grass species, and if there was selective input of aboveground versus belowground plant carbon to POM. Woody clusters exhibited reduced concentrations of cutin-derived SFA and cinnamyl phenols within surface litter compared to fresh aboveground plant material. However, root litter exhibited relatively minor changes in biopolymer chemistry compared to fresh root tissue, suggesting it was either more stable or was refreshed at a greater rate. Between 14 and 105 years of woody plant encroachment, SFA in free POM fractions appeared to be consistently derived from root material while SFA within intraaggregate POM were increasingly derived from cutin sources. In addition, the shift from herbaceous to woody input was accompanied by enrichment in the amount of cutin and suberin-derived aliphatics with respect to lignin in both root and surface litter as well as nonaggregated POM. Woody plant encroachment at this site results in the rapid accrual of POM pools that are biochemically recalcitrant, providing a mechanism by which soil organic carbon can accumulate in this sandy soil system. Our results also lend further credence to the hypothesis that aliphatic biopolymers, particularly root-derived suberin, are important components of long-term soil organic carbon stabilization.

  11. Apparatus for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil in a manner adapted to decompose the organic compounds; one embodiment of the apparatus comprises a means to supply ozone as a gas-ozone mixture, a stability means to treat ozone obtained from the supply and distribution means to apply the stabilized gas-ozone to soil. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  12. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  13. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, L.M.

    1996-04-30

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

  14. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright; Karen E.; Cooper, David C.; Peterman, Dean R.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Tripp, Julia L.; Hull, Laurence C.

    2011-03-29

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  15. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takacs, Peter Z.; Qian, Shi-Nan

    1989-01-01

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  16. Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

  17. Predicting the Spectral Effects of Soils on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, Patrick D.; King, Bruce Hardison; Riley, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    The soiling losses on high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV) systems may be influenced by the spectral properties of accumulated soil. We predicted the response of an isotype cell to changes in spectral content and reduction in transmission due to soiling using measured UV/vis transmittance through soil films. Artificial soil test blends deposited on glass coupons were used to supply the transmission data, which was then used to calculate the effect on model spectra. Moreover, the wavelength transparency of the test soil was varied by incorporating red and yellow mineral pigments into graded sand. The more spectrally responsive (yellow) soils were predicted to alter the current balance between the top and middle subcells throughout a range of air masses corresponding to daily and seasonal variation.

  18. Predicting the Spectral Effects of Soils on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burton, Patrick D.; King, Bruce Hardison; Riley, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    The soiling losses on high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV) systems may be influenced by the spectral properties of accumulated soil. We predicted the response of an isotype cell to changes in spectral content and reduction in transmission due to soiling using measured UV/vis transmittance through soil films. Artificial soil test blends deposited on glass coupons were used to supply the transmission data, which was then used to calculate the effect on model spectra. Moreover, the wavelength transparency of the test soil was varied by incorporating red and yellow mineral pigments into graded sand. The more spectrally responsive (yellow) soils were predictedmore » to alter the current balance between the top and middle subcells throughout a range of air masses corresponding to daily and seasonal variation.« less

  19. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the inter-aggregate and intra-aggregate pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates was larger than 18 micron. Inter-aggregate pores continued to be the dominant flow pathways even at much smaller spacing; intra-aggregate flow was less than 10% of the total flow when the inter- and intra-aggregate pore sizes were comparable. Such studies are making it possible to identify which model upscaling assumptions are realistic and what computational methods are required for detailed numerical investigation of microbial carbon cycling dynamics in soil systems.

  20. Surface energy fluxes at Central Florida during the convection and precipitation electrification experiment. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, D.; Demetriades-shah, T.D.; Kanemasu, E.T.

    1993-04-01

    One of the objectives of CaPE is to better understand the convective process in central and south Florida during the warm season. The energy and moisture exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere are closely related to this process. Some recent studies have shown that the surface energy balance plays an important role in the climatic fields (Shukla and Mintz; Sud and Smith; Sato et. al). Surface energy fluxes and related surface processes such as evapotranspiration and sensible heat transfer directly effect the temperature, humidity, cloud formation and precipitation. For example, mesoscale circulation around a discontinuity in vegetation type were shown to be stronger with wet soil than with dry soil using an evapotranspiration model (Pinty et. al). In order to better describe the processes in the atmosphere at various scales and improve the ability of modeling and predicting weather related events, it is crucial to understand the mechanism of surface energy transfer in relation to atmospheric events. Surface energy flux measurements are required to fully understand the interactions between the atmosphere and the surface.

  1. Remediation of Soil at Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, R.; Boardman, C.; Robbins, R; Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2000-03-01

    As the major nuclear waste and decontamination and decommissioning projects progress, one of the remaining problems that faces the nuclear industry is that of site remediation. The range of contamination levels and contaminants is wide and varied and there is likely to be a significant volume of soil contaminated with transuranics and hazardous organic materials that could qualify as mixed TRU waste. There are many technologies that offer the potential for remediating this waste but few that tackle all or most of the contaminants and even fewer that have been deployed with confidence. This paper outlines the progress made in proving the ability of Supercritical Fluid Extraction as a method of remediating soil, classified as mixed (TRU) transuranic waste.

  2. Remediation of soil at nuclear sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Holmes; C. Boardman; R. Robbins; R. Fox; B. J. Mincher

    2000-02-28

    As the major nuclear waste and decontamination and decommissioning projects progress, one of the remaining problems that faces the nuclear industry is that of site remediation. The range of contamination levels and contaminants is wide and varied and there is likely to be a significant volume of soil contaminated with transuranics and hazardous organic materials that could qualify as mixed TRU waste. There are many technologies that offer the potential for remediating this waste but few that tackle all or most of the contaminants and even fewer that have been deployed with confidence. This paper outlines the progress made in proving the ability of Supercritical Fluid Extraction as a method of remediating soil, classified as mixed (TRU) transuranic waste

  3. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1980-06-16

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a beam of coherent light of two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency constantly greater than the other by a fixed amount to produce a difference frequency with a constant phase to be used as a reference, and splitting the beam into its two components. The separate components are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object to be tested for smoothness while the face of the object is rotated on an axis normal to one point, thereby passing the other component over a circular track on the face of the object. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a reflected frequency difference of a phase proportional to the difference in path length of one component reflected from one point to the other component reflected from the other point. The phase of the reflected frequency difference is compared with the reference phase to produce a signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track with respect to the fixed point at the center, thereby to produce a signal that is plotted as a profile of the surface along the circular track. The phase detector includes a quarter-wave plate to convert the components of the reference beam into circularly polarized components, a half-wave plate to shift the phase of the circularly polarized components, and a polarizer to produce a signal of a shifted phase for comparison with the phase of the frequency difference of the reflected components detected through a second polarizer. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360/sup 0/ range.

  4. Stability at the surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-12-05

    Metal oxides are ubiquitous as minerals in the terrestrial environment, as well as in a variety of technologically important structures such as electronic devices and heterogeneous catalysts. Within these various contexts, interfaces between oxides and gases, liquids and solids drive many critically important phenomena ranging from the uptake of contaminants in groundwater by redox-active minerals to the switching of the millions of transistors found in every cell phone and computer. Function is tied to structure. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the structure of oxide surfaces and interfaces is of crucial importance to the comprehension of a plethora of phenomena involving this broad class of materials.

  5. TREATMENT OF URANIUM SURFACES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slunder, C.J.

    1959-02-01

    An improved process is presented for prcparation of uranium surfaces prior to electroplating. The surfacc of the uranium to be electroplated is anodized in a bath comprising a solution of approximately 20 to 602 by weight of phosphoric acid which contains about 20 cc per liter of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Anodization is carried out for approximately 20 minutes at a current density of about 0.5 amperes per square inch at a temperature of about 35 to 45 C. The oxidic film produced by anodization is removed by dipping in strong nitric acid, followed by rinsing with water just prior to electroplating.

  6. Plant stimulation of soil microbial community succession: how sequential expression mediates soil carbon stabilization and turnover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Mary

    2015-03-31

    It is now understood that most plant C is utilized or transformed by soil microorganisms en route to stabilization. Hence the composition of microbial communities that mediate decomposition and transformation of root C is critical, as are the metabolic capabilities of these communities. The change in composition and function of the C-transforming microbial communities over time in effect defines the biological component of soil C stabilization. Our research was designed to test 2 general hypotheses; the first two hypotheses are discussed first; H1: Root-exudate interactions with soil microbial populations results in the expression of enzymatic capacities for macromolecular, complex carbon decomposition; and H2: Microbial communities surrounding roots undergo taxonomic succession linked to functional gene activities as roots grow, mature, and decompose in soil. Over the term of the project we made significant progress in 1) quantifying the temporal pattern of root interactions with the soil decomposing community and 2) characterizing the role of root exudates in mediating these interactions.

  7. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    1994-01-01

    A method for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants comprising the steps of placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container, placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours, retrieving the container, collecting the contents of the container, and microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to inoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

  8. Effects of surface mining on aquatic resources in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starnes, L.B.; Gasper, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    Surface mining is highly visible land use because it temporarily eliminates surface vegetation and can permanently change topography as with mountain-top removal and valley fill operations. It also permanently and drastically alters soil and subsurface geologic structure and disrupts surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes. The American Fisheries Society (AFS) encourages energy conservation, use of renewable resources, and recycling to minimize the need for non-renewable minerals and fuels that are obtained through mining processes. When mining occurs, it is AFS policy to encourage legislation and diligent regulation of all surface mining by local, state, province, and federal government to provide adequate protection for aquatic resources. Federal legislation provides uniformity of standards nationwide. While the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act has attempted to minimize environmental impacts from coal mining, similar legislation and enforcement should be encourages for other minerals. The Society encourages its members to become involved in this process by providing technical information essential for protection and continued propagation of fishery resources to policy makers so decisions are made on a scientific, rather than emotional or political basis.

  9. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a beam of coherent light of two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency constantly greater than the other by a fixed amount to produce a difference frequency with a constant phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components with the separate components directed onto spaced apart points onthe face of the object to be tested for smoothness. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component which is directed to the face of the object at the center which constitutes a virtual fixed point. This component also is used as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a reflected frequency difference of a phase proportional to the difference in path length which is compared with the reference phase to produce a signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track with respect to the fixed point at the center.

  10. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a laser beam having two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency greater than the other to produce a difference frequency with a phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components which are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a difference frequency having a phase that is shifted in an amount that is proportional to the difference in path length as compared to the reference phase to produce an electrical output signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track. The output signal is generated by means of a phase detector that includes a first photodetector in the path of the recombined components and a second photodetector in the path of the reference phase. The output signal is dependent on the phase difference of the two photodetector signals. A polarizer, a quarter-wave plate and a half-wave plate are in series in the path of the reference phase. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360.degree. range for initial calibration of the apparatus.

  11. Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Authors: Mason, H E ; Harley, S J ; Maxwell, R S ; Carroll, S A Publication Date: 2011-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1107317 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-520237

  12. Surface tension of spherical drops from surface of tension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homman, A.-A.; Bourasseau, E.; Malfreyt, P.; Strafella, L.; Ghoufi, A.

    2014-01-21

    The determination of surface tension of curved interfaces is a topic that raised many controversies during the last century. Explicit liquid-vapor interface modelling (ELVI) was unable up to now to reproduce interfacial behaviors in drops due to ambiguities in the mechanical definition of the surface tension. In this work, we propose a thermodynamic approach based on the location of surface of tension and its use in the Laplace equation to extract the surface tension of spherical interfaces from ELVI modelling.

  13. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  14. A dual phased approach for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, N.D.; Maher, A.; Buckallew, B.

    1994-12-31

    A case study will be presented to demonstrate an effective and timely method of site remediation which yields complete contaminant destruction rather than the contaminant transfer that traditional ground water extraction and treatment techniques result in. By utilizing bioremediation at this site, the client was able to completely degrade the contamination beneath the property, and in the process avoid future liability from transfer of the contamination to another party (i.e. landfill) or phase (i.e. liquid to vapor through air stripping). The provisions of a real estate transaction involving a former service station site in Central Iowa stipulated that the site be remediated prior to title transfer. Previous Environmental Investigative activities revealed significant soil and ground water contamination resulting from over 50 years of diesel and gasoline fuel storage and dispensing operations at the site. Microbial Environmental Services, Inc. (MES) utilized a dual phased bioremediation approach to meet regulatory clean-up guidelines in order for a timely property transfer to occur. To facilitate and expedite ground water remediation, contaminated soil was excavated and remediated via Advanced Biological Surface Treatment (ABST) techniques. ABST techniques are utilized by MES to treat excavated soil in closed cell to control emissions and treatment conditions. Following contaminant source removal, ground water was extracted and treated in a submerged, fixed film, flow through 1,000 gallon fixed film bioreactor at a rate of 2.5 gallons per minute.

  15. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

  16. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

  17. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugger, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  18. Tunable surface plasmon devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Eric A.; Wasserman, Daniel

    2011-08-30

    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  19. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1984-06-26

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a laser beam having two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency greater than the other to produce a difference frequency with a phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components which are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a difference frequency having a phase that is shifted in an amount that is proportional to the difference in path length as compared to the reference phase to produce an electrical output signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track. The output signal is generated by means of a phase detector that includes a first photodetector in the path of the recombined components and a second photodetector in the path of the reference phase. The output signal is dependent on the phase difference of the two photodetector signals. A polarizer, a quarter-wave plate and a half-wave plate are in series in the path of the reference phase. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360[degree] range for initial calibration of the apparatus. 12 figs.

  20. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2007-12-31

    This research project was aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of RMS and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. Restoration of disturbed land is followed by the application of nutrients to the soil to promote the vegetation development. Reclamation is important both for preserving the environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. Since reclamation treatments have significant influence on the rate of soil development, a study on subplots was designed with the objectives of assessing the potential of different biosolids on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate, soil development, and changes in soil physical and water transmission properties. All sites are owned and maintained by American Electric Power (AEP). These sites were reclaimed by two techniques: (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover.

  1. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    management in eucalyptus plantations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi

  2. Overview of different aspects of climate change effects on soils.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-08-01

    Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (≥400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2 and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils, are the subject of active current investigations with great concern over the influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries and identifies key research needs required to understand the effects of climate change on soils.

  3. PROJECT PROFILE: Addressing Soiling: From Interface Chemistry to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Practicality | Department of Energy Addressing Soiling: From Interface Chemistry to Practicality PROJECT PROFILE: Addressing Soiling: From Interface Chemistry to Practicality Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $6,000,000 Natural soiling is responsible for about 4% output power loss and may be adding one cent per kilowatt hour to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) depending on the site.

  4. Convergence of microbial assimilations of soil carbon, nitrogen,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    phosphorus, and sulfur in terrestrial ecosystems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Convergence of microbial assimilations of soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in terrestrial ecosystems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Convergence of microbial assimilations of soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in terrestrial ecosystems How soil microbes assimilate carbon-C, nitrogen-N, phosphorus-P, and sulfur-S is fundamental for understanding nutrient cycling in

  5. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

    1997-12-16

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

  6. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jerry R.; Downs, Wayne C.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Hall, H. James

    1997-01-01

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

  7. Microsoft Word - Appendix C - Soil Disturbance Evaluation Procedure.docx

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Rocky Flats Site Soil Disturbance Evaluation Procedure This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats Site Operations Guide July 2013 Doc. No. S03037-6.0 Page C-1 Soil Disturbance Evaluation Process Purpose: The purpose of this Soil Disturbance Evaluation Process is to identify hazards and regulatory requirements so that appropriate work control steps, including regulatory agency and/or engineering approvals, are implemented to address and mitigate the hazard and/or

  8. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  9. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  10. Development of Surface Complexation Models of Cr(VI) Adsorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cr(VI) Adsorption on Soils, Sediments and Model Mixtures of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, ... into aquifers and shallow sediments and soils via many anthropogenic activities. ...

  11. Soil Separator and Sampler and Method of Sampling - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil Separator and Sampler and Method of Sampling Fluidized Bed system Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has developed a...

  12. Soil Sampling At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Alan & G., 1977...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Brawley Geothermal Area (Alan & G., 1977) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Sampling At North Brawley Geothermal Area...

  13. Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared By Terry Brown, Jeffrey Morris, Patrick Richards and Joel...

  14. Soil Sampling At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    studies through the University of Alaska Fairbanks' Geophysical Institute. Notes Mercury soil sampling correlated with the measured thermal anomaly (Biggar 1973) in the...

  15. Soil Sampling At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ringrose...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    approximately 1000 ft to the NE of the sample area to account for background soil mercury concentrations. Sample lines were designed to cross known nearby structural features...

  16. The soil microbiome influences grapevine-associated microbiota

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; et al

    2015-03-24

    Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterialmore » reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management.« less

  17. Soil Gas Sampling At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Gas Sampling At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  18. Soil mercury investigations, Waunita Hot Springs | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report: Soil mercury investigations, Waunita Hot Springs Authors C. D. Ringrose and R. H. Pearl Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S. Department...

  19. The soil microbiome influences grapevine-associated microbiota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-03-24

    Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterial reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management.

  20. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear...

  1. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  2. Soil Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Nash & D., 1997...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Nash & D., 1997) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area...

  3. Status of Baseline Sampling for Elements in Soil and Vegetation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    facility indicate that there are not significant differences in soil residue levels of lithium and manganese between the 50 sites. However, there are significant difference between...

  4. A Soil Gas Survey Over Rotorua Geothermal Field, Rotorua, New...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rotorua Geothermal Field, Rotorua, New Zealand Abstract Soil gases have been used as an exploration tool for minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy, through the detection...

  5. Mercury In Soils Of The Long Valley, California, Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Additional samples were collected in an analysis of variance design to evaluate natural variability in soil composition with sampling interval distance. The primary...

  6. Weldon Spring Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Weldon Spring Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Weldon Spring Site - Chemical Plant East Plume PDF icon Weldon Spring Site - Chemical Plant Quarry PDF icon ...

  7. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial ...

  8. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the ... Publisher: Public Library of Science Research Org: CTCCR; FCB; RSP; GMC; ASR; JMT ...

  9. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential ... 1; Conference: NuSTEC2014: Nuclear Science, Technology, and Engineering Conference ...

  10. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. The present invention relates to a system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. ...

  11. Performance of Damaged Soil-Concrete Wraparound Dam Sections...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 58 ... PERFORMANCE; SHEAR; SOILS; STABILITY; TESTING; TRANSPORT; TURBULENT FLOW; VALIDATION; ...

  12. Soil Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Cox, 1981...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the area. Mercury concentrations are dependent on factors such as soil development, ph., ground gasses, and organic content, so linking the measurements with geothermal...

  13. Soil Sampling At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Sampling At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  14. ARM - Evaluation Product - Critical soil quantities for describing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsCritical soil quantities for describing land properties ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file...

  15. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  16. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Barry H. [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  17. Performance of Damaged Soil-Concrete Wraparound Dam Sections...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting seismic or shock loading damage of the soil-concrete interface where an ... erosion process, and deposition within interface cracks; and (2) to investigate the ...

  18. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GROUND WATER; REMEDIAL ACTION; SOILS; METALS; INVENTIONS; CONTAMINATION; SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT; PUBLIC ...

  19. Microbial communities acclimate to recurring changes in soil...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbial communities acclimate to recurring changes in soil redox potential status Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbial communities acclimate to recurring changes...

  20. Microbial Mechanisms Enhancing Soil C Storage (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Microbial Mechanisms Enhancing Soil C Storage Human activity has globally increased ... of which could be influenced by the input of human-derived N from the atmosphere. ...

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D.; Sawada, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  2. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  3. Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to determine gross dissolution efficiency. This approach does not allow any conclusion regarding the possible advantage of sonication in selective dissolution of plutonium traces incorporated into an inorganic or organic fraction of the samples.

  4. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Mattson, E.D.; Sisson, J.B.

    1998-06-02

    A tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, (a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; (b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; (c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; (d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and (e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: (1) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and (2) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus. 6 figs.

  5. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1997-07-08

    A portable tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, (a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; (b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; (c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; (d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; (e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; (f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and (g) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed. 12 figs.

  6. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1997-01-01

    A portable tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and c) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  7. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Mattson, Earl D.; Sisson, James B.

    1998-01-01

    A tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: i) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and ii) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus.

  8. Soil Characterization at the Linde FUSRAP Site and the Impact on Soil Volume Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2002-02-27

    The former Linde site in Tonawanda, New York is currently undergoing active remediation of Manhattan Engineering District's radiological contamination. This remediation is authorized under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The focus of this paper will be to describe the impact of soil characterization efforts as they relate to soil volume estimates and project cost estimates. An additional objective is to stimulate discussion about other characterization and modeling technologies, and to provide a ''Lessons Learned'' scenario to assist in future volume estimating at other FUSRAP sites. Initial soil characterization efforts at the Linde FUSRAP site in areas known to be contaminated or suspected to be contaminated were presented in the Remedial Investigation Report for the Tonawanda Site, dated February 1993. Results of those initial characterization efforts were the basis for soil volume estimates that were used to estimate and negotiate the current remediation contract. During the course of remediation, previously unidentified areas of contamination were discovered, and additional characterization was initiated. Additional test pit and geoprobe samples were obtained at over 500 locations, bringing the total to over 800 sample locations at the 135-acre site. New data continues to be collected on a routine basis during ongoing remedial actions.

  9. Surface mount component jig

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  10. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood. The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6) we investigated the biogeochemical controls on the release of mercury in simulated flooding experiments using loose soils and intact soil cores from East Fork Poplar Creek.

  11. Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces R. L. Coulter J. D. Shannon T. J. Martin Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 In a multilaboratory field study held near Boardman in northeastern Oregon in June 1991 and described in greater detail elsewhere (Doran et al. 1991), various properties of the surface and lower atmospheric boundary layer over heavily irrigated cropland and adjacent desert steppe were investigated. The locale was selected because its disparate

  12. Stabilizing soft fine-grained soils with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edil, T.B.; Acosta, H.A.; Benson, C.H.

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-cementing fly ashes derived from combustion of subbituminous coal at electric power plants for stabilization of soft fine-grained soils. California bearing ratio (CBR) and resilient modulus (M{sub r}) tests were conducted on mixtures prepared with seven soft fine-grained soils (six inorganic soils and one organic soil) and four fly ashes. The soils were selected to represent a relatively broad range of plasticity, with plasticity indices ranging between 15 and 38. Two of the fly ashes are high quality Class C ashes (per ASTM C 618) that are normally used in Portland cement concrete. The other ashes are off-specification ashes, meaning they do not meet the Class C or Class F criteria in ASTM C 618. Tests were conducted on soils and soil-fly ash mixtures prepared at optimum water content (a standardized condition), 7% wet of optimum water content (representative of the typical in situ condition in Wisconsin), and 9-18% wet of optimum water content (representative of a very wet in situ condition). Addition of fly ash resulted in appreciable increases in the CBR and M{sub r} of the inorganic soils. For water contents 7% wet of optimum, CBRs of the soils alone ranged between 1 and 5. Addition of 10% fly ash resulted in CBRs ranging between 8 and 17, and 18% fly ash resulted in CBRs between 15 and 31. Similarly, M{sub r} of the soil alone ranged between 3 and 15 MPa at 7% wet of optimum, whereas addition of 10% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 12 and 60 MPa and 18% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 51 and 106 MPa. In contrast, except for one fly ash, addition of fly ash generally had little effect on CBR or M{sub r} of the organic soil.

  13. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS Soil vapor extraction ...

  14. Method of modifying a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renk, Timothy J.; Sorensen, Neil R.; Senft, Donna Cowell; Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G.; Thompson, Michael O.; Grabowski, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  15. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  16. Method for mobilization of hazardous metal ions in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Pfister, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    A microbial process for removing heavy metals such as bismuth, cadmium, lead, thorium, uranium and other transuranics from soils and sediments, utilizing indigenous, or isolates of indigenous, microorganisms and reducing agents, such as cysteine or sodium thioglycollate, or complexing agents such as the amino acid glycine, to effect the mobilization or release of the metals from the soil particles.

  17. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  18. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. In particular the present invention relates to stabilizing toxic metals in groundwater and soil. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  19. Role of soil microbial processes in integrated pest management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play a significant role in the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles in nature and are critical to the functioning of ecosystems. Microorganisms affect plant growth directly by regulating the availability of plant nutrients in soil, or indirectly by affecting the population dynamics of plant pathogens in soil. Any adverse effect on soil microorganisms or on the microbial processes will affect the soil fertility, availability of plant nutrients and the overall biogeochemical cycling of elements in nature. Soil microorganisms are responsible for the degradation and detoxification of pesticides; they control many insect pests, nematodes, and other plant pathogenic microorganisms by parasitism, competition, production of antibiotics and other toxic substances. Also, they regulate the availability of major and minor nutrients as well as essential elements. The long-term effects of continuous and, in some instances, excessive application of pesticides on soil fertility is not fully understood. Although much information is available on the integrated pest management (IPM) system, we have very little understanding of the extent of soil microbial processes which modulate the overall effectiveness of various strategies employed in IPM. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the key microbial processes and their relationship to the IPM system.

  20. Pilot-Scale Testing of In Situ Vitrification of Arnold Engineering Development Center Site 10 Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timmerman, C. L.; Peterson, M. E.

    1990-02-01

    Process verification testing using in situ vitrification (ISV) was successfully performed in a pilot-scale test using soils containing fuel oils and heavy metals from Site 10 Installation Restoration Program (IRP) at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) located in the southern portion of middle Tennessee. This effort was directed through the U.S. Department of Energy ' s Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) Office managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soils and wastes into a durable product containing glass and crystalline phases. During processing, heavy metals or other inorganic constituents are retained and immobilized in the glass structure; organic constituents are typically destroyed or removed and captured by the off-gas treatment system. The objective of this test is to verify the applicability of the ISV process for stabilization of the contaminated soil at Site 10 . The pilotscale ISV testing results, reported herein, indicate that the AEDC Site 10 Fire Training Area may be successfully processed by ISV. Site 10 is a fire training pit that is contaminated with fuel oils and heavy metals from fire training exercises. Actual site material was processed by ISV to verify its feasible application to those soils . Initial feasibility bench-scale testing and analyses of the soils determined that a lower-melting, electrically conductive fluxing additive (such as sodium carbonate) is required as an additive to the soil for ISV processing to work effecti vely. The actual Site 10 soils showed a larger degree of compositional variation than the soil used for the bench-scale test . This variation dictates that each vitrification setting should be analyzed to determine the composition as. a function of depth and location . This data will dictate the amount (if any) of fluxing add itives of sodium and calci um to bring the melt composition to the recommended quantity of 5 wt% sodium and 5 wt% calcium oxide. Each variable additive adjustment would result in a vitrification melt composition of 5 wt% calcium and sodium oxide content . The pilot -scale operation created a vitrified block weighing 15 metric t onnes (t) and measuring 1.5 m (5 ft) deep and 2.4 m (8 ft) on each side. The quantity of fluxing additives and the method of placing the fluxing additives in the surface cover soil limited the operating electrical system providing power to the ISV melt. The power limitation created enhanced lateral growth of the block and resulted in a shallower depth . This method of adding fluxes demonstrated that ISV operating efficiency would be greatly improved if the fluxes were injected or mixed with the entire designated vitrification volume. However, the volume vitrified contained a sufficient quantity of hazardous contaminants to allow for an effective verification evaluation of ISV processing of the AEDC Site 10. Analytical efforts for this project were directed towards evaluating the organic destruction and thermal transport effects of ISV processing on the Site 10 contaminated soil. No thermal transport of hydrocarbon contaminants to the surrounding soil were detected. These results continue to confirm the organic destruction and nontransport mechanisms presented in this report . Off-gas releases of the hydrocarbons indicated an 89 wt% destruction efficiency by the ISV process exclusive of off-gas treatment. The destruction and removal efficiency of the overall ISV system was 99.85 wt%. Leach testing using extraction procedure (EP) toxicity and toxic characteristics leach procedure (TCLP) showed that all metals of concern were below leach testing release limits, indicating that the ISV process produces a nonhazardous product . These favorable results indicate that ISV can be used to effectively treat and remediate the contaminated soils at the AEDC Site 10 .

  1. Calcium Stabilized And Geogrid Reinforced Soil Structures In Seismic Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimoldi, Pietro; Intra, Edoardo

    2008-07-08

    In many areas of Italy, and particularly in high seismic areas, there is no or very little availability of granular soils: hence embankments and retaining structures are often built using the locally available fine soil. For improving the geotechnical characteristics of such soils and/or for building steep faced structures, there are three possible techniques: calcium stabilization, geogrid reinforcement, and the combination of both ones, that is calcium stabilized and reinforced soil. The present paper aims to evaluate these three techniques in terms of performance, design and construction, by carrying out FEM modeling and stability analyses of the same reference embankments, made up of soil improved with each one of the three techniques, both in static and dynamic conditions. Finally two case histories are illustrated, showing the practical application of the above outlined techniques.

  2. In situ formation of phosphate barriers in soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Reactive barriers and methods for making reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil ontaminants including actinides and heavy metals. The barrier includes phosphate, and techniques are disclosed for forming specifically apatite barriers. The method includes injecting dilute reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source such as a waste drum to achieve complete or partial encapsulation of the waste. Controlled temperature and pH facilitates rapid formation of apatite, for example, where dilute aqueous calcium chloride and dilute aqueous sodium phosphate are the selected reagents. Mixing of reagents to form precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  3. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HTML: SurfaceSub-surface dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface...

  4. Title Plutonium Mobility in Soil and Uptake in Plants: A Review...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... 98.2% of the adsorbed plutonium on soil samples from equilibrated solutions of plutonium ... possible plutonium mobility in the soil beneath one of the subsurface storage cribs. ...

  5. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  6. Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne; Etyemezian, Vicken; Shillito, Rose; Cablk, Mary; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Shafer, David

    2013-10-01

    The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil hydrophobicity (water repellency) was noted on burned understory soils up to 12 months after the fire, as was the presence of ash on the soil surface. Soil deteriorated from a strong, definable pre-fire structure to a weakly cohesive mass (unstructured soil) immediately after the fire. Surface soil structure was evident 34 months after the fire at both burned and unburned sites, but was rare and weaker at burned sites. The amount of runoff and sediment was highly variable, but runoff occurred more frequently at burned interspace sites compared to burned understory and unburned interspace sites up to 34 months after the burn. No discernible pattern was evident on the amount of sediment transported, but the size of sediment from burned understory sites was almost double that of burned and unburned interspace soils after the fire, and decreased over the monitoring period. Curve numbers, a measure of the runoff potential, did not indicate any obvious runoff response to the fire. However, slight seasonal changes in curve numbers and runoff potential and, therefore, post-fire runoff response may be a function of fire impacts as well as the time of year that precipitation occurs. Site (interspace or understory) differences in soil properties and runoff persisted even after the fire. Vegetation data showed the presence of invasive grasses after the fire. Results from analysis of wind and water coupled with the spatial analysis of vegetation suggest that wind erosion may continue to occur due to the additional exposed soil surface (burned understory sites) until vegetation becomes re-established, and runoff may occur more frequently in interspace sites. The potential for fire-related wind erosion and water erosion may persist beyond three years in this system.

  7. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  8. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  9. Complexation of Mercury(II) in Soil Organic Matter: EXAFS Evidence for Linear Two-Coordination with Reduced Sulfur Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skyllberg,U.; Bloom, P.; Qian, J.; Lin, C.; Bleam, W.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg) is to a great extent controlling biologically mediated processes, such as mercury methylation, in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Of utmost importance are complexation reactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM), indirectly determining concentrations of bioavailable, inorganic Hg species. Two previous extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies have revealed that reduced organic sulfur (S) and oxygen/nitrogen (O/N) groups are involved in the complexation of Hg(II) to humic substances extracted from organic soils. In this work, covering intact organic soils and extending to much lower concentrations of Hg than before, we show that Hg is complexed by two reduced organic S groups (likely thiols) at a distance of 2.33 Angstroms in a linear configuration. Furthermore, a third reduced S (likely an organic sulfide) was indicated to contribute with a weaker second shell attraction at a distance of 2.92-3.08 Angstroms. When all high-affinity S sites, corresponding to 20-30% of total reduced organic S, were saturated, a structure involving one carbonyl-O or amino-N at 2.07 Angstroms and one carboxyl-O at 2.84 Angstroms in the first shell, and two second shell C atoms at an average distance of 3.14 Angstroms, gave the best fit to data. Similar results were obtained for humic acid extracted from an organic wetland soil. We conclude that models that are in current use to describe the biogeochemistry of mercury and to calculate thermodynamic processes need to include a two-coordinated complexation of Hg(II) to reduced organic sulfur groups in NOM in soils and waters.

  10. Relations between rainfall amount, soil moisture and landslides in Hamilton County, Ohio, measured by strain survey and tensiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel, B.; Mayer, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The movement of water through fill material and natural colluvium in a cut slope is being monitored at two sites with past landslide activity adjacent to I-275 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Quadrilaterals and an array of wooden stakes were placed immediately adjacent to the slide area to monitor movement of the slope at Site 1. To correlate any movement with soil moisture levels, rain gauges were installed. Changes in line-length measurements over a 3-month period are < 14 mm, and most differences average about 4 mm. Since measurement errors of up to 5--6 mm can be expected using a steel tape, more measurements over time will be needed to determine if significant displacement is occurring. Tensiometers were placed at 12 and 36 inches depth in the soil from mid-September through early November 1992, in order to measure matric suction. The 36 inch tensiometer indicated that the soil remained saturated at that depth. The 12 inch tensiometer measured 8 centibars, which occurred following a week of rain-free weather. Gravimetric measurements of soil samples show that surface soil moisture ranges from 14--39% immediately following a storm to 7--29% following at least 10 days of dry weather. At Site 2, quadrilaterals were set up in mid-August 1992; resurveys of the quadrilaterals shows very little, if any, movement. Movement of 38 mm occurred in one quadrilateral; movement in other quadrilaterals averaged close to 5 mm. The slide is not steadily moving, and may be following a pattern, where slides in Hamilton County were more likely to move in late winter or early spring.

  11. Convergence of microbial assimilations of soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in terrestrial ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Dafeng; King, Anthony Wayne; Song, Xia; Thornton, Peter E.; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-11-27

    How soil microbes assimilate carbon-C, nitrogen-N, phosphorus-P, and sulfur-S is fundamental for understanding nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We compiled a global database of C, N, P, and S concentrations in soils and microbes and developed relationships between them by using a power function model. The C:N:P:S was estimated to be 287:17:1:0.8 for soils, and 42:6:1:0.4 for microbes. We found a convergence of the relationships between elements in soils and in soil microbial biomass across C, N, P, and S. The element concentrations in soil microbial biomass follow a homeostatic regulation curve with soil element concentrations across C, N, Pmore » and S, implying a unifying mechanism of microbial assimilating soil elements. This correlation explains the well-constrained C:N:P:S stoichiometry with a slightly larger variation in soils than in microbial biomass. Meanwhile, it is estimated that the minimum requirements of soil elements for soil microbes are 0.8 mmol C Kg–1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol N Kg–1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol P Kg–1 dry soil, and 0.1 mmol S Kg–1 dry soil, respectively. Lastly, these findings provide a mathematical explanation of element imbalance in soils and soil microbial biomass, and offer insights for incorporating microbial contribution to nutrient cycling into Earth system models.« less

  12. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features PDF icon...

  13. CHANGES IN 137 CS CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL AND VEGETATION ON THE FLOODPLAIN OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER OVER A 30 YEAR PERIOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M.; Jannik, T.; Fledderman, P.

    2007-12-12

    {sup 137}Cs released during 1954-1974 from nuclear production reactors on the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy nuclear materials production site in South Carolina, contaminated a portion of the Savannah River floodplain known as Creek Plantation. {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations have been measured in Creek Plantation since 1974 making it possible to calculate effective half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in soil and vegetation and assess the spatial distribution of contaminants on the floodplain. Activity concentrations in soil and vegetation were higher near the center of the floodplain than near the edges as a result of frequent inundation coupled with the presence of low areas that trapped contaminated sediments. {sup 137}Cs activity was highest near the soil surface, but depth related differences diminished with time as a likely result of downward diffusion or leaching. Activity concentrations in vegetation were significantly related to concentrations in soil. The plant to soil concentration ratio (dry weight) averaged 0.49 and exhibited a slight but significant tendency to decrease with time. The effective half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in shallow (0-7.6 cm) soil and in vegetation were 14.9 (95% CI = 12.5-17.3) years and 11.6 (95% CI = 9.1-14.1) years, respectively, and rates of {sup 137}Cs removal from shallow soil and vegetation did not differ significantly among sampling locations. Potential health risks on the Creek Plantation floodplain have declined more rapidly than expected on the basis of radioactive decay alone because of the relatively short effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs.

  14. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Cl/sup -/, S/sup 2 -/.

  15. Analysis of ground response data at Lotung large-scale soil- structure interaction experiment site. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.Y.; Mok, C.M.; Power, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4-scale and 1/2-scale) of a nuclear plant containment structure at a site in Lotung (Tang, 1987), a seismically active region in northeast Taiwan. The models were constructed to gather data for the evaluation and validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methodologies. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses at the site during earthquakes. The experiment is generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST). As part of the LSST, two downhole arrays were installed at the site to record ground motions at depths as well as at the ground surface. Structural response and ground response have been recorded for a number of earthquakes (i.e. a total of 18 earthquakes in the period of October 1985 through November 1986) at the LSST site since the completion of the installation of the downhole instruments in October 1985. These data include those from earthquakes having magnitudes ranging from M{sub L} 4.5 to M{sub L} 7.0 and epicentral distances range from 4.7 km to 77.7 km. Peak ground surface accelerations range from 0.03 g to 0.21 g for the horizontal component and from 0.01 g to 0.20 g for the vertical component. The objectives of the study were: (1) to obtain empirical data on variations of earthquake ground motion with depth; (2) to examine field evidence of nonlinear soil response due to earthquake shaking and to determine the degree of soil nonlinearity; (3) to assess the ability of ground response analysis techniques including techniques to approximate nonlinear soil response to estimate ground motions due to earthquake shaking; and (4) to analyze earth pressures recorded beneath the basemat and on the side wall of the 1/4 scale model structure during selected earthquakes.

  16. 2015 DOE Final UF Report. Effects of Warming the Deep Soil and Permafrost on Ecosystem Carbon Balance in Alaskan Tundra. A Coupled Measurement and Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuur, Edward

    2015-06-11

    The major research goal of this project was to understand and quantify the fate of carbon stored in permafrost ecosystems using a combination of field and laboratory experiments to measure isotope ratios and C fluxes in a tundra ecosystem exposed to experimental warming. Field measurements centered on the establishment of a two-factor experimental warming using a snow fence and open top chambers to increase winter and summer temperatures alone, and in combination, at a tundra field site at the Eight Mile Lake watershed near Healy, Alaska. The objective of this experimental warming was to significantly raise air and deep soil temperatures and increase the depth of thaw beyond that of previous warming experiments. Detecting the loss and fate of the old permafrost C pool remains a major challenge. Because soil C has been accumulating in these ecosystems over the past 10,000 years, there is a strong difference between the radiocarbon isotopic composition of C deep in the soil profile and permafrost compared to that near the soil surface. This large range of isotopic variability is unique to radiocarbon and provides a valuable and sensitive fingerprint for detecting the loss of old soil C as permafrost thaws.

  17. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in the remedial decision making. The site should redo the risk calculations as the future use scenario has changed for the site. As a result, the existing model is based on very conservative assumptions that result in calculation of unreasonably low cleanup goals. Specifically, the review team proposes that LLNL consider: (1) Revising the industrial worker scenario to a reasonable maximum exposure (RME) for a site worker that performs a weekly walk down of the area for two hours for 25 years (or an alternative RME if the exposure scenario changes); (2) Revising the ESSI of 2 mg U per kg soil for the deer mouse to account for less than 0.05 of the total ingested uranium being adsorbed by the gut; (3) Revising bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for vegetation and invertebrates that are based on 100 mg of soluble uranium per kg of soil, as the uranium concentration in the slope soil does not average 100 mg/kg and it is not all in a soluble form; and (4) Measuring actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates at the site and using the actual values to support risk calculations. The team recommends that the site continue a phased approach during remediation. The activities should focus on elimination of the principal threats to groundwater by excavating (1) source material from the firing table and alluvial deposits, and (2) soil hotspots from the surrounding slopes with concentrations of U-235 and U-238 that pose unacceptable risk. This phased approach allows the remediation path to be driven by the results of each phase. This reduces the possibility of costly 'surprises', such as failure of soil treatment, and reduces the impact of remediation on endangered habitat. Treatment of the excavated material with physical separation equipment may result in a decreased volume of soil for disposal if the DU is concentrated in the fine-grained fraction, which can then be disposed of in an offsite facility at a considerable cost savings. Based on existing data and a decision to implement the recommended phased approach, the cost of characterization, excavation and physical

  18. Organic waste amendments effect on zinc fraction of two soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuman, L.M.

    1999-10-01

    Organic soil amendments can ameliorate metal toxicity to plants by redistributing metals to less available fractions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of organic amendments on Zn distribution among soil fractions. Two soils were amended with five organic waste materials (some of which contained Zn) or commercial humic acid with and without 400 mg kg{sup {minus}1} Zn, incubated, and fractionated using a sequential extraction technique. Where no Zn was added most of the metals were in the residual fraction. Commercial compost, poultry litter, and industrial sewage sludge increased Zn in the exchangeable (EXC), organic (OM), and manganese oxide (MnOx) fractions due to Zn in the materials. Spent mushroom compost (SMC) redistributed Zn from the EXC fraction to the MnOx fraction for the coarse-textured soil. Where Zn was added, most of the metal was in the EXC and OM fractions. The SMC and humic acid lowered Zn in the EXC fraction and increased Zn in the other fractions. Effects of the organic materials on Zn in soil fractions were more evident for the sandy soil dominated by quartz in the clay than for the finer-textured soil dominated by kaolinite in the clay-size fraction. It was concluded that organic materials high in Zn can increase Zn in the EXC, OM, and MnOx fractions where the soil is not contaminated and others such as SMC and HA can lower the potential availability of Zn in contaminated soils by redistributing it from the EXC to less soluble fractions.

  19. Seismic Surface-Wave Tomography of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Timothy L.

    2000-09-14

    The objective of this study was to develop analysis programs for surface-wave group-velocity tomography, and apply these to three test areas. We succeeded by obtaining data covering two square areas that were 30 meters on a side, and a third area that was 16 meters on a side, in addition to a collaborative effort wherein we processed data from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory site. At all sites, usable group velocities were obtained for frequencies from 16 to 50 Hz using a sledgehammer source. The resulting tomographic images and velocity anomalies were sufficient to delineate suspected burial trenches (one 4-meters deep) and anomalous velocity structure related to rocks and disturbed soil. The success was not uniform because in portions of one area the inversion for shear-wave structure became unstable. More research is needed to establish a more robust inversion technique.

  20. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kgel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readilyand this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  1. Method for detecting moisture in soils using secondary cosmic radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth

    2003-12-16

    Water content in a soil is determined by measuring the attenuation of secondary background cosmic radiation as this radiation propagates through a layer of soil and water. By measuring the attenuation of secondary cosmic radiation in the range of 5 MeV-15 MeV it is possible to obtain a relative measure of the water content in a soil layer above a suitable radiation detector and thus establish when and how much irrigation is needed. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power.

  2. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soils characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soils fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soils fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the fields spatial variability.

  3. Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

  4. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the...

  5. ARM - Measurement - Surface energy balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy balance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface energy balance...

  6. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Brown, Ian G.; Wei, Bo; Anders, Simone; Anders, Andre; Bhatia, C. Singh

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article.

  7. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-12-22

    A process is disclosed for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article. 15 figs.

  8. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  9. October 2014 Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) Meeting- Wednesday, October 22nd Soil Structure Interaction Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentations for the Soil Structure Interaction session at the October 2014 Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) Meeting.

  10. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  11. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  12. SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.; Schweikher, E.W.

    1958-05-27

    The treatment of metallic uranium to provide a surface to which adherent electroplates can be applied is described. Metallic uranium is subjected to an etchant treatment in aqueous concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the etched metal is then treated to dissolve the resulting black oxide and/or chloride film without destroying the etched metal surface. The oxide or chloride removal is effected by means of moderately concentrated nitric acid in 3 to 20 seconds.

  13. Rulison Site Surface Closure Report

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Nevada Operations Office DOE/NV- -510 UC-700 Nevada Environmental Restoration Project Rulison Site Surface Closure Report July 1998 Environmental Restoration Division DOE/NV--510 UC-700 RULISON SITE SURFACE CLOSURE REPORT DOE Nevada Operations Office Las Vegas, Nevada July 1998 This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from

  14. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

  15. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.K.

    1995-03-01

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.

  16. Soil/sediment characterization for 216-A-29 ditch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the environmental samples collected from the 216-A-29 Ditch in 1988. Tables summarizing the laboratory data for radionuclides, metals, and soil chemistry are included.

  17. In the International Year of Soils, EMSL Researchers Dig Deep...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    News News Home Featured Articles 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 ... United Nations External link has declared 2015 to be the "International Year of Soils" to ...

  18. LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reactions that occurred when dilute river water contacted the soil-aquifer and will enable development of new models for predicting the duration of natural flushing in the future. ...

  19. Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rocks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rocks Author J.D. McNeill Organization Geonics Limited Published Geonics Limited, 1980 Report Number...

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Scintillometry and Soil Moisture Remote...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Scintillometry and Soil Moisture Remote Sensing 2015.06.01 - 2015.10.31 Lead Scientist : Jan Hendrickx...

  1. System for Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction (SASSI) Verification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SASSI is the System for Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction, a computer code for ... pedigree of the code and its verification and validation history was not fully traceable. ...

  2. Impact of Soiling and Pollution on PV Generation Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This 5-page technical letter addresses air pollution effects on PV performance by quantifying, based on a literature search, the average annual loss due to soiling, the impact of cleaning, and a recommended cleaning schedule.

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Soil Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Measurements in the Southern Great Plains Bond, Don OU-CIMMS Will show current setup of instrument system and examples of data from recent...

  4. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National ... Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming ...

  5. Soil Stabilization and Revegetation at the INEEL Recommendations for Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blew, R.D.; Jackson, M.R.; Forman, A.D.

    2003-03-24

    Soil stabilization for the INEEL Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) has mostly been by revegetation, but has experienced only limited success. The purpose of this report is to discuss issues associated with revegetation failures and to explore possible remedies.

  6. Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buettner, H.M.; Daily, W.D.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Ramirez, A.L.; Siegel, W.H.

    1999-05-25

    An electrode well is described for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichloroethylene (TCE) as it is heated. 4 figs.

  7. Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buettner, Harley M.; Daily, William D.; Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Siegel, William H.

    1999-01-01

    An electrode well for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichioroethylene (TCE) as it is heated.

  8. Final Report for DOE grant no. DE-FG02-04ER63883: Can soil genomics predict the impact of precipitation on nitrous oxide flux from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egbert Schwartz

    2008-12-15

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is released by microorganisms in soil. However, the production of nitrous oxide in soil is highly variable and difficult to predict. Future climate change may have large impacts on nitrous oxide release through alteration of precipitation patterns. We analyzed DNA extracted from soil in order to uncover relationships between microbial processes, abundance of particular DNA sequences and net nitrous oxide fluxes from soil. Denitrification, a microbial process in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor, correlated with nitrous oxide flux from soil. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea correlated positively, but weakly, with nitrous oxide production in soil. The abundance of bacterial genes in soil was negatively correlated with gross nitrogen mineralization rates and nitrous oxide release from soil. We suggest that the most important control over nitrous oxide production in soil is the growth and death of microorganisms. When organisms are growing nitrogen is incorporated into their biomass and nitrous oxide flux is low. In contrast, when microorganisms die, due to predation or infection by viruses, inorganic nitrogen is released into the soil resulting in nitrous oxide release. Higher rates of precipitation increase access to microorganisms by predators or viruses through filling large soil pores with water and therefore can lead to large releases of nitrous oxide from soil. We developed a new technique, stable isotope probing with 18O-water, to study growth and mortality of microorganisms in soil.

  9. Surface and groundwater management in surface mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evoy, B.; Holland, M.

    1990-06-01

    This report provides information on surface water and groundwater management for use in the mined-land reclamation planning process in California. Mined-land reclamation, as defined by the California Surface Mining and Reclamation Act, is the combination of land treatments which prevent or minimize water degradation, air pollution, damage to aquatic or wildlife habitat, and erosion resulting from a surface mining operation. Surface water and groundwater management play an integral role in nearly every reclamation plan. Groundwater and surface water runoff (both onto and off of the site) must often be evaluated (1) to design flooding and erosion protection measures such as drainage channels, levees, culverts, or riprap; (2) to prepare and carry out a successful revegetation program; (3) to design stable final slopes; (4) to maximize potential available water for the operation and reclamation stages; (5) to prevent the discharge of contaminants from mine processes or from mined areas; and (6) to limit long-term leachate formation and movement from tailings, pit, or waste rock disposal areas. This report is a guide for mine operators, local government, planners, and plan reviewers.

  10. Sigma Mesa: Background elemental concentrations in soil and vegetation, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    In 1979, soil and vegetation samples were collected on Sigma Mesa to provide background data before construction on the mesa. Elemental data are presented for soil, grass, juniper, pinon pine, and oak. None of the data looks out of the ordinary. The purpose of the sampling program was to acquire, before any disturbance, a set of data to be used as background for future impact analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Method for mobilization of hazardous metal ions in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugan, P.R.; Pfister, R.M.

    1995-06-27

    A microbial process is revealed for removing heavy metals such as bismuth, cadmium, lead, thorium, uranium and other transuranics from soils and sediments. The method utilizes indigenous, or isolates of indigenous, microorganisms and reducing agents, such as cysteine or sodium thioglycollate, or complexing agents such as the amino acid glycine, to effect the mobilization or release of the metals from the soil particles. 5 figs.

  12. Soil & Groundwater Remediation News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soil & Groundwater Remediation News Soil & Groundwater Remediation News February 25, 2016 New groundwater contamination treatment equipment sits outside the C-612 Northwest Pump-and-Treat facility. Paducah Site Modernizes Equipment to Treat Off-Site Groundwater Contamination PADUCAH, Ky. - EM recently completed upgrades to modernize a key facility that reduces off-site groundwater contamination at the former Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site. December 29, 2015 Tour participants are

  13. Secrets of the Soil (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodie, Eoin; Northen, Trent; Jansson, Janet; Torn, Margaret

    2011-11-07

    Four Berkeley Lab scientists unveil the "Secrets of the Soil"at this Nov. 7, 2011 Science at the Theater event. Eoin Brodie, Janet Jansson, Margaret Torn and Trent Northen talk about their research and how soil could hold the key to our climate and energy future.The discussion was moderated by John Harte, who holds a joint professorship in the Energy and Resources Group and the Ecosystem Sciences Division of UC Berkeley's College of Natural Resources

  14. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Future Soil Vapor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extraction Activities at the A-014 Outfall (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Future Soil Vapor Extraction Activities at the A-014 Outfall Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Future Soil Vapor Extraction Activities at the A-014 Outfall No abstract provided. Authors: Jackson, D. [1] ; Hyde, W. [1] ; Walker, R. [1] ; Riha, B. [1] ; Ross, J. [1] ;

  15. N A Vegetation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D Upland Hardwood o Bottomland Hardwood Carolina Bay Wetland Deep water pool .*. TES Plants (1) o .Openwells cCV,. Utility ROW Roads ZJ SRS Bays I:&j Hydric Soils...

  16. Plant reestablishment after soil disturbance: Effects of soils, treatment, and time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Alford, K.; McIlveny, G.; Tijerina, A.

    1993-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined plant growth and establishment on 16 sites where severe land disturbance had taken place. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the different methods in term of their effects on establishment of native and alien plants. Disturbances ranged from 1 to 50 years in age. Revegetation using native plants had been attempted at 14 of the sites; the remainder were abandoned without any further management. Revegetation efforts variously included seeding, fertilizer application, mulching with various organic sources, compost application, application of Warden silt loam topsoil over sand and gravel soils, and moderate irrigation.

  17. Relationship between Anisotropy in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is saturation-dependent. Accurate characterization of soil anisotropy is very important in simulating flow and contaminant (e.g., radioactive nuclides in Hanford) transport. A recently developed tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (TCT) concept describes the hydraulic conductivity tensor of the unsaturated anisotropic soils as the product of a scalar variable, the symmetric connectivity tortuosity tensor, and the hydraulic conductivity tensor at saturation. In this study, the TCT model is used to quantify soil anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The TCT model can describe different types of soil anisotropy; e.g., the anisotropy coefficient, C, can be monotonically increase or decrease with saturation and can vary from greater than unity to less than unity and vice versa. Soil anisotropy is independent of soil water retention properties and can be characterized by the ratio of the saturated hydraulic conductivities and the difference of the tortuosity-connectivity coefficients in two directions. ln(C) is linearly proportional to ln(Se) with Se being the effective saturation. The log-linear relationship between C and Se allows the saturation-dependent anisotropy to be determined using linear regression with the measurements of the directional hydraulic conductivities at a minimum of two water content levels, of which one may be at full saturation. The model was tested using measurements of directional hydraulic conductivities.

  18. In situ recycling of contaminated soil uses bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevlin, P.J.; Reel, D.A.

    1996-04-01

    OxyChem Pipeline Operations, primarily an ethylene and propylene products mover, has determined that substantial savings can be realized by adopting a bioremediation maintenance and recycling approach to hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. By this method, the soil can be recycled in situ, or in containers. To implement the soil-recycling program, OxyChem elected to use a soil remediator and natural absorbent product, Oil Snapper. This field maintenance material, based on an Enhanced Urea Technology, provides a diet to stimulate the growth of hydrocarbon-eating microbes. It works well either with indigenous soil microbes or with commercial microbes. The product is carried in field vehicles, which makes it immediately available when leaks or spills are discovered. Procedure for clean-up is to apply product and mix it into affected soil. Thus the contaminant is contained, preventing further migration; the contaminant is dispersed throughout the product, making it more accessible to the microbes; nutrients are immediately available to the microbes; and the material contributes aeration and moisture-retention properties.

  19. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1993-11-23

    A method and system are presented for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants. 4 figures.

  20. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John C.; Kaback, Dawn S.; Looney, Brian B.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants.

  1. A model experiment to assess the effects of inclusions on wave propagation in soil media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Thomas W; Ray, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    A data acquisition system has been assembled using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology which provides a flexible data gathering capability to support recording accelerations at various locations within a sand filled 5 meter square test pit that has a depth extending into underlying gravelly soils. Dual-axis accelerometers weighing less than 1 gram each, made possible by advances in MEMS technology, are connected to up to 5 data acquisition (PXI modules) boards, each capable of controlling and recording data from 16 separate dual axis accelerometers. This data acquisition system is used to measure and record acceleration data from wave propagations that are generated by the impact of a hammer on a striker plate and are modified by an inclusion or occlusion buried in the soil media. Thirty-four two-axis accelerometers were placed at surface and embedded locations on either side of various inclusions buried in the test pit. This large number of accelerometers permits experimentally obtaining high quality spatial and temporal data that can describe the character of the generated wave-forms and the modification of those wave-forms caused by the inclusion. A number of differing materials and geometric forms are used to create inclusions in order to provide sufficient data to permit ascertaining the ability of the measurements to describe the character of the inclusion. Continuous Wavelet Transforms are used to remove background noise and to aid interpretation of the character of the generated wave-form.

  2. Testing and monitoring plan for the permanent isolation surface barrier prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Cadwell, L.L.; Freeman, H.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.; Romine, R.A.; Walters, W.H. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    This document is a testing and monitoring plan for a prototype barrier to be constructed at the Hanford Site in 1993. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system, designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. These features include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, vegetated with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions.

  3. Surface Plasma Source Electrode Activation by Surface Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Han, Baoxi; Johnson, Rolland P.; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Stockli, Martin P; Welton, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    In experiments with RF saddle antenna surface plasma sources (SPS), the efficiency of H- ion generation was increased by up to a factor of 5 by long time plasma electrode activation, without adding Cs from Cs supply, by heating the collar to high temperature using hot air flow and plasma discharge. Without cracking or heating the cesium ampoule, but likely with Cs recovery from impurities, the achieved energy efficiency was comparable to that of conventionally cesiated SNS RF sources with an external or internal Cs supply. In the experiments, perfect cesiation was produced (without additional Cs supply) by the collection and trapping of traces of remnant cesium compounds from SPS surfaces.

  4. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Newmark, Robin L.; Udell, Kent; Buetnner, Harley M.; Aines, Roger D.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  5. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-09-12

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

  6. Projected Changes in Mean and Interannual Variability of Surface Water over Continental China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Hong, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-05-01

    Five General Circulation Model (GCM) climate projections under the RCP8.5 emission scenario were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to investigate the impacts of climate change on hydrologic cycle over continental China in the 21st century. The bias-corrected climatic variables were generated for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Results showed much larger fractional changes of annual mean Evaportranspiration (ET) per unit warming than the corresponding fractional changes of Precipitation (P) per unit warming across the country especially for South China, which led to notable decrease of surface water variability (P-E). Specifically, negative trends for annual mean runoff up to -0.33%/decade and soil moisture trends varying between -0.02 to -0.13%/decade were found for most river basins across China. Coincidentally, interannual variability for both runoff and soil moisture exhibited significant positive trends for almost all river basins across China, implying an increase in extremes relative to the mean conditions. Noticeably, the largest positive trends for runoff variability and soil moisture variability, which were up to 38 0.41%/decade and 0.90%/decade, both occurred in Southwest China. In addition to the regional contrast, intra-seasonal variation was also large for the runoff mean and runoff variability changes, but small for the soil moisture mean and variability changes. Our results suggest that future climate change could further exacerbate existing water-related risks (e.g. floods and droughts) across China as indicated by the marked decrease of surface water amounts combined with steady increase of interannual variability throughout the 21st century. This study highlights the regional contrast and intra-seasonal variations for the projected hydrologic changes and could provide muti-scale guidance for assessing effective adaptation strategies for the country on a river basin, regional, or as whole.

  7. Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-13

    The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.

  8. Device for inspecting vessel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Appel, D. Keith

    1995-01-01

    A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

  9. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-10-21

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs.

  10. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk fluid.

  11. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2008-07-15

    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect decomposition pathways and stabilization. These factors influence the stability of SOM in part by shaping its molecular characteristics, which play a fundamental role in nearly all processes governing SOM stability but are not the focus of this chapter. We review here the most important controls on the distribution and dynamics of SOM at plot to global scales, and methods used to study them. We also explore the concepts of controls, processes, and mechanisms, and how they operate across scales. The concept of SOM turnover, or mean residence time, is central to this chapter and so it is described in some detail. The Appendix details the use of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C), a powerful isotopic tool for studying SOM dynamics. Much of the material here was originally presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on 'Soils and Global Change: Carbon Cycle, Trace Gas Exchange and Hydrology', held June 16-27, 1997, at the Chateau de Bonas, France.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw E&I. The company will be denoted as ''IT'' for the rest of the document since the original contract was awarded to IT. This report details IT, Knoxville, TN and its subcontractor Nuclear Fuels Services (NFS) study to investigate alternative mercury treatment technology. The IT/NFS team demonstrated two processes for the amalgamation/stabilization/fixation of mercury and potentially Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) and radionuclide-contaminated soils. This project was to identify and demonstrate remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated soil using established treatment chemistries on soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation, Y-12 National Security Complex, the off-site David Witherspoon properties, and/or other similarly contaminated sites. Soil from the basement of Y-12 Plant Alpha 2 Building at the Oak Ridge Reservation was received at IT and NFS on December 20, 2001. Soils from the other locations were not investigated. The soil had background levels of radioactivity and had all eight RCRA metals well below the Toxicity Characteristic (TC) criteria. This project addresses the new DOE Environmental Management Thrust 2 ''Alternative Approaches to Current High Risk/High Cost Baselines''. Successful completion of this project will provide a step-change in DOE's treatment ability.

  13. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of dissolved arsenic are generated. Within the subsequent sections of this chapter, we explore and describe the biological and chemical processes that control the partitioning of arsenic between the solid and aqueous phase.

  14. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  15. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  16. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  17. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  18. Method for generating surface plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Ben P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-05-27

    A method for generating a discharge plasma which covers a surface of a body in a gas at pressures from 0.01 Torr to atmospheric pressure, by applying a radio frequency power with frequencies between approximately 1 MHz and 10 GHz across a plurality of paired insulated conductors on the surface. At these frequencies, an arc-less, non-filamentary plasma can be generated to affect the drag characteristics of vehicles moving through the gas. The plasma can also be used as a source in plasma reactors for chemical reaction operations.

  19. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the

  20. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  1. Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in an old-field grassland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Shiqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Childs, Joanne [ORNL; Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2007-01-01

    Responses of soil respiration to atmospheric and climatic change will have profound impacts on ecosystem and global C cycling in the future. This study was conducted to examine effects on soil respiration of the concurrent driving factors of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, rising temperature, and changing precipitation in a constructed old-field grassland in eastern Tennessee, USA. Model ecosystems of seven old-field species in 12 open-top chambers (4 m in diameter) were treated with two CO2 (ambient and ambient plus 300 ppm) and two temperature (ambient and ambient plus 3 C) levels. Two split plots with each chamber were assigned with high and low soil moisture levels. During the 19-month experimental period from June 2003 to December 2004, higher CO2 concentration and soil water availability significantly increased mean soil respiration by 35.8% and 15.7%, respectively. The effects of air warming on soil respiration varied seasonally from small reductions to significant increases to no response, and there was no significant main effect. In the wet side of elevated CO2 chambers, air warming consistently caused increases in soil respiration, whereas in other three combinations of CO2 and water treatments, warming tended to decrease soil respiration over the growing season but increase it over the winter. There were no interactive effects on soil respiration among any two or three treatment factors irrespective of testing time period. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was reduced by air warming, lower in the wet than the dry side, and not affected by CO2 treatment. Variations of soil respiration responses with soil temperature and soil moisture ranges could be primarily attributable to the seasonal dynamics of plant growth and its responses to the three treatments. Using a conceptual model to interpret the significant relationships of treatment-induced changes in soil respiration with changes in soil temperature and moisture observed in this study, we conclude that elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability had both direct and indirect effects on soil respiration via changes in the three controlling factors: soil temperature, soil moisture, and C substrate. Our results demonstrate that the response of soil respiration to climatic warming should not be represented in models as a simple temperature response function. A more mechanistic understanding of the direct and indirect impacts of concurrent global change drivers on soil respiration is needed to facilitate the interpretation and projection of ecosystem and global C cycling in response to atmospheric and climate change.

  2. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  3. Surface property detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S.; Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Sorensen, Neil R.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor.

  4. Surface property detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, J.S.; Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1995-08-08

    Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor. 4 figs.

  5. Composite, ordered material having sharp surface features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2006-12-19

    A composite material having sharp surface features includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a sharp surface feature. The sharp surface features can be coated to make the surface super-hydrophobic.

  6. Extended surface parallel coating inspection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2006-03-21

    Techniques for rapidly characterizing reflective surfaces and especially multi-layer EUV reflective surfaces of optical components involve illuminating the entire reflective surface instantaneously and detecting the image far field. The technique provides a mapping of points on the reflective surface to corresponding points on a detector, e.g., CCD. This obviates the need to scan a probe over the entire surface of the optical component. The reflective surface can be flat, convex, or concave.

  7. Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W.; McGarvie, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

  8. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  9. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  10. MHL Free Surface Channel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Free Surface Channel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name MHL Free Surface Channel Overseeing Organization University of Michigan Hydrodynamics...

  11. proposed surface and subsurface marker designs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Images of proposed markers for the surface and subsurface Large Surface Marker - Proposed Design with Plaques of Text and Images Small Subsurface Marker - Proposed Design

  12. Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Mercury Geochemistry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Abstract...

  13. SSI (soil-structure interactions) and structural benchmarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the ongoing program entitled, ''Standard Problems for Structural Computer Codes'', currently being worked on at BNL for the USNRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. During FY 1986, efforts were focussed on three tasks, namely, (1) an investigation of ground water effects on the response of Category I structures, (2) the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop and (3) studies on structural benchmarks associated with Category I structures. The objective of the studies on ground water effects is to verify the applicability and the limitations of the SSI methods currently used by the industry in performing seismic evaluations of nuclear plants which are located at sites with high water tables. In a previous study by BNL (NUREG/CR-4588), it has been concluded that the pore water can influence significantly the soil-structure interaction process. This result, however, is based on the assumption of fully saturated soil profiles. Consequently, the work was further extended to include cases associated with variable water table depths. In this paper, results related to ''cut-off'' depths beyond which the pore water effects can be ignored in seismic calculations, are addressed. Comprehensive numerical data are given for soil configurations typical to those encountered in nuclear plant sites. These data were generated by using a modified version of the SLAM code which is capable of handling problems related to the dynamic response of saturated soils.

  14. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, J.P.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus are presented for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  15. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, Jane P.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  16. A surface structural approach to ion adsorption: The charge distribution (CD) model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiemstra, T.; Van Riemsdijk, W.H.

    1996-05-10

    Cation and anion adsorption at the solid/solution interface of metal hydroxides plays an important role in several fields of chemistry, including colloid and interface chemistry, soil chemistry and geochemistry, aquatic chemistry, environmental chemistry, catalysis, and chemical engineering. An ion adsorption model for metal hydroxides has been developed which deals with the observation that in the case of inner sphere complex formation only part of the surface complex is incorporated into the surface by a ligand exchange reaction while the other part is located in the Stern layer. The charge distribution (CD) concept of Pauling, used previously in the multi site complexation (MUSIC) model approach, is extended to account for adsorbed surface complexes. In the new model, surface complexes are not treated as point charges, but are considered as having a spatial distribution of charge in the interfacial region. The new CD model can describe within a single conceptual framework all important experimental adsorption phenomena, taking into account the chemical composition of the crystal surface. The CD model has been applied to one of the most difficult and challenging ion adsorption phenomena, i.e., PO{sub 4} adsorption on goethite, and successfully describes simultaneously the basic charging behavior of goethite, the concentration, pH, and salt dependency of adsorption, the shifts in the zeta potentials and isoelectric point (IEP), and the OH/P exchange ratio. This is all achieved within the constraint that the experimental surface speciation found from in situ IR spectroscopy is also described satisfactorily.

  17. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvas, Alissa; Yucel, Vefa

    2014-09-29

    This report presents a three-level approach for estimation of sediment transport to provide an assessment of potential erosion risk for sites at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are posted for radiological purposes and where migration is suspected or known to occur due to storm runoff. Based on the assessed risk, the appropriate level of effort can be determined for analysis of radiological surveys, field experiments to quantify erosion and transport rates, and long-term monitoring. The method is demonstrated at contaminated sites, including Plutonium Valley, Shasta, Smoky, and T-1. The Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee (PSIAC) procedure is selected as the Level 1 analysis tool. The PSIAC method provides an estimation of the total annual sediment yield based on factors derived from the climatic and physical characteristics of a watershed. If the results indicate low risk, then further analysis is not warranted. If the Level 1 analysis indicates high risk or is deemed uncertain, a Level 2 analysis using the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) is proposed. In addition, if a sediment yield for a storm event rather than an annual sediment yield is needed, then the proposed Level 2 analysis should be performed. MUSLE only provides sheet and rill erosion estimates. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) provides storm peak runoff rate and storm volumes, the inputs necessary for MUSLE. Channel Sediment Transport (CHAN-SED) I and II models are proposed for estimating sediment deposition or erosion in a channel reach from a storm event. These models require storm hydrograph associated sediment concentration and bed load particle size distribution data. When the Level 2 analysis indicates high risk for sediment yield and associated contaminant migration or when there is high uncertainty in the Level 2 results, the sites can be further evaluated with a Level 3 analysis using more complex and labor- and data-intensive methods. For the watersheds analyzed in this report using the Level 1 PSIAC method, the risk of erosion is low. The field reconnaissance surveys of these watersheds confirm the conclusion that the sediment yield of undisturbed areas at the NNSS would be low. The climate, geology, soils, ground cover, land use, and runoff potential are similar among these watersheds. There are no well-defined ephemeral channels except at the Smoky and Plutonium Valley sites. Topography seems to have the strongest influence on sediment yields, as sediment yields are higher on the steeper hill slopes. Lack of measured sediment yield data at the NNSS does not allow for a direct evaluation of the yield estimates by the PSIAC method. Level 2 MUSLE estimates in all the analyzed watersheds except Shasta are a small percentage of the estimates from PSIAC because MUSLE is not inclusive of channel erosion. This indicates that channel erosion dominates the total sediment yield in these watersheds. Annual sediment yields for these watersheds are estimated using the CHAN-SEDI and CHAN-SEDII channel sediment transport models. Both transport models give similar results and exceed the estimates obtained from PSIAC and MUSLE. It is recommended that the total watershed sediment yield of watersheds at the NNSS with flow channels be obtained by adding the washload estimate (rill and inter-rill erosion) from MUSLE to that obtained from channel transport models (bed load and suspended sediment). PSIAC will give comparable results if factor scores for channel erosion are revised towards the high erosion level. Application of the Level 3 process-based models to estimate sediment yields at the NNSS cannot be recommended at this time. Increased model complexity alone will not improve the certainty of the sediment yield estimates. Models must be calibrated against measured data before model results are accepted as certain. Because no measurements of sediment yields at the NNSS are available, model validation cannot be performed. This is also true for the models used in the Level 2 analyses presented in this study. The need to calibrate MUSLE to local conditions has been discussed. Likewise, the transport equations of CHAN-SEDI and CHAN-SEDII need to be calibrated against local data to assess their applicability under semi-arid conditions and for the ephemeral channels at the NNSS. Before these validations and calibration exercises can be undertaken, a long-term measured sediment yield data set must be developed. Development of long-term measured sediment yield data cannot be overemphasized. Long-term monitoring is essential for accurate characterization of watershed processes. It is recommended that a long-term monitoring program be set up to measure watershed erosion rates and channel sediment transport rates.

  18. Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude

    2005-01-18

    Figure errors are corrected on optical or other precision surfaces by changing the local density of material in a zone at or near the surface. Optical surface height is correlated with the localized density of the material within the same region. A change in the height of the optical surface can then be caused by a change in the localized density of the material at or near the surface.

  19. Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

  20. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  1. Method for protecting a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2006-06-27

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 2–7 additional elements including at lease one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a power, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  2. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  3. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  4. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  5. The Status of NRC Decommissioning Guidance on Intentional Soil Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, B.A.

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published the License Termination Rule (LTR) as Subpart E of 10 CFR Part 20, which established the license termination criteria for unrestricted use and the controls for restricted use. By 2003, the NRC staff's experience with the LTR revealed some important implementation issues impacting the decommissioning of sites, and these were addressed to the Commission (SECY-03-0069). In 2004, the staff provided the Commission with its analysis of a ninth issue, intentional soil mixing (SECY-04-0035). The Commission approved the staff's recommendations, with comments. In the draft revision of Supplement 1 to NUREG-1757, 'Consolidated Decommissioning Guidance', the staff endorsed the current practice of allowing intentional soil mixing to meet the waste acceptance criteria of offsite disposal facilities and the limited use of this practice to demonstrate compliance with the LTR criteria. The staff recommended including a provision that the staff would consider intentional mixing on a case-by-case basis, provided that the resulting contaminated area footprint is not increased and clean soil from outside the footprint is not mixed with contaminated soil to lower the concentrations. In addition, the staff would consider only those rare cases in which the mixing of clean soil is the only viable option for achieving the dose levels of the LTR. In 2005, the staff issued draft Supplement 1 to NUREG-1757 for public comment. The staff evaluated the public comments, including those from a number of States, and revised the guidance. The staff subsequently summarized the public comments on the draft guidance for the Commission (SECY-06-0143) in early 2006. This paper will discuss the public comments related to intentional mixing, the Commission's comments in its staff requirements memorandum, and the revision to the guidance in NUREG-1757 incorporating the current NRC decommissioning policy for intentional soil mixing. (authors)

  6. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon sequestration under atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Sinsabaugh; D.R. Zak; D.L. Moorhead

    2008-02-19

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can alter the processing and storage of organic carbon in soils. In 2000, we began studying the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon dynamics in three types of northern temperate forest that occur across a wide geographic range in the Upper Great Lakes region. These ecosystems range from 100% oak in the overstory (black oak-white oak ecosystem; BOWO) to 0% overstory oak (sugar maple-basswood; SMBW) and include the sugar maple-red oak ecosystem (SMRO) that has intermediate oak abundance. The leaf litter biochemistry of these ecosystems range from highly lignified litter (BOWO) to litter of low lignin content (SMBW). We selected three replicate stands of each ecosystem type and established three plots in each stand. Each plot was randomly assigned one of three levels of N deposition (0, 30 & 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) imposed by adding NaNO3 in six equal increments applied over the growing season. Through experiments ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scales, we produced a conceptual framework that describes the biogeochemistry of soil carbon storage in N-saturated ecosystems as the product of interactions between the composition of plant litter, the composition of the soil microbial community and the expression of extracellular enzyme activities. A key finding is that atmospheric N deposition can increase or decrease the soil C storage by modifying the expression of extracellular enzymes by soil microbial communities. The critical interactions within this conceptual framework have been incorporated into a new class of simulations called guild decomposition models.

  7. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng-Fong Lin; Kae-Long Lin; Huan-Lin Luo

    2007-01-15

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4 2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20 30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The role of soil in NBT applications to landmine detection problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obhodas, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Valkovic, Vlado; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Viesti, Giuseppe

    2003-08-26

    Long-term observations of soil water content as well as determination of physical and chemical properties of different types of soils in Croatia were made in order to provide the necessary background information for landmine explosive detection. Soil water content is the key attribute of soil as a background in neutron backscattering technique (NBT) landmine detection application. If the critical value of the soil water content is reached, the detection of landmine explosives is not possible. It is recommended that soil moisture content for NBT application does not exceed 0.1 kg.kg-1 [1]. Nineteen representative samples of different soil types from different parts of Croatia were collected in order to establish soil bank with the necessary physical and chemical properties determined for each type of soil. In addition soil water content was measured on daily and weekly basis on several locations in Croatia. This procedure also included daily soil moisture measurements in the test field made of different types of soils from several locations in Croatia. This was done in order to evaluate the behavior of different types of soils under the same weather conditions.

  9. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Transfer Surfaces Check Heat Transfer Surfaces This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems. PROCESS HEAT TIP SHEET #4 PDF icon Check Heat Transfer Surfaces (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction

  10. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  11. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL.

  12. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011

  13. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  14. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  15. Evaluation of the Parameters of Radioactive Contamination of Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasyuk M.I.; Skorbun A.D.; Klyuchnikov O.O.

    2002-02-26

    After Chornobyl NPP (ChNPP) accident the territory near destroyed Unit 4 (that now with the special confinement has the name the ''Shelter'' object) is contaminated of fuel fallouts. During liquidation of the accident consequences this territory was covered with pure earth, concrete, etc. As a result a contaminated anthropogenic layer of the soil on the depth up to 10 m was formed. Now the problem of contamination estimation and the soils management arose. For this tasks a gamma logging method was modified conformably to ChNPP conditions. The methods for necessary coefficients receiving and log treatment have been suggested.

  16. Testing your home for lead in paint, dust, and soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This publication is for anyone who is considering having a home or residence tested for lead in paint, dust, or soil by a professional. It explains the technical aspects of lead testing without overwhelming the reader. The first section tells why you would test for lead, the approaches for testing for lead, and what information you will get from each approach. The second section answers specific questions about how paint, soil, and dust sampling are conducted by the professional in your home. Finally, the last section answers other questions about testing, including questions about home test kits and testing of water and ceramics.

  17. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS You ...

  18. Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling DOE Geothermal ...

  19. System for Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction (SASSI) Verification & Validation (V&V) Problem Set

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SASSI is the System for Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction, a computer code for performing finite element analyses of soil-structure interaction during seismic ground motions.  It was first...

  20. Analytical Results: Surface Soil Analytical Results for the Vicinity Property 9 Area. DOE/OR/21548-463.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  1. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured Soil

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Under Transient Conditions (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured Soil Under Transient Conditions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured Soil Under Transient Conditions Rainfall experiments were conducted using intact soil cores and an instrumented soil pedon to examine the effect of physical heterogeneity and rainfall characteristics on the mobilization

  2. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project- March 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project is performing at a level deserving DOE-VPP recognition.

  3. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-01

    This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area, surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in June 2009. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new fractures were identified in the soil cover and were filled with bentonite chips during the inspection. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations

  4. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  5. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  6. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya; Graham, David

    2013-12-08

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  7. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    2014-03-24

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  8. Soil Physicochemical Characteristics from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chowdhury, Taniya

    This dataset provides details about soil cores (active layer and permafrost) collected from ice-wedge polygons during field expeditions to Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska in April, 2012 and 2013. Core information available are exact core locations; soil horizon descriptions and characteristics; and fundamental soil physico-chemical properties.

  9. METHOD OF CLEANING METAL SURFACES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winkler, H.W.; Morfitt, J.W.; Little, T.H.

    1959-05-19

    Cleaning fluids for removing deposits from metal surfaces are described. The cleaning agents of the invention consist of aqueous nitric acid and an amhydrous nitrate salt of a metal which is lower in the electromotive series than the element of the deposit to be removed. In general, the salt content of thc cleaning agents ranged from 10 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 40% by weight; and the balance of the composition comprises nitric acid of any strength from extremely dilute up to concentrated strength.

  10. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  11. Surface-micromachined microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; Paul, Phillip H.; Krygowski, Thomas W.; Allen, James J.; Nichols, Christopher A.; Jakubczak, II, Jerome F.

    2003-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators.

  12. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  13. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  14. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  15. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  16. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  17. Surface coatings. Science and technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the coating field from the latest industry developments to current energy and pollution regulations. It explains the composition of coatings, how they are prepared and applied and the factors that control their ultimate performance. The author discusses the synthesis of polymeric binders, industrial resins, pigments, paints and paint properties, types of coatings, and new technologies. CONTENTS: Binders: Synthesis of Polymeric Binders; Industrial Resins; Pigments; Paints and Paint Properties: Pigment Dispersion; Surface Preparation and Paint Application; Paint Properties and Their Evaluation; Types of Coatings; New Technolgies.

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  19. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  20. Surface mine regulations complicate reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltz-Patrash, A.

    1980-09-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 is a landmark environmental law intended to protect U.S. lands from stripmining effects. However, coal mine operators claim that some SMCRA regulations are misguidedcosting time and money, but yielding no substantial environmental benefit. Unlike other environmental acts, SMCRA details specifically the goals of reclamation and the methods that must be implemented to meet these goals. Coal industry representatives believe that this discourages innovation, promotes inefficiency by ignoring regional differences among sites, and results in unnecessary expense to the industry. Reclamation practices and progress among western coal mining companies are evaluated. (1 map, 5 photos)

  1. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, R.W.; Frank, J.R.; Feng, X.

    1998-06-23

    An in situ method is described for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal. 8 figs.

  2. Rapid Determination Of Radiostrontium In Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Shaw, Patrick J.

    2012-05-24

    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in large soil samples has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium in large soil samples for the measurement of strontium isotopes by gas flow proportional counting. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. The method employs a novel pre-concentration step that utilizes an iron hydroxide precipitation (enhanced with calcium phosphate) followed by a final calcium fluoride precipitation to remove silicates and other matrix components. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with a rapid Sr Resin separation using vacuum box technology, allow very large soil samples to be analyzed for {sup 89,90}Sr using gas flow proportional counting with a lower method detection limit. The calcium fluoride precipitation eliminates column flow problems typically associated with large amounts of silicates in large soil samples.

  3. Soil Analysis using the semi-parametric NAA technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.

    2007-10-26

    The semi-parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique, using Au as a flux monitor, was applied to measure element concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn and Na for soil characterization. The results were compared with those using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique and they found to be compatible. The viability, advantages, and limitations of using these two analytic methodologies are discussed.

  4. Technique development for polarized pipe-to-soil potential measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1989-12-01

    Research project PR-200-513 was undertaken with the overall objective to develop practical techniques for determining the polarized pipe-to-soil potential of a buried pipeline. The importance of this project rests with the fact that pipe-to-soil potential measurements are the most commonly used means of assessing the level of cathodic protection on buried gas transmission pipelines. In the recent past years there has been a considerable amount of effort devoted to developing methods and instruments to correct measured pipe-to-soil potentials for IR drops that may occur from currents (from the cathodic protection system or stray sources) in the soil to obtain the polarized potential. However, many of the methods or instruments available are either time-consuming, cumbersome to use in the field, applicable to only certain types of cathodic protection systems and under particular circumstances, subject to influences from stray current sources or not fully developed as of yet. Thus, there is a need to develop a practical method of determining the polarized pipe potential free of IR drop errors. Hence, the objectives of the research program conducted were: (1) to test and evaluate comparatively existing polarized potential measurement approaches, and (2) to develop new approaches to determining the polarized potential.

  5. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, Robert W. (Naperville, IL); Frank, James R. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Feng, Xiandong (West Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    An in situ method for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal.

  6. The Effects of Fire on the Function of the 200-BP-1 Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Hasan, Nazmul; Draper, Kathryn E.

    2009-09-01

    A critical unknown in use of barrier technology for long-term waste isolation is performance after a major disturbance especially when institutional controls are intact, but there are no resources to implement corrective actions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of wild fire on alterations the function of an engineered barrier. A controlled burn September 26, 2008 was used to remove all the vegetation from the north side of the barrier. Flame heights exceeded 9 m and temperatures ranged from 250 oC at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 oC at 1 m above the surface. Post-fire analysis of soil properties show significant decreases in wettability, hydraulic conductivity, air entry pressure, organic matter, and porosity relative to pre-fire conditions whereas dry bulk density increased. Decreases in hydraulic conductivity and wettabilty immediately after the fire are implicated in a surface runoff event that occurred in January 2009, the first in 13 years. There was a significant increase in macro-nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity. After one year, hydrophobicity has returned to pre-burn levels with only 16% of samples still showing signs of decreased wettability. Over the same period, hydraulic conductivity and air entry pressure returned to pre-burn levels at one third of the locations but remained identical to values recorded immediately after the fire at the other two thirds. Soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity remain elevated after 1 year. Species composition on the burned surface changed markedly from prior years and relative to the unburned surface and two analog sites. An increase in the proportion of annuals and biennials is characteristic of burned surfaces that have become dominated by ruderal species. Greenhouse seedling emergence tests conducted to assess the seed bank of pre- and post-burn soils and of two analog sites at the McGee Ranch show no difference in the number of species emerging from soils collected before and after the fire. However, there were fewer species emerging from the seed bank on the side slopes and more species emerging from two analog sites. Leaf area index measures confirmed the substantial differences in plant communities after fire. Xylem pressure potential were considerably higher on the burned half of the barrier in September 2009 suggesting that not all the water in the soil profile will be removed before the fall rains begin. The results of this study are expected to contribute to a better understanding of barrier performance after major disturbances in a post-institutional control environment. Such an understanding is needed to enhance stakeholder acceptance regarding the long-term efficacy of engineered barriers. This study will also support improvements in the design of evapotranspiration (ET) and hybrid (ET + capacitive) barriers and the performance monitoring systems.

  7. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2005-04-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The mechanism of physical SOC sequestration is achieved by encapsulation of SOM in spaces within macro and microaggregates. The experimental sites, owned and maintained by American Electrical Power, were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoils and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites were reclaimed both with and without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed in 2003 (R03-G), in 1973 (R73-F), in 1969 (R69-G), in 1962 (R62-G and R62-F) and in 1957 (R57-F). Three sites are under continuous grass cover and the three under forest cover since reclamation. Three bulk soil samples were collected from each site from three landscape positions (upper; middle, and lower) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The samples were air dried and using wet sieving technique were fractionated into macro (> 2mm), meso (2-0.25 mm) and microaggregate (0.25-0.053 mm). These fractions were weighted separately and water stable aggregation (WSA) and geometric mean (GMD) and mean weight (MWD) diameters of aggregates were obtained. The soil C and N concentrations were also determined on these aggregate fractions. Analysis of mean values showed that in general, WSA and MWD of aggregates increased with increasing duration since reclamation or age of reclaimed soil for all three landscape positions and two depths in sites under continuous grass. The forest sites were relatively older than grass sites and therefore WSA or MWD of aggregates did not show any increases with age since reclamation. The lower WSA in R57-F site than R73-F clearly showed the effect of soil erosion on aggregate stability. Higher aggregation and aggregate diameters in R73-F than R62-F and R57-F also showed the importance of reclamation with topsoil application on improving soil structure. Soil C and N concentrations were lowest for the site reclaimed in year 2003 in each aggregate fraction for both depths. The higher C and N concentrations each aggregate size fraction in older sites than the newly reclaimed site demonstrated the sequestration potential of younger sites.

  8. Assessing Fossil and New Carbon in Reclaimed Mined Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rattan Lal; David Ussiri

    2008-09-30

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is the mixture of coal C originating from mining and reclamation activities and recent plant-derived organic carbon (OC). Accurate estimates of OC pools and sequestration rates in the RMS are limited by lack of standard and cost-effective method for determination of coal-C concentration. The main objective of this project was to develop and test analytical procedures for quantifying pool sizes of coal-derived C in RMS and to partition organic C in RMS into coal-derived and newly deposited SOC fractions. Analysis of soil and coal artificial mixtures indicated that the {Delta}{sup 13}C method developed was very effective in estimating coal C added in the mixtures, especially soils under C4 plants. However, most of the reclaimed sites in Ohio are under C3 plants with range of {Delta}{sup 13}C signal falling within ranges of coal. The wide range of {Delta}{sup 13}C signal observed in minesoils, (i.e. -26 to -30 for plants and -23 to -26 for coal) limits the ability of this approach to be used for southeast Ohio minesoils. This method is applicable for reclaimed prime farm land under long term corn or corn soybean rotation. Chemi-thermal method was very effective in quantifying coal-C fraction in both soil-coal artificial mixtures and minesoils. The recovery of coal-C from the mixture ranged from 93 to 100% of coal. Cross-validation of chemi-thermal method with radiocarbon analysis revealed that chemi-thermal method was as effective as radiocarbon analysis in quantifying coal-C in RMS. Coal C determined after chemi-thermal treatment of samples was highly correlated with coal C concentration calculated by radiocarbon activity (r{sup 2} = 0.95, P < 0.01). Therefore, both radiocarbon activity and chemi-thermal method were effective in estimating coal carbon concentration in reclaimed minesoils of southeast Ohio. Overall, both coal-C and recent OC fraction exhibited high spatial and depth variation, suggesting that approaches used to obtain representative samples in undisturbed soils may not be effective in RMS sites. Analysis of coal-C fraction in RMS indicated that the contribution of coal C to SOC increased with increase in soil depth, accounting for up to 92% of SOC in the sub-soil. Our data indicated that land use and land management practices plays significant role in enhancing SOC sequestration in reclaimed mined lands.

  9. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  10. A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Thornton, Peter E; Post, Wilfred M

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbes play a pivotal role in regulating land-atmosphere interactions; the soil microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and C:N:P stoichiometry are important regulators for soil biogeochemical processes; however, the current knowledge on magnitude, stoichiometry, storage, and spatial distribution of global soil microbial biomass C, N, and P is limited. In this study, 3087 pairs of data points were retrieved from 281 published papers and further used to summarize the magnitudes and stoichiometries of C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass at global- and biome-levels. Finally, global stock and spatial distribution of microbial biomass C and N in 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm soil profiles were estimated. The results show that C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass vary substantially across biomes; the fractions of soil nutrient C, N, and P in soil microbial biomass are 1.6% in a 95% confidence interval of (1.5%-1.6%), 2.9% in a 95% confidence interval of (2.8%-3.0%), and 4.4% in a 95% confidence interval of (3.9%-5.0%), respectively. The best estimates of C:N:P stoichiometries for soil nutrients and soil microbial biomass are 153:11:1, and 47:6:1, respectively, at global scale, and they vary in a wide range among biomes. Vertical distribution of soil microbial biomass follows the distribution of roots up to 1 m depth. The global stock of soil microbial biomass C and N were estimated to be 15.2 Pg C and 2.3 Pg N in the 0-30 cm soil profiles, and 21.2 Pg C and 3.2 Pg N in the 0-100 cm soil profiles. We did not estimate P in soil microbial biomass due to data shortage and insignificant correlation with soil total P and climate variables. The spatial patterns of soil microbial biomass C and N were consistent with those of soil organic C and total N, i.e. high density in northern high latitude, and low density in low latitudes and southern hemisphere.

  11. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion.

  12. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, C.H. Jr.

    1984-02-14

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion. 4 figs.

  13. Field Soil Water Retention of the Prototype Hanford Barrier and Its Variability with Space and Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-08-14

    Engineered surface barriers are used to isolate underlying contaminants from water, plants, animals, and humans. To understand the flow processes within a barrier and the barrier’s ability to store and release water, the field hydraulic properties of the barrier need to be known. In situ measurement of soil hydraulic properties and their variation over time is challenging because most measurement methods are destructive. A multiyear test of the Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) has yielded in situ soil water content and pressure data for a nine-year period. The upper 2 m layer of the PHB is a silt loam. Within this layer, water content and water pressure were monitored at multiple depths at 12 water balance stations using a neutron probe and heat dissipation units. Valid monitoring data from 1995 to 2003 for 4 depths at 12 monitoring stations were used to determine the field water retention of the silt loam layer. The data covered a wide range of wetness, from near saturation to the permanent wilt point, and each retention curve contained 51 to 96 data points. The data were described well with the commonly used van Genuchten water retention model. It was found that the spatial variation of the saturated and residual water content and the pore size distribution parameter were relatively small, while that of the van Genuchten alpha was relatively large. The effects of spatial variability of the retention properties appeared to be larger than the combined effects of added 15% w/w pea gravel and plant roots on the properties. Neither of the primary hydrological processes nor time had a detectible effect on the water retention of the silt loam barrier.

  14. Measuring Static and Dynamic Properties of Frozen Silty Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1998-09-30

    A mechanical characterization of frozen silty soils has been conducted to support computer modeling of penetrators. The soils were obtained from the Eilson AFB (Alaska) vicinity. Quasi-static testing with a multiaxial system in a cold room and intermediate strain rate testing with a split Hopkinson pressure bar were conducted. Maximum stresses achieved were slightly above 1 GPa, apparently limiting the observed behavior primarily to elastic compression and pore crushing phenomena. Lower temperatures seem to increase the strength of the material markedly, although not by a simple factor. Lower temperatures and higher strain rates increase the apparent Young's and bulk moduli as well (an increase of {approximately} a factor of two is observed for strain rate increasing from 0.001 s{sup {minus}1} to 800 s{sup {minus}1}). The strength also depends strongly on strain rate. Increasing the strain rate from 0.001 {sup {minus}1} to 0.07 {sup {minus}1} increases the strength by a factor of five to ten (to values of order 1 GPa). However,only a small increase in strength is seen as strain rate is increased to {approximately} 10{sup 2}--10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}. The reliability of the strength measurements at strain rates< 1 s{sup {minus}1} is decreased due to details of the experimental geometry, although general trends are observable. A recipe is provided for a simulant soil based on bentonite, sand, clay-rich soil and water to fit the {approximately} 6% air-filled porosity, density and water content of the Alaska soils, based on benchtop mixing and jacketed compression testing of candidate mixes.

  15. Surface-Micromachined Microfluidic Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; Paul, Phillip H.; Krygowski, Thomas W.; Allen, James J.; Nichols, Christopher A.; Jakubczak, II, Jerome F.

    2004-09-28

    Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators. Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators.

  16. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were utilized onsite, but as one moves to unindustrialized areas on the site, surrounding buffer areas and perimeter location into the more distant sites, concentrations of these radionuclides approach background and cannot be distinguished from fallout activity. More importantly, concentrations in soil and vegetation samples did not exceed environmental benchmark concentrations, and associated exposure to human and ecological receptors were well below levels that are demonstratively hazardous to human health and the environment.

  17. Surface coal mining operations in two Oklahoma Counties raise questions about prime farmland reclamation and bond adequacy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-08-08

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 allows prime farmland to be mined but requires the coal operator to reclaim it according to special reclamation standards. To be considered prime farmland, the soil must meet the Secretary of Agriculture's definition of prime soil and have historically been used for intensive agricultural purposes. In Oklahoma, the historical-use provision has generally been applied to lands that have been used for cropland for 5 of the preceding 10 years. GAO's review of mining activities in two Oklahoma counties showed that the land comprising 54 of the 58 mine permits issued since the act's passage contained some prime soil. None, however, required reclamation to prime farmland standards because landowners signed letters stating that the land had not been farmed for crops for five of the preceding 10 years. GAO also found that numerous sites in the two counties were abandoned by mining companies after the act was passed. Since abandonment, no reclamation has occurred on most of these sites. The Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining questions whether the bonds on the unreclaimed sites, if collected, will be adequate to do the necessary reclamation. Oklahoma's Department of Mines has taken action to increase bond amounts on newly-issued permits and on some older permitted areas in order to prevent future reclamation problems.

  18. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  19. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines.

  20. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration--Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Strickland, Christopher E.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim barrier on the surface. Such a barrier is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. A plan has been prepared to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barrier. Soil water content and water pressure will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests were installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, four heat-dissipation units, and a drain gauge to measure soil water flux. A meteorological station has been installed outside of the fence. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests are planned to be installed beneath the proposed barrier.