Sample records for upland surface soil

  1. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

  2. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupportingAlbedo at theSurface Soil Surface Soil

  3. Major Nitrogen Loss Pathways in Upland Blueberry Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vano, Imre

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 O production in an arable peat soil in Central KalimantanTateyama brown forest soil + peat moss (1:1), SC- Soil +the tropical and boreal peat soils have a wide fungal

  4. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 1: Field evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbraith, H.; LeJeune, K.; Lipton, J. [Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations of arsenic and metals in soils surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana were correlated with vegetative community structure and composition and wildlife habitat quality. Soils in the uplands surrounding the smelter were highly enriched with arsenic and metals. Concentrations of these analytes decreased with distance from the smelter and with soil depth, suggesting that the smelter is the source of the enrichment. In enriched areas, marked modifications to the native vegetation community structure and composition were observed. These included replacement of evergreen forest with bare unvegetated ground; species impoverishment and increased dominance by weed species in grasslands; and reductions in the vertical complexity of the habitat. Significant negative correlations existed between soil arsenic and metals concentrations and the extent of vegetative cover and the vertical diversity of plant communities. Loss of vegetative cover in the affected areas has been accompanied by reductions in their capacity to support indigenous wildlife populations.

  5. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 2: Laboratory phytotoxicity studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapustka, L.A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lipton, J.; Galbraith, H.; Cacela, D.; LeJeune, K. [Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vegetation communities on metal- and arsenic-contaminated uplands surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana have been eliminated or highly modified. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using site soils from the impacted areas to determine whether the soils limit the ability of plants to establish and grow. The germination and growth of alfalfa, lettuce, and wheat in impacted area soils was compared to germination and growth of the three species in reference soils. The degree of phytotoxicity was quantified using a species-endpoint toxicity score calculated on the magnitude of difference between germination and growth of plants in impacted and reference soils. The impacted soils exhibited substantial toxicity to plants: 5% of the sites were severely phytotoxic, 55% were highly phytotoxic, 10% were moderately phytotoxic, 20% were mildly phytotoxic, and 10% were nontoxic. Root growth was consistently the most affected endpoint (18 of 20 impacted soils) and reduction in root length and mass was observed. Correlation and partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the causes of phytotoxicity. Concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn and, to a lesser extent, Pb and Cd were found to be positively correlated with phytotoxicity.

  6. Statistical Characterization of Bare Soil Surface Microrelief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to substrate movement, water infiltration or runoff, and soil erosion. It has been noted by many authors that most of the soil surface and water interaction processes have characteristic lengths in millimeter, fragmentation and water content) to obtain an optimal crop emergence. Seedbed preparation focuses

  7. Iodine in Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , while the quantity of iodine in spinach bore a close relation to the quantity of iodine in the soil. The action. of the added iodine differed with the kind of soil. Hercus and Roberts (12) state that loam has a marked retentive power for soluble... in surface soils by soil types High 1 0 1 p. *. rn. Low p. p. m. .- 1.1 ........ 1.6 2.5 0.8 1.5 ........ ........ 1.1 ........ 2.0 East Texas Timber Country Upland soils with friable subsoils: Bowie fine sandy loam...

  8. Evidence for an eolian origin for the silt-enriched soil mantles on the glaciated uplands of eastern Upper Michigan, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaetzl, Randall

    of eastern Upper Michigan, USA Randall J. Schaetzl a,, Walter L. Loope b,1 a Department of Geography, 128 Geography Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1117, USA b U.S. Geological Survey, P uplands in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Previous research on this deposit, which we

  9. Second Africa Rice Congress, Bamako, Mali, 2226 March 2010: Innovation and Partnerships to Realize Africa's Rice Potential 2.12.1 Identification of the main constraints for upland rice crop in direct-seeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    from 2003/04 to 2008/09. Treatments compared were two soil management techniques: conventional tillage permanent protection of soil, have opened up new possibilities of sustainability for the upland rice systems in the lowlands led to the development of upland rice. To tackle the sustainability problem of upland crop

  10. Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA 7 on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect

  11. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Surface Dynamics to Surface Soil and Vegetation Contrasts over the Carolina Sandhills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    Sensitivity of Mesoscale Surface Dynamics to Surface Soil and Vegetation Contrasts over in mesoscale summertime precipitation over this region. Numerical simulations are analyzed to investigate the relationships between mesoscale surface dynamics and the transition from clay to sandy soils over this region

  12. Liquid Spills on Permeable Soil Surfaces: Experimental Confirmations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictive tools for assessing the quantity of a spill on a soil from the observed spreading area could contribute to improving remediation when it is necessary. On a permeable soil, the visible spill area only hints about the amount of liquid that might reside below the surface. An understanding of the physical phenomena involved with spill propagation on a soil surface is key to assessing the liquid amount possibly present beneath the surface. The objective of this study is an improved prediction capability for spill behavior.

  13. Geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.L; Rogers, V.A.; Conner, S.P.; Cummings, C.L.; Gladden, J.B.; Weber, J.M.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, is a nuclear production facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). To facilitate future human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies for its wetland areas, SRS needs a database of background geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils. These data are needed for comparison to data collected from wetland soils that may have been affected by SRS operations. SRS contains 36,000 acres of wetlands and an additional 5,000 acres of bottom land soils subject to flooding. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste units at SRS show that some wetlands have been impacted by releases of contaminants resulting from SRS operations (WSRC, 1992). Waste waters originating from the operations facilities typically have been discharged into seepage basins located in upland soils, direct discharge of waste water to wetland areas has been minimal. This suggests that impacted wetland areas have been affected indirectly as a result of transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, groundwater seeps, fluvial or sediment transport, and leaching. Looney et al. (1990) conducted a study to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of upland soils and shallow sediments on the SRS. A primary objective of the upland study was to collect the data needed to assess the qualitative and quantitative impacts of SRS operations on the environment. By comparing the upland soils data to data collected from waste units located in similar soils, SRS impacts could be assessed. The data were also intended to aid in selection of remediation alternatives. Because waste units at SRS have historically been located in upland areas, wetland soils were not sampled. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Variations in clay mineralogy and sediment texture of salt marsh soils on the Eastern Shore of Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, S.E.; Furman, T. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the Eastern Shore of VA, relative sea level rise has resulted in encroachment of marsh onto upland areas. The amount and type of sediment determines the morphologic environment of the system: lagoon, mudflat, low marsh, high marsh or upland. This research is part of a study to examine the relationship between marsh soil characteristics and the production of Spartina alterniflora. The productivity of marsh vegetation depends on the import and entrapment of sediments that maintain marsh elevation and control water and nutrient availability. This work focused on distribution patterns of sediment texture and mineralogy. One meter deep cores were taken at marsh sites with 10 cm intervals homogenized for analysis. In order to distinguish potential sediment sources, samples were also taken from upland soil pits on the mainland and dredged one-half mile seaward of the barrier islands. Samples have undergone size analysis with a hydrometer and the clay fraction has been analyzed by XRD. Results from the marsh surface indicate large variations in sediment texture, but only slight differences in clay mineralogy between marshes. Barrier island marshes contain a higher average sand content than mainland marshes because of their closer proximity to barrier island beaches and inputs from overwash deposits. The clay minerals found in all marsh surface deposits are illite and chlorite, indicative of oceanic clays. The clay mineralogy of upland soils (kaolinite, chlorite, illite, vermiculite mixed-layer clay) differs from marsh surface clays, indicating that recent sediment deposited on the marsh surface is no upland soil but rather material brought in through tidal inlets. The sediment texture and clay mineralogy at different depths varies as a function of the past geomorphic and depositional history of the site. These data will be used to determine the timing of marsh development on flooded upland sites and to determine the pre-Holocene source of inorganic sediment inputs.

  15. Soil CO2 production and surface flux at four climate observatories in eastern Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil CO2 production and surface flux at four climate observatories in eastern Canada David Risk the climatic controls on soil respiration. We use subsurface CO2 concentrations, surface CO2 flux and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface regime to examine physical controls on soil CO2 production. Results

  16. Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro N.

    Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

  17. Bench terracing in the Kerinci uplands of Sumatra, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belsky, Jill M.

    Bench terracing in the Kerinci uplands of Sumatra, Indonesia ABSTRACF: Bench terracing's effect farmers views and use of bench terraces were evaluated in the Kerinci uplands of Sumatra , Indonesia

  18. Z .The Science of the Total Environment 265 2001 169 179 Manganese and land-use in upland catchments in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Kate

    from conifer foliage and litter, and mature conifers enhance acid deposition and loss of Mn from is a transition metal which is widespread in the environment, occurring in all Z .rocks and soils Krauskopf for Mn Scottish Office, 1997 , the ma- jority of failures occurred in upland water sources. Mn

  19. Accumulation of surface-applied agricultural limestone in acid soils of east Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Earl Raymond

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    limestone sample, the lime dealer who supplied the sample, and its source is found in Appendix A. Analyses of Agricultural t, imestone Analyses performed on each sample of agricultural limestone includea: total dissolution analysis, x-ray diffraction... in the surface of limed soils than in the surface of unlimed soils, and a greater proportion of exchange sites were occupied by Ca2+ in the surface of limed soils than in the subsurface. Aluminum saturation was high enough in the subsoil of some sites...

  20. alentejo soils surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Hierarchies of chemical and physical bonding Amundson, Ronald 91 Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils University of California...

  1. Relation of soil-, surface-, and ground-water distributions of inorganic nitrogen with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Ellen

    Relation of soil-, surface-, and ground-water distributions of inorganic nitrogen with topographic position in harvested and unharvested portions of an aspen-dominated catchment in the Boreal Plain M.L. Macrae, K.J. Devito, I.F. Creed, and S.E. Macdonald Abstract: Spatial distributions of soil extractable

  2. The effect of stratigraphy and soil plasticity on the settlement characteristics of reclaimed surface mined land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rangel, Jorge Enrique

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF STRATIGRAPHY AND SOIL PLASTICITY ON THE SETTLEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FECLAIMED SURFACE MINED I~D A Thesis GORGE ENRIQUE RANGEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the regni ement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Geology THE EFFECT OF STRATIGRAPHY AND SOIL PLASTICITY ON &HA SETTLEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF RECLAIMED SURFACE MINED LAI'1D Thesis by JORGE ENRIQDE RANGEL Approved as to style ana content...

  3. Dual frequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture for bare and vegetated rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Siu Lim

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DUAL FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF SOIL MOISTURE FOR BARE AND VEGETATED ROUGH SURFACES A Thesis by SIU LIM LEE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A(M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering DUAL FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF' SOIL MOISTURE FOR BARE AND VEGETATED ROUGH SURFACES A Thesis by SIU LIM LEE Approved as to style and content by: (C rman...

  4. Steam treatment of surface soil: how does it affect water-soluble organic matter, C mineralization, and bacterial community composition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux-Michollet, Dad; Dudal, Yves; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Czarnes, Sonia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the newly released carbon. Steam treatment showed strong but010-0468-6 ORIGINAL PAPER Steam treatment of surface soil:at Springerlink.com Abstract Steam soil disinfestation is

  5. Beyond Plants Indicators and Soil Surface Properties in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    micro-aggregates · Gives soil its dark color Short term Long term #12;Biotic Integrity Organic matter and mortality · Erosion · Vegetation changes · Establishment and growth of invasive plants · Water yields and water quality · Air quality · Wildlife habitat · Carbon sequestration #12;Transitions Cause

  6. Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dioumaeva, Irina; Trumbore, Susan; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Goulden, Michael L.; Litvak, Marcy; Hirsch, Adam I.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003 Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest:of decomposition for upland boreal peat under black spruceand $50% in sphagnum moss peat), despite slow decomposition

  7. Ammonia volatilization from soils with surface rice straw residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barghassa, Peyam

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rice residue and related factors on NH3 volatilization from an acid Beaumont clay (pH 5.4) and an alkaline Lake Charles clay (pH 7.4). The treatments in the greenhouse and lab consisted of all possible combinations of the following variables: surface...

  8. Summary of solar experience with the soiling of optical surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Call, P J

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a workshop held on July 16-17, 1979 to discuss available experimental data, current and planned experimental investigations, directly applicable optical principles, and relevant theory are summarized. The summary is in terms of the magnitude of effects on various types of systems and the effects of location, surface properties, and natural/artificial removal. The economics of prevention, tolerance, and removal are also summarized. (MHR)

  9. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Devleena, E-mail: devleenatiwari@ngri.res.in [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India); Kumar, T. Satish [Oil India Limited (India); Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V. [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  10. Soil phosphorus status and fertilizer use in select agricutural soils in Nicaragua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemeyer, Patrick G

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These soils contained high amounts of plant available P as indicated by four soil P testing methods, Texas A&M, Bray I, Mehlich III and Olsen. These same methods extracted less P from soils from Pacific coast volcanic lowlands and central highland uplands...

  11. In situ mapping of radionuclides in subsurface and surface soils: 1994 Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Knopf, M.A.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites occasionally caused local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils. The thorough cleanup of these sites is a major public concern and a high priority for the US Department of Energy, but before any effective remedial protocols can be established, the three-dimensional distributions of target contaminants must be characterized. Traditional means of measuring radionuclide activities in soil are cumbersome, expensive, time-consuming, and often do not accurately reflect conditions over very large areas. New technologies must be developed, or existing ones improved, to allow cheaper, faster, and safer characterization of radionuclides in soils at these sites. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies to measure uranium in surface and subsurface soils. In partial completion of this effort, PNL developed an improved in situ gamma-ray spectrometry system to satisfy the technical requirements. This document summarizes fiscal-year 1994 efforts at PNL to fulfill requirements for TTP {number_sign}321103 (project {number_sign}19307). These requirements included (a) developing a user-friendly software package for reducing field-acquired gamma-ray spectra, (b) constructing an improved data-acquisition hardware system for use with high-purity germanium detectors, (c) ensuring readiness to conduct field mapping exercises as specified by the sponsor, (d) evaluating the in situ gamma-ray spectrometer for the determination of uranium depth distribution, and (e) documenting these efforts.

  12. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

  13. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

  14. Boll and fiber development in long staple upland cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braden, Chris Alan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Texas is the leading state in dryland production of upland cotton. In 1998, 1.45 million hectares (~ 60 % of the state's total hectarage) of dryland cotton were planted in Texas (Texas Department of Agriculture, 1998). Dryland hetarage usually...

  15. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  16. Soil surface modification in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrill, Clifton Edwards

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    higher on unplowed areas, but deep soils contained more soil water when root plowed on Upton gravelly loams. Deep Reagan silty clay loam soils contained more soil water after treatment than did untreated areas. Brush cover was significantly reduced... Deep Soil, Reagan Silty Clay Loam. Deep Soil, Upton Gravelly Loam . Total Grass Production. Forbs Shallow Soil, Reagan Silty Clay Loam Shallow Soil, Upton Gravelly Loam. Total Herbaceous Production Total Grass Production Forbs iv vii 14 14...

  17. Determination of thorium, uranium, and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils in Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalis Tzortzis; Haralabos Tsertos

    2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive study was conducted to determine thorium, uranium and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils throughout the accessible area of Cyprus using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 115 soil samples was collected from all over the bedrock surface of the island based on the different lithological units of the study area. The soil samples were sieved through a fine mesh, sealed in 1000-mL plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory in terms of their gamma radioactivity for a counting time of 18 hours each. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, elemental concentrations were determined for thorium (range from 2.5x10^-3 to 9.8 micro g g-1), uranium (from 8.1x10^-4 to 3.2 micro g g-1) and potassium (from 1.3x10^-4 to 1.9 %). The Arithmetic mean values (A.M. +- S.D.) calculated are (1.2 +- 1.7) micro g g-1, (0.6 +- 0.7) micro g g-1, and (0.4 +- 0.3) %, for thorium, uranium and potassium, respectively, which are by a factor of three to six lower than the world average values of 7.4 micro g g-1 (Th), 2.8 micro g g-1 (U) and 1.3 % (K) derived from all data available worldwide. The best-fitting relation between the concentrations of Th and K versus U, and also of K versus Th, is essentially of linear type with a correlation coefficient of 0.93, 0.84, and 0.90, respectively. The Th/U, K/U, and K/Th ratios (slopes) calculated are equal to 2.0, 2.8x10^3,and 1.4x10^3, respectively.

  18. Producing - Harvesting - Marketing High Quality Upland Cotton in the El Paso Trade Territory.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles A. (compiler)

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    penetration. This means good physical condition of the root zone of the soil. When a soil is in good physical condition, water and air can move throughout the root zone at adequate rates for good crop production. Soils should supply plants throughout... in soil tilth and productivity. All machines travel- ing on the surface of the soil tend to compact it. Therefore, it is recommended that minimum tillage be practiced in land preparation and during the remainder of the cropping season. Minimum tillage...

  19. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friday, G. P.

    2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal components of the environmental remediation program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the assessment of ecological risk. Used to support CERCLA, RCRA, and DOE orders, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) can identify environmental hazards and evaluate remedial action alternatives. Ecological risk assessment is also an essential means for achieving DOE's risk based end state vision for the disposition of nuclear material and waste hazards, the decommissioning of facilities, and the remediation of inactive waste units at SRS. The complexity of an ERA ranges from a screening level ERA (SLERA) to a full baseline ERA. A screening level ecological risk assessments, although abbreviated from a baseline risk assessment, is nonetheless considered a complete risk assessment (EPA, 2001a). One of the initial tasks of any ERA is to identify constituents that potentially or adversely affect the environment. Typically, this is accomplished by comparing a constituent's maximum concentration in surface water, sediment, or soil with an ecological screening value (ESV). The screening process can eliminate many constituents from further consideration in the risk assessment, but it also identifies those that require additional evaluation. This document is an update of a previous compilation (Friday, 1998) and provides a comprehensive listing of ecological screening values for surface water, sediment, and soil. It describes how the screening values were derived and recommends benchmarks that can be used for ecological risk assessment. The sources of these updated benchmarks include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the State of Florida, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (RIVM), and the scientific literature. It should be noted that ESV's are continuously revised by the various issuing agencies. The references in this report provide the citations of each source and, where applicable, the internet address where they can be accessed. Although radiological screening values are not included herein due to space limitations, these have been recently derived by a technical working committee sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE 2002, 2004). The recommended ecological screening values represent the most conservative concentrations of the cited sources, and are to be used for screening purposes only. They do not represent remedial action cleanup levels. Their use at locations other than SRS should take into account environmental variables such as water quality, soil chemistry, flora and fauna, and other ecological attributes specific to the ecosystem potentially at risk.

  20. Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, P.

    [1] The response of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum model to incoming radiation forcing is investigated in order to gain insights into the coupling of soil and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) states and fluxes. The ...

  1. The recovery of the recurrent parent in upland cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenbaum, Ross Corbet

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The Recovery of the Recurrent Parent in Upland Cotton. (December 2003) Ross Corbet Rosenbaum, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. Wayne Smith Breeders have made numerous improvements in upland cotton (Gossypium... 0072 0074 5. 09 A 5. 08 A 4. 87 A 4. 60 B 4. 87 A 4. 93 A 5. 33 A 5. 17 A 4. 98 A 5. 54 A 4. 93 A 5. 25 A 5. 37 A 4. 97 BC 4. 78 A 5. 28 A 4, 76 A 4. 82 A 4. 45 AB 5. 43 A 4. 96 A 4. 93 A 5. 20 A a-f * b-f d-h gh d-h c-g a...

  2. A comparison of variability of undisturbed and surface mined soils in Freestone County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bearden, Eddie Dean

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selected at random and a systematic radial transect design was used to collect observations at variable intervals ranging from 1 to 21 m to provide both short-range and long-range spatial analysis. Soils rep- resentative of given distuzbed... LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX 1. Soil Classification by Site APPENDIX 2. Field Soil Descriptions APPENDIX 3. Detailed Nicromorphological Descriptions APPENDIX 4. Laboratory Characterization Data VITA 82 86 123 133 184 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1...

  3. Soil surface properties in Mediterranean mountain ecosystems: Effects of environmental factors and implications of management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    and implications of management C. Oyonarte a,*, V. Aranda b , P. Durante a a Department of Soil Science, CITE II hand, the type of plant cover and management do not influence the geochemical properties of the soil management of forests (Hopmans et al., 2005). Criteria for sustainability must consider ecosystem integrity

  4. From near-surface to root-zone soil moisture using an exponential filter: an assessment of the method based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    provides a means to quantitatively describe the water content of a shallow near-surface soil layer, wg of the method based on in-situ observations and model simulations C. Albergel1 , C. Rdiger1,* , T. Pellarin2. A recursive exponential filter equation using a time constant, T, is used to compute a soil water index

  5. An integral-balance nonlinear model to simulate changes in soil moisture, groundwater and surface runoff dynamics at the hillslope scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    An integral-balance nonlinear model to simulate changes in soil moisture, groundwater and surface-state integral-balance model for soil moisture and groundwater dynamics. Development of the model was motivated. ? 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Recent studies on the modeling

  6. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality-- Physical and Biological Soil Crusts USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 7 What are soil crusts? A physical crust is a thin layer with reduced porosity and increased density at the surface of the soil. A biological crust

  7. Modeling land surface processes of the midwestern United States : predicting soil moisture under a warmer climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation seeks to quantify the response of soil moisture to climate change in the midwestern United States. To assess this response, a dynamic global vegetation model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator, was coupled ...

  8. Spatial Distribution Of Cs-137 In Surface Soils On Some Central Rhodopes Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hristov, Hr. G.; Srentz, A. K.; Balabanov, N. P. [Plovdiv University, 24 Tzar Assen Str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of investigation are soils from region around village Kiselchovo, town Smolyan, villages Narechen, Bachkovo, Laki, Kosovo, Dobralak, Central Rhodopes region. The samples have been collected from natural soils at a depth of 0-10 cm. The samples have been analyzed for the content of technogenical radionuclide Cs-137. The measurements were taken by precise gamma ray spectrometer. Based on the conducted research an inference can be made that there are radioactive contamination (up to 30 times over the background level)

  9. Accumulation of surface-applied agricultural limestone in acid soils of east Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Earl Raymond

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    County Trinity County Jasper County Gregg County 45 45 53 61 68 79 Wood County General Discussion Page 96 120 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C 127 129 134 135 148 VITA 155 LIST OF TABLES Table Page U. S... of the transects sampled at the Wood county and Gregg county sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 14 Calcium carbonate content as a function of soil depth for the Leon county pasture. The soil series was a Demons taxadjunct. The erroz bars indicate...

  10. Soil surface stabilization using an in situ plutonium coating techniuqe at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, J.; Snipes, R. [Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tamura, T.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), in collaboration with the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR), has developed and is investigating an in situ plutonium treatment for soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The concept, conceived by Dr. T. Tamura and refined at HAZWRAP, was developed during the Nevada Applied Ecology Program investigation. In analyzing for plutonium in soils, it was noted that the alpha emanation of plutonium was greatly attenuated if traces of iron or manganese oxides were present in the final electroplating stage. The technique would reduce resuspension of alpha particles into the air by coating the contaminants in soils in situ with an environmentally compatible, durable, and nontoxic material. The coating materials (calcium hydroxide, ferrous sulfate) reduce resuspension by providing a cementitious barrier against radiation penetration while retaining soil porosity. This technique not only stabilizes plutonium-contaminated soils, but also provides an additional protection from worker exposure to radiation during remediation activities. Additionally, the coating would decrease the water solubility of the contaminant and, thus, reduce its migration through soil and uptake by plants.

  11. Nitrification Capacities of Texas Soil Types and Factors which Affect Nitrification.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterges, A. J.; Fraps, G S. (George Stronach)

    1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .p.m. Gulf Coast Prairie Upland soils Lake Charles clay loam. ............... .......... Lake Charles fine sandy loam. Lake Charles clay.. ................... Edna fine sandy loam.. ................ ............. Hockley fine sandy loam.. Alluvial... soils Miller fine sandy loam.. ............... Miller clay.. ......................... Ochlockonee silt loam.. ............... ......... Ochlockonee fine sandy loam.. Trinity clay.. ......................... pahala clay...

  12. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Waste Management Plan describes waste management and waste minimization activities for Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected response action presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. This plan identifies the waste streams that will be generated during implementation of the remedial action and presents plans for waste minimization, waste management strategies, and waste disposition.

  13. Establishment, growth and water use of Quercus virginiana (Mill.) on lignite surface-mined soils in response to irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Jacalyn E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 percent slope and an aspect of 95'. The plot location is at latitude 30'35'N and longitude 96 06'W at an elevation of 85 meters. The study site is in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas which is characterized by gently rolling to hilly... applied to 12 live oak seedlings on reclaimed lignite surface-mined soils in central Texas as a means to study the physiology and growth of seedlings during establishment. The study period was 4 July 1990 through 30 September 1990. Transpiration...

  14. Surface soil moisture estimation with the electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theis, Sidney Wayne

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that is important in determining the ability of a plant to uptake water and that determines the state of saturation of a soil. Matric potential is very important for crop modeling and runoff prediction. Roe et al. (1971) observed that the emissivity of a mooth... that were approximately 15 to 20 cm high. For an area covered with thick turfted grass to a height of 20 cm, Barton (1978) obtained a poor relationship between soil moisture and emissivity for both the ESHR and a 2. 65-cm radiometer. The ESHR response...

  15. Time Domain Reflectometry Surface Reflections for Dielectric Constant in Highly Conductive Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowack, Robert L.

    .1061/ ASCE 1090-0241 2007 133:12 1597 CE Database subject headings: Dielectric constant; Electrical technology is a reliable, fast, and safe technology for measuring soil volumetric water content Benson significant energy attenuation Topp et al. 1980, 2000; Jones and Or 2004 . This makes it almost impossible

  16. A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States)] [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Lit, Peter [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)] [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were calculated. From the scanning data, locations with observed Cs-137 ratios exceeding six standard deviations above the mean ratio were mapped in high resolution [2]. Field teams returned to those locations to collect static count measurements using the same detection systems. Soil surface samples were collected at 30 locations and analyzed for Cs-137. An exponential correlation was identified between Cs-137 concentrations in surface soil and field-scanned Cs-137 ratios. The data indicate field minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of Cs-137 at 0.02 Bq/g (0.5 pCi/g) or lower depending on contaminant distribution in soil. (authors)

  17. Improving land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model better than a deeper soil profile?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    better than a deeper soil profile? , Geophys. Res. Lett. ,better than a deeper soil profile? Lindsey E. Gulden, 1flow: (1) a shallow soil profile that is characteristic of

  18. Growth and fruiting responses of diverse genotypes of American Upland cotton grown in different environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gannaway, J. R

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GROWTH AND FRUITING RESPONSES OF DIVERSE GENOTYPES OF AMERICAN UPLAND COTTON GROWN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis JOHN ROBERT GANNAWAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Plant Breeding GROWTH AND FRUITING RESPONSES OF DIVERSE GENOTYPES OF AMERICAN UPLAND COTTON GROWN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT GANNAWAY Approved as to style and content by...

  19. Growth and fruiting responses of diverse genotypes of American Upland cotton grown in different environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gannaway, J. R

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GROWTH AND FRUITING RESPONSES OF DIVERSE GENOTYPES OF AMERICAN UPLAND COTTON GROWN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis JOHN ROBERT GANNAWAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Plant Breeding GROWTH AND FRUITING RESPONSES OF DIVERSE GENOTYPES OF AMERICAN UPLAND COTTON GROWN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT GANNAWAY Approved as to style and content by...

  20. Influence of radar frequency on the relationship between bare surface soil moisture vertical profile and radar backscatter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    produced from Envisat ASAR and TerraSAR-X data, acquired over bare soils with in situ measurements heterogeneity into account in the backscatter model. Key words: SAR, AIEM, soil moisture profile, bare soil hal in the L, C, and X frequency bands, empirical and semi-empirical models are often calibrated using soil

  1. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, T.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  2. Residence Time Effects on P Sorption/Desorption on Ferrihydrite Understanding mechanisms of P retention/release on soil mineral surfaces is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Residence Time Effects on P Sorption/Desorption on Ferrihydrite Y. Arai Understanding mechanisms of P retention/release on soil mineral surfaces is fundamental in assessing the P biogeochemistry that are high ammonium oxalate extractable P, due to long-term manure amendments. Since there is a high

  3. Session EP23A. Aeolian Processes and Desert Landscape Development Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    and surface properties. The LISA dataset was develo- ped for Northern Africa, Middle East and East Asia in comparison to the LISA dataset over Northern Africa and Middle East. Sensitivity of emissions to several and soil descriptions is estimated over the simulation domain covering Northern Africa and Middle East. AOD

  4. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 Air and Water Volume 2 Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  5. Hydrocarbon anomaly in soil gas as near-surface expressions of upflows and outflows in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, H.L.; Higashihara, M.; Klusman, R.W.; Voorhees, K.J.; Pudjianto, R.; Ong, J

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of hydrocarbons, C1 - C12, have been found in volcanic gases (fumarolic) and in geothermal waters and gases. The hydrocarbons are thought to have come from products of pyrolysis of kerogen in sedimentary rocks or they could be fed into the geothermal system by the recharging waters which may contain dissolved hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons extracted by the waters from the rocks. In the hot geothermal zone, 300+ C, many of these hydrocarbons are in their critical state. It is thought that they move upwards due to buoyancy and flux up with the upflowing geothermal fluids in the upflow zones together with the magmatic gases. Permeability which could be provided by faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures are thought to provide pathways for the upward flux. A sensitive technique (Petrex) utilizing passive integrative adsorption of the hydrocarbons in soil gas on activated charcoal followed by desorption and analysis of the hydrocarbons by direct introduction mass spectrometry allows mapping of the anomalous areas. Surveys for geothermal resources conducted in Japan and in Indonesia show that the hydrocarbon anomaly occur over known fields and over areas strongly suspected of geothermal potential. The hydrocarbons found and identified were n-paraffins (C7-C9) and aromatics (C7-C8). Detection of permeable, i.e. active or open faults, parts of older faults which have been reactivated, e.g. by younger intersecting faults, and the area surrounding these faulted and permeable region is possible. The mechanism leading to the appearance of the hydrocarbon in the soil gas over upflow zones of the geothermal reservoir is proposed. The paraffins seems to be better pathfinders for the location of upflows than the aromatics. However the aromatics may, under certain circumstances, give better indications of the direction of the outflow of the geothermal system. It is thought that an upflow zone can be defined when conditions exist where the recharging waters containing the hydrocarbons feed into the geothermal kitchen. The existence of open and active faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures allow sufficient permeability for the gases to flux up and express themselves at the surface as hydrocarbon anomaly in the soil gas. When any of the requirements is absent, i.e. in the absence of the recharging waters, hydrocarbons, temperature, or permeability, no anomaly can be expected. It assumes a dynamic convective system, i.e. recharging waters, upflow and outflow. The anomalies however can define to a certain extent, regions of geothermal upflow, buoyant transport of gases, and frequently down-gradient of cooling waters.

  6. The effects of topping on yield and other agronomic characters in two varieties of Upland cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bearden, Gary Dee

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LiBRARY A A M COLLESE Of TEXAS THE EFFECTS OF TOPPlNG ON YIELD AND OTHER AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS IN TM) VARIETIES OF UPLAND COTTON Gary Dse Bearden Suhmittsd to ths Graduate School of ths Agricultural and Mechanical Collage of Texas in Partial... fulfillment of the requirements for ths degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1957 Ma/or Subjects Plant Breeding THE EFFECTS OF TOPPING ON YIELD AND OTHER AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS IN TM3 VARIETIES OF UPLAND COTTON Gary Dee Beaten Approve4 as to style...

  7. The effects of topping on yield and other agronomic characters in two varieties of Upland cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bearden, Gary Dee

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LiBRARY A A M COLLESE Of TEXAS THE EFFECTS OF TOPPlNG ON YIELD AND OTHER AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS IN TM) VARIETIES OF UPLAND COTTON Gary Dse Bearden Suhmittsd to ths Graduate School of ths Agricultural and Mechanical Collage of Texas in Partial... fulfillment of the requirements for ths degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1957 Ma/or Subjects Plant Breeding THE EFFECTS OF TOPPING ON YIELD AND OTHER AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS IN TM3 VARIETIES OF UPLAND COTTON Gary Dee Beaten Approve4 as to style...

  8. Steam treatment of surface soil: how does it affect water-soluble organic matter, C mineralization, and bacterial community composition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux-Michollet, Dad; Dudal, Yves; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Czarnes, Sonia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organic components Water extraction was performed by shakingresulting from hot water extraction, as measured by Sparlingboiling soil in water resulted in the extraction of both

  9. Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

  10. USING RADIO-TELEMETRY TO DETERMINE RANGE AND RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS OF UPLAND SANDPIPERS AT AN EXPERIMENTALLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    USING RADIO-TELEMETRY TO DETERMINE RANGE AND RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS OF UPLAND SANDPIPERS birds with radio transmitters at the experimentally managed Konza Prairie Biological Station of radios on survival and movement, and optimizing the duration of transmitter attachment. We compared 4

  11. Coupling upland watershed and downstream waterbody hydrodynamic and water quality models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Such models lack the capacity to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality processes of larger waterCoupling upland watershed and downstream waterbody hydrodynamic and water quality models (SWAT and CE-QUAL-W2) for better water resources management in complex river basins B. Debele & R. Srinivasan

  12. Long-term directional changes in upland Quercus forests throughout Oklahoma, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Michael W.

    Long-term directional changes in upland Quercus forests throughout Oklahoma, USA Ryan D. De? Location: Oklahoma, USA. Methods: We re-sampled 30 forest stands originally sampled in the 1950s across; Juniperus virginiana; mesophication; Oak; Oklahoma; Quercus marilandica; Quercus stellata; Species

  13. Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litvak, Marcy

    Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired boreal peat under black spruce forest with sphagnum and feather moss understory using incubation increments. At temperatures below 0C, significant decomposition was observed in feather moss peat

  14. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    74 ii Soil Moisture Sensors: Decagon ECH2O Capacitance133 A.10 Soil types corresponding to each75 Soil Moisture and Temperature Probe

  15. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  16. Improving land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model better than a deeper soil profile?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer modelAL. : LAND-SURFACE MODEL HYDROLOGY Changnon, S. , et al. (land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model

  17. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  18. Impact of in-woods product merchandizing on profitable logging opportunities in southern upland hardwood forests. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, D.M.; LeDoux, C.B.; Tansey, J.B.; Widmann, R.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report estimates profitable logging opportunities existing in upland hardwood forests in 14 Southern States and demonstrates the impact of three alternative product-merchandizing options on profitable logging opportunities and profit margins.

  19. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  20. Environmental effects of dredging. Long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated esturaine dredged material placed in an upland environment. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers/Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program (FVP), 1981-1986 (Peddicord 1988). Upland tests (plant and earthworm bioassays) were conducted on the sediment before dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under the upland disposal alternative. Laboratory test results were subsequently field verified at the field test site at `Tongue Point,` Bridgeport, Connecticut. The results of the upland disposal portion of the FVP and the changes occurring since the completion of the FVP for the upland disposal environment are summarized herein. This technical note emphasizes the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland ecosystem at this site will be evaluated until September 1995.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FOR CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with its foundation well above a sole-source aquifer or upland surface soil 1 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FOR CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION Rocky Mountain Region, Western Area...

  2. Chemical Composition of Soils of Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STATION Table 5. Analyses of soils of the Gulf Coast Prairie-Continued Type Name Flat marshy to semi-marshy soils ....................... Harr~e clay, surface.. Harris clay, subsoil. ........................ Harris fine sandy loam, surface.... ............. Harris fine sandy loam. subsoil.. ............. Tidal marsh. surface.. ...................... Tidal marsh. subsoil. ....................... Flat stream bottom soils Guadalupe clay. surface.. ................... Guadalupe clay, subsoil...

  3. Arsenic Mineralogy of Near-surface Tailings and Soils: Influences on Arsenic Mobility and Bioaccessibility in the Nova Scotia Mining Districts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S.; Parsons, M; Jamieson, H; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mineral form, grain size and texture of As-bearing particles are important factors influencing the risk to human health associated with exposure to As-contaminated soils, sediments and mine wastes. Mining of arsenopyrite-bearing gold ores in Nova Scotia in the late 1800s and early 1900s has left a legacy of weathered, As-rich tailings deposits in more than 60 gold districts across the province. Fourteen samples of near-surface tailings and one of soil from several former gold mines frequented by the public were sieved to <150 {mu}m and characterized using conventional mineralogical techniques (XRD, microscopy and EPMA) and synchrotron micro-analysis ({mu}-X-ray diffraction, {mu}-X-ray fluorescence and {mu}-X-ray absorption spectroscopy). This study is part of a broader coordinated effort by a multi-department federal and provincial advisory committee formed to coordinate the study of ecosystem and human health risks associated with historical gold mine sites in Nova Scotia. Our study shows that (i) the mineralogy of As in weathered tailings is highly variable, with aggregates of more than one As-bearing phase common in a given sample, and (ii) major differences in As mineralogy in the tailings are mainly controlled by factors that influence the weathering history (e.g., presence or absence of mill concentrates, degree of water saturation, and abundance of relict carbonate minerals). The variable solubility of these primary and secondary As-bearing minerals influences both the environmental mobility and the bioaccessibility of As in near-surface tailings and soil samples.

  4. In-situ vitrification of soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brouns, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Bonner, William F. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of vitrifying soil at or below a soil surface location. Two or more conductive electrodes are inserted into the soil for heating of the soil mass between them to a temperature above its melting temperature. Materials in the soil, such as buried waste, can thereby be effectively immobilized.

  5. Scale effects on the hydrological impact of upland afforestation and drainage using indices of flow variability Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(3), 325338 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Scale effects on the hydrological impact of upland afforestation and drainage using indices of flow variability 325 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(3), 325338 (2003) © EGU Scale effects on the hydrological impact of upland afforestation and drainage using indices of flow variability: the River Irthing

  6. Establishment, growth and water use of Quercus virginiana (Mill.) on lignite surface-mined soils in response to irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Jacalyn E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The petiole extended out to the exterior. Chamber pressure was slowly increased until water was forced out of the petiole. The pressure indicated on the pressure gauge at that time was regarded as equal to the tension originally existing in the xylem sap... and outside the stem flow gauge. Sap flow is determined from heat movement in the sap estimated by thermocouples on the stem surface. The stem flow gauge design assumes the surface temperatures provide an accurate estimate of the stem cross...

  7. The effects of spacing on yield and other agronomic characters in three varieties of upland cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grewal, Guriqbal Singh

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the availability of sufficient, moisture Luring most of the grow- ing season. A simi1ax' test grown under more stressed conditions might well result iu a higher yield for some wider spscing. In agreement, with Cotton snd ?3rown (6) in Louisiana, Cook (0...LI SCARY A 4 M COLLEGE OF TEXAS TIIE EFFECTS CF SPACING ON ~ AIK OTHER AGRONOKIC CIIABACTFSS lN TENEZ VARTZTI~M OF UPLAND COTTON A Tbes'1s Gnriqbal Sin@5 Gravel Approved as to style anti oontert, by Chairman of Committee He o t e Department...

  8. Development of Surface Complexation Models of Cr(VI) Adsorption on Soils, Sediments and Model Mixtures of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, ?-Alumina, Hydrous Manganese and Ferric Oxides and Goethite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koretsky, Carla [Western Michigan University] [Western Michigan University

    2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic contaminant that has been introduced into aquifers and shallow sediments and soils via many anthropogenic activities. Hexavalent chromium contamination is a problem or potential problem in the shallow subsurface at several DOE sites, including Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE, 2008). To accurately quantify the fate and transport of hexavalent chromium at DOE and other contaminated sites, robust geochemical models, capable of correctly predicting changes in chromium chemical form resulting from chemical reactions occurring in subsurface environments are needed. One important chemical reaction that may greatly impact the bioavailability and mobility of hexavalent chromium in the subsurface is chemical binding to the surfaces of particulates, termed adsorption or surface complexation. Quantitative thermodynamic surface complexation models have been derived that can correctly calculate hexavalent chromium adsorption on well-characterized materials over ranges in subsurface conditions, such pH and salinity. However, models have not yet been developed for hexavalent chromium adsorption on many important constituents of natural soils and sediments, such as clay minerals. Furthermore, most of the existing thermodynamic models have been developed for relatively simple, single solid systems and have rarely been tested for the complex mixtures of solids present in real sediments and soils. In this study, the adsorption of hexavalent chromium was measured as a function of pH (3-10), salinity (0.001 to 0.1 M NaNO3), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide(0-5%) on a suite of naturally-occurring solids including goethite (FeOOH), hydrous manganese oxide (MnOOH), hydrous ferric oxide (Fe(OH)3), ?-alumina (Al2O3), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), and montmorillonite (Na3(Al, Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2?nH2O). The results show that all of these materials can bind substantial quantities of hexavalent chromium, especially at low pH. Unexpectedly, experiments with the clay minerals kaolinite and montmorillonite suggest that hexavalent chromium may interact with these solids over much longer periods of time than expected. Furthermore, hexavalent chromium may irreversibly bind to these solids, perhaps because of oxidation-reduction reactions occurring on the surfaces of the clay minerals. More work should be done to investigate and quantify these chemical reactions. Experiments conducted with mixtures of goethite, hydrous manganese oxide, hydrous ferric oxide, ?-alumina, montmorillonite and kaolinite demonstrate that it is possible to correctly predict hexavalent chromium binding in the presence of multiple minerals using thermodynamic models derived for the simpler systems. Further, these models suggest that of the six solid considered in this study, goethite is typically the solid to which most of the hexavalent chromium will bind. Experiments completed with organic-rich and organic-poor natural sediments demonstrate that in organic-rich substrates, organic matter is likely to control uptake of the hexavalent chromium. The models derived and tested in this study for hexavalent chromium binding to ?-alumina, hydrous manganese oxide, goethite, hydrous ferric oxide and clay minerals can be used to better predict changes in hexavalent chromium bioavailability and mobility in contaminated sediments and soils.

  9. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  10. Water Transfer from Soil to the Atmosphere as Related to Climate and Soil Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendt, C. W.

    of the soil surface is the limiting parameter. Effects of Crude Oil on Evaporation - Crude oil applied to the wet soil surfaces of the lysimeters following rains suppressed evaporation immediately following the rains. However, the value of the crude oil...

  11. A garden mulch is any material spread on the soil surface to modify the environment where the plant is growing. The materials used can be natural or synthetic and can be used in any number of combinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    companies manufacture recycled paper into mulch, sold in rolls and installed much like black plastic. OtherA garden mulch is any material spread on the soil surface to modify the environment where the plant within a single garden or around a homestead. The proper selection and use of a mulch will result

  12. Wilson Bull., 11l(l), 1999, pp. 100-104 EFFECTS OF WIND TURBINES ON UPLAND NESTING BIRDS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    species. Recent re- search has indicated that raptor mortality from collisions with wind turbines variesWilson Bull., 11l(l), 1999, pp. 100-104 EFFECTS OF WIND TURBINES ON UPLAND NESTING BIRDS ABSTRACT.-Grassland passerines were surveyed during summer 1995 on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area

  13. School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Management of carbon budgets for severely eroded upland blanket peat bogs impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    upland blanket peat bogs impacts of restoration Blanket bog is an important carbon sink and an Annex 1 Habitat priority under the EU Habitats Directive, but in the Peak District National Park much suffers peat by Natural England as an important site for studies of vegetation history and peat erosion in the Pennines

  14. A method to predict the soil susceptibility to compaction of surface layers as a function of water content and bulk density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    physical properties. Because the soil compaction depends on its water content, bulk density and texture was obtained between soil precompression stress, compression index, initial water content, initial bulk density, 1994). Thus, knowing the changes in soil compaction with changes in water content and bulk density

  15. Artificial Soiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pigments found in soils throughout the United States roughly following the USDA soil taxonomy 11. Ensuring a repeatable test formulation was straightforward when using...

  16. Probabilistic Analysis of the Compressibility of Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Byoung C.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of surface loads or variable soil deposits. In current practice, the analysis to determine settlements is deterministic. It assumes that the soil profile at a site is uniform from location to location, and only allows limited consideration of the variations...

  17. Rainwater Harvesting: Soil Storage and Infiltration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil storage and infiltration system collects rainfall runoff from the roofs of buildings and directs it underground where it infiltrates the soil. Such a system conserves water and protects it from surface pollution. This publication describes...

  18. Purdue AgronomyPurdue AgronomyCROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Indiana Soils and Septic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    the interactions of contaminants with soil mineral surfaces. For example, phosphate, a common constituent of minerals to pore space. Contaminants and solids in the effluent are trapped in the pore space between soil tank and soil absorption field. These systems rely on the soil to remove all contaminants -- including

  19. UNCORRECTEDPROOF One-dimensional soil moisture prole retrieval by assimilation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    moisture and surface temperature data into a soil moisture and heat transfer model. The direct insertion

  20. Soils Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYou areInnovation Portal Software0SoilSoils

  1. Soils Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYou areInnovation Portal Software0SoilSoils0

  2. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  3. Airborne microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Quentin Robert

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Studies of Sampling Accuracy Soil Type Variation . Surface Conditions. Lawrence, 1976 Experiment. Finney County, 1976 Experiment Hand County, 1976 Experiment . 1 1 3 4 4 5 7 15 16 16 21 28 31 33 33 33 35 36 36 37 38 39 41 42... 1971 soil and temperature profiles using surface layers 0. 5 cm thick 56 22 Comparison of the response of coherent and noncoherent emissions models for several 1971 soil and temperature profiles using surface layers 1. 0 cm thick . . . . . . . . 57...

  4. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Datasurface

  5. Monitoring Soil Erosion on a Burned Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Final Report for the Jacob Fire Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne [DRI] DRI; Etyemezian, Vic [DRI] DRI; Cablk, Mary E. [DRI] DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI] DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Grand Junction, Colorado] DOE Grand Junction, Colorado

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in the U.S. southwestern deserts is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. The shortened return interval, which translates to an increase in fires, has implications for management of Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) and Corrective Action Sites (CASs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office has responsibility. A series of studies was initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob Fire site approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) north of Hiko, Nevada. A lightning-caused fire burned approximately 200 hectares during August 6-8, 2008. The site is representative of a transition between Mojave and Great Basin desert ecoregions on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where the largest number of Soil CAUs/CASs are located. The area that burned at the Jacob Fire site was primarily a Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush) and Ephedra nevadensis (Mormon tea) community, also an abundant shrub assemblage in the similar transition zone on the NNSS. This report summarizes three years of measurements after the fire. Seven measurement campaigns at the Jacob Fire site were completed. Measurements were made on burned ridge (upland) and drainage sites, and on burned and unburned sites beneath and between vegetation. A Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL) was used to estimate emissions of suspended particles at different wind speeds. Context for these measurements was provided through a meteorological tower that was installed at the Jacob Fire site to obtain local, relevant environmental parameters. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Runoff and water erosion were quantified through a series of rainfall/runoff simulation tests in which controlled amounts of water were delivered to the soil surface in a specified amount of time. Runoff data were collected from understory and interspace soils on burned ridge and drainage areas. Runoff volume and suspended sediment in the runoff were sampled; the particle size distribution of the sediment was determined by laboratory analysis. Several land surface and soil characteristics associated with runoff were integrated by the calculation of site-specific curve numbers. Several vegetation surveys were conducted to assess post-burn recovery. Data from plots in both burned and unburned areas included species identification, counts, and location. Characterization of fire-affected area included measures at both the landscape scale and at specific sites. Although wind erosion measurements indicate that there are seasonal influences on almost all parameters measured, several trends were observed. PI-SWERL measurements indicated the potential for PM10 windblown dust emissions was higher on areas that were burned compared to areas that were not. Among the burned areas, understory soils in drainage areas were the most emissive, and interspace soils along burned ridges were least emissive. By 34 months after the burn (MAB), at the end of the study, emissions from all burned soil sites were virtually indistinguishable from unburned levels. Like the amount of emissions, the chemical signature of the fire (indicated by the EC-Soil ratio) was elevated immediately after the fire and approached pre-burn levels by 24 MAB. Thus, the potential for wind erosion at the Jacob Fire site, as measured by the amount and type of emissions, increased significantly after the fire and returned to unburned levels by 24 MAB. The effect of fire on the potential for water erosion at the Jacob Fire site was more ambiguous. Runoff and sediment from ridge interspace soils and unburned interspace soils were similar throughout the study period. Seldom, if ever, did runoff and sediment occur in burned drainage area soils. Fo

  6. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fendorf, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    retention mechanisms on goethite. 1. Surface structure.ion adsorbed on synthetic goethite (?-FeOOH). Soil Sci. 35:of arsenic(III) on goethite: spectroscopic evidence for

  7. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    groundwater, land-surface, and mesoscale atmospheric model-and modification of mesoscale circulations. , Mon. Wea.J. Davis, The effects of mesoscale surface heterogeneity on

  8. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 8 What are soil biota? Soil biota, the biologically active powerhouse of soil, include an incredible diversity of organisms. Tons of soil biota, including micro

  9. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  10. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  11. Effect of Stone Coverage on Soil Erosion Auteur Seifeddine Jomaa 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a significant impact on water infiltration, runoff and soil erosion yields. In particular, surface is controlled by rainfall characteristics and the initial soil moisture content. The objectivesENAC / Effect of Stone Coverage on Soil Erosion Auteur Seifeddine Jomaa 1

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-H-6:2, 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils; the 118-H-6:3, 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils; The 118-H-6:3 Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils; the 100-H-9, 100-H-10, and 100-H-13 French Drains; the 100-H-11 and 100-H-12 Expansion Box French Drains; and the 100-H-14 and 100-H-31 Surface Contamination Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of removal actions for the 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils (subsite 118-H-6:2); 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils (118-H-6:3); and Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils. This CVP also documents remedial actions for the following seven additional waste sties: French Drain C (100-H-9), French Drain D (100-H-10), Expansion Box French Drain E (100-H-11), Expansion Box French Drain F (100-H-12), French Drain G (100-H-13), Surface Contamination Zone H (100-H-14), and the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Surface Contamination Zone (100-H-31).

  13. Effects of Land Surface Characteristics on Pedogenesis, Biological Soil Crust Community Diversity, and Ecosystem Functions in a Mojave Desert Piedmont Landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pietrasiak, Nicole

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000. Desert pavement characteristics on wadi-terrace andalluvial fan surfaces: Wadi Al-Bih, U.A.E. and Oman.

  14. IMPORTED SOIL OR SOIL-FORMING MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPORTED SOIL OR SOIL-FORMING MATERIALS PLACEMENT BPG NOTE 5 Best Practice Guidance for Land of heavy industry. Soil material initially present on a site may have been removed or stored in bunds the original soil that has been stored or importing a soil from elsewhere or using a soil-forming material

  15. APBI 402 / SOIL 502 SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    1 APBI 402 / SOIL 502 SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT TERM 1 - 2014/15 Lead Instructors*: Maja Krzic indicators to assess sustainability of land management practices. Characterize the soil chemical environment 402-Sustainable Soil Management SOIL 502-Advanced Sustainable Soil Management Final exam 35% Final

  16. Soils and Environment Soil fertility and soil processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    be removed without blasting. Definition of soil #12; Land use planning, urbanization, timber management, landslides, and earthquakes Soils often carry a climatic signal Soil properties related to environmental soil. The fertile soils formed on glacial deposits in the mid-western United States are transported

  17. ENVIRONME NTA L R EV

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    above a sole-source aquifer or upland surface soil removal on a site that has wetlands). Environmental ly sensitive resources include. but are nO( limited to: (i) Property (such...

  18. Effect of soil freezing on particulate resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duce, S.W.; Shaw, P.G.; Winberg, M.R.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of small scale laboratory tests that were conducted to determine the effect of soil freezing on soil resuspension. Nontransuranic contaminated soil form the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was subjected to a series of test conditions to determine respirable and nonrespirable fractions of airborne dust. A separate fraction of the same soil was spiked with Pu-239 and subjected to the same test conditions. Concentrations of resuspended soil and Pu in air were determined. Test results show that: (a) the largest fraction of soil resuspended is in the nonrespirable size fraction, (b) the concentration of resuspended soil in air is highly dependent on surface air velocity, and (c) freezing is not as effective at reducing resuspension of fine dry soil as it is with coarse soil, and (d) artificially prepared Pu contaminated soil has a high proportion of the total activity distributed on ultrafine material, reacts inversely to the mass movement of soil, and does not adequately imitate Pu movement in an actual contaminated soil. 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. annual alberta soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT Background Concentrations of Trace Metals in Florida Surface Soils Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT...

  20. An economic study of the experimental response of fertilizer to East Texas Upland native pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Warren Ray

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ikdiaN 10 Pssaak Therweate of Nitro'& o ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 14 L PAIIAIOCi05l FWltgN ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 II ~ 0 0 ~ t 1 ~ ' ~ 0 0 4 l44ISO60 Op4&hR FOi:CDQIS~ LOVOl o ~ ~ ~ y ~ ~ o s ~ Li SS SOSSNIR STSST CF Tm SIISSQNSFLL SSSPOHR & ?SSTIL1...A wryly pro gaia? ~Q4e (Tm ~ Aerehee~ Rioarge) pab farih %e %lee ef 4ialalshiag relarae, igreaeaisls eag agrioalteral ehahA ewe, lese e?11 agroeg M NW aalare et ahe imgaF44RApof relate?ship SNI verba et Xibeeherlieh aa4 hAer soil ferLLiityr research...

  1. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  2. Enhancing the soil organic matter pool through biomass incorporation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; John F. Klepac

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was installed in the upper Coastal Plains of South Carolina, USA that sought to examine the impact of incorporating downed slash materials into subsoil layers on soil chemical and physical properties as compared with the effect of slash materials left on the soil surface. Two sites were examined which differed in soil textural composition: sandy vs. clay.

  3. Introgression of resistance to Rotylenchulus reniformis into Meloidogyne incognita resistant upland cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ripple, Kevin William

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -2-6-21 1-2-6-22 1-2-6-23 1-2-6-24 1-2-6-25 1-2-6-27 1-2-6-28 1-2-6-29 1-2-6-30 1-2-6-31 1-2-6-32 1-2-6-33 Fas Fpp Fas F2g F2o F2g F2g Fas F2s F2s Fan F2s Fgp F2s Fas Fas Fey F2g F2s ISHt ISHt ISHt ISHt ISH" ISHt ISHt...-knot nematode make this practice less effective unless weed control and elimination of volunteer plants is included (Taylor et al. , 1997). Cultivation is another cultural control method, but provides minimal control by drying the upper layer of the soil thus...

  4. Relation of Soil Acidity to Cotton Root Rot.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by addi- tions of sulpliur, sulphuric acid, calcium saall~hate, or ammonium snlphate, or toward alkalinity by additions of lime or sodium car- bonate. In general, the soils made acid were found to be unfal-or- able, and the soils made alkaline were... of the deeper soil, with the surface layer left alkaline, did not eradicatc the discase. Sulphur mixed into soil in field plats reduced the percentage of root rot on cotton plants but clicl not eradicate it. Sulphur applied in the surface soil finally made...

  5. Arsenic distribution in soils surrounding the Utah copper smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, A.L. (Univ. of Utah Coll. of Engineering, Salt Lake City); Rom, W.N.; Glenne, B.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the extent of arsenic contamination from a Utah copper smelter as reflected by arsenic residue accumulated in the surface soil. The highest arsenic concentrations occurred within 3 km of the smelter. Arsenic soil contamination was evident up to 10 km from the smelter, with the major transport direction being ESE. Data from the subsurface soil samples indicated that arsenic has also leached through the soil.

  6. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  7. Recent Advances in Profile Soil Moisture Retrieval Jeffrey P. Walker, Garry R. Willgoose and Jetse D. Kalma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    and agriculture. The significance of soil moisture is its role in the partitioning of energy at the ground surface for hydrologic, climatic and agricultural studies, such observations of surface soil moisture must be related to accept remote sensing data as input to track soil moisture status in time. As surface observations

  8. Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYou areInnovation Portal Software0 Soil

  9. Building Fertile Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Backyard Guide to Healthy Soil and Higher Yields, by JohnInstitute. Start with the Soil, by Grace Gershuny. Emmaus,Institute. 1993. The Soul of Soil: A Guide to Ecological

  10. Soil Nitrogen Mineralization Potential for Improved Fertilizer Recommendations and Decreased Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franzluebbers, Alan; Haney, Richard; Hons, Frank

    In order to prevent overfertilization, which could lead to groundwater contamination, rapid and accurate soil testing procedures are needed to evaluate agricultural surface soils for their potential to mineralize C and N. Our objectives were...

  11. The Role of Mineralogy in Organic Matter Stabilization in Tropical Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    The Role of Mineralogy in Organic Matter Stabilization in Tropical Soils Wipawan Thaymuang,1 Irb) and mineralogy. This study investigated the mineral properties and OM stabilization in 12 surface tropical soil

  12. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The soil moisture active and passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle ...

  13. Functional and taxonomic diversity of microbial communities in reclaimed East Texas lignite mine soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peach, Allen Edward

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-year study was conducted at Big Brown lignite mine in Freestone County, Texas, to determine the influence of surface mining and reclamation on the functional and taxonomic diversity in soil microbial communities. Quarterly soil samples were...

  14. Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrd, Robert Claude

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONCLUSIONS . REFERENCES. . APPENDIX. 92 . 94 99 . . 104 Vlh Table LIST OF TABLES Page Extractable soil P ratings for the TAEX, Bray I, Olsen, and TAEX 3 soil P extractants 18 Chemical properties of preliminary soil sample (Fall 1992) taken from..., and 8 0). The authors, however, noted that Olsen and TAEX extractable P also resulted in acceptable correlation values All the above extractants were highly correlated (r& 0. 94) with total P uptake for both the calcareous soil and the slightly acidic...

  15. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Soybean Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

  16. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Forage Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Joseph Bouton - committee chair Dr. Brian Schwartz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Center

  17. A comparison of methods for determining the adsorption of pentachlorophenol on soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Eva Lorine

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 8 Values of Kd (ml/g) calculated from soil extraction and soil pore water samples from the unsaturated surface soil cores . 92 9 Results of PCP analysis on ped face and soil matrix samples for the undisturbed surface soil cores run under... adsorption para meters for the range of conditions expected in the field [Relyea et al, 19RO]. The adsorption of a chemical by soil is usually quantified by an empirical distribution ccefficient, Kd, which is defined as: Kd ? m ass of solute on solid hase...

  18. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; C. M. Cejas; R. Barrois; R. Dreyfus; D. J. Durian

    2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed raining condition, we combine the effects of grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to rain water channelization phenomenon, including pre-wetting sandy soils at different level before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  19. Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Environmental Soil Chemistry Second Edition Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates fundamental principles of soil chemistry with respect to environmental reactions between soils and other natural contemporary training in the basics of soil chemistry and applications to real-world environmental concerns

  20. Soil Testing and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Soil Testing and Research Analytical Laboratory Copyright 2014 University of Minnesota Soil Testing and Research Analytical Laboratory Department of Soil, Water and Climate College of Food payable to the University of Minnesota We also accept the following credit cards: Soil Testing

  1. Indiana Soil and Landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Indiana Soil and Landscape Evaluation Manual Version 1.0 D.P. Franzmeier G.C. Steinhardt D soil scientists to be the state soil. The scale on the gray panel is in decimeters and feet. The upper 18 inches (46 cm) of the soil formed in Wisconsinan age loess, and the lower part formed

  2. Effect of Land Surface Heterogeneity on Satellite Near-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    in regulating the energy and water balance at the soil surface and it is therefore a crucial variable for many. SMOS will carry an L-band (1.4GHz) microwave radiometer and will provide near-surface soil moisture highly heterogeneous land surface conditions. The principal objectives of this research are to (i) test

  3. Exfiltrometer apparatus and method for measuring unsaturated hydrologic properties in soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Schafer, Annette L.

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Exfiltrometer apparatus includes a container for holding soil. A sample container for holding sample soil is positionable with respect to the container so that the sample soil contained in the sample container is in communication with soil contained in the container. A first tensiometer operatively associated with the sample container senses a surface water potential at about a surface of the sample soil contained in the sample container. A second tensiometer operatively associated with the sample container senses a first subsurface water potential below the surface of the sample soil. A water content sensor operatively associated with the sample container senses a water content in the sample soil. A water supply supplies water to the sample soil. A data logger operatively connected to the first and second tensiometers, and to the water content sensor receives and processes data provided by the first and second tensiometers and by the water content sensor.

  4. Soil washing technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

  5. Effect of soiling in CPV systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivar, M.; Herrero, R.; Anton, I.; Martinez-Moreno, F.; Moreton, R.; Sala, G. [Instituto de Energia Solar, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blakers, A.W.; Smeltink, J. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of soiling in flat PV modules has been already studied, causing a reduction of the electrical output of 4% on average. For CPV's, as far as soiling produces light scattering at the optical collector surface, the scattered rays should be definitively lost because they cannot be focused onto the receivers again. While the theoretical study becomes difficult because soiling is variable at different sites, it becomes easier to begin the monitoring of the real field performance of concentrators and then raise the following question: how much does the soiling affect to PV concentrators in comparison with flat panels?' The answers allow to predict the PV concentrator electrical performance and to establish a pattern of cleaning frequency. Some experiments have been conducted at the IES-UPM and CSES-ANU sites, consisting in linear reflective concentration systems, a point focus refractive concentrator and a flat module. All the systems have been measured when soiled and then after cleaning, achieving different increases of I{sub SC}. In general, results show that CPV systems are more sensitive to soiling than flat panels, accumulating losses in I{sub SC} of about 14% on average in three different tests conducted at IES-UPM and CSES-ANU test sites in Madrid (Spain) and Canberra (Australia). Some concentrators can reach losses up to 26% when the system is soiled for 4 months of exposure. (author)

  6. Soil Test P vs. Total P in Wisconsin Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    Soil Test P vs. Total P in Wisconsin Soils Larry G. Bundy & Laura W. Good Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;Introduction Soil test P is often measured Little information is available on total P content of soils Why do we care about total P now? Soil total P

  7. Characterization of Expansive Soil For Retaining Wall Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin, Hakan

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    especially near the ground surface. Beside the prediction of lateral earth pressure distribution, the relations between water content, volume change and suction change are determined. Based on the laboratory testing program conducted, Soil Water...

  8. Assessing Phosphorous Loss to Protect Surface Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Raul

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Minimizing phosphorus pollution of surface water from agricultural fields involves manage- ment practices that control both the source and transportation factors of soil. Influences that affect the source and the amount of phosphorus transported include... the type of phosphorus applied and the content in the soil itself. Transportation factors include rainfall, irrigation, erosion, and runoff. The overall aim of environmentally sound practices is to keep soil fertility levels of phos- phorus to a range...

  9. Evaluation of Environmental Quality and Evolution in Urban Soils of Qingdao City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of Environmental Quality and Evolution in Urban Soils of Qingdao City Yao DeLi Gongsheng districts of Qingdao city. A total of 319 surface soil samples (at 0~10cm depth) were taken with a density of human activities on the soils environmental quality in mathematics? #12;

  10. Soil texture estimation over a semi-arid area using TERRASAR-X radar data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Soil texture estimation over a semi-arid area using TERRASAR-X radar data M. Zribi1 , F. Kotti1 , Z Abstract In this paper, it is proposed to use TERRASAR-X data for analysis and estimation of soil surface. Simultaneously to TERRASAR-X radar acquisitions, ground measurements (texture, soil moisture and roughness) were

  11. The influence of land use on gully erosion in Brazos County, Texas: an historical perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jeffrey Battle

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It was found that the underlying geology, soil characteristics, climate, and local topography were not dominant factors influencing the initiation and development of gully erosion. The rapid expansion of intensive agriculture in the Post Oak Savannah Uplands... Table of Contents (Continued) Page Bottomlands Bottomland Slopes Bottomland Vegetation Bottomland Soils 34 34 36 36 Prairie Uplands 37 Prairie Upland Slopes Prairie Upland Vegetation 38 38 Prairie Upland 5oils Post Oak Savannah Uplands...

  12. Nitrification in Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have a high nitrificati is the balmcing of these extremes which redlices the average le between acid ancl non-acid soils. C03TPOSITION OF SOILS TVITFI LOW AND HIGH NITRIFIC-4TION. Table 11 contains the chemical composition of soils having low nitl... are subsoils. Subsoils thus possess nnu~nally high and unusually low nitrification. Table 11.-Chemical composition of soils with nitrification below 10 . I Average .............................. Nitri- fication 7164 7090 4596' 5710 4645 3976 3657 3...

  13. Managing Soil Salinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    helps the water move downward through the soil. While deep tillage will help temporarily, the parts of the soil not permanently broken up may reseal. Leaching: Leaching can be used to reduce the salts in soils. You must add enough low-salt water...

  14. UNSATURATED SOIL MECHANICS IMPLEMENTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    UNSATURATED SOIL MECHANICS IMPLEMENTATION DURING PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE Mn !! Performance Based Construction QA !! Unsaturated Soil Mechanics !! What We've Learned !! Next Steps #12.6-6.0 5 - 7 19 0.8 5 7 - 9 24 1.1 4 9 - 11 28 1.2 4 #12;Unsaturated Soil Mechanics #12;Fundamentals

  15. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  16. This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. Download details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA 7 on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect

  17. Measuring soil moisture with imaging radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubois, P.C.; Zyl, J. van [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Engman, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture content and surface Root Mean Square (RMS) height from remotely sensed radar data was developed using scatterometer data. The algorithm is optimized for bare surfaces and requires two copolarized channels at a frequency between 1.5 and 11 GHz. It gives best results for kh {le} 2.5, {mu}{sub {upsilon}}{le}35%, and {theta}{ge}30{degree}. Omitting the usually weaker hv-polarized returns makes the algorithm less sensitive to system cross-talk and system noise, simplify the calibration process and adds robustness to the algorithm in the presence of vegetation. However, inversion results indicate that significant amounts of vegetation (NDVI>0.4) cause the algorithm to underestimate soil moisture and overestimate RMS height. A simple criteria based on the {sigma}{sub hv}{sup 0}/{sigma}{sub vv}{sup 0} ratio is developed to select the areas where the inversion is not impaired by the vegetation. The inversion accuracy is assessed on the original scatterometer data sets but also on several SAR data sets by comparing the derived soil moisture values with in-situ measurements collected over a variety of scenes between 1991 and 1994. Both spaceborne (SIR-C) and airborne (AIRSAR) data are used in the test. Over this large sample of conditions, the RMS error in the soil moisture estimate is found to be less than 4.2% soil moisture.

  18. Optimization of soil mixing technology through metallic iron addition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moos, L. P.

    1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced soil mixing is a process used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil. In this process, also known as soil mixing with thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, or SM/TESVE, a soil mixing apparatus breaks up and mixes a column of soil up to 9 m (30 ft) deep; simultaneously, hot air is blown through the soil. The hot air carries the VOCs to the surface where they are collected and safely disposed of. This technology is cost effective at high VOC concentrations, but it becomes cost prohibitive at low concentrations. Argonne National Laboratory-East conducted a project to evaluate ways of improving the effectiveness of this system. The project investigated the feasibility of integrating the SM/TESVE process with three soil treatment processes--soil vapor extraction, augmented indigenous biodegradation, and zero-valent iron addition. Each of these technologies was considered a polishing treatment designed to remove the contaminants left behind by enhanced soil mixing. The experiment was designed to determine if the overall VOC removal effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SM/TESVE process could be improved by integrating this approach with one of the polishing treatment systems.

  19. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Introduction USDA, Natural Resources of the soil, the vegetation, the water, and the air as well as the ecological processes of the rangeland ecosystem are balanced and sustained. What is soil? Soil is a dynamic resource that supports plants

  20. Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    Soil Horizons Some Noteworthy Soil Science in Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink The impact and benefits of soil science have only partly been documented. Here I highlight four noteworthy soil science achievements from the state of Wisconsin that took place between 1870 and the early 1980s: (i) the first soil

  1. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

  2. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Department of Crop and Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil Science/Soil Quality/Soil Physics Position Summary: Plastic mulches are used in agriculture to conserve water, suppress weeds, and increase soil temperatures. However, plastic mulches need to be disposed off at the end

  3. Building Fertile Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    soil amendments such as compost, manure, cover crops, andare some readily available sources: j Compost is rich inorganic matter, and making compost is a great way to recycle

  4. Surface barriers: Problems, solutions, and future needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of designing a surface barrier for a remediation project can be an enormously challenging task. There is a widely held misconception that surface barrier technology is well developed and works as expected. In fact, the technology is largely unproved and experimental, particularly in terms of long-term performance. The most difficult problem with surface barriers is to provide a long-term barrier to infiltration of water. The materials that have traditionally been considered for the hydraulic barrier within surface barrier systems are low-permeability compacted soil, geomembranes, and the geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). Data are presented to suggest that low-permeability compacted soil is often a poor choice of materials. Unless the compacted soil liner is buried under a very thick layer of protective soil or covered by a geomembrane, the low-permeability, clay-rich, compacted soil is likely to desiccate and lose its low hydraulic conductivity. Differential settlement of a compacted soil liner from uneven compression of underlying waste or other causes is almost certain to produce cracks within the soil liner. Geomembranes do not suffer as much from these problems, but their design life is, at best, a few centuries, The GCL, which contains a thin layer of bentonite, is much better able to resist damage from freezing/thawing, desiccation, and differential settlement than compacted soil liners. The technology of the GCL, which is particularly well suited for arid sites, is reviewed in some detail in this paper because of its technical attributes in surface-barrier applications. Published case histories of the performance of surface barriers are summarized.

  5. SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    1 SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK Originally written 1983 By Daryl D..................................................20 SOIL ACIDITY AND LIMESTONE...............................................27 EXCHANGEABLE MAGNESIUM No. Page No. I. Nitrogen rate adjustments based upon soil texture, organic matter, and time of major

  6. Soil and Water Conservation (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Soil and water conservation districts (SWCDs) were established in the 1930s to develop comprehensive programs and plans to conserve soil resources, control and prevent soil erosion, prevent floods...

  7. Soil and Water Conservation (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board is established to encourage and oversee soil-conserving land-use practices, and to provide for the conservation of soil and related resources and...

  8. Chapter 14 Geology and Soils

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in bold and acronyms are defined in Chapter 32, Glossary and Acronyms. Chapter 14 Geology and Soils This chapter describes existing geological and soil conditions in the...

  9. Soil and Water Conservation (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts is an association of the 92 soil and water conservation districts, each representing one of the 92 Indiana counties.

  10. Soil Conservation Districts Law (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes a soil and water conservation division within the Iowa Department of Agriculture, as well as local soil and water conservation districts. The regulations accompanying...

  11. MoistureMap: A soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system for sustainable land and water management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    9 MoistureMap: A soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system for sustainable land soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system (MoistureMap) for Australia uncertainty at 1km resolution, by assimilating (i) low-resolution passive microwave-derived surface soil

  12. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  13. On-Farm Soil Monitoring for Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Soil quality and soil management resources the air which helps build soil organic matter and tilth, and sustains the soil resource for future generations and other species. Improving and protecting soil quality can help support sustainable crop

  14. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    roots, rills, gullies, wind scours, and soil deposition reflect such processes as runoff and erosion. Waterflow patterns X X 3. Pedestals and/or terracettes X X 4. Bare ground X X 5. Gullies X X 6. Wind. Compaction layer X X X 12. Functional/structural groups X 13. Plant mortality/ decadence X 14. Litter amount

  15. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Compaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Compaction USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 4 What is compaction? Soil compaction occurs when moist or wet soil aggregates are pressed together and the pore space between them is reduced. Compaction changes

  16. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Water Erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Water Erosion USDA, Natural Resources and removal of soil material by water. The process may be natural or accelerated by human activity. The rate of erosion may be very slow to very rapid, depending on the soil, the local landscape, and weather conditions

  17. Beth Brockett SOIL 502 Soil Quality Analysis -Chemistry Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beth Brockett SOIL 502 Soil Quality Analysis - Chemistry Case Study "Sustainability Street are represented by the Podzolic Order, and more specifically form part of the Bose Soil Management Group) with a limited decomposer community dominated by fungi. Any remnants of native soil at the Sustainability Street

  18. Zinc sorption by iron oxides and soil samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the solution by various mechanisms and adsorbed on soil components. The secondary Zn fractions, i. e. , Zn adsorbed by organic matter or oxides or precipitated Zn-containing minerals, are assumed to be in equilibrium with the aqueous... as an indication of precipitation and dissolution (Lindsay, 1972), while the other places emphasis on -surface adsorption and desorption. The precipitation hypothesis postulates that a Zn- containing mineral controls the Zn concentration of the soil solution...

  19. SoilSciSubjAreas.doc September 12, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    ) Soldat, Douglas J. (turfgrass and urban soils) Soil Pedology Bockheim, James G. (pedology/forest soils

  20. The effect of soil water upon soil albedo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graser, Elizabeth Annette

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SOIL WATER UPON SOIL ALBEDO A Thesis by ELIZABETH ANNETTE GRASER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A/M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19S1 Major Sub...]ect: Soil Science THE EFFECT OF SOIL WATER UPON SOIL ALBEDO A Thesis by ELI ZABETH ANNETTE GRASER Approved as to style and content by: arrman of Committee Mem er Rem er ea o epar nt August 1981 The Effect of Soil Water upon Soil Albedo. (August...

  1. The Composition of the Soils of the Texas Panhandle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Panhandle area . Cottonwood Loam.-This soil is derived from gypsum and is of low productiveness on account of the gypsum content. Only one or two small areas were found. The surface soil is 8 to 12 inches deep and of a dark brown loam to silty loam... in this series is a black heavy clay, fm1nd in only small areas and not shown on the map of the area. R1:chji.eld 8eries.-:-The type of thiR series is a dark grayish black loam with no tinge of red in soil and ? sn bsoil. an 1 in this respect is quite...

  2. Summary Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration of thin- ning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water content, and soil physi- cal and chemical properties, result in high variability in and sensitivity

  3. UNDERSTANDING SOIL Larry G. Bundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    available for plant uptake, extraction, or measured by soil test. #12;Phosphorus (P) Loss Processes slowly soluble compounds: Sorbed P Clays Al and Fe oxides Secondary P minerals (precipitation #12;Effect of soil extraction time on water extractable soil P concentration for two soils. 22 24 26

  4. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Irrigation Specialist Committee Membership Dr. John Beasley - committee chair Dr. Jared Whitaker Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University: (229) 386-7308 Fax: (912) 681-0376 Dr. Robert Carrow Dr. Mark Risse Department of Crop & Soil Sciences

  5. Digital Soil Mapping: Interactions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Chapter 21 Digital Soil Mapping: Interactions with and Applications for Hydropedology J.A. Thompson,1, * S. Roecker,2 S. Grunwald3 and P.R. Owens4 ABSTRACT Spatial information on soils, particularly hydrologic and hydromorphic soil properties, is used to understand and assess soil water retention, flooding

  6. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Quantitative Genomics Committee Membership Dr. Scott Jackson - committee chair Dr. Peng-Wah Chee Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Horticulture Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

  7. Husnjak et al., 2004. Soil inventory and soil classification in Croatia ISRIC World Soil Information Country Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, D G "David"

    Husnjak et al., 2004. Soil inventory and soil classification in Croatia Page 1 ISRIC World Soil Information Country Series Soil inventory and soil classification in Croatia: historical review, current classification in Croatia Page 2 Summary An historical overview of soil survey and soil classification activities

  8. Soil Erosion (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Board of Water and Soil Resources has adopted a model ordinance to serve as the minimum standard for local governments, which are asked to implement standards and administrative procedures...

  9. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

  10. Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau S. Yi,1 N. Li,2 B. Xiang,3 X. Wang,1 B. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems

  11. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 22922299 Modifications of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miksik, Ivan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 22922299 Modifications of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil saprobic microfungi Veronika R eza c ova a,b,, Hana Hrs elova a , Hana Gryndlerova in their solutions and in sterile soil by microfungal species and two well-known HA degraders were studied

  12. Saving our soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandy, A. Stuart; Billings, Sharon A.; Richter Dan

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    when we consider how important the worlds soils are to human civilization. Within the next several decades, about 910 billion people will increasingly require food, timber, fiber, and bioenergy, as well as related ecosystem ser- vices... producers, motivated by short-term finances, increase inputs of fertilizers and pesticides to maximize yields, frequently with adverse environmental impacts. Subsistence farmers coax decreasing crop yields from soils that can no longer be managed sustainably...

  13. SOIL QUALITY AND CROP Dick Wolkowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    Protection Soil pH Crop residue Tillage intensity Soil test P and K Water availability Bulk density Soil SOIL QUALITY Inherent properties Texture Organic matter Aggregation Water holding capacity - Nutrient cycling - 1 g of soil has 100,000,000 bacteria #12;Water Soil particle Plant root SOIL IS HABITAT

  14. acids soils ph: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil Sciences PhD Graduate Research Assistantship: Soil ScienceSoil QualitySoil Physics Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Department of Crop and Soil...

  15. Model of crack propagation in a clay soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriere, Patrick Edwidge

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in elevation of the soil surface were recorded over time of drying for each of the treatments. A logarithmic model to predict the crack depth, the crack width, and the drop in elevation of the soil surface expressed by the equation y = A + C*logt, was found... 2 MEANS procedure results for crack depth. 3 ANOVA results for crack depth. 19 29 30 4 Values of A and C obtained from linear regression analysis for crack depth. 35 5 Selection of combinations of independent variables for maximum R...

  16. Crop and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grnwald, Niklaus J.

    and Soil Science Degree Checklist Name: ____________________________ ID Intensive (SOIL 325) (3) _______ HHS 231 Lifetime Fitness for Health (2. Global Issues (3) (*soil science electives meeting requirement) _______ Science

  17. Soil organic matter factions of no-tilled and tilled soils and their reactivity with herbicides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stearman, G.K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of soil humic fractions were determined on surface and 7.5-15.0 cm soil samples of continuously (7-year) no-tilled and tilled cotton, corn, and soybean plots in West Tennessee. Soil humic and fulvic acid were extracted by standard methods and the humic acid was characterized by /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopy, titration of total acidity and carboxyl groups, and infrared and elemental analysis. Humic acid composition differed by depth and crop. Small differences were observed between tillage systems. Humic acid aliphatic and aromatic carbons ranged from 48 to 65% and 25 to 40% of total peak area, respectively. The humic acids extracted from soils with larger amounts of carbon had larger aliphatic to aromatic ratios, indicating less decomposed organic matter. Carboxyl groups of the humic acids ranged from 9 to 13% and samples from tilled soil had slightly greater amounts of carboxyl and aromatic groups. Carboxyl group determinations by /sup 13/C-NMR, compared more closely with total acidity determinations by titration than with carboxyl determinations by titration. All infrared spectra were similar. Elemental composition of humic acid averaged C, 52.7%, 5.6%; N, 4.8%, and 36.9%.

  18. Uranium Sequestration by Aluminum Phosphate Minerals in Unsaturated Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerden, James L. Jr. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mineralogical and geochemical study of soils developed from the unmined Coles Hill uranium deposit (Virginia) was undertaken to determine how phosphorous influences the speciation of uranium in an oxidizing soil/saprolite system typical of the eastern United States. This paper presents mineralogical and geochemical results that identify and quantify the processes by which uranium has been sequestered in these soils. It was found that uranium is not leached from the saturated soil zone (saprolites) overlying the deposit due to the formation of a sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate mineral of the meta-autunite group. The concentration of uranium in the saprolites is approximately 1000 mg uranium per kg of saprolite. It was also found that a significant amount of uranium was retained in the unsaturated soil zone overlying uranium-rich saprolites. The uranium concentration in the unsaturated soils is approximately 200 mg uranium per kg of soil (20 times higher than uranium concentrations in similar soils adjacent to the deposit). Mineralogical evidence indicates that uranium in this zone is sequestered by a barium-strontium-calcium aluminum phosphate mineral of the crandallite group (gorceixite). This mineral is intimately inter-grown with iron and manganese oxides that also contain uranium. The amount of uranium associated with both the aluminum phosphates (as much as 1.4 weight percent) has been measured by electron microprobe micro-analyses and the geochemical conditions under which these minerals formed has been studied using thermodynamic reaction path modeling. The geochemical data and modeling results suggest the meta-autunite group minerals present in the saprolites overlying the deposit are unstable in the unsaturated zone soils overlying the deposit due to a decrease in soil pH (down to a pH of 4.5) at depths less than 5 meters below the surface. Mineralogical observations suggest that, once exposed to the unsaturated environment, the meta-autunite group minerals react to form U(VI)- bearing aluminum phosphates. (author)

  19. Gulf Cordgrass Production, Utilization, and Nutritional Value Following Burning.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oefinger, R.D.; Scifres, F.J.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to the same criteria on the unburned areas. Soils on each site were characterized relative to selected chemical and physical characteristics . The study areas were evaluated, based on the selected variables, approximately at monthly intervals... and species of Acacia) on the uplands to the west. Soil Characteristics Physical and Chemical Components The loamy sand sites, burned in fall 1974 were characterized by a near neutral soil surface, becoming more basic to 30 centimeters deep (Table 1...

  20. A COUPLED MONITORING NETWORK TO CONDUCT AN ASSESSMENT OF MERCURY TRANSFORMATION AND MOBILIZATION IN FLOODPLAIN SOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    of the capillary fringe affecting soil redox potential, abiotic and biotic mineral dissolution, and leaching, Mn, Al, S, Si); ascorbate extraction of Fe and Mn, total Hg, methyl Hg and sequential extraction the surface water - groundwater exchange affecting soil redox potential, stability of Hg- bearing minerals

  1. Soil physical responses to novel rice cultural practices in the ricewheat system: Comparative evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Abstract Soil puddling in advance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) transplanting disperses surface aggregateswheat rotation. For the rice season, 020 cm saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) in the DSR plots was 2, penetration resistance profiles suggest that vertical fractures with reduced soil strength were created within

  2. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    numbered 0-6. Plots of F CO2 measured along the surface wellin Figure 2. Figure 2. Log F CO2 maps for measurements madeof soil CO 2 flux (F CO2 ). The surface leakage onset,

  3. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghose, S.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the (010) surface of goethite. Geochem. Trans. 9, 116.Con?rmation of the surface structure of goethite (a-FeOOH. ,phosphated goethite by infrared spectroscopy. Soil Sci. Soc.

  4. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of ammonium sulfate to carbonate systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feagley, Sam Edward

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from surface application of' ammonium fertilizers to calcareous soils 7 Ammonia Volatilization from Limed, Acid Soil Comparison of ammonia vole, tilization from different ammonium fertilizers Other factors affecting ammonia volatilization 10...-Newman-Keul's multiple range analysis of ammonia volatilization from a limed, acid soil supporting Coastal bermudagrass as affected by calcium carbonate . 58 Student-Newman-Keul's multiple range analysis of ammonia volatilization i'rom a limed. , acid soil supporting...

  5. Procedures to predict vertical differential soil movement for expansive soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naiser, Donald David

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Damage to lightly loaded structures, paving and service piping in areas of expansive clay soils has occurred throughout the world. The cause of this damage has been the inability to accurately model expansive soil movement so that foundations...

  6. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

  7. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 17 figs.

  8. Long-term tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Fugen

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    observed in surface soils. NT significantly increased SOC. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased SOC only under NT. Compared to NT or N addition, enhanced cropping intensity only slightly increased SOC. Estimates of C sequestration rates under NT...

  9. Experiment evidence on the temperature dependence of desiccation cracking behavior of clayey soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in analyzing drought effects on buildings, because the presence of cracks changes soil surface properties, leading to dam failures as for the Stockton and Wister dams (Sherard, 1973). In the agricultural field

  10. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Wind Erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and to be blown away. A cover of plants disrupts the force of the wind. Soils are more susceptible to wind erosionSoil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Wind Erosion USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service May 2001 Rangeland Sheet 10 What is wind erosion? Wind erosion is the physical wearing

  11. soils.ifas.ufl.edu Soil & Water Science Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    interested in courses that emphasize sustainability, resource management, valuation of ecosystem servicessoils.ifas.ufl.edu UF/IFAS Soil & Water Science Department DISTANCE EDUCATION GRADUATE PROGRAMS #12;SOIL AND WATER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT The Soil and Water Science Department at the University of Florida

  12. Soils in the Riparian Incorporating Soil Dynamics into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distribution (salt moves with water) Anaerobic conditions Ponding and flooding #12;Dynamics of Soil Wetness environment Salinity is transient, but moves slowest through clayey sediments (as does the water) System in riparian areas #12;Soil Map Reliability Soils in riparian settings (level, near water) often dramatically

  13. Soil and Water Conservation (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Floridas 62 Soil and Water Conservation Districts were established in 1937 under Chapter 582 Florida Statutes. The law was based on federal model legislation to establish Soil and Water...

  14. Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald...

  15. Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports...

  16. Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil...

  17. Physico-chemical and Bio-chemical Controls on Soil C Saturation Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Six, Johan; Plante, Alain

    2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we tested through a multitude of lab and field experiments the concept of soil C stabilization and determined metrics for the level of C saturation across soils and soil organic matter fractions. The basic premise of the soil C saturation concept is that there is a maximum amount of C that can be stabilized within a soil, even when C input is further increased. In a first analysis, our results showed that linear regression models do not adequately predict maximal organic C stabilization by fine soil particles. Soil physical and chemical properties associated with soil clay mineralogy, such as specific surface area and organic C loading, should be incorporated into models for predicting maximal organic C stabilization. In a second analysis, we found significantly greater maximal C stabilization in the microaggregate-protected versus the non-microaggregate protected mineral fractions, which provides independent validation that microaggregation plays an important role in increasing the protection and stabilization of soil C leading to greater total soil C accumulation in these pools. In a third study, our results question the role of biochemical preference in mineral C stabilization and of the chemical recalcitrance of specific plant-derived compounds in non-protected soil C accumulation. Because C biochemical composition of slowly turning over mineral protected C pools does not change with C saturation, input C composition is unlikely to affect long-term C stabilization. Rather, C saturation and stabilization in soil is controlled only by the quantity of C input to the soil and the physical and chemical protection mechanisms at play in long-term C stabilization. In conclusion, we have further corroborated the concept of soil C saturation and elucidated several mechanisms underlying this soil C saturation.

  18. Soil protection major Prof. Dani Or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    1 Soil protection major Prof. Dani Or Soil and Terrestrial Environmental Physics CHN F 29.1 Universittstrasse 16 8092 Zrich dani.or@env.ethz.ch +41 44 633 60 15 Objectives of soil protection major understand composition and structure of soil study key processes in soils and their relation to soil

  19. SOIL INFORMATION Last Lime Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    production. Send samples, forms, and payment to Virginia Tech Soil Testing Lab, 145 Smyth Hall (MC 0465), 185 Industrial Lawns - Bermudagrass Routine (soil pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, B, and estimated CEC) $10, Virginia Tech." COST PER SAMPLE IN-STATE OUT-OF-STATE SOIL TEST DESIRED AND FEES SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION Your

  20. UNDERSTANDING SOIL Larry G. Bundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    available for plant uptake, extraction, or measured by soil test. #12;Phosphorus (P) Loss Processes slowly soluble compounds: Sorbed P Clays Al and Fe oxides Secondary P minerals (precipitation/Lancaster/Madison (r2 = 0.65) n = 119 #12;Effect of soil extraction time on water extractable soil P concentration

  1. LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION and TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS by W. David Carrier, III Lunar Geotechnical.0 RECOMMENDED LUNAR SOIL TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS Table 9.14 in the Lunar Sourcebook (Carrier et al. 1991, p. 529) lists the current recommended lunar soil trafficability parameters: bc = 0.017 N/cm2 bN = 35 K

  2. GUIDE TO GRADUATE SOIL SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiltinan, Mark

    GUIDE TO GRADUATE PROGRAMS in AGRONOMY and SOIL SCIENCE Updated July 2011 THE DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY PARK, PA #12;iiii Guide to Graduate Programs in Agronomy and Soil Science Table of Contents Introduction

  3. Quaternary soils and dust deposition in southern Nevada and California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    - ern dust in grain size, content of CaCO3 and salt, major oxides, and clay mineralogy; thus favored translocation of clay and CaCO3 from near the surface to deeper in the soil profile. Pre accumulations of silt, clay, and CaCO3 be- gan to inhibit the downward transport of eolian material, but in part

  4. Soil property database: Southern Great Plains 1997 Hydrology Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    measurement campaigns have been carried out concurrently with large-scale remote sensing hydrologic campaigns surface and the subsurface and the highly nonlinear nature of local-scale water and heat transport head, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity) and the soil thermal properties (heat capacity, heat

  5. Soil Remediation Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manlapig, D. M.; Williamsws

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soils contaminated with petroleum by-products can now be effectively remediated using a variety of technologies. Among these are in-situ bioremediation, land farming, and landfill/replacing of soil. The range of efficiencies and cost effectiveness of these technologies has been well documented. Exsorbet Plus is showing promise as an in-situ bioremediation agent. It is made of naturally grown Spaghnum Peat Moss which has been activated for encapsulation and blended with nitrogen-rich fertilizer. In its initial field test in Caracas, Venezuela, it was able to remediate crude oil-contaminated soil in 90 days at less than half of the cost of competing technologies. Waste Solutions, Corp and the US Department of Energy signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to test Exsorbet Plus at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center near Casper, Wyoming. As part of the test, soil contaminated with crude oil was treated with Exsorbet Plus to aid the in-situ bioremediation process. Quantitative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measurements were acquired comparing the performance of Exsorbet Plus with an adjacent plot undergoing unaided in-situ bioremediation.

  6. The Basicity of Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    basicity is here used to mean the bases which neutralize dilute nitric acid, sulphuric acid or similar acids, as measured by titra- tion of the acid after contact with the soil. It is recognized that this does not correctly represent the real basicity... of the soil and other circumstances. The use of nitrate of soda on acid soils tends to reduce the acidity. A mixture of nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia in proper proportions will not affect the acidity of the soil. THE BASICITY OF TEXAS SOILS 7...

  7. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmorethis review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.less

  8. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  9. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  10. Ra-226 radioassay of soil and tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, C.S.; Rayno, D.R.; Kretz, N.D.; Zelle, P.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of inactive uranium tailings piles have shown that tailings sands containing Ra-226 and other radionuclides may be dispersed by wind and water erosion, causing contamination of adjacent areas. To conduct an effective cleanup operation, it is necessary that boundaries of contamination be well defined. To accomplish this, data from surface gamma-ray surveys made under the Measurement Monitoring Program of the US DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) are first used to delineate a general outline of the contaminated area. Then, data from portable scintillometer surveys and from sealed-can gamma-ray analyses of soil samples are used to more precisely define the perimeter of Ra-226 contamination. These field measurements are supported by radiochemical analyses of randomly selected samples. Because of its adaptability to the widely varying chemical composition of the material in these samples, the complexing agent EDTA is used in a complexometric leaching procedure to analyze Ra-226. By this procedure, natural concentrations of Ra-226 in soil (approx. 1 pCi/g) can be measured routinely. The potential limit of detection is in the 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/g range. Details of the method, which includes leaching of radium followed by radon de-emanation, are described. Comparative data for various soil and tailings samples are presented.

  11. Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case Study Compacted Soil Liner Interface Strength Importance Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 ; Hangseok interface is not the geomembrane (GM)/compacted low-permeability soil liner (LPSL) but a soilsoil interface placing the cover soil from bottom to top. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606 .0000556. 2012 American

  12. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist Tifton campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Cotton Physiologist Tifton campus Committee Membership Dr. Stanley Culpepper - committee chair Dr. John Beasley Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia-SE District University

  13. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Water Policy and Management Committee Membership Dr. David Radcliffe - committee chair Dr. George Vellidis Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia Stripling

  14. Land Surface Model Data Assimilation for Atmospheric Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    remote sensing studies, using visible, thermal infrared (surface temperature) and microwave (passive, the first passive microwave sensor in space with appropriate frequencies for measuring near-surface soil of concurrent data has made evaluation of SMMR-based studies effectively impossible (Walker et al., 2003

  15. The effect of rock fragments on the hydraulic properties of soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many soils contain rock fragments the sizes of which are much larger than the average pore size of the sieved soil. Due to the fact that these fragments are often fairly large in relation to the soil testing apparatus, it is common to remove them before performing hydrologic tests on the soil. The question then arises as to whether or not there is a simple way to correct the laboratory-measured values to account for the fragments, so as to arrive at property values that can apply to the soil in situ. This question has arisen in the surface infiltration studies that are part of the site characterization program at Yucca Mountain, where accurate values of the hydraulic conductivities of near-surface soils are needed in order to accurately estimate infiltration rates. Although this problem has been recognized for some time, and numerous review articles have been written there are as yet no proven models to account for the effect of rock fragments on hydraulic conductivity and water retention. In this report we will develop some simple physically-based models to account for the effects of rock fragments on gross hydrological properties, and apply the resulting equations to experimental data taken from the literature. These models are intended for application to data that is currently being collected by scientists from the USGS on near-surface soils from Yucca Mountain.

  16. Soil structure interaction for shrink-swell soils a new design procedure for foundation slabs on shrink-swell soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelmalak, Remon Melek

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    diffusion soil volume change model starts with proposing a new laboratory test to determine the coefficient of unsaturated diffusivity for intact soils. Then, it introduces the development of a cracked soil diffusion factor, provides a chart for it...

  17. Soil samples at the APS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    movement into and about the country. A permit from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is required to receive these soils unless they are sterilized. More complete...

  18. Plant and Soil VIII, no. 3 March 1957 PROBLEMS OF SOIL TESTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Plant and Soil VIII, no. 3 March 1957 PROBLEMS OF SOIL TESTING ON CALCAREOUS SOILS by DAN H. YAALON The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Chemically and mineralogically the soils of arid and semiarid of limestone, most of the soils are calcareous. Extensive leaching may have removed the CaCO3 from the soil

  19. Original article Soil CO2 efflux in a beech forest: dependence on soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Original article Soil CO2 efflux in a beech forest: dependence on soil temperature and soil water 1998) Abstract - Our objective was to quantify the annual soil carbon efflux in a young beech forest in north-eastern France (Hesse Forest, Euroflux site FR02) from measurements of soil CO, efflux. Soil CO

  20. Recommended Academic Plan for the Environmental Resource Management -Soil Science Option (E R M/SOIL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Recommended Academic Plan for the Environmental Resource Management - Soil Science Option (E R M/SOIL of Calculus I or MATH 140* (GQ) Calculus With Analytic Geometry I 4 SOILS 101 (GN) Introductory Soil Science 3 AG 150S (First-Year Seminar) Be a Master Student! 2 SOILS 102 Introductory Soil Science Laboratory 1

  1. 2392 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2003 Soil Moisture Mapping Using ESTAR Under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2392 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2003 Soil of the entire region. Index Terms--Microwave, remote sensing, soil moisture. I. INTRODUCTION THE FUNDAMENTAL regional heat fluxes [15], and to validate distributed land surface models in order to study the scaling

  2. Determination of diffusion coefficient through laboratory tests and analytically validating it using empirical relations for unsaturated soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thakur, Anshuman Bramhanand

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of soils exert a critical influence on the depth to which seasonal variations of moisture and suction at the ground surface extend into the soil mass. Hence, a study of moisture diffusion coefficient is pivotal. In this research the drying test originally...

  3. Programmable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

  4. Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007), Estimating ground water storage changes in thestorage (i.e. , all of the snow, ice, surface water, soil moisture, and ground-

  5. Soils | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |RippeyInformationSoda Springs, Idaho:Soil Sampling

  6. Collection Policy: Crop and Soil Sciences Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    silage utilization by dairy cows o Phytoremediation of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated soils/environmental biophysics related to soil quality and fertility o Mechanisms by which soil minerals can decompose or modify

  7. Climatic influences on hillslope soil transport efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schurr, Naomi D. (Naomi Danika)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soil transport coefficient D represents the relationship between local topographical gradient and soil flux in the landscape evolution model. This work presents new estimates of the soil transport coefficient D at 9 ...

  8. Soil Conservation Districts Law (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter aims to provide for the conservation of the soil and soil resources of this state and for the control and prevention of soil erosion, and to preserve the state's natural resources,...

  9. Soil stabilization properties of flexible intruders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luginbuhl, Katharine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many locations, soil is held in place by the roots of plants. When these plants are removed or die, the soil loses its cohesive strength and erodes away. We seek to create artificial soil stabilizers that use the same ...

  10. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  11. Simple yield surface expressions appropriate for soil plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiebat, Mahdi; Dafalias, Yannis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMECHANICS ASCE / JULY/AUGUSTNumerical Models in Geomechanics, Proc. , NUMOG VII, G. N.the International Journal of Geomechanics, Vol. 10, No. 4,

  12. Interactions of Aqueous U(VI) with Soil Minerals in Slightly Alkaline Natural Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium (U) is a common contaminant at numerous surface and subsurface sites around the world. This paper covers some important aspects of the aqueous hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] interactions with soil minerals that are present in contaminated soils and sediments. The retention of U via interactions with soil minerals has significant consequences for the prediction of its short and long term behavior in soils and geological systems. Studies of the nature and type of these interactions have provided the necessary evidence for assessing the geochemical behavior of U in natural systems under different physical, biogeochemical, hydrological, and reducing or oxidizing conditions. Over the last 20 years, aqueous U(VI):solid phase interactions have been studied by geochemists, soil chemists, soil mineralogists and soil microbiologists, and the progress in some areas is remarkable. Although a mechanistic description and understanding of the complex interactions involving U and soil minerals of natural systems is currently impossible, results from carefully designed and executed experiments with these materials have improved our understanding of the heterogeneous systems behavior and U contaminant mobility and transport. There are, however, areas that need further exploration and study. Numerous research publications were reviewed in this paper to present important findings coming out of the research, to reveal the current level of the understanding of the U(VI) interactions with soil minerals, and to provide ideas for future needs and research directions.

  13. Physical modeling of the soil swelling curve vs. the shrinkage curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Y. Chertkov

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical understanding of the links between soil swelling, texture, structure, cracking, and sample size is of great interest for the physical understanding of many processes in the soil-air-water system and for applications in civil, agricultural, and environmental engineering. The background of this work is an available chain of interconnected physical shrinkage curve models for clay, intra-aggregate matrix, aggregated soil without cracks, and soil with cracks. The objective of the work is to generalize these models to the case of swelling, and to construct the physical-swelling-model chain with a step-by-step transition from clay to aggregated soil with cracks. The generalization is based on thorough accounting for the analogies and differences between shrinkage and swelling and the corresponding use, modification, or replacement of the soil shrinkage features. Two specific soil swelling features to be used are: (i) air entrapping in pores of the contributing clay; and (ii) aggregate destruction with the formation of new aggregate surfaces. The input for the prediction of the swelling curve of an aggregated soil coincides with that of the available model of the shrinkage curve. The analysis of available data on the maximum shrink-swell cycle of two soils with different texture and structure, accounting for sample size is conducted as applied to swelling curves and to the residual crack volume and maximum-swelling-volume decrease after the shrink-swell cycle. Results of the analysis show evidence in favor of the swelling model chain.

  14. In situ formation of magnetite reactive barriers in soil for waste stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive barriers containing magnetite and methods for making magnetite reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil contaminants including actinides and heavy metals, organic materials, iodine and technetium are disclosed. According to one embodiment, a two-step reagent introduction into soil takes place. In the first step, free oxygen is removed from the soil by separately injecting into the soil aqueous solutions of iron (II) salt, for example FeCl.sub.2, and base, for example NaOH or NH.sub.3 in about a 1:1 volume ratio. Then, in the second step, similar reagents are injected a second time (however, according to about a 1:2 volume ratio, iron to salt) to form magnetite. The magnetite formation is facilitated, in part, due to slow intrusion of oxygen into the soil from the surface. The invention techniques are suited to injection of reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source allowing in situ formation of the reactive barrier at the location of waste or hazardous material. Mixing of reagents to form. precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  15. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366) FY2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site (CAU 370) suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). In Area 11, several low-level airborne surveys of the Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites (CAU 366) show plumes of Americium 241 (Am-241) extending along ephemeral channels (Figure 1, marker numbers 5 and 6) below Corrective Action Site (CAS) 11-23-03 (marker number 3) and CAS 11 23-04 (marker number 4) (Colton, 1999). Plutonium Valley in Area 11 of the NNSS was selected for the study because of the aerial survey evidence suggesting downstream transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil. The aerial survey (Figure 1) shows a well defined finger of elevated radioactivity (marker number 5) extending to the southwest from the southernmost detonation site (marker number 4). This finger of contamination overlies a drainage channel mapped on the topographic base map used for presentation of the survey data suggesting surface runoff as a likely cause of the contaminated area. Additionally, instrumenting sites strongly suspected of conveying soil from areas of surface contamination offers the most efficient means to confirm that surface runoff may transport radioactive contamination as a result of ambient precipitation/runoff events. Closure plans being developed for the CAUs on the NNSS may include post-closure monitoring for possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils under ambient meteorological conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  16. TGRS-2009-00082.R2 1 Abstract--The emission of bare soils at microwave L-band (1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    will use a combined radiometer and high- resolution radar to measure surface soil moisture and freeze- thaw with sparse or no vegetation, the amount of this energy exchange is fundamentally linked with the moisture

  17. A wireless soil moisture smart sensor web using physics-based optimal control: Concept and initial demonstrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moghaddam, Mahta

    This paper introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective of the technology, supported by the ...

  18. Water-dispersible soil particles and the transport of nonpoint-source pollutants in the lower Rio Grande Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Przepiora, Andrzej

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport of nonpoint-source pollutants in surface runoff may be enhanced through sorption to mobile soil particles, a process known as particle-mediated transport. In order to predict the potential importance of this process, the major...

  19. Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony

    2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    this step 8 to 10 times in the lawn or garden which is being considered for testing. ? Mix all collected soil thoroughly, removing any roots or other visible plant materials and place 2-3 cups of soil in a quart-sized re-sealable plastic bag. Air...

  20. Climate-Soil-Vegetation Control on Groundwater Table Dynamics and its Feedbacks in a Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Qian, Yun; Liang, Xu

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the three dynamically linked branches of the water cycle, including atmospheric, surface, and subsurface water, groundwater is the largest reservoir and an active component of the hydrologic system. Because of the inherent slow response time, groundwater may be particularly relevant for long time-scale processes such as multi-years or decadal droughts. This study uses regional climate simulations with and without surface water groundwater interactions for the conterminous U.S. to assess the influence of climate, soil, and vegetation on groundwater table dynamics, and its potential feedbacks to regional climate. Analysis shows that precipitation has a dominant influence on the spatial and temporal variations of groundwater table depth (GWT). The simulated GWT is found to decrease sharply with increasing precipitation. Our simulation also shows some distinct spatial variations that are related to soil porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Vegetation properties such as minimum stomatal resistance, and root depth and fraction are also found to play an important role in controlling the groundwater table. Comparing two simulations with and without groundwater table dynamics, we find that groundwater table dynamics mainly influences the partitioning of soil water between the surface (0 0.5 m) and subsurface (0.5 5 m) rather than total soil moisture. In most areas, groundwater table dynamics increases surface soil moisture at the expense of the subsurface, except in regions with very shallow groundwater table. The change in soil water partitioning between the surface and subsurface is found to strongly correlate with the partitioning of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The evaporative fraction (EF) is generally higher during summer when groundwater table dynamics is included. This is accompanied by increased cloudiness, reduced diurnal temperature range, cooler surface temperature, and increased cloud top height. Although both convective and non-convective precipitation are enhanced, the higher EF changes the partitioning to favor more non-convective precipitation, but this result could be sensitive to the convective parameterization used. Compared to simulations without groundwater table dynamics, the dry bias in the summer precipitation is slightly reduced over the central and eastern U.S. Groundwater table dynamics can provide important feedbacks to atmospheric processes, and these feedbacks are stronger in regions with deeper groundwater table, because the interactions between surface and subsurface are weak when the groundwater table is deep. This increases the sensitivity of surface soil moisture to precipitation anomalies, and therefore enhances land surface feedbacks to the atmosphere through changes in soil moisture and evaporative fraction. By altering the groundwater table depth, land use change and groundwater withdrawal can alter land surface response and feedback to the climate system.

  1. Geomorphic surfaces in the northwestern Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, K.S. (Forest Service, Happy Camp, CA (United States)); Ricks, C.L. (Forest Service, Gold Beach, OR (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thick, residual, colluvial and alluvial soils derived from ophiolitic rocks mantle at least four geomorphic surfaces in the Siskiyou and marble mountains, in northwestern California and Illinois Valley, in southwestern Oregon. Analysis of digital elevation data provides constraints on the distribution and origin of these surfaces. Because of the geomorphic expression and soil mechanical properties of the surfaces, a map of slope gradients less than 22 degrees closely approximates the distribution of geomorphic surfaces as they are known from field observations. Preliminary definition of individual surfaces is based upon classification of the slop-map by elevation ranges. The Klamath Peneplain'' of Diller (1902) and associated soils, recently referred to as Klamath Saprolite'', are recognized near summit elevation (1,500 meters) across the area. Regional uplift and erosion has resulted in extensive, large earthflow landslides derived from these soils. Alluvial and residual deposits on the floor of the Illinois Valley occur at the same elevation (300 meters) as incised alluvial and colluvial terrace deposits along the Klamath River and tributary streams. At least two additional surfaces have been identified in the Siskiyou and Marble Mountains at approximately elevation 750 and 1,000 meters. Analysis of digital elevation data, combined with the map of earthflow landslides, allows rapid preliminary mapping of geomorphic surfaces in this terrain.

  2. Soil Stabilization Methods with Potential for Application at the Nevada National Security Site: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillito, Rose [DRI] [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI] [DRI

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has resulted in large areas of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Much of the radionuclide contamination is found at or near the soil surface, and due to the dry climate setting, and the long half-life of radioactive isotopes, soil erosion poses a long-term health risk at the NNSS. The objective of this literature review is to present a survey of current stabilization methods used for minimizing soil erosion, both by water and wind. The review focuses on in situ uses of fundamental chemical and physical mechanisms for soil stabilization. A basic overview of the physical and chemical properties of soil is also presented to provide a basis for assessing stabilization methods. Some criteria for stabilization evaluation are identified based on previous studies at the NNSS. Although no specific recommendations are presented as no stabilization method, alone or in combination, will be appropriate in all circumstances, discussions of past and current stabilization procedures and specific soil tests that may aid in current or future soil stabilization activities at the NNSS are presented. However, not all Soils Corrective Action Sites (CASs) or Corrective Action Units (CAUs) will require stabilization of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Each Soils CAS or CAU should be evaluated for site-specific conditions to determine if soil stabilization is necessary or practical for a given specific site closure alternative. If stabilization is necessary, then a determination will be made as to which stabilization technique is the most appropriate for that specific site.

  3. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Ashour; Khn, Oliver

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil soil soil+3 HWE soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...

  4. Grounding electrode and method of reducing the electrical resistance of soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A first solution of an electrolyte is injected underground into a volume of soil having negative surface charges on its particles. A cationic surfactant suspended in this solution neutralizes these surface charges of the soil particles within the volume. Following the first solution, a cationic asphalt emulsion suspended in a second solution is injected into the volume. The asphalt emulsion diffuses through the volume and electrostatically bonds with additional soil surrounding the volume such that an electrically conductive water repellant shell enclosing the volume is formed. This shell prevents the leaching of electrolyte from the volume into the additional soil. The second solution also contains a dissolved deliquescent salt which draws water into the volume prior to the formation of the shell. When electrically connected to an electrical installation such as a power line tower, the volume constitutes a grounding electrode for the tower.

  5. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gombert, D. II

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium.

  6. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  7. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J. (3705 Creekside Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83404); Curry, Randy Dale (1104 Merrill Ct., Columbia, MO 65203); Clevenger, Thomas E. (2512 Bluff Blvd., Columbia, MO 65201); Golden, Jeffry (12612 Cedarbrook La., Laurel, MD 20708)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  8. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  9. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  10. Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. R. Giles; L. G. Roybal; M. V. Carpenter; C. P. Oertel; J. A. Roach

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.

  11. Macroscopic and molecular-scale assessment of soil lead contamination impacted by seasonal dove hunting activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arai, Y.; Tappero, R.; Rick, A.R.; Saylor, T.; Faas, E. & Lanzirotti, A.

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental contamination of lead (Pb) in soils and sediments poses serious threats to human and ecological health. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of seasonal dove sports hunting activities on Pb contamination in acid forest soils. A grid sampling method was used to investigate the spatial distribution of Pb contamination in surface soils. Soils were analyzed for total metal(loid) concentration and characterized for physicochemical properties and mineralogy. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted to understand the reactivity and retention capacity of Pb(II) in soils. Finally, synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to understand the chemical speciation of Pb that controls the retention/release mechanisms of Pb in soils. There was no excessive accumulation of Pb at the site. However, the concentration of Pb in surface soils was greater than the background level (<16 mg kg{sup -1}). The contamination level of Pb was as high as 67 mg kg{sup -1} near a patch of corn field where lime was frequently applied. A microfocused X-ray microprobe analysis showed the presence of Pb pellet fragments that predominantly contain oxidized Pb(II), suggesting that oxidative dissolution was occurring in soils. Dissolved Pb(II) can be readily retained in soils up to {approx}3,600 mg kg{sup -1} via inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexation on carbon and aluminol functional groups of soil components, suggesting that partitioning reactions control the concentration of Pb in soil solution. The fate of Pb is likely to be controlled by (1) oxidative dissolution process of Pb(0) pellets and (2) the release of outer-sphere and/or inner-sphere Pb surface complexes in humic substances and aluminosilicate/Al oxyhydroxides. Although no remedial actions are immediately required, the long-term accumulation of Pb in soils should be carefully monitored in protecting ecosystem and water quality at the dove hunting field.

  12. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunnane, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gill, V.R. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Morris, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nickelson, M.D. [HAZWRAP, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perry, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  13. Uranium partitioning under acidic conditions in a sandy soil aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, W.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center]|[Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Serkiz, S.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Johnson, L.M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Environmental Systems Engineering] [and others

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The partitioning of uranium in an aquifer down gradient of two large mixed waste sites was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH redox potential and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation. This involved generation of field-derived, batch sorption, and reactive mineral surface sorption data. Field-derived distribution coefficients for uranium at these waste sites were found to vary between 0.40 and 15,000. Based on thermodynamic speciation modeling and a comparison of field and laboratory data, gibbsite is a potential reactive mineral surface present in modified soils at the sites. Uranium partitioning data are presented from field samples and laboratory studies of background soil and the mineral surface gibbsite. Mechanistic and empirical sorption models fit to the field-derived uranium partitioning data show an improvement of over two orders of magnitude, as measured by the normalized sum of errors squared, when compared with the single K{sub d} model used in previous risk work. Models fit to batch sorption data provided a better fit of sorbed uranium than do models fit to the field-derived data.

  14. ore than 20 years ago, the only wet chemical experiments ever carried out on the surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    arm, is cap- able of injecting an aqueous solution into the beaker, adding soil scooped at a controlled depth from the planet's surface, stirring the soilwater mixture, and adding solid reagent pellets and impeller, pressure and temperature sensors, and a solid pellet dispenser and actuator. Figures 2ad detail

  15. Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of agricultural soil drainage on them. Define water harvesting and give examples. #12;2 Basic Course1 SWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation 3 Credits Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry resources: soil and water. Topics discussed include: Soil/water resources, historical erosions and sediment

  16. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist Committee Membership Dr. J. Michael Moore - committee chair Dr. Clint Waltz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences-7300 Fax: (229) 386-7308 Fax: (770) 412-4734 Dr. Eric Prostko Dr. Guy Collins Department of Crop & Soil

  17. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Small Grain Breeding Committee Membership Dr. Paul Raymer - committee chair Dr. Scott Jackson Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University & Soil Sciences Department of Horticulture University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

  18. KSInglett Page 1 MATH FOR SOIL SCIENTISTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    skills that are most relevant to graduate courses in environmental science including Soil and Water transport 9. Soil temperature, heat capacity and conductivity Unit 3 PROBLEM SOLVING IN SOIL BIOCHEMISTRY 10 and gas fluxes Unit 5 PROBLEM SOLVING IN SOIL CHEMISTRY, FERTILITY, and MANAGEMENT (optional) 19. p

  19. MICHIGAN'S SOIL NITRATE TEST FOR CORN MSU SOIL AND PLANT NUTRIENT LAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    MICHIGAN'S SOIL NITRATE TEST FOR CORN MSU SOIL AND PLANT NUTRIENT LAB Michigan State University Extension Crop and Soil Sciences Department Michigan State University WHY TEST SOIL FOR NITRATES Nitrate testing of soil is an excellent and inexpensive way of evaluating the available nitrogen (N) status

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel soil organic C model using climate, soil type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel soil organic C model using climate, soil type and management data-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract This report evidences factors controlling soil or- ganic carbon at the national scale by modelling data of 2,158 soil samples from France. The global soil carbon amount, of about 1

  1. Impact of Soil Type and Compaction Conditions on Soil Water Characteristic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Sheng-Tao

    Impact of Soil Type and Compaction Conditions on Soil Water Characteristic C. J. Miller, M.ASCE1 the variation of water content and pore water suction for compacted clayey soils. The soils had varying amounts of clay fraction with plasticities ranging from low to high plasticity. The unsaturated soil behavior

  2. Part I. Ecological Sites and Soil Part II. A Framework for Soil and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Part I. Ecological Sites and Soil Survey Part II. A Framework for Soil and Vegetation Dynamics Arlene Tugel, Soil Scientist Liaison to ARS, USDA-NRCS Las Cruces, NM and the Soils-ESD Advisory Group #12;What makes a site a site? Soil forming factors: climate, parent, material, biotic factors

  3. Soil Test Report The following information is being provided for farmers. For consumer soil test report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Soil Test Report The following information is being provided for farmers. For consumer soil test fertility status of the soil in each field can invest wisely in fertilizer and lime to produce the most economical crop yields. A soil test provides the needed information about soil pH, lime need and available

  4. Soil drainage as an active agent of recent soil evolution: a David Montagnea,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Soil drainage as an active agent of recent soil evolution: a review* David Montagnea,b , Sophie on pedogenesis mainly focuses on the long-term soil formation and most often neglects recent soil evolution drainage on soil evolution. Artificial drainage is considered as an example of the impact of recent changes

  5. Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth X of P around soil aggregates (Gunary et al., 1964; Linquist etfrom soil, understanding P desorption from soils may improve the precision of P diagnosis and fertilization recommendations. Many al., 1997

  6. Global Soil Change: Land Use, Soil and Water SWS4231C, SWS5234

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of the soil system to withstand global-scale perturbations (e.g., climate or land use change, spread Properties 4. Land Use Change Impacts on Soils 5. Land Use and Agriculture (Irrigation and Fertilization In Soil) 6. Land Use and Soil Erosion 7. Climate Change Impacts on Soils 8. Land Use-Climate

  7. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  8. Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, J.K.; Kang, K.D.; Kim, K.D.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, P.O. Box 149, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; {>=} 2.0 mm, 2.0 {approx} 0.21 mm and {<=} 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency ({>=}90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

  9. Photolysis of smoke dyes on soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.L. (Technology Applications Inc., Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.); Weber, E.J.; Baughman, G.L. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. Initially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemically protected. The average mean depths of photolysis ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 mm for outdoor studies and from 0.42 to 0.73 mm for lab studies. The magnitude of the mean depths of photolysis suggests that photo-degradation of the dyes occurs through indirect photochemical processes. Photolysis products for only two of the dyes could be identified. Photolysis of Disperse Red 9 resulted in the formation of 1-aminoanthraquinone, whereas Solvent Yellow 33 photo-degraded to give 2-carboxyquinoline and phthalic anhydride. Reaction mechanisms involving sensitized photo-oxidation by singlet oxygen are consistent with the formation of these reaction products.

  10. Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate Noriko U-lim- iting step for the formation of NiAl LDH is Al dissolu- Nickel contamination of soils is a serious

  11. Coupling the high-complexity land surface model ACASA to the mesoscale model WRF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyles, R. D.

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is coupled with the Advanced CanopyAtmosphereSoil Algorithm (ACASA), a high-complexity land surface model. Although WRF is a state-of-the-art regional ...

  12. Coupling the High Complexity Land Surface Model ACASA to the Mesoscale Model WRF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, L.

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is coupled with the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA), a high complexity land surface model. Although WRF is a state-of-the-art regional ...

  13. Soil Organic Matter of Natural and Restored Coastal Wetland Soils in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elgin, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of natural and created marsh soils. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.2007. Freshwater Input Structures Soil Properties, VerticalS.S. , Hoover, K.L. 1996. Soil properties of reference

  14. Organic soil phosphorus is plant-available but is neglected by routine soil-testing methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steffens, Diedrich; Leppin, Thomas; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microorganisms. Biol. Fertil. Soils 1988; 5: 308-312 Van derplant species and to evaluate different soil-testing methodsin measuring organic soil-P. Material and Methods This

  15. The effects of soil moisture on pecan weevil emergence and predicting drought delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schraer, Stephen Martin

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    soils. Drought conditions, induced on soil plots, as well as natural soil conditions were used to assess the effects of soil particle size distribution and soil moisture on soil hardness. Soil hardness can be determined by the following: 572...

  16. air water soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic soil physical and biological properties Soil erosion Land application of waste Water management Irrigation and drainage Water quality 12;Soil...

  17. air soil water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic soil physical and biological properties Soil erosion Land application of waste Water management Irrigation and drainage Water quality 12;Soil...

  18. An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. Abstract: Interactions between biochar, soil, microbes and plant roots...

  19. amended soil microcosms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amendment Effects on Soil Phosphorus Stabilization in Poultry Litter Amended Sandy Soils. Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Litter Amended Sandy Soils....

  20. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  1. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Managing Soil Salinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    both surface water and groundwater often are a combina- tion of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, chlo- rides, nitrates, sulfates, bicarbonates and carbonates (Table 1). These salts often originate from the earth?s crust. They also can result from... Magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 Gypsum Calcium sulfate CaSO 4 2H 2 O Street salt Calcium chloride CaCl 2 2H 2 O Muriate of potash Potassium chloride KCl Muriate of sulfate Potassium sulfate K2SO 4 seen. Fortunately, plants take up many salts in the form...

  3. Surface and subsurface characterization of uranium contamination at the Fernald environmental management site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilk, A.J.; Perkins, R.W.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils, and the three-dimensional distribution of the uranium at these sites must be thoroughly characterized before any effective remedial protocols can be established. To this end, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked by the DOE`s Office of Technology Development with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies for the measurement of uranium in surface and subsurface soils at the Fernald Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration site. These studies are detailed in this report.

  4. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    partition scheme (in which the wind energy is transfered to the erodible surface as a functionParametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil February 1998 / Revised: 11 May 1998 / Accepted: 25 May 1998 Abstract. Large-scale simulation of the soil

  5. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  6. Review of the internship with Soil Conservation Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattox, Matthew W

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Rice Seed Soaking Food Security Act. 13 Southwest Louisiana Beef Industry Marsh Types 16 21 Fresh Marshes. . Intermediate and Brackish Marshes. 22 Saline Marshes. . 30 Marsh Range Site Classification Marsh Grazing Management Marsh Burning.... 32 34 37 Water Management Grazing Plans. Upland Native Pasture. Gulf Coast Prairie/Fresh Marsh. Brackish Marsh. Conclusion Literature Cited. Appendix A Appendix B. . Appendix C 40 41 44 . 48 50 51 52 53 54 55 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...

  7. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  9. Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen associated with switchgrass production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobo Alonzo, Porfirio Jose

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .), other forage grasses, cultivated crops, and forest were collected seasonally at six locations. Soil organic C (SOC), total N, soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) and N (SMBN), soil mineralizable C and N, and basal soil respiration (BSR) were in general...

  10. Release of phosphorus and metals from soils and sediments during dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, A.; Simsiman, G.V.; Chesters, G.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors determined the P, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn released from soils and river bottom sediments to the supernatant liquid during dispersion by ultrasound and end-over-end shaking techniques. The ratios of the elements in the supernatant to the total acid-digestible elements on the solid phase varied from 1.0 to 7.3% for soils and 0.3 to 2.0% for sediments, using ultrasound, and 0.05 to 2.6% for soils and 0.03 to 0.7% for sediments, using the shaking method. The ratio provides an estimate of the analytical error caused by dispersion during particle size fractionation. Furthermore, the ratio may indicate the extent of release of elements to the overlying water during resuspension or transport of sediments. Cadmium is the element most easily removed from soils and sediment surfaces.

  11. Multi-Year Lags between Forest Browning and Soil Respiration at High Northern Latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bunn, Andrew G.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    High-latitude northern ecosystems are experiencing rapid climate changes, and represent a large potential climate feedback because of their high soil carbon densities and shifting disturbance regimes. A significant carbon flow from these ecosystems is soil respiration (RS, the flow of carbon dioxide, generated by plant roots and soil fauna, from the soil surface to atmosphere), and any change in the high-latitude carbon cycle might thus be reflected in RS observed in the field. This study used two variants of a machine-learning algorithm and least squares regression to examine how remotely-sensed canopy greenness (NDVI), climate, and other variables are coupled to annual RS based on 105 observations from 64 circumpolar sites in a global database. The addition of NDVI roughly doubled model performance, with the best-performing models explaining ~62% of observed RS variability

  12. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

  13. FINGERPRINTING SOILS A PROOF OF CONCEPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobylinski, Catherine

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Forensic soil characterization is an under-explored field in the forensic sciences. One aspect of forensic sciences is Locards Exchange Principle, which states that every contact leaves a trace. As soil characterization technology improves...

  14. Irrigation Monitoring with Soil Water Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Peries, Xavier

    2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring soil water content is essential if growers want to optimize production, conserve water, reduce environmental impacts and save money. This publication illustrates how soil moisture monitoring can improve irrigation decisions and how...

  15. BIOCYCLE JUNE 2002 41 ETAL contaminated soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    where smelter emissions or mine wastes caused con- tamination and soils were acidic. Such metal toxic the location of the main lead smelter, over 2,000 yards of soils have been excavated and replaced with clean

  16. Maryland Soil Conservation Districts Law (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to conserve the soil, water, and related resources of the state through establishing regulations for land-use practices related to soil erosion. This legislation...

  17. Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information by infiltration. The infiltration rate can be restricted by poor management. Under these conditions, the water) and the infiltration rate. These are affected by vegetation and many soil properties. Residence time The length of time

  18. Differences in potassium forms between cutans and adjacent soil matrix in a Grey Clay Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Differences in potassium forms between cutans and adjacent soil matrix in a Grey Clay Soil Fan Liu1 of cutans on potassium forms and their transformations were investigated for a Western Australian grey clay soil. Cutans and matrix soil had similar clay mineral associations with kaolinite, smectite and illite

  19. Soil Science Society of America Journal Revealing Soil Structure and Functional Macroporosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    how fast water, greenhouse gases, vola- tile compounds, chemicals, and pollutants can enter and move ecosystem functions. In this study, soil physical measurements (soil-water retention and air permeability soil clay content, while significantly higher air permeability was observed for the l1 to l3 soils than

  20. UNL Microgravity: Team Fast Project: Lunar soil is much different from terrestrial soil,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    UNL Microgravity: Team Fast Project: Lunar soil is much different from terrestrial soil, consisting of a large percentage of very fine particles. Lunar soil also contains very irregular and jagged particles formed from the sintering together of broked grains during micro-meteorite bombardment. NASA has soil

  1. Soil CO2 flux and photoautotrophic community composition in high-elevation, `barren' soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Soil CO2 flux and photoautotrophic community composition in high-elevation, `barren' soil Kristen R of Colorado, Campus Box 450, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Summary Soil-dominated ecosystems, with little-elevation, subnival zone soil (i.e. elevations higher than the zone of continuous vegetation), the structure

  2. Soil compaction: track induced soil stress isn't so positive in comparison with tyre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Soil compaction: track induced soil stress isn't so positive in comparison with tyre Ingeniors, Clermont-Ferrand, France Abstract This study concludes that, from the soil compaction point of view, using on all the contact area and induce overall less stress on the soil. Introduction As agricultural machines

  3. Holme et al. Soil Redox Sensor Networks RADIO FREQUENCY ENABLED SOIL REDOX POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Benjamin

    Holme et al. Soil Redox Sensor Networks RADIO FREQUENCY ENABLED SOIL REDOX POTENTIAL SENSOR technologies that may be combined into a cost effective soil redox sensor network, discuss the merits of each as a component of said network, describe a prototype soil redox sensor network and perform basic laboratory

  4. Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increase sustainability and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Evaluating Soil Health Summary: Soil health can be measured, monitored and managed to increaseResourcesNonmedia, Producers, Web. From Sara Adlington, (406) 994-4602 Filename: Eval Soil Health PR2014 Web: Ag, Extension with Montana State University and MSU Extension have recommendations for growers on evaluating soil quality

  5. Bio-Char Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    therefore have to be applied each year to sustain soil productivity. Management of black carbon (C36 Bio-Char Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics Johannes Lehmann1), ColombiaQ1 CONTENTS 36.1 Bio-Char Management and Soil Nutrient Availability

  6. CATALOG O F APOLLO LUNAR SURFACE GEOLOGICAL SAMPLIHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    CATALOG O F APOLLO LUNAR SURFACE GEOLOGICAL SAMPLIHG TOOLS AND CONTAINERS Ju$ith Haley Allton carriers D. Containersused to package rocks, soils and other samples on the moon Apollo Lunar Sample AND CONTAINERSWITHWEIGHT SUMMARIESFOR EACH APOLLO MISSION Apollo 11 Apollo 12 Apollo 14 #12;Inventory of tools

  7. Derivation of Soil Moisture Retention Characteristics from Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h, and evapotranspiration. The soil factors include soil matric potential and water content relationship, saturated content of soil. The relation between matric potential and volumetric water content in a soil is termed

  8. 11:776:413 Soil Quality S. Murphy Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    : Soil Management & Sustainability, best management practices Week 4 Soil Degradation and resulting's dependence on soil To understand society's impact on soil and need for educated management To increase sequestration. Managing soil to build/maintain organic matter. Week 6 Chemical Indicators: soil pH, buffering

  9. FieldIndicators of Hydric Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Soils, Version 5.01, 2003 Natural Resources Conservation Service Wetland Science Institute Soil on the right has mucky peat (hemic soil material) to a depth of about 8 cm. If indicator S2 (2.5 cm mucky peat or peat) or indicator S3 (5 cm mucky peat or peat) is not a concern, morphologies below 8 cm would

  10. The Needs of Texas Soils for Lime.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1919-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Agriculture. STS PAGE ............................................. What lime does 5 ............................................. Acidity of soils 7 ............................................. Sources of lime 8... of Texas soils for lime, as far as our present information permits. WHST LIME DOES Lime performs sereral functions in the soil, some of which are favor- able to increased crops and the maintenance of fertility, some favorable to certain crops...

  11. Exploring the World of Plants and Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Exploring the World of Plants and Soils 4-H Plant , Soils, and Entomology Curriculum 18 U.S.C. 707 Project Book 2 Publication 380-021 2014 #12;Exploring the World of Plants and Soil: Stems and Stamens ................................................................................................................. 3 Activity 1 The Stages of a Plant's Life

  12. Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    on them. Define water harvesting and give examples. #12;Basic Course Requirements: 1. Exams consistSWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry@ufl.edu 352 most valuable and most mistreated resources: soil and water. Topics discussed include: Soil/water

  13. Common Questions Why should I soil test?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Common Questions Why should I soil test? Soil testing is an important diagnostic tool to evaluate nutrient imbalances and understand plant growth. The most important reason to soil test is to have a basis for intelligent application of fertilizer and lime. Testing also allows for growers and homeowners to maintain

  14. Soil Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites Mike Duniway USGS-Southwest Biological Science of vegetation? Why do sites differ in response to disturbance & management? #12;Ecological Sites & Soil Properties Within a climatic zone (e.g. MLRA), differentiation of ecological sites based on soil

  15. 4, 38293862, 2007 Mechanisms of soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 4, 38293862, 2007 Mechanisms of soil carbon storage S. Steinbeiss et al. Title Page Abstract Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Mechanisms of soil carbon3862, 2007 Mechanisms of soil carbon storage S. Steinbeiss et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  16. Soil Carbon Accumulation During Temperate Forest Succession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    K7L 3N6, Canada ABSTRACT Carbon sequestration in soils that have previously beendepletedoforganic the soil carbon sequestration potential of such lands by sampling adjacent mature forest and agricultural abandonment is more important than soil type in determining the potential magnitude of carbon sequestration

  17. DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates soil column within 20 yr following culti- Carbon sequestration rates, with a change from CT to NT, can in approximately 40 to and returning to the original land cover or other peren- 60 yr. Carbon sequestration rates

  18. 9, 1443714473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    BGD 9, 1443714473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers and benchmarks in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd if available. Causes of variation in soil carbon predictions from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparison #12;BGD 9, 1443714473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers and benchmarks in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd

  19. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model Applications at Different Scales in Time and Space Abstract An understanding of soil organic carbon (C

  20. Rangeland Sheet 6 Soil Quality Information Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    decomposition. Chemically stable organic matter gives soil its dark color and is generally the largest pool. Increasing levels of organic matter promote a higher water- holding capacity, which results in increasedRangeland Sheet 6 Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Organic Matter USDA

  1. Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bredenkamp, Sanet

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

  2. Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality: Measuring, assessing, and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality attributes. Publication 452-400 #12;Agricultural Management Associate, respectively, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech #12;1 Introduction What makes

  3. Long-term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Lehmann, Johannes C.; Kinyangi, James; Smernik, Ron; Riha, Susan J.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global carbon cycle due to its relative recalcitrance against decay compared with other C pools. However, how rapidly BC is oxidized and in what way the molecular structure changes during decomposition over decadal time scales, is largely unknown. In the present study, the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. BC particles, obtained from soil samples at 8 conversion ages stretching over 100 years and from a forest soil sample from Kenya, were manually picked under a light microscope for characterization and quantification. BC contents rapidly decreased from 12.7 to 3.8 mg C g? soil during the first 30 years since conversion, after which they slowly decreased to a steady state at 3.51 mg C g ?soil. BC-derived C losses over 100 years were estimated at 6000 kg C ha? to a depth of 0.1 m. The initial rapid changes in BC stocks resulted in a mean residence time of only around 8.3 years, which was likely a function of both decomposition as well as transport processes. The molecular properties of BC changed more rapidly on surfaces than in the interior of BC particles and more rapidly during the first 30 years than during the following 70 years. The Oc/C ratios (Oc is O bound to C) and carbonyl groups (C=O) increased over time by 133 and 192 %, respectively, indicating oxidation was an important degradation process controlling BC quality. Al, Si, polysaccharides, and to a lesser extent Fe were rapidly adsorbed on BC particle surfaces within the first few years after BC deposition to soil. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomposition below detection between 30 and 100 years after deposition, but also physical export by erosion and vertical transport below 0.1 m.

  4. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

  6. Passive microwave soil moisture downscaling using evaporative fraction Olivier Merlin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    stations (METFLUX) and six flights of the L-band Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR). For each PBMR fraction (EF), which is the ratio of the evapotranspiration to the total energy available at the surface, especially for high soil moisture values. Those results illustrate the potential use of high

  7. Evaluation of ERS Scatterometer soil moisture products over a half-degree region in Southwestern France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Based on a high resolution soil moisture simulation (1km²) validated at the local scale, the ERS in the water and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. Several authors have shown027231 #12;Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sensors such as the AMSR-E radiometer (since 2002

  8. Soil Science Minor To earn a Soil Science minor, students must complete the following courses to total 27 credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grnwald, Niklaus J.

    Soil Science Minor To earn a Soil Science minor, students must complete the following courses to total 27 credits: I. Soil Core A. ______SOIL 205.Soil Science (4) or ____ CSS 305. Principles of Soil Science (4) [Taught at EOU La Grande campus only

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; Antonio, E.J.; Cooper, A.T.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, U isotopes, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of {sup 60}Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in {sup 90}Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time.

  10. Weathering and genesis of volcanic ash-influenced vertisols and vertic-like soils of El Salvador

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yerima, Bernard Palmer Kfuban

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argiustoll, these soils contain slickensides and crack to the surface but lack gilgai relief and significant self-mulching proper- ties. Clay contents exceed 35K and COLE values range from 0. 09-0. 24, except for coarse-textured pumicitic ash mantles... Locations. Sampling and Profile Descriptions . Laboratory Methods . Physical Methods. Particle Size Distribution . Particle Size Fractionation. Bulk Density and Coefficient of Linear Extensibility (COLE) . Chemical Methods. Soil Reaction (p...

  11. Chemical modeling of arsenic(III, V) and selenium(IV, VI) adsorption by soils surrounding ash disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, S.; Hyun, S.; Lee, L.S. [USDA, Riverside, CA (United States). US Salinity Laboratory

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Leachate derived from coal ash disposal facilities is a potential anthropogenic source of As and Se to the environment. To establish a practical framework for predicting attenuation and transport of As and Se in ash leachates, the adsorption of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) had been characterized in prior studies for 18 soils obtained downgradient from ash landfill sites and representing a wide range of soil properties. The constant capacitance model was applied for the first time to describe As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) adsorption on soils as a function of equilibrium solution As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) concentrations. Prior applications of the model had been restricted to describing Se(IV) and As(V) adsorption by soils as a function of solution pH. The constant capacitance model was applied for the first time to describe As(III) and Se(VI) adsorption by soils. The model was able to describe adsorption of these ions on all soils as a function of solution ion concentration by optimizing only one adjustable parameter, the anion surface complexation constant. This chemical model represents an advancement over adsorption isotherm equation approaches that contain two empirical adjustable parameters. Incorporation of these anion surface complexation constants obtained with the constant capacitance model into chemical speciation transport models will allow simulation of soil solution anion concentrations under diverse environmental and agricultural conditions.

  12. Surface-Plasma Interaction on the Moon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horanyi, M.; Wang, X.; Robertson, S.; Sternovsky, Z. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic levitation and transport of lunar dust remains a controversial science issue since the Apollo era. As a function of time and location, the lunar surface is exposed to solar wind plasma, UV radiation, and/or the plasma environment of our magnetosphere. Dust grains on the lunar surface emit and absorb plasma particles and are exposed to solar UV photons. There are several in situ and remote sensing observations that indicate that dusty plasma processes are responsible for the mobilization and transport of lunar soil. We briefly discuss the existing observations, and report on a series of experiments that address some of the most relevant processes acting on dusty surfaces exposed to plasmas and UV radiation.

  13. Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Eric Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

  14. Extraction of pores from microtomographic reconstructions of intact soil aggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albee, P. B.; Stockman, G. C.; Smucker, A. J. M.

    2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Segmentation of features is often a necessary step in the analysis of volumetric data. The authors have developed a simple technique for extracting voids from irregular volumetric data sets. In this work they look at extracting pores from soil aggregates. First, they identify a threshold that gives good separability of the object from the background. They then segment the object, and perform connected components analysis on the pores within the object. Using their technique pores that break the surface can be segmented along with pores completely contained in the initially segmented object.

  15. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

  16. Arsenic and chromium partitioning in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nico, Peter; Hopp, Luisa; Nico, Peter S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Peiffer, Stefan

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research combined the use of selective extractions and x-ray spectroscopy to examine the fate of As and Cr in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Iron was enriched in the upper 30 cm due to a previous one-time treatment of the soil with Fe(II). High oxalate-soluble Al concentrations in the Bs horizon of the soil and micro-XRD data indicated the presence of short-range ordered aluminosilicates (i.e. proto-imogolite allophane, PIA). In the surface layers, Cr, as Cr(III), was partitioned between a mixed Fe(III)/Cr(III) solid phase that formed upon the Fe(II) application (25-50%) and a recalcitrant phase (50-75%) likely consisting of organic material such as residual CCA-treated wood. Deeper in the profile Cr appeared to be largely in the form of extractable (hydr)oxides. Throughout the soil, As was present as As(V). In the surface layers a considerable fraction of As was also associated with a recalcitrant phase, probably CCA-treated woody debris, and the remainder was associated with (hydr)oxide-like solid phases. In the Bs horizon, however, XAS and XRF findings strongly pointed to the presence of PIA acting as an effective adsorbent for As. This research shows for the first time the relevance of PIA for the adsorption of As in natural soils.

  17. Evaluation of cobalt mobility in soils from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papelis, C.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear testing at and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) resulted in widespread contamination from transuranic and other radionuclides, as well as from other toxic inorganic and organic contaminants. The type of contamination, including spatial distribution and type of radionuclides present, depends on the type of testing performed. Remediation of the contaminated areas is currently under way. The optimum in situ or ex situ remediation technology depends on the degree of interaction between the particular radionuclide, or contaminant in general, and the soil matrix, among other factors. The objective of this project was to evaluate the sorption affinity of NTS soils for common non-transuranic radionuclides. The sorption of cobalt (Co) on soils from two different areas of the NTS, namely the Little Feller and Cabriolet event sites, was studied. Experiments were conducted as a function of pH, solid concentration, total Co concentration, ionic strength, and particle size fraction. Preliminary results indicate that both soils have a high sorption capacity for Co. The results suggest that Co uptake is controlled by sorption on either internal, permanent-charge, ion-exchange sites of clay minerals or on amphoteric, surface-hydroxyl sites of oxides. The results further indicate strong retardation of Co in these soils, under most conditions tested and expected to be found in the respective soil environments. These conclusions are applicable to transport of radionuclides which are expected to bind strongly on oxide surfaces (e.g., Co) but the results may not be representative of the behavior of weakly binding radionuclides. These studies clearly demonstrate the importance of evaluating the mobility of radionuclides and the degree of radionuclide-soil interaction before final selection of an in situ or ex situ remediation technology for a contaminated site.

  18. Plant-soil interactions and acclimation to temperature of microbial-mediated soil respiration may affect predictions of soil CO2 efflux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curiel Yuste, J.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shifts in microbial communities due to soil warming.Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:475481to an important portion of soil CO 2 ef?ux (Hanson et al.

  19. TOWARD AN ACCURATE MODEL OF METAL SORPTION IN SOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    All T. Cygan; Howard L. Anderson; Sara E. Arthur; Patrick V. Brady; Carlos F. Jove; Jian-jie Liang; Eric R. Lindgren; Malcolm D. Siegel; David M. Teter; Henry R. Westrich; Pengchu Zhang

    Radionuclide transport in soils and groundwaters is routinely evaluated in performance assessment (PA) using simplified conceptual models (e.g., KD method) to describe radionuclide sorption. However, the KD approach with linear and reversible sorption of metal cations is rarely observed in the field. Inaccuracies of this model are typically addressed by conservativeness in the use of the chemical partitioning parameters, and often result in failed transport predictions or in increased costs for the cleanup of a site. Realistic assessments of radionuclide transport over a wide range of environmental conditions can proceed only from accurate and mechanistic models of the metal sorption process. Our research has recently examined the sorption mechanisms and partition coefficients for Ba2+ (analog for 226Ra2+) onto soil minerals (iron oxides and clay phases) using a combination of isothermal sorption/desorption measurements, synchrotron spectroscopic analyses of metal sorbed substrates, and computer molecular modeling simulations. Research goals include 1) evaluation and quantification of the critical mechanisms and geochemical parameters that control the retardation of radionuclides on the sorbing phases in near-field soils, 2) use of atomistic computer simulations to predict radionuclide KD values based on the partitioning of the metal cations between the solution and mineral surface, and 3) identification of the general trends in metal plume length associated with field sites. Results should improve our ability to estimate radionuclide migration at contaminated sites.

  20. Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

  1. Ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers surface applied on bermudagrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panossian, Jack B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The biological activity was measured by trapping the CO in NaOH (0. 422 N). The NH3 which was volatilized from the urea was trapped in boric acid according to Bremner (1965). Volatilized NH and evolved CO were measured daily by titrating the boric acid and 13... was passed over the soil surface, then bubbled into boric acid to trap volatilized NH (Bremner, 1965). Humidified air was used to prevent rapid soil drying which would retard NH volatilization (Ernst and Massey, 1960). The apparatus is diagrammed in Fig. 1...

  2. DOE/EA-1300: Environmental Assessment for the Nevada Test Site...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rocks, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks outcrop in the surrounding uplands. Soil loss through wind and water erosion is a normal occurrence throughout the area. Erosion varies based on...

  3. Salinization of Irrigated Urban Soils: A Case Study of El Paso, TX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    , as well as the North Central. A detailed soil survey is yet to be performed for this area, but most of the area consists of either Hueco fine sandy loam or Wink sandy loam, both of which contain the calcic horizon (a layer of caliche), starting at 18... the two. The Hueco series is supposedly older soil, and the surface layer (2 to 4 inches) may not contain appreciable amounts of CaCO3. Although, it is rare, deep sandy loam can also be found along arroyos in the East District. It is named Mimbres sandy...

  4. Rainfall trends in India and their impact on soil erosion and land management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Indrani

    2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    (Ich0.5,PPch at left), soil water deficit (SWDch at centre) and land cover (LCch at right) (Nunes et al., 2009) 170 Figure 4.3 Flow chart of a model of the processes of soil erosion by water (Meyer & Wischmeier, 1969) 173 Figure 4.4 Carbon loss... concentration in surface water d Number of storms in a day e Kinetic energy of rainfall E Total storm kinetic energy ENSO El-Nio Southern Oscillation gc Daily ground cover subfactor I Rainfall intensity i Index of the number of storms in each day...

  5. Potential Soil Moisture Products from the Aquarius Radiometer and Scatterometer Using an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yan [I.M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/EMC; Feng, Xia [George Mason University; Houser, Paul [George Mason University; Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Fan, Xingang [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green; De Lannoy, Gabrielle [Ghent University, Belgium; Zhan, Xiwu [NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research; Dabbiru, Lalitha [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE), we investigate the potential soil moisture retrieval capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aquarius radiometer (L-band 1.413 GHz) and scatterometer (L-band, 1.260 GHz). We estimate potential errors in soil moisture retrievals and identify the sources that could cause those errors. The OSSE system includes (i) a land surface model in the NASA Land Information System, (ii) a radiative transfer and backscatter model, (iii) a realistic orbital sampling model, and (iv) an inverse soil moisture retrieval model. We execute the OSSE over a 1000 2200 km2 region in the central United States, including the Red and Arkansas river basins. Spatial distributions of soil moisture retrieved from the radiometer and scatterometer are close to the synthetic truth. High root mean square errors (RMSEs) of radiometer retrievals are found over the heavily vegetated regions, while large RMSEs of scatterometer retrievals are scattered over the entire domain. The temporal variations of soil moisture are realistically captured over a sparely vegetated region with correlations 0.98 and 0.63, and RMSEs 1.28% and 8.23% vol/vol for radiometer and scatterometer, respectively. Over the densely vegetated region, soil moisture exhibits larger temporal variation than the truth, leading to correlation 0.70 and 0.67, respectively, and RMSEs 9.49% and 6.09% vol/vol respectively. The domain-averaged correlations and RMSEs suggest that radiometer is more accurate than scatterometer in retrieving soil moisture. The analysis also demonstrates that the accuracy of the retrieved soil moisture is affected by vegetation coverage and spatial aggregation.

  6. Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Act, Soil and Water Conservation District, and Council on Soil and Water Conservation Regulations (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish Soil and Water Conservation Districts throughout the State of Connecticut. Each district has its own Board of Directors; membership and election procedures are defined...

  7. In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  8. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  9. Soil macroaggregate dynamics in a mountain spatial climate gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Soil macroaggregate dynamics in a mountain spatial climate gradient Lauric Ccillon1,2,* , Nilvania://lauric.cecillon.free.fr/ Key words: Mountain soils; Climate change; Soil aggregation; Soil organic matter; Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy; Soil threats Biogeochemistry 97: 31-43 (2010) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533

  10. Soil maps of Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    Soil maps of Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink a, , Birl Lowery a , Carl Wacker b a University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Soil Science, FD Hole Soils Lab, 1525 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 May 2012 Accepted 15 May 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Soil maps Historical maps Digital soil

  11. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Statewide Variety Testing Program Coordinator Committee Membership Dr. Jerry Johnson - committee chair Dr. Paul Raymer Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University

  12. Expanded Course Description for 11:776:413 Soil Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    Soil Quality: soil management & sustainability, concept of best management practices (BMPs) Soil and restoration of desirable properties will be addressed. Management of our soil resource to maintain or improve soil quality and maximize ecosystem sustainability will be emphasized. Learning Goals: To gain full

  13. SOIL QUALITY (SWS 6134) 3 Credits-Fall 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    with basic concepts, principles, components, measurements, and evaluation of soil quality and its management for sustainable agriculture. Soil quality is the capacity of the soil to function within the ecosystem boundaries. In this course, state-of-the-art studies on soil quality and the principles, assessment and management of soil

  14. The Soils of Bowie, Denton, Freestone, and Red River Counties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1928-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lime, ground oyster shells, air-slaked lime, or ground limestone rock. A number of acid soils are found to occur in the counties described in this Bulletin. The acidity of some of the soils is slight, while that of others is high. Acidity... ........................................... 1.) .............................. Fertilizers for the Soils Studied 13 ........ ....................................... Use of Lime : 14 Soils of Bowie County ............................. ........ 14 .................. Pot Experiments on Soils...

  15. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2003-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  16. The Chemical Composition of Some Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1907-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , nitrogen, and potash. keeps the soil from beconling acid, and has a favorable effect upon its physical character. Hence a deficiency of lime should be corracted by applications of quicklime, slaked lime, or ground limestone. Lime is lost in considerable... tne usquehanna clay appear to contain sufficient potash. The Lufkin and Sus- uehanna soils are low in lime. All the soils tested by pot experiments respond to phosphoric acid--the Norfolk fine sand, Norfolk fine sandy loam, Orangeburg fine sandy...

  17. Dynamic Soil-Structure-Soil-Interaction Analysis of Structures in Dense Urban Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Katherine Carys

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    soil. International Journal of Geomechanics, 8(6), 336-346.International Journal of Geomechanics. Takewaki, I. (1998).

  18. Distribution of soil and leaf water potentials of mature grapefruit trees under three soil moisture regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prathapar, Sanmugam Ahembaranathan

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL AND LEAF WATER POTENTIALS OF MATURE GRAPEFRUIT TREES UNDER THREE SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES A Thesis by SANMUGAM AHEMBARANATHAN PRATHAPAP, Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject; Agricultural Engineering DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL AND LEAF WATER POTENTIALS OF MATURE GRAPEFRUIT TREES UNDER THREE SOIL MOISTURE REGIMES A Thesis by SANMUGAM AHEMBARANATHAN PRATHAPAR...

  19. An investigation of soil-tool interaction theories as they apply to a Lunar soil simulant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willman, Brian Michael

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION OF SOIL - TOOL INTERACTION THEORIES AS THEY APPLY TO A LUNAR SOIL SIMULANT A Thesis by BRIAN MICHAEL WILLMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF SOIL - TOOL INTERACTION THEORIES AS THEY APPLY TO A LUNAR SOIL SIMULANT A Thesis by BRIAN MICHAEL WILLMAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

  20. Oxidation of Organic Compounds in the Soil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxidized to nitrates. The direct study of the changes in organic matter or carbon in the soil is more satisfactory than any assumption. A considerable amount of work upon the oxidation of organic matter in the soil has been clone hy Wollny... cflpo8city, so the re1ati~-e power of the soil to support oxidizing organisms ma!r he termed its oxidafion cnpaciiy. The nitrif-ing capac- it" the oxidatioa capacity 'and the capacit~ of the soil to convert am- monia into nitrates and ammonia are to a...

  1. Tank farm backlog soil sample analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahlers, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the measures to collect samples, perform testing on samples, and make decisions to obtain a Contained- in Determination for tank farms backlog soil.

  2. Generation and mobility of radon in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this research include: (1) To determine the processes that cause large seasonal and short-term changes in the radon (Rn) content of soil gases, and to develop methods of predicting and modeling these variations; (2) to evaluate the relation of Rn emanation coefficients to form of radium (Ra) and other U-series decay products, particularly the role of Ra in organic matter and Fe-oxides; (3) to evaluate the conditions in which convection of gas in soil and bedrock may affect soil gas radon availability in houses; and, (4) to collaborate with other DOE researchers on evaluation of Rn flux into houses, using our well characterized soil sites.

  3. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlgran, J.R.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

  4. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlgran, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  5. Competitive sorption of cadmium and lead in acid soils of central Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, S.; Garrido, F.; Campbell, C.G.; Garcia-Gonzolez, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The bioavailability and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment are controlled by chemical sorption. To assess competitive sorption of Pb and Cd, batch equilibrium experiments (generating sorption isotherms) and kinetics sorption studies were performed using single and binary metal solutions in surface samples of four soils from central Spain. For comparisons between soils, as well as, single and binary metal solutions, soil chemical processes were characterized using the Langmuir equation, ionic strength, and an empirical power function for kinetic sorption. In addition, soil pH and clay mineralogy were used to explain observed sorption processes. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equation and the sorption kinetics were well described by an empirical power function within the reaction times in this study. Soils with higher pH and clay content (characterized by having smectite) had the greatest sorption capacity as estimated by the maximum sorption parameter (Q) of the Langmuir equation. All soils exhibited greater sorption capacity for Pb than Cd and the presence of both metals reduced the tendency for either to be sorbed although Cd sorption was affected to a greater extent than that of Pb. The Langmuir binding strength parameter (k) was always greater for Pb than for Cd. However, these k values tended to increase as a result of the simultaneous presence of both metals, that may indicate competition for sorption sites promoting the retention of both metals on more specific sorption sites. The kinetic experiments showed that Pb sorption is initially faster than Cd sorption from both single and binary solutions although the simultaneous presence of both metals affected the sorption of Cd at short times while only a minor effect was observed on Pb. The estimated exponents of the kinetic function were in all cases smaller for Pb than for Cd, likely due to diffusion processes into micropores or interlayer space of the clay minerals which occurs more readily for Cd than Pb. Finally, the overall sorption processes of Pb and Cd in the smectitic soil with the highest sorption capacity of the studied soils are slower than in the rest of the soils with a clay mineralogy dominated by kaolinite and illite, exhibiting these soils similar sorption rates. These results demonstrate a significant interaction between Pb and Cd sorption when both metals are present that depends on important soil properties such as the clay mineralogy.

  6. EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AND FUSARIUM WILT IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    1 EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY compost as an antagonistic suppression approach to combat soil-borne disease effects on crop yields the effect of compost and lime on soil chemical properties, the soil microbial community (including Fusarium

  7. Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing carbon inputs rather than by enhancing soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing carbon inputs rather than It is not clear whether the consistent positive effect of elevated CO2 on soil respiration (soil carbon flux, SCF) results from increased plant and microbial activity due to (i) greater C availability through CO2-induced

  8. The production and degradation of trichloroacetic acid in soil: results from in situ soil column experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Dickey, Catherine A; Heal, Kate V; Stidson, Ruth T; Matucha, Miroslav; Cape, J Neil

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experiments with radioactively-labelled TCA and with irradiated (sterilised) soil columns. Control in situ forest soil columns showed evidence of net export (i.e. in situ production) of TCA, consistent with a net soil TCA production inferred from forest...

  9. Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:14581468

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battles, John

    . Ithaca, NY 14853 John J. Battles Dep. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management Univ. of California was transported downward through the forest floor and upper mineral soil in a progressive fashion. By Year 11Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 78:1458­1468 doi:10.2136/sssaj2014

  10. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYou areInnovation Portal Software0Soil

  11. Soil Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |RippeyInformationSoda Springs, Idaho:Soil Sampling Jump

  12. Experiment Hazard Class 15.2 - USDA Soil Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shipment, and disposal of regulated soil samples. A copy of the current APS USDA Soil Permit must accompany all samples. A copy of the home institution's soil permit is required...

  13. Production, Cost, and Soil Compaction Estimates for Two Western Juniper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Beth

    , Crook County Soil and Water Conservation District, Prineville, OR 97754. ABSTRACT: Harvesting trialsProduction, Cost, and Soil Compaction Estimates for Two Western Juniper Extraction Systems, production rates, and soil compaction impacts of two systems for harvesting western juniper (Juniperus

  14. Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction Operation in Southwest Oregon1 literature has quantified harvesting system effectiveness or soil disturbance concerns from such operations. This paper reports results of soil disturbance generated from an integrated forest harvesting

  15. Soil-landscape model helps predict potassium supply in vineyards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Geen, Anthony T; Pettygrove, Stuart; Southard, Randal; Minoshima, Hideomi; Verdegaal, Paul S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for making and inter- preting soil surveys (2nd ed. ). USDA-K S, V, K Depth inches Color* moist soil Sand Silt Clay Claymineralogy pH CEC cmol(+)/kg soil Exchangeable K K

  16. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torn, M.S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of organic carbon from peat soils. Nature 412 , 785. Fried,Plant Litter. Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological2007). Role of proteins in soil carbon and nitrogen storage:

  17. Soils Management, Site Productivity and Forest Nutrition: Nutrient Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;#12;1) principals 2) strategies 3) implementation Sustainable Soil Management: #12;- maintenance of fertility soil management Strategies: #12;Examples of adaptive management models used for achieving sustainableSoils Management, Site Productivity and Forest Nutrition: Nutrient Balance and Availability

  18. Soil Hydraulic Characteristics of a Small Southwest Oregon Watershed Following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    --------------------------------------------- Soil Hydraulic Characteristics of a Small Southwest by a high-intensity burn over areas of steep topography. The areal distribution of soil hydraulic of infiltration capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil moisture characteristics. Also, measures

  19. Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossabi, J.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Shinn, J.; Sprague, K.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus. 8 figs.

  20. Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossabi, Joseph (105 Michael Ct., Aiken, SC 29801); May, Christopher P. (5002 Hesperus Dr., Columbia, MD 21044); Pemberton, Bradley E. (131 Glencarin Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Shinn, Jim (Box 65, RFD. #1, South Royalton, VT 05068); Sprague, Keith (Box 234 Rte. 14, Brookfield, VT 05036)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

  1. Effects of Microbial and Phosphate Amendments on the Bioavailability of Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, Robin; Wilson, Christina; Knox, Anna; Seaman, John; Smith, Garriet

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy metals including lead (Pb) are released continually into the environment as a result of industrial, recreational, and military activities. Lead ranked number two on the CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances and was identified as a major hazardous chemical found on 47% of USEPA's National Priorities List sites (Hettiarachchi and Pierzynski 2004). In-situ remediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils may be accomplished by changing the soil chemistry and structure with the application of microbial and phosphate amendments. Soil contaminated with lead bullets was collected from the surface of the berm at Savannah River Site (SRS) Small Arms Training Academy (SATA) in Aiken, SC. While uncontaminated soils typically have Pb levels ranging from 2 to 200 mg/kg (Berti et al. 1998), previous analysis show Pb levels of the SATA berm to reach 8,673 mg/kg. Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds naturally produced by soil bacteria that can bind metals. Biosurfactants have a wide variety of chemical structures that reduce interfacial surface tensions (Jennings and Tanner 2000) and have demonstrated efficient metal complexion (Lin 1996). Biosurfactants also have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (Strong-Gunderson 1995). Two types of bacteria, Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida, were employed as amendments based on their ability to produce biosurfactants and survive in metal-contaminated soils. Apatites (calcium phosphate compounds) are important in the formation of Pb phosphates. Pb phosphates form rapidly when phosphate is available and are the most stable environmental form of lead in soil (Ruby et al.1998). Pyromorphites in particular remain insoluble under a wide range of environmental conditions (Zhang et al. 1998). The three apatites evaluated in the current study were North Carolina apatite (NCA), Florida apatite (FA), and biological apatite (BA). BA is ground fish bone that has few impurities such as As, Cr, or U and contains about 27% total phosphate, most of which is available. FA and NCA are two types of rock phosphates that release small amounts of phosphate over time. Total phosphate is around 30% with only 1-2% phosphate available (Knox et al. 2005). In this study, we describe the influence of combining the two microbial and three phosphate amendments on reducing lead bioavailability in shooting range soil.

  2. Numerical study on transient heat transfer under soil with plastic mulch in agriculture applications using a nonlinear finite element model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Castro, Carlos Armando

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper is developed a simple mathematical model of transient heat transfer under soil with plastic mulch in order to determine with numerical studies the influence of different plastic mulches on the soil temperature and the evolutions of temperatures at different depths with time. The governing differential equations are solved by a Galerkin Finite Element Model, taking into account the nonlinearities due to radiative heat exchange between the soil surface, the plastic mulch and the atmosphere. The model was validated experimentally giving good approximation of the model to the measured data. Simulations were run with the validated model in order to determine the optimal combination of mulch optical properties to maximize the soil temperature with a Taguchi's analysis, proving that the material most used nowadays in Colombia is not the optimal and giving quantitative results of the properties the optimal mulch must possess.

  3. Leachability of salmonella and fecal pollution indicator bacteria through soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehrmann, Robert Clinton

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors controlling bs. cterial movement Movement of Salmonella in soils MATERIALS AND METHODS Soil ana1ysis Inoculum preparation Soil column preparation Bacterial adsorption to soil particles Ei'fects of different salts on the leaching of bacteria... Distribution of bacteria in soil columns Bacterial saturation of soils Break through curves Enumeration of bacteria Bacterial size 1. 4 17 17 18 18 1 9 19 20 Field studies Statistics RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 20 21 22 Filter selection...

  4. The moisture retention characteristic of four soils from Niger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landeck, Jonathon Keith

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gradient. Determination of the hydraulic gradient through unsatu- rated soil is best obtained by the "instantaneous profile method" (Hillel 1972) which requires frequent measurement of soil wetness and matric suction under conditions of internal...-drained, unsaturated, low-solute soil. Also known as soil-water suction, matric potential (M) is a function of the interaction between solid soil parti- cles and the soil water. The nature of these interactions is a function of the arrangement, sizes, and shapes...

  5. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOEs Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier.

  6. Lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium and yttrium in waters in an upland acidic and acid sensitive environment, mid-Wales Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(6), 645656 (2005) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    functioning in relation to environmental management issues of acid deposition, climate change level in the streams is variable and seems to be linked to the main soil types within the catchment complexation (e.g. with organic matter) and the degree of acidification and colloidal transport (Bookings et al

  7. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil solutions for a changing world, Brisbane, Australia 1-6 August 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ). The investigated ES were climate regulation through carbon sequestration in soil and biomass, soil conservation of these results are discussed. Key Words Land use change, socioeconomic drivers, carbon sequestration, soil

  8. Using soil sensing technology to examine interactions and controls between ectomycorrhizal growth and environmental factors on soil CO2 dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Niles J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Allen, Michael F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant Soil (2010) 331:1729 DOI 10.1007/s11104-y REGULAR ARTICLE Using soil sensing technology to examineand environmental factors on soil CO 2 dynamics Niles J.

  9. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  10. Land surface cleanup of plutonium at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebeling, L.L.; Evans, R.B.; Walsh, E.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers approximately 3300 km{sup 2} of high desert and is located approximately 100 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Soil contaminated by plutonium exists on the NTS and surrounding areas from safety tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. About 150 curies of contamination have been measured over 1200 hectares of land surface. Most contamination is found in the top 5 cm of soil but may be found deep as 25 cm. The cost of conventional removal and disposal of the full soil volume has been estimated at over $500,000,000. This study is directed toward minimizing the volume of waste which must be further processed and disposed of by precisely controlling soil removal depth. The following soil removal machines were demonstrated at the NTS: (1) a CMI Corporation Model PR-500FL pavement profiler, (2) a CMI Corporation Model Tr-225B trimmer reclaimer, (3) a Caterpillar Model 623 elevating scraper equipped with laser depth control, (4) a Caterpillar Model 14G motor grader equipped with laser depth control, (5) a Caterpillar Model 637 auger scraper, and (6) a XCR Series Guzzler vacuum truck. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. DIGITAL SOIL RESOURCE INVENTORIES: STATUS AND PROSPECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, D G "David"

    DIGITAL SOIL RESOURCE INVENTORIES: STATUS AND PROSPECTS D G Rossiter Department of Earth Systems an inventory of digital soils data and supporting information available or publicized on the World Wide Web-scale inventories, especially using the SOTER methodology. Large-scale digital data are limited to the USA, Canada

  12. Soil Salinity Abatement Following Hurricane Ike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Ryan

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    . The initial salt levels in November 2008 had an electrical conductivity (ECe) of the inundated soils as high as 26.7 dS/m. Fifty-four percent of the soils sampled in the 0-15 cm horizons and 9% in the 15-30 cm horizons of the edge area had an ECe >= 4 d...

  13. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  14. Forests and soil UK Forestry Standard Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; forestry; soil; sustainable forest management; UK Forestry Standard. FCGL006/FC-GB(MMJ)/JCTP-2.5K/NOV11 for sustainable forest management Good forestry practice requirement Element of SFM Reference number LegalForests and soil UK Forestry Standard Guidelines #12;Key to symbols UKFS Requirements

  15. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  16. Silicone as a soil stabilizing agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlap, Wayne Alan

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This was aooomyliahed by adding concentrations of silioone of 0. 2 per oant, , 2 pmr sent, $ por sent, and 10 per cent to a soil being compacted for a class exercise. Although some ohango in soil oomyaotion properties were indicated, the results were too ?rratio...

  17. Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bredenkamp, Sanet

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The electrical conductivity is then related to sulfate content in soils. Expansion tests were performed to determine the amount of expansion that occurs when lime is added to soils with different sulfate contents. A model that relates the amount of expansion...

  18. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  19. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy....

  20. acid soil tolerance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Websites Summary: 1980; however, soils collected during the earlier phases of acid rain research have led to a growing Indications of Soil Recovery from Acidic...

  1. agricultural soil selects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012 12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model 3 Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs Environmental Sciences and...

  2. agricultural peat soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    components and hydraulic properties of peat soils Boyer, Edmond 4 Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs Environmental Sciences and...

  3. agricultural peat soils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    components and hydraulic properties of peat soils Boyer, Edmond 4 Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs Environmental Sciences and...

  4. acid forest soils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forest Succession Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: K7L 3N6, Canada ABSTRACT Carbon sequestration in soils that have previously beendepletedoforganic the soil carbon...

  5. acid forest soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forest Succession Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: K7L 3N6, Canada ABSTRACT Carbon sequestration in soils that have previously beendepletedoforganic the soil carbon...

  6. agricultural soil quality: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind erosion removes and redistributes soil. Small blowout areas may 9 Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs Environmental Sciences and...

  7. assess soil degradation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    habitats, soil animals, land use and soil conservation. Includes teacher-tested lesson plans, assessment methods and suggestions for further study. Integrates science with...

  8. agroforestry soil fertility: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    habitats, soil animals, land use and soil conservation. Includes teacher-tested lesson plans, assessment methods and suggestions for further study. Integrates science with...

  9. Contingency in the Direction and Mechanics of Soil Organic Matter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contingency in the Direction and Mechanics of Soil Organic Matter Responses to Increased Rainfall. Contingency in the Direction and Mechanics of Soil Organic Matter Responses to...

  10. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions....

  11. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

  12. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Abstract: Super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) have...

  13. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application for enhancing carbon sequestration . Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential...

  14. Effects of Soil Texture on Belowground Carbon and Nutrient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    to 1-m depth. The quantity of labile soil P, the soil C:N ratio, and live and dead fine root biomass

  15. Amy L. Shober Assistant Professor of Soil and Water Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    water treatment biosolids and poultry litter applied to agricultural soils. Journal of Environmental. 2009. Evaluating phosphorus release from biosolids and manure amended soils under reducing conditions

  16. antecedent soil moisture: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Bull, 1997). This process may underlie long-term sustainability of southwestern Native Norton, Jay B. 442 Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality-- Environmental...

  17. ascertain soil moisture: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Bull, 1997). This process may underlie long-term sustainability of southwestern Native Norton, Jay B. 434 Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality-- Environmental...

  18. area soil washing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and modeling of soil structure (architecture) and physical, chemical con- straints and controls are less explored and understood than the physical laws of planets among soil...

  19. acidic soil isolates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil pH indicates its alkalinity or acidity. This property influences soil chemistry and crop production. A low maintenance ROSS Ultra Triodeguarantees accurate measurement of...

  20. The summer soil institute provides a unique opportunity to gain a funda-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Diana

    of managing our soil resources sustainably. A u n iq u e e du c at ion al e x p e r i e n c e soil of critical is sues in soil sustainability. Instructors and topics Thomas Borch: Environmental Soil Chemistry Stromberger: Soil Microbiology Diana Wall: Soil Sustainability, Soil Fauna Matthew Wallenstein: Soil

  1. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume tracking methodology helped the USACE Buffalo District track soil quantity changes from projected excavation work over time and across space, providing the basis for an explanation of some of the project cost and schedule variances.

  2. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  3. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site.

  4. Influence of soil physicochemical properties on hydrology and restoration response in Carolina Bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, C. D.; Andrews, D.M.; Kolka, R.K.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carolina Bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeast US that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our understanding of basic wetland hydrological processes is limited, hence our ability to predict the need for and/or assess the effectiveness of bay restorations is hindered. Differing physicochemical properties of soils within bay interiors may control bay hydrology. However, previous efforts to establish relationships between soil characteristics and bay hydrology have been inconclusive and the question still remains as to why some bays are ponded throughout the year while others, within a similar landscape unit, are predominantly dry. An assessment of soil and hydrologic characteristics was initiated in restored and unrestored control bays to determine if a relationship exists. Soil morphology was described and permanent monitoring wells were installed at each site. Soil samples were collected by horizon to a depth of 2 meters at the topographic center of each site, and then analyzed. After three years, multiple regression analysis (stepwise backward and forward) was used to establish relationships between the soil physicochemical characteristics and bay hydroperiod in the undisturbed sites. Results from surface soils indicated that exchangeable acidity (EA) was the best single predictor of hydrology. The best double predictor was EA and total N and EA, total N and total C as the best triple predictor. A significant relationship (r2 = 0.96) between hydroperiod and clay content in the argillic horizon (Bt) was also observed. Subsequently, this relationship was utilized to predict hydrologic response using pre-restoration hydroperiod data. The model accurately identified sites that did not need hydrologic restoration (too wet), and effectively showed sites that responded well to restoration activities.

  5. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY09 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOEs Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier. Each instrument nest is composed of a capacitance probe (CP) with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units (HDUs), and a neutron probe (NP) access tube. The monitoring results in FY09 are summarized below. The solar panels functioned normally and could provide sufficient power to the instruments. The CP in Nest C after September 20, 2009, was not functional. The CP sensors in Nest B after July 13 and the 0.9-m CP sensor in Nest D before June 10 gave noisy data. Other CPs were functional normally. All the HDUs were functional normally but some pressure-head values measured by HDUs were greater than the upper measurement-limit. The higher-than-upper-limit values might be due to the very wet soil condition and/or measurement error but do not imply the malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 and FY08, in FY09, the soil under natural conditions (Nest A) was generally recharged during the winter period (October-March) and discharged during the summer period (April-September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the surface barrier was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the surface barrier (Nests C and D), the CP measurements showed that water content at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was very stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water condition beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage seemed occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) in FY09. The HDU-measured water pressure decreased consistently in the soil above 5-m depth, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the surface barrier (Nest B), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year except at the 0.9-m depth; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than those in Nests C and D; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes in FY09 in Nest B were less than those for C and D but more than those for A. The soil-water-pressure head was more sensitive to soil water regime changes under dry conditions. In the soil beneath the barrier, the theoretical steady-state values of pressure head is equal to the negative of the distance to groundwater table. Hence, it is expected that, in the future, while the water content become stable, the pressure head will keep decreasing for a long time (e.g., many years). These results indicate that the T Tank Farm surface barrier was performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil and the soil was becoming drier gradually. The barrier also has some effects on the soil below the barrier edge but at a reduced magnitude.

  6. Thermal Removal Of Tritium From Concrete And Soil To Reduce Groundwater Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg C (1,500 deg F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg C (212 deg F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of four units to batch treat concrete rubble and soil. Post treatment sampling verified that the activity in the treated soil and concrete met the treatment standards for each medium which allowed the treated concrete rubble and soil to be disposed of on site as backfill. During testing and operations a total of 1,261-m{sup 3} (1,650-yd{sup 3}) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m{sup 3} ($2,412/yd{sup 3}). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management.

  7. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773-42A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773-42A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Blount, Gerald C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (United States); Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L. [U.S Department of Energy-Savannah River Site (United States)] [U.S Department of Energy-Savannah River Site (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of four units to batch treat concrete rubble and soil. Post treatment sampling verified that the activity in the treated soil and concrete met the treatment standards for each medium which allowed the treated concrete rubble and soil to be disposed of on-site as backfill. During testing and operations a total of 1,261-m{sup 3} (1,650-yd{sup 3}) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m{sup 3} ($2,412/yd{sup 3}). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management. (authors)

  8. On the design of a sampling plan to verify compliance with EPA standards for radium-226 in soil at uranium mill tailings remedial action sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Miller, M.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses design aspects of a two-stage compliance sampling program being developed to verify that removal of soil at windblown uranium mill-tailings sites are results in /sup 226/Ra concentrations that meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. In the first stage, gamma scans of surface soil would be conducted over the entire remediated region using a tractor-mounted gamma-ray counting system (RTRAK) to measure /sup 214/Bi (Bismuth), which is an indicator of /sup 226/Ra in soil. In the second stage, composite soil samples would be collected from a systematic sample of 10-m by 10-m plots, where the number of plots is determined using a compliance acceptance sampling plan. These soil samples are analyzed for /sup 226/Ra and compared with the EPA standard of 5 pCi/g above background using a selected statistical rule.

  9. Fluorinated silica microchannel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy Jon

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for surface modification of microchannels and capillaries. The method produces a chemically inert surface having a lowered surface free energy and improved frictional properties by attaching a fluorinated alkane group to the surface. The coating is produced by hydrolysis of a silane agent that is functionalized with either alkoxy or chloro ligands and an uncharged C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 fluorinated alkane chain. It has been found that the extent of surface coverage can be controlled by controlling the contact time from a minimum of about 2 minutes to a maximum of 120 minutes for complete surface coverage.

  10. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on upland cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheiner, Justin Jack

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    or inhibition of ethylene production (Abdi et al., 1998; Jiang et al., 2001; Fan and Mattheis, 1999a; Dong et al., 2001; Jeong et al., 2002;), chlorophyll degradation (Porat et al., 1999; Ku and Willis, 1999; Fan and Mattheis, 1999b; Fan and Mattheis, 2000...; Jiang et al., 2002a), membrane leakage (Serek et al., 1995a; Jiang et al., 2002b), respiration (Abdi et al., 1998; Tian et al., 2000; Fan and Mattheis, 2000; Dong et al., 2001;), volatile production (Abdi et al., 1998; Golding et al., 1998; Fan...

  11. Upland, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global Energy LLCEnergy) Redirect page JumpCorpUniversityLPUpland,

  12. A dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR-E microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    influences the partitioning of surface available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes and henceA dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR, we have designed a dual-pass assimilation (DP-En4DVar) framework to optimize the model state

  13. Feedstock Logistics of a Mobile Pyrolysis System and Assessment of Soil Loss Due to Biomass Removal for Bioenergy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bumguardner, Marisa

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    in surface runoff caused by sorghum residue removal for bioenergy production in the Oso Creek Watershed in Nueces County. The model simulated the removal of 25, 50, 75, and 100 percent residue removal. The WEPS model was used to quantify wind erosion soil...

  14. As transport characterization in the vadose zone of the soil: a combined study between field and laboratory experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for heavy metal retention and transfer in soils from the vadose zone occurs in the field. That is why experiments at a pilot scale are necessary to assess heavy metal the ground surface; the water table level variation is about 1 m over a year depending on the season

  15. Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison of different global data sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    of the spatio-temporal variations of total terrestrial water storage (the sum of ground water, soil water1 Variations of surface water extent and water storage in large river basins: A comparison mass variations monitored by GRACE, simulated surface and total water storage from WGHM, water levels

  16. Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    using Advanced Very High Res- olution Radiometer Lai data, Climate Research Unit climate dataGlobal estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water-relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E model that simulates the surface energy balance, soil water balance

  17. Solar-wind protons and heavy ions sputtering of lunar surface materials A.F. Barghouty a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar-wind protons and heavy ions sputtering of lunar surface materials A.F. Barghouty a, , F Available online 21 December 2010 Keywords: Solar wind sputtering Lunar regolith KREEP soil Potential a c t Lunar surface materials are exposed to $1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost

  18. Modeling Storm Water Runoff and Soil Interflow in a Managed Forest, Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast US.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, T.J.; Cook, J.D.; Coleman, Mark D.; Amatya, Devendra M.; Trettin, Carl C.

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Forest Service-Savannah River is conducting a hectare-scale monitoring and modeling study on forest productivity in a Short Rotation Woody Crop plantation at the Savannah River Site, which is on Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Detailed surveys, i.e., topography, soils, vegetation, and dainage network, of small (2-5 ha) plots have been completed in a 2 square-km watershed draining to Fourmile Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. We wish to experimentally determine the relative importance of interflow on water yield and water quality at this site. Interflow (shallow subsurface lateral flow) can short-circuit rainfall infiltration, preventing deep seepage and resulting in water and chemical residence times in the watershed much shorter than that if deep seepage were the sole component of infiltration. The soil series at the site (Wagram, Dothan, Fuquay, Ogeechee, and Vaucluse) each have a clay-rich B horizon of decimeter-scale thickness at depths of 1-2 m below surface. As interflow is affected by rainfall intensity and duration and soil properties such as porosity, permeability, and antecedent soil moisture, our calculations made using the Green and Ampt equation show that the intensity and duration of a storm event must be greater than about 3 cm per hour and 2 hours, respectively, in order to initiate interflow for the least permeable soils series (Vaucluse). Tabulated values of soil properties were used in these preliminary calculations. Simulations of the largest rainfall events from 1972-2002 data using the Green and Ampt equation provide an interflow: rainfall ratio of 0 for the permeable Wagram soil series (no interflow) compared to 0.46 for the less permeable Vaucluse soil series. These initial predictions will be compared to storm water hydrographs of interflow collected at the outflow point of each plot and refined using more detailed soil property measurements.

  19. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB`s as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology.

  20. Effects of Woody Vegetation Removal on Soil Water Dynamics in a South Texas Shrubland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattox, April Marie

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    - lived shallow rooted grasses (Boutton et al. 1998). The increase in woody plants also 3 alters the distribution of biomass form predominantly below ground to predominantly above ground (McKinley et al. 2008). Mesquite has been shown... in Grevillea robusta and Eucalyptus camaldulensis studied by Burgess et al. (1998). Water that was acquired from rehydrated surface soils was used for ?refilling? the stem reservoir, and based on calculations, was also moving into the surrounding deeper...

  1. Bioavailable organic carbon in wetland soils across a broad climogeographic area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew Dwight

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 11 Microbial biomass determined using the CFI method. . . . . . 12 Microbial biomass determined by the CFE method for soils from each state . . 44 13 Microbial biomass determined by the CFI method without subtraction of a control . . . . . 47... and subsurface horizons from di fferent states. . . . 43 The percentage of SOC constituted by biomass (measured by CFE) in organic, mineral surface and subsurface horizons over thc whole data set and from different states. . . 46 The percentage of SOC...

  2. The mutagenic potential of soil and runoff water from land treatment of three hazardous industrial wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davol, Phebe

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (EPA, 1983). Land tr eatment may be a viable disposal alternative for many petroleum based hazardous wastes. This technology involves the controlled incorporation of wastes into the surface layer of soil resulting in degradation, immobilization... increased as the waste degraded, but began to decrease by the end of the study. Although the mechanism to explain this phenomena is unknown, it is possible that non-mutagenic compounds in the waste may have degraded into mutagenic compounds...

  3. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study.

  4. WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

    2001-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, to separate petroleum-related contaminants and other hazardous pollutants from soil and sediments. In this process, water with added electrolytes (inexpensive and environmentally friendly) is used as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150-300 C). The use of electrolytes allows us to operate reactors under mild conditions and to obtain high separation efficiencies that were hitherto impossible. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. In developing this technology, our systematic approach was to (1) establish fundamental solubility data, (2) conduct treatability studies with industrial soils, and (3) perform a bench-scale demonstration using a highly contaminated soil. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise. The next step of the development process is the successful pilot demonstration of this technology. Once pilot tested, this technology can be implemented quite easily, since most of the basic components are readily available from mature technologies (e.g., steam stripping, soil washing, thermal desorption). The implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and will provide a stand-alone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  5. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  6. Effects of Soil Composition and Mineralogy on the Bioaccessibility of Arsenic from Tailings and Soil in Gold Mine Districts of Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meunier, Louise; Walker, Stephen R.; Wragg, Joanna; Parsons, Michael B.; Koch, Iris; Jamieson, Heather E.; Reimer, Kenneth J. (Queens); (Brit. Geo.); (Royal); (NRC)

    2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analyses were performed on arsenic-contaminated tailings and soils from gold mine districts of Nova Scotia, Canada, to examine the links between soil composition, mineralogy, and arsenic bioaccessibility. Arsenic bioaccessibility ranges from 0.1% to 49%. A weak correlation was observed between total and bioaccessible arsenic concentrations, and the arsenic bioaccessibility was not correlated with other elements. Bulk X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis shows arsenic in these near-surface samples is mainly in the pentavalent form, indicating that most of the arsenopyrite (As{sup 1-}) originally present in the tailings and soils has been oxidized during weathering reactions. Detailed mineralogical analyses of individual samples have identified up to seven arsenic species, the relative proportions of which appear to affect arsenic bioaccessibility. The highest arsenic bioaccessibility (up to 49%) is associated with the presence of calcium-iron arsenate. Samples containing arsenic predominantly as arsenopyrite or scorodite have the lowest bioaccessibility (<1%). Other arsenic species identified (predominantly amorphous iron arsenates and arsenic-bearing iron(oxy)hydroxides) are associated with intermediate bioaccessibility (1 to 10%). The presence of a more soluble arsenic phase, even at low concentrations, results in increased arsenic bioaccessibility from the mixed arsenic phases associated with tailings and mine-impacted soils.

  7. Sources for Pu in near surface air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, G.; Thom, C.; Baechmann, K.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides evidence that most of the Pu in the near surface air today is due to resuspension. Vertical and particle size distribution in near surface air over a period of three years were measured. The seasonal variations of Pu in air and the influence of meteorological parameters on these variations are shown. Samples were taken before the Chernobyl accident in an area where only Pu fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests of the early sixties occurs. The comparison of the behavior of Pu with other trace elements, which were also measured, showed similar behavior of Pu and elements like Ca, Ti and Fe in near surface air. This confirms that most Pu is resuspended because the main source for these elements in air is the soil surface. Resuspension factors and resuspension rate are estimated for all measured elements. A resuspension factor of 0.8 X 10(-8) m-1 and a resuspension rate of 0.09 X 10(-9) s-1 is calculated for Pu.

  8. Surface based remote sensing of aerosol-cloud interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupportingAlbedo at theSurface SoilSurface based

  9. Surface-Modified Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupportingAlbedo at theSurface SoilSurfaceEnergy

  10. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces Alberto Favaro & Friedrich W. Hehl Outline Linear media Linear media-you. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces: geometrical optics in dispersionless linear (meta)materials and vacuum, 19­23 November 2012 Email: favaro@thp.uni-koeln.de #12;Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces Alberto Favaro

  11. SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shouhong

    SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS CONCLUDING REMARKS DYNAMIC TRANSITIONS OF SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION H.Dijkstra T. Sengul S. Wang #12;SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS

  12. Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil respiration (RS), the flux of CO2 from the soil surface to the atmosphere, comprises the second-largest terrestrial carbon flux, but its dynamics are incompletely understood, and the global flux remains poorly constrained. Ecosystem warming experiments, modelling analyses, and biokinetics all suggest that RS should change with climate. This has been difficult to confirm observationally because of the high spatial variability of RS, inaccessibility of the soil medium, and inability of remote sensing instruments to measure large-scale RS fluxes. Given these constraints, is it possible to discern climate-driven changes in regional or global RS fluxes in the extant four-decade record of RS chamber measurements? Here we use a database of worldwide RS observations, matched with high-resolution historical climate data, to show a previously unknown temporal trend in the RS record after accounting for mean annual climate, leaf area, nitrogen deposition, and changes in CO2 measurement technique. Air temperature anomaly (deviation from the 1961-1990 mean) is significantly and positively correlated with changes in RS fluxes; both temperature and precipitation anomalies exert effects in specific biomes. We estimate that the current (2008) annual global RS flux is 9812 Pg and has increased 0.1 Pg yr-1 over the last 20 years, implying a global RS temperature response (Q10) of 1.5. An increasing global RS flux does not necessarily constitute a positive feedback loop to the atmosphere; nonetheless, the available data are consistent with an acceleration of the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to global climate change.

  13. What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

    2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    of nitrogen and how it is added to and removed from the soil. Commercial fertilizers used by agricultural produc- ers are a significant source of nitrogen addition to soils. Nitrogen is continuously recycled through plant and animal waste residues and soil... to ammonium (NH 4 + ) or nitrate (NO 3 - ) forms. Three important methods for changing nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to ammonium (NH 4 + ) are: a73 Free-living N 2 -fixing bacteria a73 N 2 -fixing bacteria in nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, and a73 Nitrogen...

  14. The behavior of piles in cohesionless soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Larry Milton

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load In Pile During Tension Test 87 88 50 Comparison of Residual Loads in Vibrated and Driven Piles 89 51 Hunter-Davisson Hethod for Residual Load Correction 92 52 Comparison of the Fr iction Load in Tension and Compression 97 53 Pile and Soil... and the load- settlement behavior of single piles in cohesionless soils is addressed. The available data on instrumerted piles load-tested vertically in sands is collected and analyzed to determine the load transfer characteristics of the soil. A...

  15. The Chemical Composition of Some Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1907-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tne usquehanna clay appear to contain sufficient potash. The Lufkin and Sus- uehanna soils are low in lime. All the soils tested by pot experiments respond to phosphoric acid--the Norfolk fine sand, Norfolk fine sandy loam, Orangeburg fine sandy... loam, quehanna fine sandy loam and Lufkin fine sand. Only the Norfolk fine sa loam responds to potash. Anderson county. The six soils examined belong to the Norfolk, Ora lrg and Yazoo series. All were low in phosphoric acid, and all except azoo...

  16. Manoj Shukla Assistant Professor of Environmental Soil Physics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    of scales, and carbon sequestration in soils Professional Activities and Honors (last 6 years) Present

  17. SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA OSURR Section 17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    66 26 76 26 26 26 SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA OSURR Section 17 0 300 600 900 1,200150 Feet 0 100 20050 Meters Web Soil Survey 1.1 National Cooperative Soil Survey 5/7/2007 Page 1 of 3 #12;MAP INFORMATION SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA OSURR Section 17 Source of Map: Natural Resources

  18. TITLE SOIL SUITABILITY EVALUATION FOR TOBACCO BASED ON GREY CLUSTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    TITLE SOIL SUITABILITY EVALUATION FOR TOBACCO BASED ON GREY CLUSTER ANALYSIS GAO Rui QIAO Hong Abstract: Suitability evaluation of soil for tobacco is the base of spatial analysis and optimization disposition. It provides scientific basis for reasonable development of soil for tobacco. Taking soil in San

  19. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Cranbury, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  20. www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Soil Architecture and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Soil Architecture and Physicochemical Func ons: An Introduc on Soils func engineers with the best educa on possible. The 16 papers in this special sec on on soil architecture measurement, visualiza on, and modeling of soil structure (architecture) and physical, chemical

  1. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Soil Particle Analysis Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil is an important component of an on-site wastewater treatment system. This publication explains the composition of soils, the sizing of soil particles, and the ways soil particles are analyzed to determine whether a site is suitable for a...

  2. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  3. Using finished compost is a way of returning organic matter to the soil in a usable form. Soil organic matter benefits plant growth by improving the moisture and nutrient-holding capacity of sandy soils, by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Using finished compost is a way of returning organic matter to the soil in a usable form. Soil and by helping prevent soil erosion. Think of compost primarily as a soil conditioner rather than a fertilizer will be necessary for adequate plant growth. A soil test will determine if compost-amended garden soil requires

  4. Soil and Water Science Department University of Florida Background concentrations of trace metals in Florida surface soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    using Teflon pressure bombs in a microwave digestion oven and analyzed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS), an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP/MS) and an inductively

  5. Leaching of BTEX from Aged Crude Oil Contaminated Model Soils: Experimental and Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally assumed that soil properties such as organic matter content, porosity, and mineral surface area have a significant effect on the bioavailability and leachability of aged petroleum hydrocarbons. In order to test this hypothesis, nine model soils or sorbents (i.e., fine and coarse quartz sand, montmorillonite and kaolinite clay, peat, 60? and 150? silica gel, a loam soil, and non-porous glass beads) were spiked with a crude oil, aged for 27 months in the laboratory, and transferred to glass columns for the performance of continuous flow leaching experiments. The column effluents were periodically sampled for 43 days and analyzed for BTEX. A one-dimensional flow model for predicting the dissolution and dispersion of individual hydrocarbons from a multi-component NAPL such as crude oil was used to fit the leaching data (i.e., the BTEX concentration versus time curves) by adjusting the equilibrium oil-leachate partitioning coefficient (Kol) for each respective hydrocarbon. The Peclet number, which is a measure of dispersion and a required modeling parameter, was measured in separate chloride tracer experiments for each soil column. Results demonstrate that soil properties did not significantly affect the leaching kinetics of BTEX from the columns. Instead, BTEX leaching curves could be successfully fitted with the one-dimensional NAPL dissolution flow model for all sorbents with the exception of montmorillonite clay. The fitting parameter Kol for each hydrocarbon was found to be similar to the Kol values that were independently measured for the same crude oil by Rixey et al. (Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 65: 137-156, 1999). In addition, the fitted Kol values were very similar for BTEX leaching from aged compared to freshly spiked loam soil. These findings indicate that leaching of BTEX in the aged soils that are contaminated with crude oil at the high concentrations commonly found in the environment (i.e., >20,000 mg/kg) was not affected by soil properties or aging but rather was governed by the equilibrium dissolution of these hydrocarbons from the crude oil NAPL that is coating the soil particles.

  6. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  7. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 30653082 Soil carbon turnover in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Diana

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 30653082 Soil carbon turnover in the McMurdo Dry Valleys Valleys are among the most inhospitable soil environments on Earth due to climate and substrate because likely sources of organic matter are 102 104 yrs old and in situ soil respiration is typically

  8. Effects of Soil Organic Matter on the Kinetics and Mechanisms of Pb(II) Sorption and Desorption in Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Effects of Soil Organic Matter on the Kinetics and Mechanisms of Pb(II) Sorption and Desorption in Soil Daniel G. Strawn* and Donald L. Sparks ABSTRACT make better predictions about the mobility and threat from Pb contami- and desorption behavior on soil be understood, as wellnated soil, it is critical

  9. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late-than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts Brian J. Darby a,*, Deborah A. Neher a , Jayne Belnap b a Department of Plant and Soil; accepted 12 April 2006 Abstract Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs

  10. THE SOIL SCOOP by Clain Jones, Montana State University Extension Soil Fertility Specialist, and Kathrin Olson-Rutz, Research Associate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    placementorganic matter residue October 2014 The ability of soil to function and sustain biological productivity for potential benefit in sustainability and productivity. Healthy soils have increased nutrient and water of management or evaluate problem areas. Chemical soil characteristics, including pH, soil organic matter (SOM

  11. LSCC APOLLO AND LUNA SOIL ANALYSES: UPDATE OF SOIL EVOLUTION MODEL. C. M. Pieters L.A. Taylor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    LSCC APOLLO AND LUNA SOIL ANALYSES: UPDATE OF SOIL EVOLUTION MODEL. C. M. Pieters 1 L.A. Taylor 2 in representative Apollo mare and highland soils have been measured in a coordinated manner with modern instruments- quent LSCC data for Apollo 14 and Apollo 16 soils, however, were inconsistent with the F 3 model; the av

  12. Soil and Water Conservation Districts (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Soil and Water Conservation Districts are local governmental subdivisions of the state of South Carolina, established to provide for land and water conservation and prevent erosion in the state....

  13. Soil and Water Conservation Policy (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes that it is the responsibility of land occupiers to implement practices that conserve soil and water resources, and the policy of the state encourages them to do so.

  14. Adsorption and transport of pyrithiobac in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matocha, Christopher John

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    adsorbents (Gonzales bentonite, Georgia kaolinite, goethite, and Michigan peat) and four soils (Houston Black c, Hidalgo sl, Orelia scl, and Ships sic) having a wide range of physical and chemical properties. Adsorption isotherms were developed...

  15. Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1998-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers.

  16. Year of Soils Seminar Series | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cover have been sources of principal greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). Indeed, soil organic carbon (SOC) pool of agroecosystems is depleted compared with those of their...

  17. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of ...

  18. Soil Erosion and Sediment Control (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Departments of the Environment and Natural Resources are authorized to develop regulations to combat soil erosion and control the addition of sediment to waters of the state. As part of the...

  19. Soil phosphorus status in potato fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Z.; Honeycutt, C. W.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P deficiency in irrigated potatoes. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68,soil test P levels in these potato fields. References He,Introduction The potato crop requires substantial amounts of

  20. SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA OSURR Section 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    21 76 11 25 61 49 2 11 65 25 74 25 25 25 6125 65 25 40 11 W 26 25 32 W 54 3 11 65 11 74 11 74 SOIL Soil Survey 1.1 National Cooperative Soil Survey 5/7/2007 Page 1 of 3 #12;MAP INFORMATION SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA OSURR Section 5 Source of Map: Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil