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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Surface Soil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and compared to averages over time to see if there are changes in concentrations. Monitoring surface soil LANL has monitored surface soils since the early 1970s. Institutional surface soil samples are collected from 17 on-site, 11 perimeter, and six regional (background) locations every three years.

2

Fate of 14C-labeled dissolved organic matter in paddy and upland soils in responding to moisture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Soil organic matter (SOM) content in paddy soils is higher than that in upland soils in tropical and subtropical China. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, however, is lower in paddy soils. We hypothesize that soil moisture strongly controls the fate of DOM, and thereby leads to differences between the two agricultural soils under contrasting management regimens. A 100-day incubation experiment was conducted to trace the fate and biodegradability of DOM in paddy and upland soils under three moisture levels: 45%, 75%, and 105% of the water holding capacity (WHC). 14C labeled DOM, extracted from the 14C labeled rice plant material, was incubated in paddy and upland soils, and the mineralization to 14CO2 and incorporation into microbial biomass were analyzed. Labile and refractory components of the initial 14C labeled DOM and their respective half-lives were calculated by a double exponential model. During incubation, the mineralization of the initial 14C labeled DOM in the paddy soils was more affected by moisture than in the upland soils. The amount of 14C incorporated into the microbial biomass (2.4–11.0% of the initial DOM-14C activity) was less affected by moisture in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. At any of the moisture levels, 1) the mineralization of DOM to 14CO2 within 100 days was 1.2–2.1-fold higher in the paddy soils (41.9–60.0% of the initial DOM-14C activity) than in the upland soils (28.7–35.7%), 2) 14C activity remaining in solution was significantly lower in the paddy soils than in the upland soils, and 3) 14C activity remaining in the same agricultural soil solution was not significantly different among the three moisture levels after 20 days. Therefore, moisture strongly controls DOM fate, but moisture was not the key factor in determining the lower DOM in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. The UV absorbance of DOM at 280 nm indicates less aromaticity of DOM from the paddy soils than from the upland soils. At any of the moisture levels, much more labile DOM was found in paddy soils (34.3–49.2% of the initial 14C labeled DOM) compared with that in upland soils (19.4–23.9%). This demonstrates that the lower DOM content in the paddy soil compared with that in the upland soil is probably determined by the less complex components and structure of the DOM.

Xiangbi Chen; Aihua Wang; Yang Li; Lening Hu; Hua Zheng; Xunyang He; Tida Ge; Jinshui Wu; Yakov Kuzyakov; Yirong Su

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a full-scale implementation. The SVE well, monitoring point arrays and four fracturing wells were installed and the well testing has been completed. Four fractures were successfully created the week of July 25, 2005. The fractures were created in an open area at the bottom of steel well casing by using a water jet to create a notch in the soil and then injecting a guar-sand slurry into the formation. The sand-filled fractures increase the effective air permeability of the subsurface formation diffusion path lengths for contaminant removal. The primary metrics for evaluation were an increase in SVE flow rates in the zone of contamination and an increase in the zone of influence. Sufficient testing has been performed to show that fracturing in the Upland Unit accelerates SVE solvent remediation and fracturing can increase flow rates in the Upland Unit by at least one order of magnitude.

Riha, B

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface temperature surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil surface temperature The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

5

The Soils of Brazos, Camp, Ellis, and Washington Counties.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loam 11 per cent. and the Tabor fine sandy loam 8 per cent. These three are upland soils. The Miller clay, which is a very productive and durable alluvial soil, occupies 7.9 per cent. of the county. The average composition of the upland soils... fine sandy loam-subsoil.. low Bastrop sand- surface. ........................................ fair Rastrop sand-subsoil. ......................................... fair Rell clay-surface ............................................. good Bell cla y...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1924-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Surface mining: soil, coal, and society  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The book concentrates on the effects of surface mining of coal upon the utilization of another resource, soil. Possible planning and management strategies for land reclamation are studied and the problem of choosing the correct solution for a particular situation is considered taking the many factors into account. The goal of reconstructing soil after mining is to equal or exceed the productivity of pre-mine soils, with a change in landscape if necessary, with minimum disturbance to the local community. (252 refs.)

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a comprehensive listing of ecological screening values for surface water, sediment, and soil.

Friday, G. P.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Surface and Soil Cleanup at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface and Soil Projects Surface and Soil Projects placeholder Aerial view of capped landfills A major part of the overall site cleanup involved addressing contaminated soils, underground tanks, and waste storage areas. All of the major soil projects have now been completed, with the exception of some soils that will need to be cleaned up during the decommissioning of the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor and High Flux Beam Reactor. Following are a list of major surface and soil cleanup projects that have been completed since 1994: Three out-of-service 100,000 gallon aboveground waste tanks were removed and disposed of at a licensed off-site disposal facility. Sixteen underground storage tanks (USTs) were removed between 1988 and 2005 under the cleanup program. The project included the removal, transportation, and disposal of the tanks and approximately 4,000 cubic yards of soil and debris.

9

Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance-Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases Title Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance-Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Sleiman, Mohamad, George Ban-Weiss, Haley E. Gilbert, David François, Paul Berdahl, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Hugo Destaillats, and Ronnen M. Levinson Journal Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Volume 95 Pagination 3385-3399 Date Published 10/2011 ISSN 0927-0248 Keywords Advanced Surfaces, building technology and urban systems department, Heat Island, Heat Island Group URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2011.08.002 DOI 10.1016/j.solmat.2011.08.002

10

Geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils at the Savannah River site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, is a nuclear production facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). To facilitate future human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies for its wetland areas, SRS needs a database of background geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils. These data are needed for comparison to data collected from wetland soils that may have been affected by SRS operations. SRS contains 36,000 acres of wetlands and an additional 5,000 acres of bottom land soils subject to flooding. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste units at SRS show that some wetlands have been impacted by releases of contaminants resulting from SRS operations (WSRC, 1992). Waste waters originating from the operations facilities typically have been discharged into seepage basins located in upland soils, direct discharge of waste water to wetland areas has been minimal. This suggests that impacted wetland areas have been affected indirectly as a result of transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, groundwater seeps, fluvial or sediment transport, and leaching. Looney et al. (1990) conducted a study to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of upland soils and shallow sediments on the SRS. A primary objective of the upland study was to collect the data needed to assess the qualitative and quantitative impacts of SRS operations on the environment. By comparing the upland soils data to data collected from waste units located in similar soils, SRS impacts could be assessed. The data were also intended to aid in selection of remediation alternatives. Because waste units at SRS have historically been located in upland areas, wetland soils were not sampled. (Abstract Truncated)

Dixon, K.L; Rogers, V.A.; Conner, S.P.; Cummings, C.L.; Gladden, J.B.; Weber, J.M.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Hanford Site surface soil radioactive contamination control plan, March 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Program is responsible to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office, for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 closures at the Hanford Site. This program also manages the Radiation Area Remedial Action that includes the surveillance, maintenance, decontamination, and/or interim stabilization of inactive burial grounds, cribs, ponds, trenches, and unplanned release sites. This plan addresses only the Radiation Area Remedial Action activity requirements for managing and controlling the contaminated surface soil areas associated with these inactive sites until they are remediated as part of the Hanford Site environmental restoration process. All officially numbered Radiation Area Remedial Action and non-Radiation Area Remedial Action contaminated surface soil areas are listed in this document so that a complete list of the sites requiring remediation is contained in one document.

Mix, P.D.; Winship, R.A.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Determination of uranium concentration in surface soil samples of Iran  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of uranium-tipped antitank shells during the Iraq war (2003) caused serious concerns in Iran and the international media over possible contamination of the Iranian environment and consequent long-term health effects. After a shell explosion, uranium is discharged by fire into the air in the form of oxidised particles, which can be dispersed over a radius of several kilometres. Gamma ray spectrometry was used to determine uranium concentrations in soil samples collected from ten sites in Iranian sectors near the Iraqi border. All surface soil samples were taken from the top 5 cm from each site. The concentrations of 238U were assessed from 63 keV and 92 keV emissions of its first daughter nuclide, 234Th. To assess the isotopic ratio of 238U/235U, a secular equilibrium was ensured and the concentration of 235U under 186 keV was deduced. The 226Ra was determined through 295 keV and 352 keV gamma rays of 214Pb. The concentrations of 238U and activity ratios of 238U/235U were determined. The average of measurement activity ratio was 20.0, very close to the value of 21.5 for natural uranium, while the activity ratio of depleted uranium can be as high as 76.9. The analysis of ten surface soil samples from Iranian sites near the Iraqi border showed that uranium isotopes are in natural abundances.

A.A. Fathivand; J. Amidi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

A preliminary approach of 3D simulation of soil surface degradation by rainfall  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil surface structure and morphology deeply in uence a lot of processes of high agronomic and environmental relevance, such as mass and heat transfer through the soil-atmosphere interface, runoff and erosion, seed germination and seedling emergence. ...

Gilles Valette; Michel Herbin; Laurent Lucas; Joël Léonard

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

Flores, Alejandro N.

15

Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Soil bacterial strains able to grow on the surface of oxidized polyethylene film containing prooxidant additives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil bacterial strains able to grow on the surface of oxidized polyethylene film containing low-density polyethylene film containing prooxidant additives were isolated from three forest soils of adhering to the surface of oxidized polyethylene, growing there and possibly biodegrading its oxidation

Boyer, Edmond

17

Corn Stover Impacts on Near-Surface Soil Properties of No-Till Corn In Ohio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corn stover is a primary biofuel feedstock and its expanded use could help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and net CO2 emissions. Excessive stover removal may, however, negatively impact near-surface soil properties within a short period after removal. We assessed changes in soil crust strength, bulk density, and water content over a 1-yr period following a systematic removal or addition of stover from three no-till soils under corn in Ohio.

Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

18

Catchment-scale deposition and redistribution of Chernobyl radiocaesium in upland Britain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in April 1986 resulted in a significant increase in the inventory of radiocaesium in many areas of upland Britain. Caesium-137 derived from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s has been widely used as a sediment tracer to monitor soil erosion. The presence of Chernobyl fallout provides an opportunity to examine the short-term, post-input behavior of radiocaesium in upland soils and assess its potential for investigating sediment transfer in upland systems. Sampling undertaken in the catchment of Lake Vyrnwy, North Wales considered the vertical distribution of radiocaesium in different soil types, the catchment-wide variation in Chernobyl fallout deposition, and the radiocaesium content of sediment from a variety of slope and fluvial environments. Whilst uncertainty surrounding the estimation of baseline inventories limits the detailed interpretation of short-term sediment dynamics, it is apparent that the sediment-associated redistribution of Chernobyl radioactivity may result in its accumulation in certain parts of the catchment over longer timescales. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Higgitt, D.L.; Rowan, J.S. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom)); Walling, D.E. (Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Vegetation, soils, and surface hydrology of playa landforms in the Rio Grande Plains, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Playas in the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas were compared with respect to their: 1) size, shape, soil properties, and microtopography, 2) vegetation composition and structure, 3) surface water accumulation potential, and 4) disturbance history...

Farley, Andrea Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Enhancing Model Skill by Assimilating SMOPS Blended Soil Moisture Product into Noah Land Surface Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many studies that have assimilated remotely sensed soil moisture into land surface models have generally focused on retrievals from a single satellite sensor. However, few studies have evaluated the merits of assimilating ensemble product that are ...

Jifu Yin; Xiwu Zhan; Youfei Zheng; Jicheng Liu; Li Fang; Christopher R. Hain

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The effect of stratigraphy and soil plasticity on the settlement characteristics of reclaimed surface mined land  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF STRATIGRAPHY AND SOIL PLASTICITY ON THE SETTLEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FECLAIMED SURFACE MINED I~D A Thesis GORGE ENRIQUE RANGEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the regni ement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Geology THE EFFECT OF STRATIGRAPHY AND SOIL PLASTICITY ON &HA SETTLEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF RECLAIMED SURFACE MINED LAI'1D Thesis by JORGE ENRIQDE RANGEL Approved as to style ana content...

Rangel, Jorge Enrique

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Effects of upland disturbance and instream restoration on hydrodynamics and ammonium uptake in headwater streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Delivery of water, sediments, nutrients, and organic matter to stream ecosystems is strongly influenced by the catchment of the stream and can be altered greatly by upland soil and vegetation disturbance. At the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia), spatial variability in intensity of military training results in a wide range of intensities of upland disturbance in stream catchments. A set of 8 streams in catchments spanning this upland disturbance gradient was selected for investigation of the impact of disturbance intensity on hydrodynamics and nutrient uptake. The size of transient storage zones and rates of NH4+ uptake in all study streams were among the lowest reported in the literature. Upland disturbance did not appear to influence stream hydrodynamics strongly, but it caused significant decreases in instream nutrient uptake. In October 2003, coarse woody debris (CWD) was added to of the study streams (spanning the disturbance gradient) in an attempt to increase hydrodynamic and structural complexity with the goals of enhancing biotic habitat and increasing nutrient uptake rates. CWD additions had positive short-term (within 1 mo) effects on hydrodynamic complexity (water velocity decreased and transient storage zone cross-sectional area, relative size of the transient storage zone, fraction of the median travel time attributable to transient storage over a standardized length of 200 m, and the hydraulic retention factor increased) and nutrient uptake (NH4+ uptake rates increased). Our results suggest that water quality in streams with intense upland disturbances can be improved by enhancing instream biotic nutrient uptake capacity through measures such as restoring stream CWD.

Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Houser, Jeffrey N [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Soil surface modification in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Percent composition by species; separated by treatment and strip width. 43 LIST OF FIGURES ~Fi ure 1 Tz'ans-Pecos soil surface modification study area. ~Pa e 10 INTRODUCTION Water is one of the most prized but limited natural resources... 0 0 2 0 Figure 1. Trans-Pecos soil surface modification study ares. level from 1-mf areas at 3. 05-m intervals on three perpendicular lines down slope of each treatment in early June and October 1979. One line was established 0. 9-m to the north...

Merrill, Clifton Edwards

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

24

Grass Upland Water Quality Wednesday November 21st 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grass Upland Water Quality Workshop Wednesday November 21st 2007 Water Quality in the Uplands financial support to farming could protect rural economies while reducing this damage to water. Help farmers · Unnatural spates ­ potential downstream flooding little water retention on land uneven flows lack

Quinton, John

25

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. [Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. (Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

Mani, Devleena, E-mail: devleenatiwari@ngri.res.in [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India); Kumar, T. Satish [Oil India Limited (India); Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V. [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

The effect of soil hydraulic properties vs. soil texture in land surface models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. E. Small Department of Geology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA Received 26 October (SHPs) is not well known. This study focuses on the effect of SHP selection on modeled surface fluxes in a large SHP database. Within most STCs, the outputs have a range of 350 WmÃ?2 for latent and sensible heat

Small, Eric

29

Review of the internship with Soil Conservation Service  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for most crops in the area (Soil Survey of Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, unpublished soil survey). Land Resource Areas The main topographic distinctions are the uplands, Gulf Coast Prairies, flood plains and backswamps along streams, and the marshes.... 32 34 37 Water Management Grazing Plans. Upland Native Pasture. Gulf Coast Prairie/Fresh Marsh. Brackish Marsh. Conclusion Literature Cited. Appendix A Appendix B. . Appendix C 40 41 44 . 48 50 51 52 53 54 55 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...

Mattox, Matthew W

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

31

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Area G Perimeter Surface-Soil Sampling Environmental Surveillance for Fiscal Year 1998 Hazardous and Solid Waste Group (ESH-19)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Area G has been the principal facility for the disposal of low-level, solid-mixed, and transuranic waste since 1957. It is currently LANL's primary facility for radioactive solid waste burial and storage. As part of the annual environmental surveillance effort at Area G, surface soil samples are collected around the facility's perimeter to characterize possible radionuclide movement off the site through surface water runoff During 1998, 39 soil samples were collected and analyzed for percent moisture, tritium, plutonium-238 and 239, cesium-137 and americium-241. To assess radionuclide concentrations, the results from these samples are compared with baseline or background soil samples collected in an undisturbed area west of the active portion Area G. The 1998 results are also compared to the results from analogous samples collected during 1996 and 1997 to assess changes over this time in radionuclide activity concentrations in surface soils around the perimeter of Area G. The results indicate elevated levels of all the radionuclides assessed (except cesium-137) exist in Area G perimeter surface soils vs the baseline soils. The comparison of 1998 soil data to previous years (1996 and 1997) indicates no significant increase or decrease in radionuclide concentrations; an upward or downward trend in concentrations is not detectable at this time. These results are consistent with data comparisons done in previous years. Continued annual soil sampling will be necessary to realize a trend if one exists. The radionuclide levels found in the perimeter surface soils are above background but still considered relatively low. This perimeter surface soil data will be used for planning purposes at Area G, techniques to prevent sediment tm.nsport off-site are implemented in the areas where the highest radionuclide concentrations are indicated.

Marquis Childs

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Concentration, pH, and Surface Charge Effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concentration, pH, and Surface Charge Effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical Soils situations death (Hrudey et al., 1995; USEPA,metal fates in the environment. Sorption characteristics of two in temperate soils more Pb than Cd. Sorption maxima were obtained for each metal for (Barbarick et al., 1998

Ma, Lena

34

Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-surface soil moisture is a key state variable of the hydrologic cycle and plays a significant role in the global water and energy balance by affecting several hydrological, ecological, meteorological, geomorphologic, and other natural processes...

Joshi, Champa

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

35

Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Accumulation of surface-applied agricultural limestone in acid soils of east Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Georgetown is considered a 20 Table 2. Elemental analysis of agricultural limestone sam les ( ercenta e basis) . T Source %Ca %N %Si %Fe %Nn Georgetown Hugo Idabel 34. 6a 37. 4b 35. 2a 3. 0a 1. 0a 0. 2a 0. 00a 0. 3b 0. 4b 0. 2a 0. 05b 0. 4b 1. 7c 0.... Wilding (Member) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) E. C. A. Run (Head of Department) August 1987 ABSTRACT Accumulation of Surface-applied Agricultural Limestone in Acid Soils of East Texas. (August 1987) Earl Raymond Allen, B. Stf University of Illinois...

Allen, Earl Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil: 2005 Update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the principal components of the environmental remediation program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the assessment of ecological risk. Used to support CERCLA, RCRA, and DOE orders, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) can identify environmental hazards and evaluate remedial action alternatives. Ecological risk assessment is also an essential means for achieving DOE's risk based end state vision for the disposition of nuclear material and waste hazards, the decommissioning of facilities, and the remediation of inactive waste units at SRS. The complexity of an ERA ranges from a screening level ERA (SLERA) to a full baseline ERA. A screening level ecological risk assessments, although abbreviated from a baseline risk assessment, is nonetheless considered a complete risk assessment (EPA, 2001a). One of the initial tasks of any ERA is to identify constituents that potentially or adversely affect the environment. Typically, this is accomplished by comparing a constituent's maximum concentration in surface water, sediment, or soil with an ecological screening value (ESV). The screening process can eliminate many constituents from further consideration in the risk assessment, but it also identifies those that require additional evaluation. This document is an update of a previous compilation (Friday, 1998) and provides a comprehensive listing of ecological screening values for surface water, sediment, and soil. It describes how the screening values were derived and recommends benchmarks that can be used for ecological risk assessment. The sources of these updated benchmarks include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the State of Florida, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (RIVM), and the scientific literature. It should be noted that ESV's are continuously revised by the various issuing agencies. The references in this report provide the citations of each source and, where applicable, the internet address where they can be accessed. Although radiological screening values are not included herein due to space limitations, these have been recently derived by a technical working committee sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE 2002, 2004). The recommended ecological screening values represent the most conservative concentrations of the cited sources, and are to be used for screening purposes only. They do not represent remedial action cleanup levels. Their use at locations other than SRS should take into account environmental variables such as water quality, soil chemistry, flora and fauna, and other ecological attributes specific to the ecosystem potentially at risk.

Friday, G. P.

2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

38

A near-infrared reflectance sensor for soil surface moisture measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil moisture is an important soil property that has important functions in various studies and applications, such as agricultural practices, hydrological processes and ecological issues. A near-infrared (NIR) reflectance sensor designed for moisture ... Keywords: Light-emitting diode, Near-infrared reflectance, Relative absorption depth, Soil moisture

Zhe Yin; Tingwu Lei; Qinghong Yan; Zhanpeng Chen; Yuequn Dong

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Spatial variations in soil and plant delta 13 C and delta 15 N values in a subtropical savanna: implications for vegetation change and nutrient dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lower-lying portions of the landscape are dominated by closed-canopy woodlands. I used soil ?13C in conjunction with aerial photography and geostatistics to quantify landscape-scale vegetation dynamics in uplands of this savanna parkland. Spatial...

Bai, E

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Soils of Henderson, Hidalgo, Milam, Nacogdoches, Navarro, Wichita, Willacy and Victoria Counties.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION - - A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS 3ULLETIN NO. 482 OCTOBER, 1933 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY soils of Henderson, Hidalgo, Milarn, Nacogdoches, Navarro, Wichita, Willacy... for representative samples of typical soils of Henderson, Hidalgo, Milam, Nacgdoches, Navarro, Victoria, Wichita, and Willacy coun- ties. The bottom, or alluvial, soils are better supplied with plant food than the upland soils. Many of the soils are deficient...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Rehabilitation of soils and surface after a nuclear accident: Some techniques tried in the Chernobyl zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident, the major part of deposited radio nuclides remains in the 3 or 4 cm of the topsoil of abandoned fields in the chernobyl zone. The Decontaminating Vegetal Network allows a layer of few centimeters of the top soil to be removed with a turf harvester. The efficiency observed at Chernobyl was 97% for cesium-137 and strontium-90. After scraping the soil with the turf harvester, the bare soil must be covered and re-grown in order to prevent wind erosion of the sandy soil. A trial spraying of polyacrylamide on the soil was carried out. This technique seems promising. Trials of bio-decontamination of the removed turf using anaerobic degradation were also carried out. This experiment provided an opportunity to measure in real conditions the transfer of radionuclides in the Chernobyl zone.

Jouve, A.; Maubert, H. [IPSN/CEA, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Millan-Gomez, R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Kutlakhamedov, Y. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Modeling land surface processes of the midwestern United States : predicting soil moisture under a warmer climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation seeks to quantify the response of soil moisture to climate change in the midwestern United States. To assess this response, a dynamic global vegetation model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator, was coupled ...

Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Heterogeneous Surface-Based Freezing of Atmospheric Aerosols Containing Ash, Soot, and Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nucleation will occur through one of several mechanisms including the contact and immersion freezing mechanisms. Through a series of contact freezing experiments, we have characterized the ability of aerosols composed of volcanic ash, soot, and peat soil...

Fornea, Adam P.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

44

Soil surface stabilization using an in situ plutonium coating techniuqe at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), in collaboration with the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR), has developed and is investigating an in situ plutonium treatment for soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The concept, conceived by Dr. T. Tamura and refined at HAZWRAP, was developed during the Nevada Applied Ecology Program investigation. In analyzing for plutonium in soils, it was noted that the alpha emanation of plutonium was greatly attenuated if traces of iron or manganese oxides were present in the final electroplating stage. The technique would reduce resuspension of alpha particles into the air by coating the contaminants in soils in situ with an environmentally compatible, durable, and nontoxic material. The coating materials (calcium hydroxide, ferrous sulfate) reduce resuspension by providing a cementitious barrier against radiation penetration while retaining soil porosity. This technique not only stabilizes plutonium-contaminated soils, but also provides an additional protection from worker exposure to radiation during remediation activities. Additionally, the coating would decrease the water solubility of the contaminant and, thus, reduce its migration through soil and uptake by plants.

Lew, J.; Snipes, R. [Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tamura, T.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Waste Management Plan describes waste management and waste minimization activities for Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected response action presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. This plan identifies the waste streams that will be generated during implementation of the remedial action and presents plans for waste minimization, waste management strategies, and waste disposition.

G. L. Schwendiman

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Soils Collections Project Page  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soil Collections Soil Collections Soil Collections Overview Soil covers a major portion of the Earth's surface, and is an important natural resource that either directly or indirectly supports most of the planet's life. Soil is a mixture of mineral and organic materials plus air and water. The contents of soil vary by location and are constantly changing. The ORNL DAAC Soil Collections archive contains data on the physical and chemical properties of soils, including: soil carbon and nitrogen soil water-holding capacity soil respiration soil texture Most data sets are globally gridded, while a few are of a regional nature. Get Soils Data Find and order data sets: See list of data sets and download data Browse Soils Data Holdings by selected attributes Retrieve Soils data by FTP browse

47

A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were calculated. From the scanning data, locations with observed Cs-137 ratios exceeding six standard deviations above the mean ratio were mapped in high resolution [2]. Field teams returned to those locations to collect static count measurements using the same detection systems. Soil surface samples were collected at 30 locations and analyzed for Cs-137. An exponential correlation was identified between Cs-137 concentrations in surface soil and field-scanned Cs-137 ratios. The data indicate field minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of Cs-137 at 0.02 Bq/g (0.5 pCi/g) or lower depending on contaminant distribution in soil. (authors)

Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States)] [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Lit, Peter [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)] [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Growth and fruiting responses of diverse genotypes of American Upland cotton grown in different environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GROWTH AND FRUITING RESPONSES OF DIVERSE GENOTYPES OF AMERICAN UPLAND COTTON GROWN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis JOHN ROBERT GANNAWAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Plant Breeding GROWTH AND FRUITING RESPONSES OF DIVERSE GENOTYPES OF AMERICAN UPLAND COTTON GROWN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT GANNAWAY Approved as to style and content by...

Gannaway, J. R

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

49

Field measurements of ammonia volatilization from surface applications of nitrogen fertilizers to a calcareous soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrolysis study . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 71 Table 14 Effect of added soil water and added urease on loss of NH3 from Solution 32 applied at a rate of 224 kg N/ha in the field Page 72 15 Effect of method of application and added urease... on loss of NH from Solution 32 applied at a r2te of 112 kg N/ha in the field . . . . . . . . . . 74 16 Some physical and chemical characteris- tics of Houston Black clay . . . . . . . . 89 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page A schematic of the apparatus used...

Hargrove, W. L

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

50

Impact of Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Interactions on Surface Temperature Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding how different physical processes can shape the probability distribution function (PDF) of surface temperature, in particular the tails of the distribution, is essential for the attribution and projection of future extreme temperature ...

Alexis Berg; Benjamin R. Lintner; Kirsten L. Findell; Sergey Malyshev; Paul C. Loikith; Pierre Gentine

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

Anderson, T.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ``Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program`` (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels.

Myers, J.A.

1995-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

53

Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Low Sorption and Fast Dissipation of the Herbicide Saflufenacil in Surface Soils and Subsoils of an Eroded Prairie Landscape  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorption coefficients were determined for each soil and each spiking concentration using Kd = Csorbed/Csolution, where Csorbed is determined from the decrease in saflufenacil concentration in tubes containing soil compared to those containing no soil, and Csolution is the concentration of saflufenacil in the aqueous extract after equilibration with soil. ... (18) Together with previous observations, these results concur with Farenhorst et al.,(18) who noted that soil properties and terrain attributes tend to have a stronger influence on herbicides demonstrating low sorption (including saflufenacil) than on more highly sorbed herbicides. ... and sorbed concns. of dicamba and 3,6-DSCA, and sorption coeffs. ...

Sharon K. Papiernik; William C. Koskinen; Brian L. Barber

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

55

Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and Geomorphology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and GeomorphologyMinerals, and Geomorphology · Soil is unconsolidated material). ·· SoilSoil is unconsolidated material at the surface of the Earth thatis unconsolidated material

56

Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: > The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. > BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. > Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. > At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. > The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

Quina, Margarida J., E-mail: guida@eq.uc.pt [Research Centre on Chemical Processes Engineering and Forest Products, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Silvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Bordado, Joao C.M. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, IBB, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M. [Research Centre on Chemical Processes Engineering and Forest Products, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Silvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Wilson Bull., 11l(l), 1999, pp. 100-104 EFFECTS OF WIND TURBINES ON UPLAND NESTING BIRDS IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wilson Bull., 11l(l), 1999, pp. 100-104 EFFECTS OF WIND TURBINES ON UPLAND NESTING BIRDS in southwestern Minnesota to determine the relative influence of wind turbines on overall densities of upland transects that were placed along wind turbine strings within three CRP fields and in three CRP fields

58

Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on soil, streambed sediment, and ground- and surface-water quality at a site near Denver, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report describes the effects of burial and land application of municipal sewage sludge on soil and streambed sediment and water quality in the underlying aquifers and surface water within and around the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. The existing ground-water observation-well network at the disposal area was expanded for the study. Surface-water-sampling sites were selected so that runoff could be sampled from intense rainstorms or snowmelt. The sampling frequency for ground-water and surface-water runoff was changed from yearly to quarterly, and soil samples were collected. Four years of data were collected from 1984 to 1987 during the expanded monitoring program at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. These data, in addition to the data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1981 to 1983, were used to determine effects of sewage-sludge-disposal on soil and streambed sediment and surface- and ground-water quality at the disposal area.

Gaggiani, N.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impact or flowing water. They seal the soil surface, reduce the rate of water infiltration, and can into individual particles that clog soil pores, seal the surface, and form a layer that is dense when dry of physical crust with many small, unconnected air pockets or spaces similar to those in a sponge

60

crop science, vol. 51, septemberoctober 2011 Along-term challenge faced by upland cotton (Gossypium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crop science, vol. 51, september­october 2011 ReseaRch Along-term challenge faced by upland cotton by a fundamental shift in the cotton fiber market from a primarily domestically con- sumed product to one in which nearly two-thirds of the U.S. cot- ton is now exported. Since the international cotton fiber market

Chee, Peng W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Reading Comprehension - Soil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soil Soil What Is Soil? Soil is the loose top layer of Earth's surface. Plants depend on soil. It holds them up. It provides them with food and water. Soil is made of _________ fungi humus particles . These very small pieces mostly come from rocks broken down by weathering. Other soil particles come from rotting remains of plants and animals. The part of soil that comes from living things is called _________ loam organic matter texture . Soil Life Many small organisms live in soil. They include worms, bacteria, and fungi. _________ Fungi Humus Particles are like plants, but they aren't green. And they have no leaves, flowers, or roots. The organisms feed on dead plants and animals. They cause them to _________ decay loam particles , or break down. The decayed plant and animal matter is called _________ fungi humus

62

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture The moisture of the soil measured near the surface. This includes soil wetness and soil water potential. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System

63

Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

64

The magnesium nutrition of American upland and Egyptian cottons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Magnesium n1trate, sulfate, and chloxide ax'e highly soluble in water and are read1ly leached from the soil ~ Albert and Armstrong (l) grew cotton plants in nutrient solutions containing two levels of magnesium and found that greater top and root gx... on maturity of cotton X the rate of growth was not afflicted by magnesium supply but symptoms of magnesium deficien)y were present in the foliage of the low magnesium plants ~ Schappelle, Armstrong and Hollis (52) studied the effect of high magnesium...

Helmy, Hussein

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Influence of row spacing, population density and irrigation on phenology, yield and fiber properties of three upland cotton varieties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INFLUENCE OF ROW SPACING, POPULATION DENSITY AND IRRIGATION ON PHENOLOGY, YIELD AND FIBER PROPERTIES OF THREE UPLAND COTTON VARIETIES A Thesis by WILLIAM DAVID HAMILTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Agronomy INFLUENCE OF ROW SPACING, POPULATION DENSITY AND IRRIGATION ON PHENOLOGY, YIELD AND FIBER PROPERTIES OF THREE UPLAND COTTON VARIETIES A Thesis...

Hamilton, William David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

66

Mass Transport within Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

McKone, Thomas E.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Texas Soils: A Study of Chemical Composition.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is about one half as mnch as in creek bottom. \\Ve have also an upland hainmock here that is a good soil." The next two divisions are hased on the classification given by Mr. ILobt.,T. Hill in the first report of the State Geological surrey....v be present sodium corbonate, and ill one inrtancc I have found cnlcium chloride-chloride of lime. The folloaiilg analysis reported for the- f3t:~tc geological surrey will illustrate t,!~ conlposition of Texas "alknli" spots: Black ,liZKali fronz X~2e2a...

Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill)

1892-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

D. E. Shanklin

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Soil Moisture Memory in Climate Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water balance considerations at the soil surface lead to an equation that relates the autocorrelation of soil moisture in climate models to 1) seasonality in the statistics of the atmospheric forcing, 2) the variation of evaporation with soil ...

Randal D. Koster; Max J. Suarez

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Chemical Composition of Soils of Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATION Table 5. Analyses of soils of the Gulf Coast Prairie-Continued Type Name Flat marshy to semi-marshy soils ....................... Harr~e clay, surface.. Harris clay, subsoil. ........................ Harris fine sandy loam, surface.... ............. Harris fine sandy loam. subsoil.. ............. Tidal marsh. surface.. ...................... Tidal marsh. subsoil. ....................... Flat stream bottom soils Guadalupe clay. surface.. ................... Guadalupe clay, subsoil...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

The effects of topping on yield and other agronomic characters in two varieties of Upland cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fulfillment of the requirements for ths degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1957 Ma/or Subjects Plant Breeding THE EFFECTS OF TOPPING ON YIELD AND OTHER AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS IN TM3 VARIETIES OF UPLAND COTTON Gary Dee Beaten Approve4 as to style..., espsoially when a heavy arop of bells is set near the tep, Even if lodging does net occur, tho dense foliage may shade the lower bells and fester boll rote and damage to tho green bogle and to the seed cotton in the mature bells as well, Hand pioking...

Bearden, Gary Dee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

72

Development of Surface Complexation Models of Cr(VI) Adsorption on Soils, Sediments and Model Mixtures of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, ?-Alumina, Hydrous Manganese and Ferric Oxides and Goethite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic contaminant that has been introduced into aquifers and shallow sediments and soils via many anthropogenic activities. Hexavalent chromium contamination is a problem or potential problem in the shallow subsurface at several DOE sites, including Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE, 2008). To accurately quantify the fate and transport of hexavalent chromium at DOE and other contaminated sites, robust geochemical models, capable of correctly predicting changes in chromium chemical form resulting from chemical reactions occurring in subsurface environments are needed. One important chemical reaction that may greatly impact the bioavailability and mobility of hexavalent chromium in the subsurface is chemical binding to the surfaces of particulates, termed adsorption or surface complexation. Quantitative thermodynamic surface complexation models have been derived that can correctly calculate hexavalent chromium adsorption on well-characterized materials over ranges in subsurface conditions, such pH and salinity. However, models have not yet been developed for hexavalent chromium adsorption on many important constituents of natural soils and sediments, such as clay minerals. Furthermore, most of the existing thermodynamic models have been developed for relatively simple, single solid systems and have rarely been tested for the complex mixtures of solids present in real sediments and soils. In this study, the adsorption of hexavalent chromium was measured as a function of pH (3-10), salinity (0.001 to 0.1 M NaNO3), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide(0-5%) on a suite of naturally-occurring solids including goethite (FeOOH), hydrous manganese oxide (MnOOH), hydrous ferric oxide (Fe(OH)3), ?-alumina (Al2O3), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), and montmorillonite (Na3(Al, Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2?nH2O). The results show that all of these materials can bind substantial quantities of hexavalent chromium, especially at low pH. Unexpectedly, experiments with the clay minerals kaolinite and montmorillonite suggest that hexavalent chromium may interact with these solids over much longer periods of time than expected. Furthermore, hexavalent chromium may irreversibly bind to these solids, perhaps because of oxidation-reduction reactions occurring on the surfaces of the clay minerals. More work should be done to investigate and quantify these chemical reactions. Experiments conducted with mixtures of goethite, hydrous manganese oxide, hydrous ferric oxide, ?-alumina, montmorillonite and kaolinite demonstrate that it is possible to correctly predict hexavalent chromium binding in the presence of multiple minerals using thermodynamic models derived for the simpler systems. Further, these models suggest that of the six solid considered in this study, goethite is typically the solid to which most of the hexavalent chromium will bind. Experiments completed with organic-rich and organic-poor natural sediments demonstrate that in organic-rich substrates, organic matter is likely to control uptake of the hexavalent chromium. The models derived and tested in this study for hexavalent chromium binding to ?-alumina, hydrous manganese oxide, goethite, hydrous ferric oxide and clay minerals can be used to better predict changes in hexavalent chromium bioavailability and mobility in contaminated sediments and soils.

Koretsky, Carla [Western Michigan University] [Western Michigan University

2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

73

Effects of vegetation and soil moisture on the simulated land surface processes from the coupled WRF/Noah model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulations. Meso- scale models, which have been used not only for numerical weather prediction but also surface and atmosphere into numerical weather or climate prediction. This study describes coupled WRF [Chen et al., 1997; Pielke et al., 1997]. Numerical weather prediction with high spatial and tempo- ral

Small, Eric

74

Desert Soils Surfaces and soils in deserts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials C horizon: unconsolidated parent material R horizon: solid rock #12;Global Distribution of Arid

75

THE RESILIENCE OF UPLAND-OAK FOREST CANOPY TREES TO CHRONIC AND ACUTE PRECIPITATION MANIPULATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Implications of chronic ( 33 percent) and acute (-100 percent) precipitation change were evaluated for trees of upland-oak forests of the eastern United States. Chronic manipulations have been conducted since 1993, and acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were initiated in 2003. Through 12 years of chronic manipulations tree growth remained unaffected by natural or induced rainfall deficits even though severe drought conditions dramatically reduced canopy function in some years. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between tree growth phenology and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited growth reductions from 2003 through 2005. Elimination of lateral root water sources for the acute treatment trees, via trenching midway through the 2004 growing-season, forced the conclusion that deep rooting was a key mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought.

Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Todd Jr, Donald E [ORNL; Auge, Robert M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Rainwater Harvesting: Soil Storage and Infiltration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A soil storage and infiltration system collects rainfall runoff from the roofs of buildings and directs it underground where it infiltrates the soil. Such a system conserves water and protects it from surface pollution. This publication describes...

Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

77

Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

powerhouse of soil, include an incredible diversity of organisms. Tons of soil biota, including micro

78

Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

Bond, D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Natural Oxidation of Black Carbon in Soils: Changes in Molecular...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon in Soils: Changes in Molecular Form and Surface Charge along a Climosequence. Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate changes in molecular form and surface...

80

Soil Minerals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soil Minerals Soil Minerals Nature Bulletin No. 707 March 2, 1963 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor SOIL MINERALS We all depend upon the land Our food is obtained from plants and animals -- bread and meat, potatoes and fish, fruit and eggs and milk and the rest of it. Our livestock feed on plants and plant products such as grass and grain. Plants, by means of their root systems, take moisture and nutrients from the soils on which they grow. Their food values, for us or for animals that furnish us food, depend upon the available nutrients in those soils. Soils contain solids, water and air. The solids, the bulk of a soil -- except in purely organic types such as peat and muck -- are mostly mineral materials. Ordinarily they also contain some organic material: decayed and decaying remains of plants and animals.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

82

Soil Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soil Sampling Soil Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Soil Sampling Details Activities (10) Areas (9) Regions (1) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Field Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Can reveal relatively high permeability zones Hydrological: Thermal: Used to locate active hydrothermal systems Dictionary.png Soil Sampling: Soil sampling is a method that can be used for exploration of geothermal resources that lack obvious surface manifestations. Soils that are above or adjacent to a "hidden" hydrothermal system will have a unique chemistry that can be indicative of a hydrothermal system at depth and a zone of

83

Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

L. C. Hulstrom

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

CCA Training : Soil and Water Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dry 25,000,000 acresa Includes both external surfaces and surfaces between crystal plates. #12;The and nutrient transformations · Associated with soil porosity #12;Soil Physical Properties: Structure Properties: Structure · Structure type = aggregation has different shape and varies with depth ­Granular

Balser, Teri C.

85

Introgression of resistance to Rotylenchulus reniformis into Meloidogyne incognita resistant upland cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5774 14634 15250 16888 13413 19195 6665 467 15112 1938 22856 11216 22837 10340 3040 2519 6174 8226 13 Table 1. Continued Geno e M6xTq-2 Iv4xTq-4 Average Generation Fi Fi S ecies ISH** ISH~* R remformis E s/500 cm soil... 5774 14634 15250 16888 13413 19195 6665 467 15112 1938 22856 11216 22837 10340 3040 2519 6174 8226 13 Table 1. Continued Geno e M6xTq-2 Iv4xTq-4 Average Generation Fi Fi S ecies ISH** ISH~* R remformis E s/500 cm soil...

Ripple, Kevin William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

86

Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

Buckley, R.

2001-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

87

Soil compaction: track induced soil stress isn't so positive in comparison with tyre  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil compaction: track induced soil stress isn't so positive in comparison with tyre Ingeniors presence and the overall higher load of the track system. Conversely, tyres distribute uniformly the load the easy to obtain contact area surface of the track -or tyre- with the soil, the interface pressure

Boyer, Edmond

88

Baseline studies of surface gas exchange and soil-gas composition in preparation for CO{sub 2} sequestration research: Teapot Dome, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A baseline determination of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes and soil-gas concentrations of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} was made over the Teapot Dome oil field in the Naval Petroleum Reserve 3 in Natrona County, Wyoming, United States. This was done in anticipation of the experimentation with CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone underlying the field at a depth of 1680 m. The measurements were made in January 2004 to capture the system with minimum biological activity in the soils, resulting in a minimum CO{sub 2} flux and a maximum CH{sub 4} flux. The CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured in the field with an infrared spectroscopic method. The CH{sub 4} fluxes were determined from gas-chromatographic measurements on discrete samples from under the flux chambers. The CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were determined at 30-, 60-, and 100-cm depths in soil gas by gas chromatography. A total of 40 locations had triplicate flux measurements using 1.00-m{sup 2} chambers, and soil gas was sampled at single points at each of the 40 locations. Carbon dioxide fluxes averaged 227.1 CO{sub 2} m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, a standard deviation of 186.9 mg m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, and a range of - 281.7 to 732.9 mg m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, not including one location with subsurface infrastructure contamination. Methane fluxes averaged 0.137 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, standard deviation of 0.326 mg m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, and a range of -0.481 to 1.14 mg m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, not including the same contaminated location.

Klusman, R.W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (US). Dept. of Chemistry & Geochemistry

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but not well understood climate factor. This study examines soil moisture-vegetation health interactions using both in situ observations and land surface model simulations. For the observational study, soil moisture is taken from 20 in situ Oklahoma Mesonet...

Ford, Trenton W.

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

The moisture retention characteristic of four soils from Niger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of air at the surface is relatively facile. Hydraulic Conductivity Redistribution of soil water affects plant growth, and the rate and duration of internal moisture flow determines 19 effective soil water storage. This is important to remember when... in sorption (wetting). This characteristic of wetting versus drying for a soil is known as the hysteresis effect (Lal 1979a). Hillel (1980) notes that hysteresis is important for coarse-textured soils in the process of redistribution of soil water...

Landeck, Jonathon Keith

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Phosphorus release and retention by soils of natural isolated wetlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrological restoration of historically isolated wetlands may mitigate phosphorus (P) loss. The objectives of this study were to quantify P in soil, and to determine the effect of (1) soil characteristics on P release, and (2) antecedent soil hydrological conditions on P dynamics. Humic/fulvic acid bound P and residual P accounted for majority of P (>78%) in surface soils. Soils with highest nutrient status and labile P fractions released most P during initial flooding. Phosphorus dynamics during additional flooding were dependent on soil characteristics, antecedent soil hydrological conditions, and P levels in the water. Phosphorus retention varied between 0.3 and 8 mg m-2 d-1.

E.J. Dunne; K.R. Reddy; M.W. Clark

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effect of soil freezing on particulate resuspension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of small scale laboratory tests that were conducted to determine the effect of soil freezing on soil resuspension. Nontransuranic contaminated soil form the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was subjected to a series of test conditions to determine respirable and nonrespirable fractions of airborne dust. A separate fraction of the same soil was spiked with Pu-239 and subjected to the same test conditions. Concentrations of resuspended soil and Pu in air were determined. Test results show that: (a) the largest fraction of soil resuspended is in the nonrespirable size fraction, (b) the concentration of resuspended soil in air is highly dependent on surface air velocity, and (c) freezing is not as effective at reducing resuspension of fine dry soil as it is with coarse soil, and (d) artificially prepared Pu contaminated soil has a high proportion of the total activity distributed on ultrafine material, reacts inversely to the mass movement of soil, and does not adequately imitate Pu movement in an actual contaminated soil. 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Duce, S.W.; Shaw, P.G.; Winberg, M.R.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Occurrence of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Turkey and Broiler Barns and Contamination of Air and Soil Surfaces in Their Vicinity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rainy or windy conditions (wind speed of 5 m/s), no air...in rural areas, contact of wildlife with the sampled ground surfaces...bacteria are carried by the wind and sediment on the ground...thus-far-unknown time. Changing wind directions over time are one...

A. Friese; J. Schulz; K. Zimmermann; B.-A. Tenhagen; A. Fetsch; J. Hartung; U. Rösler

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Soils | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soils Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSoils&oldid612253" Category: NEPA Resources...

95

Soil Sterilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... received the notice they deserved. Among them is soil sterilization as a factor in food production. How to produce the greatest amount of good food has become an urgent problem ... proper consideration. Pests and diseases, for example, not only cause serious losses in food production, but they also waste time, labour and materials. Thus, by employing measures for ...

W. J. C. L.

1944-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Relation of Soil Nitrogen, Nitrification and Ammonification to Pot Experiments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................ 6 Relation of the Crops to the Total Nitrogen of the Soil ........... 7 Relation of the Different Crops ................................. 8 Relation of Surface Soil to Subsoil ............................. 13 Acid Soils Compared with Non-Acid... of Production of Nitrates to the Results of the Pot Ex- periments ................................................ 21 Extensive Work ............................................ 24 Relation of Nitric Nitrogen to Nitrogen Removed by First Crop .... 24...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

SeedChaser: Vertical soil tillage distribution model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Knowledge of the vertical distribution of surface residues, chemicals, or seeds following tillage operations is of great importance to a wide variety of soil research areas. This paper describes a 1D empirical vertical soil tillage distribution model ... Keywords: Conservation tillage, Leslie matrix, Seed movement, Seedbank, Soil movement

K. Spokas; F. Forcella; D. Archer; D. Reicosky

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Acuff Soils: Distribution, Importance, Variability, and Management.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the High Plains Rolling Plains boundary on the southeast, and a catena of sandy soils extending from Stanton, Texas, to Clovis, New Mexico, on the west. Within this roughly crescent-shaped area, Acuff soils occupy about 21 percent of the land surface.... The area of Acuff soils ranges from aboutl01?lOmin. to 103?50 min. west longitude and from about 32?10 min. to 35?40 min. north latitude Eleva tion of the surface ranges from abou t 2,500 to 4,200 feet above mean sea level. The area is in a subhumid...

Unger, Paul W.; Pringle, Fred B.; Blackstock, Dan A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Abstract In northern Laos, upland rice is grown as a subsistence crop under rainfed conditions with no  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

restore soil fertility and reduce insect and weed pres- sure. However, increasing population density Present Address: K. Saito Africa Rice Center (WARDA), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin Plant Soil (2006) 284-and- burn systems are sustainable when population den- sities are low enough to allow for long fallow

van Kessel, Chris

100

Contaminant bioavailability in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...well as in surface and ground water, typically are regulated...assessment and environmental remediation. Adoption of an environmental...allows one to consider remediation strategies based...including surface and ground waters and soil solutions, as well as gastrointestinal...

Samuel J. Traina; Valérie Laperche

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cesium sorption and desorption on selected Los Alamos soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorptivity of cesium onto Los Alamos soils under controlled experimental conditions. Four soil profiles were collected and each soil profile which is broken into layers according to previously identified soil horizons were studied. Batch sorption isotherms were studied to quantify the chemical reactivity of each soil horizon toward cesium ion. Radioactive cesium-137 was used as sorbent and gamma counting was used to quantify the amount of sorption. Desorption experiments were conducted after the sorption experiments. Batch desorption isotherms were studied to quantify the desorption of presorbed cesium from these Los Alamos soils. This study suggests cesium may sorb strongly and irreversibly on most Los Alamos soils. The amount of cesium sorption and desorption is possibly related to the clay content of the soil sample since subsurface sample has a higher clay content than that of surface sample.

Kung, K.S.; Chan, J.; Longmire, P.; Fowler, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Innovative technologies for soil cleanup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested.

Yow, J.L. Jr.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The Soils of Bowie, Denton, Freestone, and Red River Counties.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

***J. N. TATE, B. S., Assistani; Ranch Recordr H. NESS, M. S., Berry Breeder and Accounts RANGE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: RURAL HOME RESEARCH: J. M. JONES, .A. M.. Chief; Sheep and Goat JESSIE WHTTACRE Ph. D Chief Investrgafrons MAMIE GRIMES, M. S.. &tiles...-gray surface soils with friable sandy, clay subsoils : Subsoil pale yello~v-Norfolk soils. Subsoil yellonr above, red mottled below-Bowie soils. Subsoil reddish yellow to j7ellom recl-Ruston soils. Subsoil red-Orangeburg soils. 16 BULLETIN NO. 375, TEXAS...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1928-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

heat flux heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil heat flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dT/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the heat is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments

105

Ethylene and soil fungistasis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SMITH1 has reported that ethylene is a causative agent of soil fungistasis, that its production in soil varies with ... earlier work3; more recent observations4 suggest that soil anaerobiosis is necessary to mobilise substrates3 for ethylene formation by soil microorganisms.

J. M. LYNCH; S. H. T. HARPER

1974-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

106

Relation of Soil Acidity to Cotton Root Rot.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R79-437-6m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. 13. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BllAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS LLETIN NO. 545 JUNE, 1937 DIVISION OF PLANT PATHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY AND DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY RELATION OF SOIL ACIDITY... at various depths in small plats Sulphur applied at small rates to surface soil, in plats i? which root rot was well established Discussion Summary Literature cited BULLETIN NO. 545 JUNE, 1937 RELATION OF SOIL ACIDITY TO COTTON ROOT ROT By J. J...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Soil washing technology evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

Suer, A.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory HDestaillats@LBL.gov (510) 486-5897 http://HeatIsland.LBL.gov April 4, 2013 Development of Advanced Building Envelope Surface Materials & Integration of Artificial Soiling and Weathering in a Commercial Weatherometer New York Times, 30 July 2009 2010 2012 Challenge: speed the development of high performance building envelope materials that resist soiling, maintain high solar reflectance, and save energy 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov

109

Reclaiming earthen drainage channels using organic soil amendments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The primary goal of this study was to determine the best combination of organic amendment and vegetation to stabilize and maintain these waterways. A site was selected that had surface soil textures ranging from fine sandy loam to silt loam. Soils...

Carpenter, Todd A

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Original article Sorption and degradation of tebutam in soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Sorption and degradation of tebutam in soil under controlled laboratory conditions-benzyl-N-isopropylpivalamide) sorption and degradation in the surface level (0­20 cm) of a brown silty clay soil. All the experiments. The sorption process was evaluated by adsorption kinetics, adsorption and desorption isotherms using a batch

Boyer, Edmond

111

Surfactant-enhanced extraction of hazardous wastes from soils. First report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through combined efforts, researchers at Clark Atlanta University and Savannah River Site propose to develop improved soil washing techniques for decontaminating soils containing organic, inorganic and radioactive wastes. This project encompasses several tasks including (1) identification of organic, inorganic and radioactive pollutants in selected soils, (2) separation of soils into various fractions and the determination of wastes in each fraction, (3) soil decontamination by washing with surfactants and evaluation of the effectiveness of various types of surfactants in removing contaminants from soils, (4) determination of soil remediation and the effects of the surfactant concentration and wash solution-to-soil ratio on the desorption and removal of organic wastes from soils, (5) assessment of soil particle size distribution on waste efficiency, (6) evaluating the effects of temperature, mixing rates, and extraction times on waste solubilization and extraction, and (7) determination of the influence of surface charge properties and the pHs of the souls slurries on the decontamination efficiency.

Abotsi, G.; Davies, I.; Saha, G.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Texas Agricultural Extension Service (TAEX) Soil Testing Laboratory currently utilizes a single phosphorus (P) extractant consisting of 1.43 M NH4OAc, 1. 0 M HCl, and 0.025 M EDTA-PH 4.2 to estimate plant available P for all soils in Texas...

Byrd, Robert Claude

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

113

Definition: Soil Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Soil Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Soil Gas Sampling Soil gas sampling is sometimes used in exploration for blind geothermal resources to detect anomalously high concentrations of hydrothermal gases in the near-surface environment. Identification of high concentrations of hydrothermal gas species may indicates the presence of enhanced permeability (faults) and high temperature hydrothermal activity at depth. Soil gas data may also be used to study other important aspects of the geothermal system, such as distinguishing between magmatic and amagmatic sources of heat. The technique may also be used for ongoing monitoring of the geothermal system during resource development and production.

114

Response of Wetland Soils to Flow Alterations in the Sabine River below Toledo Bend Dam for the Texas Instream Flows Program.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Figure 4. Average pH recorded at elevation of Lowland (L), Midland (M), and Upland (U) of each plot using a total of 272 soil samples Average pH of Elevation 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 3.8 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.5.... All of the soils sampled at Sabine Island were classified as Guyton and Bienville which typically have a pH of 4.8 compared with my observed average of 5.1. Due to the dynamic nature of this ecosystem, it is necessary to observe many properties...

Nally, Deseri 1975-

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

115

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

moisture flux moisture flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dq/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the moisture is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems External Instruments ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

116

Delivery Vehicles for Zerovalent Metal Nanoparticles in Soil and Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- surface remediation methods include soil vapor extrac- tion, pump-and-treat methods, heat treatment, biore liquids migrate though the unsaturated zone, they are retained by capillary forces and by adsorption

117

Resuspension of Soil as a Source of Airborne Lead near Industrial Facilities and Highways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Resuspension of Soil as a Source of Airborne Lead near Industrial Facilities and Highways ... To examine the potential significance of this mechanism, surface soil samples with a range of bulk soil Pb concentrations were obtained near five industrial facilities and along roadsides and were resuspended in a specially designed laboratory chamber. ...

Thomas M Young; Deo A. Heeraman; Gorkem Sirin; Lowell L. Ashbaugh

2002-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

118

1 Introduction In many soils of the tropics the nutrient losses by leaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

without fertilization, nutrient leaching can be very high especially after slash-and-burn interventions vertically from the soil surface or laterally from a soil pit. Cumulative leaching of NO3 ± and NH4. Therefore, a lateral installation of medium sized resin cores (100 mm diameter) from a soil pit was superior

Lehmann, Johannes

119

A garden mulch is any material spread on the soil surface to modify the environment where the plant is growing. The materials used can be natural or synthetic and can be used in any number of combinations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

organic mulching materials include crushed corn cobs, peanut hulls, buckwheat hulls, bark and wood chips, wood shavings, seaweed and peat moss. All natural mulches should be applied after the crop has begun, as this increases the risk of disease. The soil should also be weed-free and moist. Pebbles, stone chips, gravel

New Hampshire, University of

120

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 11971205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION AND ERROR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the rapid field assessment of permeability in near-surface soils or unconsolidated sediments. The procedure investigation; soil hydraulic properties INTRODUCTION The permeability of soils and unconsolidated sediments permeability estimates are required for a soil or unconsolidated sediment that is above a water

Chappell, Nick A

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

EXPERIMENTAL I KM SOIL MOISTURE PRODUCTS FROM ENVISAT ASAR FOR SOUTHERN AFRICA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil moisture is an important environmental variable and a key element in the Earths energy, water and carbon cycle. Monitoring soil moisture over large areas is only feasible using remote sensing. In this paper, a change detection approach based on an extensive Envisat ASAR Global Mode data archive is presented. Actual backscatter measurements are compared to two reference values representing dry and wet soil conditions. Maps showing the surface soil moisture are generated. First validation showed a good agreement with precipitation data and soil moisture measurements. However, the lack of large scale soil moisture monitoring sites makes validation difficult. 1

unknown authors

122

Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Miscellaneous Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master...

123

CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

Margaret Torn

124

Remediation of Methyl Iodide in Aqueous Solution and Soils Amended with Thiourea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Remediation of Methyl Iodide in Aqueous Solution and Soils Amended with Thiourea ... Therefore, spraying thiourea on the soil surface to form a “reactive surface barrier” may be an effective and innovative strategy for controlling fumigant emissions to the atmosphere and for improving environmental protection. ... Currently, new and innovative remediation technologies including bioremediation, phytoremediation, and chemical remediation have been proposed for use in cleaning polluted soil and groundwater. ...

Wei Zheng; Sharon K. Papiernik; Mingxin Guo; Scott R. Yates

2004-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

125

Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

Fleischhauer, H.L.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Sherm Soils - Distribution, Importance, Variability, and Management.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from about 101 0 30' to 1030 30' west longitude and from about 35 0 40' to 360 40' north latitude. This area is bounded by the breaks above the North Canadian River on the north, the caprock escarpment at the Cana dian River on the south..., the caprock escarpment at the High Plains Rolling Plains boundary on the east, and a catena of loamy soils extending from Kerrick to Channing on the west. Within the area of occurrence, Sherm soils occupy about 75 percent of the land surface. Elevation...

Unger, Paul W.; Pringle, Fred B.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Soil loss: An overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The earth's soil budget is analysed and the causes of loss and degeneration are described. The main efforts to solve the problems of soil los should be concentrated on: 1. (i) the preparation of international guidelines for conservation policy; 2. (ii) declaration of an International Soil Conservation Decade; 3. (iii) acceleration of and support for land assessment; 4. (iv) development of national planning for alternative land uses; 5. (v) research to establish ecologically sound policies for land use and conservation.

V.A. Kovda

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Procedures to predict vertical differential soil movement for expansive soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, geotechnical engineers run tests to measure the soil properties required to estimate differential soil movements. However, there seems to be apprehension toward attempting these soil movement calculations due to the perceived complexity of the calculations or a...

Naiser, Donald David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

129

Managing Soil Salinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is high enough, the plants will wilt and die, no matter how much you water them. Routine soil testing can identify your soil?s salinity levels and suggest measures you can take to correct the specific salinity problem in your soil. Salinity and salt... The terms salt and salinity are often used inter- changeably, and sometimes incorrectly. A salt is sim- ply an inorganic mineral that can dissolve in water. Many people associate salt with sodium chloride? common table salt. In reality, the salts that affect...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

130

EMSL - soil organic matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soil-organic-matter en Structures and Stabilities of (MgO)n Nanoclusters. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsstructures-and-stabilities-mgon-nanoclusters

131

Ethylene and soil fungistasis (reply)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... research1. We have shown clearly that spore-forming anaerobic bacteria are the major producers of ethylene in soil; that ... in soil; that ethylene is produced in anaerobic microsites in even (relatively dry soil; that the anaerobic microsites ...

SMITH

1974-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which twenty-one surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lewis, B.A. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

communications in soil scienceand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) IMPACT OF HIGH-VOLUME WOOD-FIRED BOILER ASH AMENDMENT ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND NUTRIENTS Tait Chirenje-0290 ABSTRACT Forest application of boiler ash is fast becoming a popular alternative to landfilling. Boiler ash following the application of large quantities of boiler ash in a sandy soil (with a spodic horizon). Two

Ma, Lena

134

Sustainable Soil Remediation:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wastes and creating new markets for the end products...study of the treatment of diesel-contaminated soil indicated...size and location of markets relative to waste production...remediation scenario for a diesel-contaminated site using...catabolic activity in diesel contaminated soil following...

David L. Jones; John R. Healey

135

Reappraisal of the Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ions of the solid phase of the soil system...liquid and gaseous phases of the soil system...solid and non-solid phases of the system show...than that of fine sand. 187 Oxidation...and to formation of hydrates and hydrated sec-ondary...brief review of the behavior of carbon in the...

C. C. Nikiforoff

1959-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

136

Soil Studies with Isotopes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... reference are even strained to include the use of steam from nuclear reactors for the desalination of water. The proceedings are divided into five sections dealing respectively with equipment and ... moisture profile; soil water movement ; the interaction between soil, vegetation and water; and desalination of water for agriculture. Among the most valuable contributions are comparisons between the performance ...

E. C. CHILDS

1968-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Ethylene in soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... we have confirmed earlier reports that heat8 and even autoclaving9 can stimulate the production of ethylene by soils (Table 1). The effect of heat at 100 C on the ... soils (Table 1). The effect of heat at 100 C on the release of ethylene from pure cultures of M. hiemalis was therefore investigated. No ...

J. M. LYNCH

1975-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

138

Soil and Water Conservation (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts is an association of the 92 soil and water conservation districts, each representing one of the 92 Indiana counties.

139

Fine Particles in Soils  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fine Particles in Soils Fine Particles in Soils Nature Bulletin No. 582 November 28, 1959 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Daniel Ryan, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor David H. Thompson, Senior Naturalist FINE PARTICLES IN SOILS If a farmer, while plowing, is visited in the field by another farmer, invariably the visitor will pick up a handful of turned over earth and knead it with his fingers while they talk. The "feel" of it tells him a lot about the texture and structure of that soil. He knows that both are important factors in the growth of plants and determine the crops that may be obtained from the land. Soil is a combination of three different things About half of it is solid matter; the other half consists of air and water The solid portion is composed of organic and inorganic materials.

140

Sorption of inositol hexaphosphate on desert soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sorption of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on desert soils was studied to evaluate their use as a novel low-cost sorbent material for organic P removal in water treatment. The kinetics of IP6 sorption, pH effects, and sorption isotherms were examined in batch experiments on four desert saline–sodic soils: Antofagasta (AN), Mejillones (ME), Aguas Blancas I (ABI), and Aguas Blancas II (ABII). The sorption kinetics of inositol hexaphosphate expressed as P (P-IP6) on these soils were described by the Elovich equation and the initial sorption velocities ranked in the order: ABII > ABI > ME > AN. In addition, P-IP6 sorption capacity in AN, ME, and ABI was strongly influenced by the solution pH, but in ABII it was not pH-dependent. Whereas the experimental data of P-IP6 sorption on ME, ABI, and ABII were better fitted by the Langmuir equation (implying a homogenous distribution of active sorption sites), for AN the best fit was obtained with the Freundlich model (implying heterogeneous, multi-layered sorption surfaces). The maximum P-IP6 sorption capacities ranked: ABII > ME > AN > ABI. Based on the results of our study, ABII soil is recommended for P-IP6 removal. In this soil, P-IP6 sorption did not depend on solution pH, and the precipitation and sorption of IP6 were associated with Ca2 +, Mg2 +, and minerals such as montmorillonite and vermiculite.

Bárbara Fuentes; María de la Luz Mora; Roland Bol; Francisca San Martin; Elizabeth Pérez; Paula Cartes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Soil washing treatability study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

Krstich, M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ultrasound enhanced soil washing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of an ultrasonic enhanced soil-washing process requires a comprehensive, well-designed experimental program, with the results carefully analyzed on the basis of known ultrasonic cleaning mechanisms. There has been no systematic work carried out to develop information on the important variables that can affect the efficacy of ultrasonic enhancement of contaminant removal from soil. The goal of this study is to examine the potential of ultrasonic energy to enhance soil washing and to optimize conditions. Ultrasonic energy potentially can be used in enhancing contaminant removal from the entire soil mix, or it can be used as a polishing operation on the fines portion of the soil mixture after traditional soil washing operations. The research study was designed to demonstrate that ultrasonic energy can: improve process performance, e.g., remove contaminants to lower residual concentrations; and improve process economics, e.g., shorter treatment (residence) times, less surfactant use. This process was demonstrated using soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Meegoda, J.; Ho, W.; Bhattacharajee, M.; Wei, C.F.; Cohen, D.M.; Magee, R.S. [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Frederick, R.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Field determination of hydraulic conductivity of Norwood silt loam soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil-water pressure (cb) at different depths during the redistribution of the fourth water application 102 Moisture volume percentage at different depths during the first water application Moisture volume percentage at different depths during... the soil surface 106 12. Moisture volume percentage at different depths during the redistribution of the fourth water application 107 13 Moisture volume percentage at different depths outside the plot 108 LIST OF TABLES CONT'D. TABLE PAGE 14...

Saffaf, Adham Yassin

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, increase root density, maintain tree health #12;#12;pH ­ effects nutrient availability · Symptoms of high pHTree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca

145

Oil degradation in soil.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...homa, and Corpus Christi, Texas. The...fractionation, gas chromatography...depended upon the natural soil flora to...except at Corpus Christi (Table 13...recovered at Corpus Christi. Bean and turnip...extracts to gas chromatographic...

R L Raymond; J O Hudson; V W Jamison

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

E-Print Network 3.0 - area surface debris Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

canyons Summary: in the study area. Soil-water repellency was measured using the critical surface tension method to determine... area (NCDC, 2003) were used to determine daily...

147

Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Act, Soil and Water Conservation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Sediment Control Act, Soil and Water Conservation and Sediment Control Act, Soil and Water Conservation District, and Council on Soil and Water Conservation Regulations (Connecticut) Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Act, Soil and Water Conservation District, and Council on Soil and Water Conservation Regulations (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity

148

Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Mercury Geochemistry Surface Mercury Geochemistry Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Details Activities (5) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Shallow, soil-mercury surveys can be used effectively in exploration for geothermal resources. Soil-mercury data from six areas in Nevada, California and New Mexico are analyzed using contour maps, histogram and probability graphs. Plotting on probability graphs allows background and anomalous populations to be resolved even when considerable overlap between populations is present. As is shown in several examples, separate soil-mercury populations can be plausibly interpreted. Mercury data can significantly enhance the structural understanding of a prospect

149

Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs.

Pianka, E.W. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1995-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

150

Observational Datasets We use two different satellite soil moisture datasets, one derived from the Advanced Microwave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observational Datasets We use two different satellite soil moisture datasets, one derived from of the datasets. Whilst the AMSRE soil moisture product is gridded at 0.25°, the footprint of the sensor different precipitation datasets which use a combination of satellite data and, in some cases, surface

Guichard, Francoise

151

ARM - Evaluation Product - Critical soil quantities for describing land  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsCritical soil quantities for describing land ProductsCritical soil quantities for describing land properties Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Critical soil quantities for describing land properties 1994.01.01 - 2012.12.31 Site(s) SGP General Description The ARMBELAND is a subset of the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) products for supporting community land-atmospheric research and land model developments. It contains several critical soil quantities that ARM has been measuring for many years for describing land properties. The quantities in ARMBE-Land are averaged over one hour time interval, consistent with other ARMBE datasets. It is recommended to use with other ARMBE data products such as ARMBECLDRAD (cloud and radiative fluxes) and ARMBEATM (surface

152

Land surface temperature estimation over the Northern Great Plains using passive microwave data from Nimbus 7  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the large areas covered by low resolution satellites, so simplified models are used. Such models represent the soil as a single emitting layer and rely on the dependence of soil dielectric properties to soil moisture content. According to Mo et al. (1980... is inversely related to the intensity of enussion, and as the soil ntoisture decreases the emissivity increases. The dielectric constant also depends on tensperature, but actual calculation of surface emission. by Mo et al. (198D) showed that the dependence...

Lambert, Vicki Michelle

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

153

Factors affecting distribution patterns of chlorpyrifos and permethrin applied as termiticides to soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cworpyrifos and pennethrin). Tenniticide with 1% active ingredient was poured into a hemispheric depression on the surface of 1 10 kg of soil and subjected to simulated rainfall after application or saturation before application. Twenty-four hours after...

Whiting, Philip Howard

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Remediation of brine-contaminated soil using calcium nitrate, gypsum, and straw.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Salt-affected soils from point source brine contamination are common in the active oil field in SE Saskatchewan. A remediation process that included dewatering by sub-surface… (more)

Nielsen, Jennifer I.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Carbon Sequestration in Subtropical Oxisol Profiles: Retention Capacity and Effect of Soil Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent studies in temperate regions have shown that the increase in C stocks in surface soil layers does not respond linearly to C addictions over time, due to a saturation of the sorption sites. The obtained res...

Deborah P. Dick; Cecília S. Reis…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A Stochastic Advection-Diffusion Model for the Rocky Flats Soil Plutonium Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An advection-diffusion equation with time and space dependent random coefficients is derived as a model for the plutonium concentration changes in the surface soil around the Rocky Flats Plant northwest of Denver...

Jaroslav Mohapl

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Chloride and Lithium Transport in Large Arrays of Undisturbed Silt Loam and Sandy Loam Soil Columns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...concentrations of surface-applied agrochemicals in subsurface tile drainage lines or...columns. This means that the soil composition, together with the particular flow...Warington. 1882. On the amount and composition of the rain and drainage water collected...

M. Saleem Akhtar; Tammo S. Steenhuis; Brian K. Richards; Murray B. McBride

158

Fate and Transport of Sulfadimethoxine and Ormetoprim in Two Southeastern United States Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Order pH Organic matter Sand Silt Clay eCEC Mineralogical composition of clay fraction % cmolc kg1 Loamy sand Plinthic Kandiudult...soils, contaminating nearby surface waters and groundwater. agrochemicals Alabama antimicrobials aquifer vulnerability clastic sediments...

P. Srivastava; S. M. Sanders; J. H. Dane; Y. Feng; J. Basile; M. O. Barnett

159

Soil Profile Data Used in Analysis by W.M. Post and L.K. Mann  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Changes in Soil from Cultivation » Soil Changes in Soil from Cultivation » Soil Profile Data Soil Profile Data Used in Analysis by W.M. Post and L.K. Mann Soil profile data used in analysis by W.M. Post and L.K. Mann. 1990. Changes in Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen as a Result of Cultivation. pp. 401-406 in A.F. Bouwman, editor, Soils and the Greenhouse Effect. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Profile ID Higher Depth (cm) Lower Depth (cm) Soil Nitrogen (%) Soil Series Name Surface Layer Horizon Vegetation Bulk Density (g/m3) Soil C (%) 1 780005 0 38 0.169 BURLESON . ? 1.31 1.59 0 780005 38 69 0.091 BURLESON . ? 1.32 0.96 0 780005 69 122 0.058 BURLESON . ? 1.42 0.69 1 780006 0 23 0.067 BURLESON . ? 1.44 0.77 0 780006 23 71 0.044 BURLESON . ? 1.43 0.56

160

Supplementary Information for: Global soil carbon projections are improved by modeling microbial processes. William R. Wieder, Gordon B. Bonan, & Steven D. Allison (2.1 MB .pdf)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

total = 660 Pg C; (b) Observed soil profile, global total = 1259 Pg C; (c) CLM microbial model surface soils, global total = 784 Pg C [spatial correlation with observations (r) = 0.75, model-weighted root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.9 kg C m-2 ]; (d) CLM microbial model soil profile, global total = 1310 Pg

Saleska, Scott

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Gerber, M.A.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Surface premelting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most important results obtained in the theory of surface premelting of crystals are briefly discussed on the basis of the vibration-positional model, the quasiliquid layer model, the surface roughness model, and in the case of ice, the model of the oriented dipoles at the surface. A review of the existing experimental results on surface premelting is presented, these results being obtained by investigating the crystal morphology, the polar diagram of the specific surface energy, the surface self-diffusion, the thermal emissivity, as well as upon application of LEED, NMR, Rutherford backscattering at proton channeling and ellipsometry. The agreement between theoretical and experimental data is discussed.

D. Nenow

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Species richness and selenium accumulation of plants in soils with elevated concentration of selenium and salinity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field studies were conducted in soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity at Kesterson, California. Biomass distribution, species richness, and selenium accumulation of plants were examined for two sites where 15 cm of surface soil was removed and replaced with fill dirt in the fall of 1989, and two sites were native soil cover. The Se concentrations in the top 15 cm of fill dirt ranged from undetectable to 36 ng g-1. For the native soil sites, Se levels ranged from 75 to 550 ng g-1. Soil Se concentrations below 15 cm ranged from 300 to 700 ng g-1 and were comparable between the fill dirt and the native soil sites. At least 20 different plant species were brought into the two fill dirt sites with the top soil. Avena fatua L., Bassia hyssopifolia Kuntze Rev. Gen. Pl., Centaurea solstitialis L., Erysimum officianale L., Franseria acanthicarpa Cav. Icon., and Melilotus indica (L.) All. contributed over 60% of the total biomass. Only 5 species were found in the native soil sites, and salt grass (Distichlis spicata L.) was the predominant species and accounted for over 80% of the total biomass. Between 1989 and 1990, two years after the surface soil replacement, the two fill dirt sites had a 70% reduction in species richness. Plant tissue selenium concentrations were found to be quite variable between plant species and between sites of sampling. At the fill dirt sites, the plant species with deep root systems accumulated greater amounts of selenium than the shallow-rooted species. The soil selenium concentration of the field soil had no negative effect on pollen fertility, seed set, and seed germination for the plant species examined. However, seedling growth was impaired by the soil selenium concentrations. This suggests that a selection pressure of soil Se concentration may have been imposed on plant species such as M. indica in an early stage of its life cycle.

Huang, Z.Z.; Wu, L. (Department of Environmental Horticulture, University of California, Davis (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Edaphic and microclimatic controls over permafrost response to fire in interior Alaska This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties between recently burned and unburned sites across three soil landscapes (rocky uplands, silty uplands, and sandy lowlands) situated within the Yukon Flats and Yukon-Tanana Uplands in interior Alaska, whereas a talik of unknown depth developed in the rocky uplands and a thin talik developed in the sandy

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

165

Surfactant-enhanced remediation of organic contaminated soil and water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surfactant based remediation technologies for organic contaminated soil and water (groundwater or surface water) is of increasing importance recently. Surfactants are used to dramatically expedite the process, which in turn, may reduce the treatment time of a site compared to use of water alone. In fact, among the various available remediation technologies for organic contaminated sites, surfactant based process is one of the most innovative technologies. To enhance the application of surfactant based technologies for remediation of organic contaminated sites, it is very important to have a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this process. This paper will provide an overview of the recent developments in the area of surfactant enhanced soil and groundwater remediation processes, focusing on (i) surfactant adsorption on soil, (ii) micellar solubilization of organic hydrocarbons, (iii) supersolubilization, (iv) density modified displacement, (v) degradation of organic hydrocarbon in presence surfactants, (vi) partitioning of surfactants onto soil and liquid organic phase, (vii) partitioning of contaminants onto soil, and (viii) removal of organics from soil in presence of surfactants. Surfactant adsorption on soil and/or sediment is an important step in this process as it results in surfactant loss reduced the availability of the surfactants for solubilization. At the same time, adsorbed surfactants will retained in the soil matrix, and may create other environmental problem. The biosurfactants are become promising in this application due to their environmentally friendly nature, nontoxic, low adsorption on to soil, and good solubilization efficiency. Effects of different parameters like the effect of electrolyte, pH, soil mineral and organic content, soil composition etc. on surfactant adsorption are discussed here. Micellar solubilization is also an important step for removal of organic contaminants from the soil matrix, especially for low aqueous solubility organic contaminants. Influences of different parameters such as single and mixed surfactant system, hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain length, HLB value, temperature, electrolyte, surfactant type that are very important in micellar solubilization are reviewed here. Microemulsion systems show higher capacity of organic hydrocarbons solubilization than the normal micellar system. In the case of biodegradation of organic hydrocarbons, the rate is very slow due to low water solubility and dissolution rate but the presence of surfactants may increase the bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds by solubilization and hence increases the degradation rate. In some cases the presence of it also reduces the rate. In addition to fundamental studies, some laboratory and field studies on removal of organics from contaminated soil are also reviewed to show the applicability of this technology.

Santanu Paria

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Soil property database: Southern Great Plains 1997 Hydrology Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurement campaigns have been carried out concurrently with large-scale remote sensing hydrologic campaigns surface and the subsurface and the highly nonlinear nature of local-scale water and heat transport head, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity) and the soil thermal properties (heat capacity, heat

Mohanty, Binayak P.

167

Effectiveness of vertical moisture barriers in highway pavements on expansive soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Variability of TMI. Relationship between Mean Annual Moisture Depth and TMI. Relationship between Mean pF and TMI at a Site. . . Amplitude of Moisture Depth, Calculation Procedure. SURFACE SUCTION VARIATION WITH TIME. . . Surface Suction Variation... from US 84 in Snyder 3. . Test Results for the Soils from IH 44 in Wichita Falls 1. . Test Results for the Soils from IH 44 in Wichita Falls 2. . 44 45 47 48 12. SCI Values for a Soil with 100/ Clay Content. . . Estimated SCI Values from Mc...

Jayatilaka, Ranasinghege

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Growth of barley exposed to solvent refined coal (SRC) materials added to soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Ritzville silt loam soil, treated with solvent refined coal material, SRC solid (SRC I) and SRC liquid (SRC II) was examined. Although the SRC materials will not be introduced to soil or surface waters in normal uses, they could be spilled during transportation. Such spills could contaminate surface waters and agricultural, rangeland and forest soils, possibly causing acute or chronic damage to plants and also provide a way for certain inorganic and organic materials to enter food chains.

Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.; Thiede, M.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Sampling Irrigated Soils for Salinity Appraisal.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

per meter (dSm-1)1 (MIyamoto et al. 1986b). In these examples, the salinity of the surface layer was approximately equal to that of irrigation waters; then it increased almost linearly with depth. 1 A unitofdSm-1 is equal to the conventional... distribution of soil salinity mea sured in 1981, 1982, and 1983 in two sections of pecan orchards basin-irrigated with waters of 1.1 and 4.3 dSm-1 (equal to mmho/cm). Both sections consisted of Saneli silty clay loam (Vertic Torrijluvents). The standard...

Miyamoto, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Combining Vis–NIR hyperspectral imagery and legacy measured soil profiles to map subsurface soil properties in a Mediterranean area (Cap-Bon, Tunisia)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that Visible Near InfraRed (Vis–NIR) hyperspectral imagery is a cost-efficient way to map soil properties at fine resolutions (~ 5 m) over large areas. However, such mapping is only feasible for the soil surface because the effective penetration depths of optical sensors do not exceed several millimeters. This study aims to determine how Vis–NIR hyperspectral imagery can serve to map the subsurface properties at four depth intervals (15–30 cm, 30–60 cm, 60–100 cm and 30–100 cm) when used with legacy soil profiles and images of parameters derived from digital elevation model (DEM). Two types of surface–subsurface functions, namely linear models and random forests, that estimate subsurface property values from surface values and landscape covariates were first calibrated over the set of legacy measured profiles. These functions were then applied to map the soil properties using the hyperspectral-derived digital surface soil property maps and the images of landscape covariates as input. Error propagation was addressed using a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the mapping uncertainties. The study was conducted in a pedologically contrasted 300 km2-cultivated area located in the Cap Bon region (Northern Tunisia) and tested on three soil surface properties (clay and sand contents and cation exchange capacity). The main results were as follows: i) fairly satisfactory (cross-validation R2 between 0.55 and 0.81) surface–subsurface functions were obtained for predicting the soil properties at 15–30 cm and 30–60 cm, whereas predictions at 60–100 cm were less accurate (R2 between 0.38 and 0.43); ii) linear models outperformed random-forest models in developing surface–subsurface functions; iii) due to the error propagations, the final predicted maps of the subsurface soil properties captured from 1/3 to 2/3 of the total variance with a significantly decreasing performance with depth; and iv) these maps brought significant improvements over the existing soil maps of the region and showed soil patterns that largely agreed with the local pedological knowledge. This paper demonstrates the added value of combining modern remote sensing techniques with old legacy soil databases.

Philippe Lagacherie; Anne-Ruth Sneep; Cécile Gomez; Sinan Bacha; Guillaume Coulouma; Mohamed Hédi Hamrouni; Insaf Mekki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Pneumatic soil removal tool  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

Neuhaus, J.E.

1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

172

Operation Redwing. Project 2. 52. Neutron-induced soil radioactivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil samples were exposed to neutron radiation from Shot Cherokee to help establish the importance of neutron-induced residual gamma radiation. After exposure and recovery, the samples had no detectable activity because the slant range to the nearest sample was nearly 3.5 miles, due to an error in bomb drop. After this failure, an experiment was designed in the field for Shot Yuma in order that induced-activity data could be obtained for a soil other than Nevada Test Site soil. Samples of sodium, manganese, and coral sand from Site Sally were exposed above and below the surface at a slant range of 120 yards. The difference between the effects of pure fission and fission-fusion neutron spectra on induced activity in soil was not measured, since the soil samples on Shot Cehrokee were not activated. However, a method for predicting neutron-induced gamma-radiation intensities was tested for coral soil on Shot Yuma. Predicted values were within + or - 50% of induced dose rates inferred from field measurements.

Cowan, M.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Microbiological and physicochemical changes occurring in a contaminated soil after surfactant-enhanced soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contaminated soil after surfactant-enhanced soil washing R. Iturbe 1 J. Lopez...augmented because of the surfactant soil washing. However, statistical...etc. INTRODUCTION Surfactant-enhanced soil washing has become a very important...

R. Iturbe; J. Lopez; L. G. Torres

174

Abundant and Stable Char Residues in Soils: Implications for Soil Fertility and Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abundant and Stable Char Residues in Soils: Implications for Soil Fertility and Carbon Sequestration ... Large-scale soil application of biochar may enhance soil fertility, increasing crop production for the growing human population, while also sequestering atmospheric carbon. ...

J.-D. Mao; R. L. Johnson; J. Lehmann; D. C. Olk; E. G. Neves; M. L. Thompson; K. Schmidt-Rohr

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

175

The Basicity of Texas Soils.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chemical prob- lems connected with the investigations of cotton root rot being made by the Division of Plant Pathology and Physiology. Lab- oratory methods were needed for estimating the amounts of acid or sulphur required to bring experimental soils... approxi- mately to a desired degree of acidity. Information was needed regarding the amounts of acid or sulphur required to make acid various kinds of soil. This Bulletin discusses the basicity of Texas soils, and the amounts of acid or sulphur...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Occurrence of Nitrites in Soils.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity for producing nitrates may form large amounts of nitrites. Nitrites may persist in the soil or in soil extracts for several weeks. Magnesium carbonate and calcium car- bonate may favor the formation of nitrites. Water equivaIent to 50 per cent... ............................................. Method of work 5 Nitrites in soils without additions of nitrogenous materials ........ 6 Nitrification capacity as measured by nitric nitrogen alone. and by nitric and nitrous nitrogen combined ....................... 6...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Saxton soil remediation project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described.

Holmes, R.D. [GPU Nuclear Corporation, Middletown, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Validation of Noah-simulated Soil Temperature in the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil temperature can exhibit considerable memory from weather and climate signals and is among the most important initial conditions in numerical weather and climate models. Consequently, a more accurate long-term land surface soil temperature dataset is needed to improve weather and climate simulation and prediction, and is also important for the simulation of agricultural crop yield and ecological processes. The North-American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) has generated 31-years (1979-2009) of simulated hourly soil temperature data with a spatial resolution of 1/8o. This dataset has not been comprehensively evaluated to date. Thus, the ultimate purpose of the present work is to assess Noah-simulated soil temperature for different soil depths and timescales. We used long-term (1979-2001) observed monthly mean soil temperatures from 137 cooperative stations over the United States to evaluate simulated soil temperature for three soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm) for annual and monthly timescales. We used short-term (1997-1999) observed soil temperature from 72 Oklahoma Mesonet stations to validate simulated soil temperatures for three soil layers and for daily and hourly timescales. The results showed that the Noah land surface model (Noah LSM) generally matches observed soil temperature well for different soil layers and timescales. At greater depths, the simulation skill (anomaly correlation) decreased for all time scales. The monthly mean diurnal cycle difference between simulated and observed soil temperature revealed large midnight biases in the cold season due to small downward longwave radiation and issues related to model parameters.

Xia, Youlong; Ek, Michael; Sheffield, Justin; Livneh, Ben; Huang, Maoyi; Wei, Helin; Song, Feng; Luo, Lifeng; Meng, Jesse; Wood, Eric

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

179

Climatic influences on hillslope soil transport efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The soil transport coefficient D represents the relationship between local topographical gradient and soil flux in the landscape evolution model. This work presents new estimates of the soil transport coefficient D at 9 ...

Schurr, Naomi D. (Naomi Daika)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Soil stabilization properties of flexible intruders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many locations, soil is held in place by the roots of plants. When these plants are removed or die, the soil loses its cohesive strength and erodes away. We seek to create artificial soil stabilizers that use the same ...

Luginbuhl, Katharine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Improving clay content measurement in oxidic and volcanic ash soils of Hawaii by increasing dispersant concentration and ultrasonic energy levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Quantifying clay content is a fundamental step in predicting and managing soil behaviors such as nutrient and water retention. However, clay measurements are underestimated when using standard methods of dispersion in soils rich in oxides and volcanic ash-derived non-crystalline minerals. Increasing levels of the chemical dispersant and ultrasonic energy are two simple techniques found to increase dispersion and clay measurements in temperate soils, but their effects are less known for oxidic and volcanic ash soils. In this study we investigated the effects of increasing dispersion concentration and ultrasonic energy on clay measurements for a range of oxidic and volcanic ash soils from Hawaii. While doubling and tripling the standard sodium hexametaphosphate concentration of 0.441 g L? 1 did not increase estimates of clay content, increasing levels of ultrasonic energy up to 1600 J mL? 1 significantly increased measured clay content for all oxide and volcanic ash soils. The response to ultrasonication was dependent on soil carbon, oxide content, and surface charge, with more energy needed to disperse soils higher in carbon, oxides, and positive charge. Scanning electron microscopy revealed damage to the sand fraction in some soils when ultrasonicated, but the extent of this damage was viewed as negligible. Porous sand-sized particles resembling pumice grains were also observed in some soils, suggesting that conventional particle size analysis and clay interpretations may not adequately describe surface related behaviors.

Joshua H.S. Silva; Jonathan L. Deenik; Russell S. Yost; Gregory L. Bruland; Susan E. Crow

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Chemical weathering and soil production 1 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the soil production process (White et al., 1996; Paton et al., 1995; Mudd and Furbish, 2004) but hasChemical weathering and soil production 1 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process

Heimsath, Arjun M.

185

Hardpan Formation In Coarse and Medium-textured Soils In the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

moisture was 9.0 percent (E 2 otm. percentage). The surface was mulched with a spatula to a depth of 2 inches when the mois- ture content of the soil was approximately 13 percent. 17 6. Subirrigated when the average soil moisture was approximately 1...

Gerard, C. J.; Burleson, C. A.; Cowley, W. R.; Bloodworth, M. E.; Kunze, G. W.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

2392 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2003 Soil Moisture Mapping Using ESTAR Under  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2392 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2003 Soil of the entire region. Index Terms--Microwave, remote sensing, soil moisture. I. INTRODUCTION THE FUNDAMENTAL regional heat fluxes [15], and to validate distributed land surface models in order to study the scaling

187

Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mine Soils of Ohio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4132 Heino.Beckert@netl.doe.gov Rattan Lal Principal Investigator Ohio State University School of Natural Resources 2021 Coffey Road Columbus, OH 43210 614-292-9069 lal1@osu.edu Carbon SequeStration in reClaimed mine SoilS of ohio Background Prior to 1972, surface coal mining in Ohio was performed by removing the soil and rock above the coal deposit (known as overburden) during mining operations. Because specific reclamation guidelines did not exist at the time, the overburden was not replaced and the mined site was simply planted to grass or trees, without performing grading or reclamation. After 1972, the Ohio Mineland Reclamation Act mandated that mined sites be graded to restore their original topography and

188

Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

189

Biological Diversity, Soils, and Economics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Terrestrial biological diversity is supported by solar energy captured by plants growing in soil...Terrestrial biological diversity is supported by solar energy captured by plants growing in soil...Bhutan e De*Panara X 15 e* Norway i Tanzania_ * Costa Rica * *SnLanka &F.R.Germany...

Michael Huston

1993-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

190

Technical Note Engineering Soils Maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technical Note Engineering Soils Maps PAUL M. SANTI Department of Geology and Geological database. In this technique, rose-pie charts provide an overall assessment of soils hazards structures such as pipelines, power lines, and roads; and regional evaluations of sources of ag- gregate

191

Applications of Quaternary stratigraphic, soil-geomorphic, and quantitative geomorphic analyses to the evaluation of tectonic activity and landscape evolution in the Upper Coastal Plain, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geomorphic analyses combined with mapping of fluvial terraces and upland geomorphic surfaces provide new approaches and data for evaluating the Quaternary activity of post-Cretaceous faults that are recognized in subsurface data at the Savannah River Site in the Upper Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Analyses of longitudinal stream and terrace profiles, regional slope maps, and drainage basin morphometry indicate long-term uplift and southeast tilt of the site region. Preliminary results of drainage basin characterization suggests an apparent rejuvenation of drainages along the trace of the Pen Branch fault (a Tertiary reactivated reverse fault that initiated as a basin-margin normal fault along the northern boundary of the Triassic Dunbarton Basin). This apparent rejuvenation of drainages may be the result of nontectonic geomorphic processes or local tectonic uplift and tilting within a framework of regional uplift.

Hanson, K.L.; Bullard, T.F.; de Wit, M.W. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Stieve, A.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Chemical fractionation and solubility of phosphorus in dairy manure-amended soils as a predictor of phosphorus concentration in runoff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nutrient over-loading in many dairy manure-amended soils in the dairy producing areas of Texas has led to environmental problems as such eutrophication of local surface water bodies. One of the nutrients contributing to eutrophication problems...

Harstad, Laura Elizabeth

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

194

Non-Traditional Soil Additives: Can They Improve Crop Production?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-traditional soil additives include soil conditioners such as organic materials and minerals, soil activators that claim to stimulate soil microbes or inoculate soil with new beneficial organisms, and wetting agents that may be marketed...

McFarland, Mark L.; Stichler, Charles; Lemon, Robert G.

2002-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Revision 1, Demonstration system design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last nine years IIT Research Institute (IITRI) has been developing and testing the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. The vaporized contaminants, water vapor and air are recovered from the heated zone by means of a vacuum manifold system which collects gases from below surface as well as from the soil surface. A vapor barrier is used to prevent fugitive emissions of the contaminants and to control air infiltration to minimize dilution of the contaminant gases and vapors. The recovered gases and vapors are conveyed to an on site vapor treatment system for the clean up of the vent gases. Electrical energy is applied to the soil by forming an array of electrodes in the soil which are electrically interconnected and supplied with power. The electrodes are placed in drilled bore holes which are made through the contaminated zone. There are two versions of the in situ heating and soil treatment process: the f irst version is called the In Situ Radio Frequency (RF) Soil Decontamination Process and the second version is called the In Situ Electromagnetic (EM) Soil Decontamination Process. The first version, the RF Process is capable of heating the soil in a temperature range of 100{degrees} to 400{degrees}C. The soil temperature in the second version, the EM Process, is limited to the boiling point of water under native conditions. Thus the soil will be heated to a temperature of about 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. In this project IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site due to the fact that most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C.

Dev, H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

196

Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

Mincher, Bruce J. (3705 Creekside Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83404); Curry, Randy Dale (1104 Merrill Ct., Columbia, MO 65203); Clevenger, Thomas E. (2512 Bluff Blvd., Columbia, MO 65201); Golden, Jeffry (12612 Cedarbrook La., Laurel, MD 20708)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Carbon Scanning System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Carbon Scanning System Background Earth generates and emits an enormous amount of carbon dioxide into the atmos- phere from its deep energy resources, its near-surface processes, and biotic activi- ties. Although anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions increase global warming, global warming is also alleviated by human activities in sequestering carbon into the terrestrial ecosystem and injecting carbon dioxide deep into geological formations,

198

Soil protection major Prof. Dani Or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sustainable management of regional agroecosystems. Theoretical and practical basis for quantifying physical. Fundamentals of soil mechanics including key processes; recent case histories of field monitoring experiments · understand composition and structure of soil · study key processes in soils and their relation to soil

Giger, Christine

199

Ethylene as a Cause of Soil Fungistasis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... by gas chromatography from about fifty soils collected throughout Australia with different origins and histories. Ethylene was the only material identified in all soils in concentrations likely to be biologically active ... was the only material identified in all soils in concentrations likely to be biologically active. Ethylene has recently been identified in soil under anaerobic conditions5. In this study, ...

A. M. SMITH

1973-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) response to soil variability in sandy ustalfs near Niamey, Niger, West Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were digested and analyzed as described previously. 20 Table 4. Treatments lo ed in the limin trial 0 lie Rate Factor'r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Producnve Pmductive... water extracts (1:1) were taken trom all 26 surface soils and analyzed for Al, K, Ca, and Mg. Soil fmm each site was thoroughly mixed by hand in a large basin before placing it into the pots. Each pot contained 7250 g of air dried soil. Millet...

Wendt, John William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Macroscopic and molecular-scale assessment of soil lead contamination impacted by seasonal dove hunting activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental contamination of lead (Pb) in soils and sediments poses serious threats to human and ecological health. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of seasonal dove sports hunting activities on Pb contamination in acid forest soils. A grid sampling method was used to investigate the spatial distribution of Pb contamination in surface soils. Soils were analyzed for total metal(loid) concentration and characterized for physicochemical properties and mineralogy. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted to understand the reactivity and retention capacity of Pb(II) in soils. Finally, synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to understand the chemical speciation of Pb that controls the retention/release mechanisms of Pb in soils. There was no excessive accumulation of Pb at the site. However, the concentration of Pb in surface soils was greater than the background level (<16 mg kg{sup -1}). The contamination level of Pb was as high as 67 mg kg{sup -1} near a patch of corn field where lime was frequently applied. A microfocused X-ray microprobe analysis showed the presence of Pb pellet fragments that predominantly contain oxidized Pb(II), suggesting that oxidative dissolution was occurring in soils. Dissolved Pb(II) can be readily retained in soils up to {approx}3,600 mg kg{sup -1} via inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexation on carbon and aluminol functional groups of soil components, suggesting that partitioning reactions control the concentration of Pb in soil solution. The fate of Pb is likely to be controlled by (1) oxidative dissolution process of Pb(0) pellets and (2) the release of outer-sphere and/or inner-sphere Pb surface complexes in humic substances and aluminosilicate/Al oxyhydroxides. Although no remedial actions are immediately required, the long-term accumulation of Pb in soils should be carefully monitored in protecting ecosystem and water quality at the dove hunting field.

Arai, Y.; Tappero, R.; Rick, A.R.; Saylor, T.; Faas, E. & Lanzirotti, A.

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

202

Comprehensive appraisal of {sup 239+240}Pu in soils around Rocky Flats, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium contamination of soils around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site, near Golden, Colorado, resulted from past outdoor storage practices and subsequent remobilization due to inadequate cleanup practices. Until now human-health risk assessment has not been performed because of a lack of sufficient information regarding the spatial extent of {sup 239+240}Pu in soils. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the extent of plutonium contamination in surface soils, and to assess the uncertainty associated with the spatial distribution of {sup 239+240}Pu around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site.

Litaor, M.I.; Allen, L. [EG& G Rocky Flats, Golden, CO (United States); Ellerbroek, D. [S.M. Stoller Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under laboratory conditions selected to maximize root uptake, plant tissue distribution of PAH-derived {sup 14}C was largely limited to root tissue of Malilotus alba. These results suggest that plant uptake of PAHs from contaminated soil via roots, and translocation to aboveground plant tissues (stems and leaves), is a limited mechanism for transport into terrestrial food chains. However, these data also indicate that root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants grown in soils containing elevated concentration PAHs. Root surface sorption of PAHs may be an important route of exposure for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHS. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be the site of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. In this study, evidence of a shift in carbon allocation to the root zone of plants exposed to phenanthrene and corresponding increases in soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts provide evidence of a plant-microbial response to a chemical stress. The results of this study establish the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and indicate the existence of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. These results may provide new avenues of inquiry for studies of plant toxicology, plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere, and environmental fates of soil contaminants. In addition, the utilization of plants to enhance the biodegradation of soil contaminants may require evaluation of plant physiological changes and plant shifts in resource allocation.

Hoylman, A.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Ecology; Walton, B.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Tree Species Effects on Soil Organic Matter Dynamics: The Role of Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tree Species Effects on Soil Organic Matter Dynamics: The Role of Soil Cation Composition Sarah E the influence of tree species on soil carbon and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a common garden of replicated substantial divergence in foliar and soil base cation concentrations and soil pH among spe- cies, we

Minnesota, University of

205

Trees, soils, and food security  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...providing resilience against weather or price disruptions, soil erosion is minimized...to inputs and markets at reason- able prices (Place 1996). Public investment to increase...with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit and Acioa barteri (Hook. f.) Engl...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Algae from a Connecticut soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While studying the effect of a broad range of incubation temperatures on growth of algae fromone cornfield soil, 23 species of algae, 19 Chlorophyta and 4 Cyanophyta, were isolated and identified. No members of t...

R. L. Hilton; F. R. Trainor

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Soil Decontamination at Rocky Flats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the last few years, many articles have appeared in newspapers and journals concerning radioactive contamination around Rocky Flats.1,2 The amount of plutonium in the soil has been of particular interest. T...

R. L. Olsen; J. A. Hayden; C. E. Alford…

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterization of geomicrobial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities and the role they play in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth’s climate. A significant challenge in studying soil microbial proteins is their initial dissociation from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. Due to bias of the most robust cells, the removal of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells leads to the expulsion of proteins to the soil surface, which can lead to potentially high levels of adsorption due to the physicochemical properties of both the protein and the soil. We investigated various compounds for their ability to block protein adsorption soil sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding lysed Escherichia coli proteins to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

Nicora, Carrie D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mason, Olivia U.; David, Maude; Jurelevicius, Diogo D.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

A spatial application of a vegetation productivity equation for neo-soil reconstruction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reclamation specialists are interested in the application of recently developed soil productivity equations for post-mining reclamation planning and design. This paper presents the application of one recently developed soil productivity equation to a surface coal mine site in Mercer County, North Dakota. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology (Map*Factory 1.1) was combined with a soil productivity equation developed by the author to generate a GIS script to calculate a site's pre-mining productivity per 10 meter grid cell and then summed to calculate the grand and the expected average soil productivity for the site, resulting in a pre-mining baseline numerical spatial scores. Several post-mining alternatives were evaluated to study various soil management strategies to restore post-mining soil productivity, including: an abandoned mine landscape treatment, a reconstructed topsoil treatment with graded gentile slopes, and a reconstructed topsoil treatment with soil improvements. The results indicated that the abandoned mine scenario was significantly different than the other three treatments (p{le}0.05), with the reconstructed topsoil treatment with soil amendments generating the greatest estimated productivity.

Burley, J.B.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Application of colloidal gas aphron suspensions produced from Sapindus mukorossi for arsenic removal from contaminated soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of \\{CGAs\\} in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating \\{CGAs\\} and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut \\{CGAs\\} removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS \\{CGAs\\} removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5–6. \\{CGAs\\} and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. \\{CGAs\\} were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph.

Soumyadeep Mukhopadhyay; Sumona Mukherjee; Mohd. Ali Hashim; Bhaskar Sen Gupta

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Soil health in agricultural systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...degradation of surface and ground waters and pollute drinking water supplies, while fine seed...surface capping, rapid surface water runoff and increased flood...other cases, the costs of remediation or lost services are not borne...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Developing a Soil Property Database for the Oklahoma Mesonet.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of this study was to create a comprehensive database of soil hydraulic and physical properties of the Oklahoma Mesonet station soils. Replicate soil… (more)

Scott, Bethany

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Global Soils Data, Sept. 5, 2000  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soils Data, Sept. 5 Soils Data, Sept. 5 The ORNL DAAC expanded its global data holdings to include the three additional data sets related to soil characteristics. "Global Soil Profile Data (ISRIC-WISE)" This data set consists of homogenized data for 1125 soil profiles, including soil classification, site data, soil horizon data, source of data, and methods used for determining analytical data. The profiles were derived from the World Inventory of Soil Emissions Potentials (WISE) project. The data set contains a selection of 665 profiles from the Natural Resources Conservation Service, 250 profiles from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and 210 profiles from the reference collection of the International Soil Reference and Information

214

Coupling the High Complexity Land Surface Model ACASA to the Mesoscale Model WRF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is coupled with the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA), a high complexity land surface model. Although WRF is a state-of-the-art regional ...

Xu, L.

215

Acidic soil amendment with a magnesium-containing fluidized bed combustion by-product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of SO{sub 2} from the emissions of coal-fired boilers produces by-products that often consist of CaSO{sub 4}, residual alkalinity, and coal ash. These by-products could be beneficial to acidic soils because of their alkalinity and the ability of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center{underscore}dot}2H{sub 2}O) to reduce Al toxicity in acidic subsoils. A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the liming efficacy of a fluidized bed combustion boiler by-product (FBC) that contained 129 g Mg kg{sup {minus}1} as CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgO and its effects on surface and subsurface soil chemistry. The FBC was mixed in the surface 10 cm of two acidic soils (Wooster silt loam, an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf, and Coshocton silt loam, an Aquultic Hapludalf) at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 times each soil's lime requirement (LR). Soils were sampled in 10-cm increments to depths ranging from 20 to 110 cm, and corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were grown. Application of Mg-FBC increased alfalfa yields in all six site-years, whereas it had no effect on corn grain yield in five site-years and decreased grain yield in one site-year. Plant tissue concentrations of Mg, S, and Mo were increased by Mg-FBC, while most trace elements were either unaffected or decreased. Application of Mg-FBC at one or two times LR increased surface soil pH to near 7 within 1 wk. Although surface soil pH remained near 7 for 2 yr, there was minimal effect on subjacent soil pH. Application of Mg-FBC increased surface soil concentrations of Ca, Mg, and S, which promoted downward movement of Mg and SO{sub 4}. This had different effects on subsoil chemistry in the two soils: in the high-Ca-status Wooster subsoil, exchangeable Ca was decreased and exchangeable Al was increased, whereas in the high-Al-status Coshocton subsoil, exchangeable Al was decreased and exchangeable Mg was increased. The Mg-FBC was an effective liming material and, because of the presence of both Mg and SO{sub 4}, may be more effective than gypsum in ameliorating subsoil Al phytotoxicity.

Stehouwer, R.C.; Dick, W.A.; Sutton, P.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Anion retention in soil: Possible application to reduce migration of buried technetium and iodine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a literature review of our present knowledge of the anion exchange properties of a number of soils and minerals, which may potentially be used as anion exchangers to retard migration of such anions as iodide (I{sup {minus}}), iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) and pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) away from disposal site. The amorphous clays allophane and imogolite, are found to be among the most important soil components capable of developing appreciable amounts of positive charge for anion exchange even at about neutral pH. Decreases in the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio and soil pH result in an increase in soil AEC. Allophane and imogolite rich soils have an AEC ranging from 1 to 18 meq/100g at pH about 6. Highly weathered soils dominated by Fe and Al oxides and kaolinite may develop a significant amount of AEC as soil pH falls. The retention of iodine (I) and technetium ({Tc}), by soils is associated with both soil organic matter, and Fe and Al oxides, whereas sorption on layer silicate minerals in negligible. Fe and Al oxides become more important in the retention of anionic I{sup {minus}}, IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} as pH falls, since more positive charge is developed on the oxide surfaces. Although few studies, if any, have been conducted on I and {Tc} sorption by soil allophane and imogolite, it is estimated that a surface plough soil (2 million pounds soil per acre) with 5 meq/100g AEC, as is commonly found in andisols, shall retain approximately 5900 kg I and 4500 kg {Tc}. It is conceivable that an anion exchanger such as an andisol could be used to modify the near field environment of a radioactive waste disposal facility. This whole disposal system would then offer similar migration resistance to anions as is normally afforded to cations by usual and normal soils. 93 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Gu, B.; Schulz, R.K. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Soil Science)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Chemical Composition of Some Texas Soils.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The postoffice address is College, Station, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent free upon application to the Director. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME TEXAS SOILS. BY G. S. FRAPS. This bulletin is a popular account of a study of a nnmber of Texas soils... of the soil in pots, fertilized with different fertilizing ingredients, also show the needs of the soil for plant food. This is the method we used in our work on the soils described in this bulletin. Third, to ascertain whether or not the soil is acid. A...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1907-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

Cook, DR

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

219

Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen associated with switchgrass production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.), other forage grasses, cultivated crops, and forest were collected seasonally at six locations. Soil organic C (SOC), total N, soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) and N (SMBN), soil mineralizable C and N, and basal soil respiration (BSR) were in general...

Lobo Alonzo, Porfirio Jose

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Category:Soil Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soil Gas Sampling page? For detailed information on Soil Gas Sampling as exploration techniques, click here. Category:Soil Gas Sampling Add.png Add a new Soil Gas Sampling...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Soil & Groundwater Remediation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Soil & Groundwater Soil & Groundwater Remediation Soil & Groundwater Remediation Soil & Groundwater Remediation The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil remediation effort in the world. The inventory at the DOE sites includes 6.5 trillion liters of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to about four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic meters of soil and debris contaminated with radionuclides, metals, and organics. The Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation is working with DOE site managers around the country regarding specific technical issues. At the large sites such as Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge, the Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation has conducted research and demonstration projects to test new technologies and remediation

222

Bioaugmentation of TNT-contaminated soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial transformation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in phics. contaminated soil was investigated in this research. A Bacillus sp., isolated from soil obtained from an army ammunition facility, was used to enhance the rate of TNT removal over a 360 day...

Bokelmann, Annamarie

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

Archer, Steven R.

224

Maryland Soil Conservation Districts Law (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to conserve the soil, water, and related resources of the state through establishing regulations for land-use practices related to soil erosion. This legislation...

225

Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

Melillo, Jerry M.

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

DIVISION S-10-WETLAND SOILS Wetland Soils --Opportunities and Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Sciences entitled "Restoration of aquatic ecosystems: Science, technol- ogy and public policy" failed of Interior, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Soil Conservation Service. Wetlands are complex ecosystems that are poorly understood relative to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Difficulties in characterizing wetlands

Florida, University of

227

Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the zonal steppe soils of Russia. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. ,CD-ROM "Land Resources of Russia", International Institute

Hammes, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Author's personal copy Soil total carbon analysis in Hawaiian soils with visible, near-infrared and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Soil total carbon analysis in Hawaiian soils with visible, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy Agriculture Hawaii Mid-infrared Soil carbon Visible near-infrared Accurate assessment of DRS for Ct prediction of Hawaiian ag- ricultural soils by creating visible, near-infrared (VNIR

Grunwald, Sabine

229

Airborne microwave remote sensing of soil moisture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Newton [1]) . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ 23 10 12 Location of aircraft soil moisture experiments. . . Soil types for fields at the 1975 Phoenix experiment. Soil types for fields at the 1976 Finney County, Kansas experiment . 34 43 44 13 14 Soil... Algorithms. Penetration Depth. EXPERII4ENTAL PROGRAM. I ntr oducti on. Phoenix, 1975. Lawrence-Topeka, Kansas Experiment Fi nney County Experiment South Dakota Experiment. . . . . . Colby, Kansas Experiment . . Moisture Sampling and Accuracy...

Black, Quentin Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

230

Physical Degradation of Soils, Risks and Threats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Physical soil degradation...is one of the eight main risks and threats defined by the European Thematic Strategy for...

Winfried E. H. Blum

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Oxidation of Organic Compounds in the Soil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.................... ltudy by Means of Carbon Dioxide Formed 8 ............................... lomparison of . Various Materials 9 ...................................... lffect of Nature of Soil 14 ..................................... Ixidation of Soil Carbon 18... was drawn to take out the carbon dioxide. Althongl~ such experi- ments are well adapted to estimate carbon cliosicle, obviously, such con- ditions do not prevail in the soil, and while it is possible that Wollnp's conclusions may appl~r to the soil uncler...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwate...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

VOCs Miamisburg Environmental Management Project - Tritium More Documents & Publications Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports...

233

Soil maps of Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil maps of Wisconsin Alfred E. Hartemink a, , Birl Lowery a , Carl Wacker b a University May 2012 Accepted 15 May 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Soil maps Historical maps Digital soil mapping Soil survey Legacy soil maps are an important input in digital soil mapping. This paper traces how

Mladenoff, David

234

Common Questions Why should I soil test?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Common Questions Why should I soil test? Soil testing is an important diagnostic tool to evaluate nutrient imbalances and understand plant growth. The most important reason to soil test is to have a basis for intelligent application of fertilizer and lime. Testing also allows for growers and homeowners to maintain

Isaacs, Rufus

235

9, 1443714473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 9, 14437­14473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers and benchmarks in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd if available. Causes of variation in soil carbon predictions from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparison #12;BGD 9, 14437­14473, 2012 Soil carbon drivers and benchmarks in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

236

Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

Bredenkamp, Sanet

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

237

Measurement of Radon in Soil Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... CONCENTRATIONS of the order of 100,000-1,000,000 pc. radon/m3 are found in the gases trapped in common soils and rock1. The estimation ... m3 are found in the gases trapped in common soils and rock1. The estimation of radon in the soil gas and the free atmosphere has been suggested as a tool for ...

K. G. VOHRA; M. C. SUBBARAMU; A. M. MOHAN RAO

1964-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

238

Coupling between the University of California, Davis, Advanced Canopy–Atmosphere–Soil Algorithm (ACASA) and MM5: Preliminary Results for July 1998 for Western North America  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The University of California, Davis, Advanced Canopy–Atmosphere–Soil Algorithm (ACASA) is coupled to the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) as a land surface ...

R. David Pyles; Bryan C. Weare; Kyaw Tha Paw U; William Gustafson

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Degradation and resilience of soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...7, 99119. Lal, R. 1997a Long-term tillage and maize monoculture...the press.) Lal, R. 1997b Long-term tillage and maize monoculture...thus reduce the potential `storage capacity' of the soil. What...use of crop residue and farm waste can lead to improvement in...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Soil Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soil Gas Sampling Soil Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Soil Gas Sampling Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Gas Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Identify concealed faults that act as conduits for hydrothermal fluids. Hydrological: Identify hydrothermal gases of magmatic origin. Thermal: Differentiate between amagmatic or magmatic sources heat. Dictionary.png Soil Gas Sampling: Soil gas sampling is sometimes used in exploration for blind geothermal resources to detect anomalously high concentrations of hydrothermal gases

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Soil: Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Soil carbon sequestration can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and at the same time improving soil health and sustainability. This article outlines the basic principles and controlling mechanisms involved in soil carbon sequestration and reviews how improved agricultural practices impact soil carbon stocks, based on data from long-term field experiments and other sources. It concludes with a section outlining challenges and opportunities for implementation of GHG mitigation strategies involving soil carbon sequestration, summarizing key science and policy-related issues.

K. Paustian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Patterns and mechanisms of soil acidification in the conversion of grasslands to forests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

no aboveground acidic inputs were detected in wet + dry deposition, throughfall and forest floor leachates. Our and base cation cycles. Introduction Plants influence the earth surface through the uptake, transformation of vegetation type on soils is important because current rates of vegetation change are high and may lead

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

244

The physiology of mycorrhizal Lolium multiflorum in the phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and water systems (SEMARNAT, 2004). In Tabasco, Mexico which is one of the most important Mexican States for petroleum extraction and distribution, the extent of contaminated soil surface by oil spills is approximately 0.07% of the total area of the state...

Alarcon, Alejandro

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

245

Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

Swanson, Eric Scott

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

100 Area Hanford soil washing treatability tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil washing laboratory tests performed at Hanford in support of 100 Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) feasibility studies included characterization of soils, physical separation, chemical extraction, and water treatment. Results to date show that < 20 % of the soil is finer than 0.25 mm ({minus}40 mesh). The highest concentration of {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 137}Cs contaminants is generally associated with fine soil particles. However, measurable concentrations of contaminants were found in all sizes of soil particles. In initial testing, attrition scrubbing was generally sufficient to treat soils to meet selected performance levels for {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu. However, more intense attrition scrubbing, autogenous grinding, or chemical extraction was required to enhance removal of {sup 137}Cs. Additional tests and assessment of the feasibility of using soil washing techniques are in progress.

Field, J.G.; Belden, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Mattigod, S.V.; Freeman, H.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Scheck, R.W. [Mactec/Dames and Moore (United States); Goller, E.D. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Soil remediation using soil washing followed by Fenton oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil washing was applied to a contaminated soil with p-Cresol by using a nonionic surfactant (Tween 80). A mathematical model has also been proposed to describe both the pollutant desorption and the surfactant adsorption, taking place simultaneously. The effect of temperature (20–40 °C) and surfactant concentration (0.1–10 g L?1) have been analyzed on both kinetic rates. The kinetic desorption rate of p-Cresol increases as the initial solubilizer concentration. Desorption of p-Cresol was slightly greater with increasing temperature. The obtained kinetic model represents quite well the experimental results. Soil washing wastewater (20 mg L?1 of p-Cresol and 0.86 g L?1 of Tween 80) has been treated with Fenton Reagent to remove the pollutant extracted (p-Cresol) and to recover the surfactant solution. The pH of the soil washing wastewater was about 6.5 and did not change significantly during the Fenton Reagent treatment. Total conversions of p-Cresol were observed, at very short times, at the conditions tested for the Fenton reaction (100 mg L?1 of H2O2 and 10 mg L?1 of Fe2+). The hydrogen peroxide was not totally exhausted, showing conversions near 60% at 120 min. Besides, the removal of Tween 80 during the Fenton’s reaction was lower than 10%, which suggests that the reaction is mainly selective to p-Cresol degradation. The toxicity of the liquids, measured by Microtox bioassay, was significantly reduced after the oxidation reaction, suggesting the negligible formation of degradation intermediates with higher toxicity than p-Cresol.

J.M. Rosas; F. Vicente; A. Santos; A. Romero

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination area, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the burning pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation

Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Surface Treatment by Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By this treatment, new hardenings of the surface can occur; the surface is higher alloyed by remelting, or layers...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

Ludowise, J.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

Subramaniam, Anandh

253

Agricultural Chemical Movement through a Field-Size Watershed in Iowa:? Surface Hydrology and Nitrate Losses in Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Agricultural Chemical Movement through a Field-Size Watershed in Iowa:? Surface Hydrology and Nitrate Losses in Discharge ... In this paper, we illustrate another aspect of the “water quality profile” conceptual model (4) for assessing impacts of farming systems using an analysis of the surface hydrology and nitrate distribution in surface runoff, headcut seepage, and basin drainage from a high relief landscape. ... Surface runoff resulting from snowmelt occurs whenever solar-radiated heat penetrates the snow and heats the soil surface beneath it. ...

Thomas R. Steinheimer; Kenwood D. Scoggin; Larry A. Kramer

1998-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

254

Review of soil contamination guidance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Soil physical and hydrological properties under three biofuel crops in Ohio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While biofuel crops are widely studied and compared for their energy and carbon footprints, less is known about their effects on other soil properties, particularly hydrologic characteristics. Soils under three biofuel crops, corn (Zea mays), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and willow (Salix spp.), were analyzed seven years after establishment to assess the effects on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), penetration resistance (PR), water-holding capacity, and infiltration characteristics. The PR was the highest under corn, along with the lowest associated water content, while PR was 50-60% lower under switchgrass. In accordance with PR data, surface (0-10 cm) bulk density also tended to be lower under switchgrass. Both water infiltration rates and cumulative infiltration amounts varied widely among and within the three crops. Because the Philip model did not fit the data, results were analyzed using the Kostiakov model instead. Switchgrass plots had an average cumulative infiltration of 69 cm over 3 hours with a constant infiltration rate of 0.28 cm min{sup -1}, compared with 37 cm and 0.11 cm min{sup -1} for corn, and 26 cm and 0.06 cm min{sup -1} for willow, respectively. Results suggest that significant changes in soil physical and hydrologic properties may require more time to develop. Soils under switchgrass may have lower surface bulk density, higher field water capacity, and a more rapid water infiltration rate than those under corn or willow.

Bonin, Catherine [Ohio State University; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University; Schmitz, Matthias [Rheinsche Friedrich/Wilhelms Universitaet Boon; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Evaluation of a Conjunctive Surface–Subsurface Process Model (CSSP) over the Contiguous United States at Regional–Local Scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents a comprehensive evaluation on a Conjunctive Surface–Subsurface Process Model (CSSP) in predicting soil temperature–moisture distributions, terrestrial hydrology variations, and land–atmosphere exchanges against various in situ ...

Xing Yuan; Xin-Zhong Liang

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

DIFFERENTIAL SOIL IMPEDANCE OBSTACLE DETECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project develops a new and unique obstacle detection sensor for horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment. The development of this new technology will greatly improve the reliability and safety of natural gas HDD construction practices. This sensor utilizes a differential soil impedance measurement technique that will be sensitive to the presence of plastic and ceramic, as well as metallic obstacles. The use of HDD equipment has risen significantly in the gas industry because HDD provides a much more cost-effective and less disruptive method for gas pipe installation than older, trenching methods. However, there have been isolated strikes of underground utilities by HDD equipment, which may have been avoided if methods were available to detect other underground obstacles when using HDD systems. GTI advisors from the gas industry have ranked the value of solving the obstacle detection problem as the most important research and development project for GTI to pursue using Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) funds available through its industry partner, GRI. GTI proposes to develop a prototype down-hole sensor system that is simple and compact. The sensor utilizes an impedance measurement technique that is sensitive to the presence of metallic or nonmetallic objects in the proximity of the HDD head. The system will use a thin film sensor conformal with the drill head. The impedance of the soil will be measured with a low frequency signal injected through the drill head itself. A pair of bridge type impedance sensors, mounted orthogonal to one another, is capacitively coupled to the soil. Inclusions in the soil will cause changes to the sensor balance distinguishable from homogeneous soil. The sensor will provide range and direction data for obstacles near the HDD head. The goal is to provide a simple, robust system that provides the information required to avoid obstacles. This must be done within the size and ruggedness constraints of the HDD equipment. Imaging obstacles is not within the scope of this work, as it would require a more elaborate sensor than is practical within the HDD head.

Maximillian J. Kieba

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

Responses of native grasses to soil applications of fenuron (3-phenyl-1, 1-dimethylurea) and T B A (2,3,6-trichlorobenzoic acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 1957 to June 1, 1958 in 1nches at Rmterwood Airport, College Station, Texas Mean total density of pe~ herbaceous vegetation in var1ous fenurcm and TBA. treatment plots as of June 1, 1958 on the prairie upland site. . . . . . . . . . . ~ . 14... Analysis of variance for total density on the prairie upland site and a sepsamtion of significant amans. ~ ~. . . . ~ 1, 5 5 ~ Tuitial an4 termLnsl densities aud percentage change in three 4omtnmts of the prairie upland site for the period, December 15...

Hughes, Eugene Earl

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

259

Seasonal contrast in the surface energy balance of the Sahel R. L. Miller,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Africa, soil moisture is often so depleted that solar heating is balanced mainly by longwave radiationSeasonal contrast in the surface energy balance of the Sahel R. L. Miller,1,2 A. Slingo,3,4 J. C (AMF) in Niamey, Niger, evaporation makes a significant contribution to the surface energy balance only

260

Environment - Nano soil science | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environment - Nano soil science Environment - Nano soil science Cross-disciplinary research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is yielding new insight into the carbon cycle, contaminated soils and soil fertility. An ORNL team is using a novel combination of neutron reflectometry experiments and supercomputer simulations to provide a detailed view of the interactions between organic matter and minerals in soil. The research suggests that relationships among these compounds are governed by simpler principles than previously thought. "It changes the whole way we think about how carbon, nutrients and contaminants interact with soils, which therefore affects fertility, water quality, and the terrestrial carbon cycle," said ORNL's Loukas Petridis. "We don't understand these topics very well because until now we haven't had the techniques capable

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Short-Term Fates of High Sulfur Inputs in Northern California Vineyard Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The widespread application of elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}) to vineyards may have ecosystem effects at multiple scales. We evaluated the short-term fates of applied S{sup 0} in a Napa Valley vineyard; we determined changes in soil sulfur (S) speciation (measured by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy), soil pH, extractable sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and total S to evaluate changes in acidity and soil S within the vineyard over time. Surface soil samples were collected immediately prior to and following two applications of S{sup 0} (6.7 kg S{sup 0} ha{sup -1}), with weekly collections in the 2 weeks between applications and following the last application. XANES spectra indicated that the majority of soil S persists in the +6 oxidation state and that S{sup 0} oxidizes within 7 days following application. Soil pH and extractable SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} measurements taken at 30 min after S{sup 0} application revealed generation of acidity and an increase in extractable SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, but by 12 days after application, soil pH increased to approximately pre-application levels. These data suggest that the major consequence of reactive S applications in vineyards may be the accumulation of soil SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and organic S during the growing season, which can be mobilized during storm events during the dormant (wet) season. In spatially-extensive winegrowing regions where these applications are made by hundreds of individual farmers each year, it will be important to understand the long-term implications of this perturbation to the regional S cycle.

E Hinckley; S Fendorf; P Matson

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Soil phosphorus status and fertilizer use in select agricutural soils in Nicaragua  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A survey of small, medium and large Nicaraguan producers indicated a heavy reliance on imported complete fertilizer. Analysis of soils sampled from the large-scale commercial producers found low P retention in the lowland heavy clay soils...

Niemeyer, Patrick G

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The behavior of soil-applied cyclotri- and cyclotetraphosphate in Texas soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cyclotriphosphate (C3P) is of interest to soil scientists because it demonstrates little or no retention by soil constituents. Non-sorption is desirable in the development of mobile P fertilizers. Work was expanded to include cyclotetraphosphate...

Trostle, Calvin Lewie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

264

Abundant and Stable Char Residues in Soils: Implications for Soil Fertility and Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Large-scale soil application of biochar may enhance soil fertility, increasing crop production while also sequestering atmospheric carbon. But reaching these outcomes requires an understanding of the relations...

J. D. Mao; R. L. Johnson; J. Lehmann…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Consolidation theories for saturated-unsaturated soils and numerical simulation of residential buildings on expansive soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to perform uncoupled two or three dimensional consolidation calculation for both expansive soils and collapsible soils. From the analysis, the equivalent effective stress and excessive pore water pressure can be easily calculated. At the same time...

Zhang, Xiong

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Effects of Soil Moisture on the Responses of Soil Temperatures to Climate Change in Cold Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At high latitudes, changes in soil moisture could alter soil temperatures independently of air temperature changes by interacting with the snow thermal rectifier. The authors investigated this mechanism with model experiments in the Community Land ...

Zachary M. Subin; Charles D. Koven; William J. Riley; Margaret S. Torn; David M. Lawrence; Sean C. Swenson

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Helping People Help the Land Web Soil Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Helping People Help the Land Web Soil Survey Jorge L. Lugo-Camacho MLRA Soil Survey Project Leader provee igualdad de oportunidades en empleo y programas. #12;�Qu� es el Web Soil Survey? El Web Soil catastros de suelos. #12;�C�mo puedo entrar al Web Soil Survey? Se puede entrar a trav�s de las siguientes

Gilbes, Fernando

268

Soil and water dynamics in a microcatchment system for range improvement in West Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

desert environments since it can be applied in granular form and allowed to melt to seal pores in the soil surface. Frasier et al. (1979), using a sprinkler system to create runoff on a four year old paraffin coated catchment area, found a runoff...SOIL AND WATER DYNAMICS IN A MICROCATCHMENT SYSTEM FOR RANGE IMPROVEMENT IN WEST TEXAS A Thesis by STEVEN JAY MARANZ Submitted to the office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Maranz, Steven Jay

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

An analysis of selected factors controlling or affecting the hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil liners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 19B6 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AM ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FACTORS CONTROLLING OR AFFECTING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPACTED SOIL LINERS A Thesis by ROBERT CARY SPEAKE, JR. Approved... Figure 4. Double-liner design for a surface impoundment Figure 5. Schematic of example macrofeatures found in soil liners 21 Figure 6. Parallelopiped showing components of fractured-liner model 23 Figure 7. Head of leachate on liner ver sus flow rate...

Speake, Robert Cary

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

The prediction of root zone soil moisture with a water balance - microwave emission model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. T (1-) = T (I-) = T (I + e t &Rz) + ( T (I + e R. ) 8 e el I=2 ei i+ I (II-18) where -2a azi T =T. (1-e ) e. i 1 n = number of layers Rn =0 bz n To describe the brightness temperature above the soil sur face, the effective temperature of emi... and Groundtruth. Analysis of the Surface Flux Approach RADCON Model Scatter Due to Soil Variability . Selection of 21 cm Wavelength over 6 cm Wavelength. V CONCLUSION Summary of Results. Recommendations REFERENCES. 72 72 76 80 83 90 100 109 109...

Smith, Michael Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

Soil Fumigation for Plant Disease Control.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T- 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] The control of soit-borne plant diseases by soil fumigation hm been nhown to be efficient and practicable in greenhouses, seed Ws, cold frames, small... diseases. Undesirable weeds are als~ frequently present. This bulletin deals with soil fumigation clesignecl especially to control these disease-producing organisms that infest the soil. It is based on experi- ments conducted in the last seven years...

Young, P. A. (Paul Allen); Godfrey, G. H. (George Harold)

1943-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

FINGERPRINTING SOILS – A PROOF OF CONCEPT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by CATHERINE KOBYLINSKI FINGERPRINTING SOILS ? A PROOF OF CONCEPT Approved by: Research Advisor: Cristine Morgan Director for Honors and Undergraduate Research: Sumana Datta Major... iii ABSTRACT Fingerprinting Soils - A Proof of Concept. (April 2011) Catherine Kobylinski Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Cristine Morgan Department of Soil and Crop Sciences...

Kobylinski, Catherine

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

273

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

274

Heavy metal concentrations in soils of five United States cities, 1972 urban soils monitoring program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research report:Lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic levels detected in soil samples taken from five U.S. cities are reported. Cities studied were: Des Moines, Iowa; Fitchburg, Mass.; Lake Charles, La.; Reading, Pa.; and Pittsburgh. In all cities except Fitchburg, urban soils had higher concentrations of the metals than suburban soils had. Higher metals concentrations in urban soil are attributed to atmospheric fallout of aerosols from industrial processes and fossil fuel burning. (26 references, 2 tables)

Carey, A.E.; Gowen, J.A.; Forehand, T.J.; Tai, H.; Wiersma, G.B.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Sorption Behavior of Triazole Fungicides in Indian Soils and Its Correlation with Soil Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(2)?Futch, S. H.; Singh, M. Herbicide mobility using soil leaching columns. ... Futch, S. H.; Singh, M. ...

Neera Singh

2002-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

276

Pullman Soils: Distribution, Importance, Variability, and Management.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soils in Texas is bounded by the New Mexico-Texas state line on the west, the Canadian River on the north, and the caprock escarpment at the High Plains-Rolling Plains boundary on the east. A catena of loamy soils extending from Farwell to near...). The portions of different counties occupied by Pullman soil range from about 0.1 to 70 percent (Table 2). The area of Pullman soils is bounded by the New Mexico- Texas state line on the west, the caprock escarpment at the Canadian River on the north...

Unger, Paul W.; Pringle, Fred B

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Soil Machine Dynamics Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dynamics Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Soil Machine Dynamics Ltd Region: United Kingdom Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http:http:smd.co.ukproduc This company...

278

Irrigation and Management of Texas Soils.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is available, soil micro- organisms will change ammonium nitrogen in- to nitrate nitrogen and then be taken up by plants. Nitrate nitrogen (NO,-) is not at- tached to clay particles ; it is water-soluble and it moves with soil moisture. On coarse... is unevenly distributed. If nitrogen is applied in irrigation water as the ammonium form to alkaline soils, there is a possibility of 25 to 30 percent loss of the nitrogen as a gas. Phosphorus applied in irrigation water will not move into the soil too...

Box, John; Bennett, William F.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Azimsulfuron Sorption?Desorption on Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Azimsulfuron Sorption?Desorption on Soil ... The Freundlich desorption data indicated that a significant amt. of the imazosulfuron sorbed is not easily desorbed. ...

Alba Pusino; M. Vittoria Pinna; Carlo Gessa

2004-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

280

Soil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Larson Dep. of Aerospace Engineering Sciences Univ. of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 Eni G. Njoku Jet security. Large-scale soil moisture monitoring has advanced in recent years, creating opportunitiesSoil Science Society of America Journal Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. doi:10.2136/sssaj2013

Small, Eric

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Effects of wildfire and permafrost on soil organic matter and soil climate in interior Alaska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of wildfire and permafrost on soil organic matter and soil climate in interior Alaska J E NGeological Sciences and Environmental Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, CB-399, Boulder, CO 80309, USA soil climates was examined after a wildfire near Delta Junction, AK in July 1999. At this site, we

Neff, Jason

282

Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 7188 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 71­88 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition. Spongberg Department of Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 for quantification of ecological impact of chemical contamination of soils. This study examined the effects

Neher, Deborah A.

283

E-Print Network 3.0 - age-dependent skeletal retention Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Riparian Forest Soil Jodi B. Lyons... of nutrients movingfrom the upland areas to aquatic eco- systems (Lowrance, 1991). Nutrient retention varies... is considered to be generally...

284

6230 surface treatment [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constr. (Surfacing of manufactured stone products, metals, wood,...Specific term for surface treatment of stones with hammer and chisel tooling); syn. surfacing [n] (2);s tratamiento [m] de superfici...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Identification of sediment sources in forested watersheds with surface coal mining disturbance using carbon and nitrogen isotopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sediments and soils were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry and carbon and nitrogen elemental analyses to evaluate the their ability to indicate land-use and land management disturbance and pinpoint loading from sediment transport sources in forested watersheds disturbed by surface coal mining. Samples of transported sediment particulate organic matter were collected from four watersheds in the Southern Appalachian forest in Kentucky. The four watersheds had different surface coal mining history that were classified as undisturbed, active mining, and reclaimed conditions. Soil samples were analyzed including reclaimed grassland soils, undisturbed forest soils, geogenic organic matter associated with coal fragments in mining spoil, and soil organic matter from un-mined grassland soils. Statistically significant differences were found for all biogeochemical signatures when comparing transported sediments from undisturbed watersheds and surface coal mining disturbed watersheds and the results were attributed to differences in erosion sources and the presence of geogenic organic matter. Sediment transport sources in the surface coal mining watersheds analyzed using Monte Carlo mass balance un-mixing found that: {delta}{sup 15}N showed the ability to differentiate streambank erosion and surface soil erosion; and {delta} {sup 13}C showed the ability to differentiate soil organic matter and geogenic organic matter. This suggests that streambank erosion downstream of surface coal mining sites is a significant source of sediment in coal mining disturbed watersheds. The results suggest that the sediment transport processes governing streambank erosion loads are taking longer to reach geomorphologic equilibrium in the watershed as compared with the surface erosion processes.

Fox, J.F. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Experimental Study of Bridge Scour in Cohesive Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The bridge scour depths in cohesive soil have been predicted using the scour equations developed for cohesionless soils due to scarce of studies about cohesive soil. The scour depths predicted by the conventional methods will result in significant...

Oh, Seung Jae

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

287

University of Florida Soil and Water Science Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to soil properties, water/soil quality, and water/soil management · Highlight important and/or innovative environmental contamination prevention strategies and remediation techniques that serve to protect and promote

Ma, Lena

288

Acid soil fertility at the Cinzana station, Mali, West Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that may be associated with acid soil infertility include biological organisms (nematodes, termites), restrictive subsoil layers (claypans, ironpans, silt pans, plow pans, etc. ), soil erosion, zones of low soil moisture retention, and other physical...

Doumbia, Mamadou Diosse

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

surface science | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface science surface science Leads No leads are available at this time. Metal-Insulator Photocathode Heterojunction for Directed Electron Emission. Abstract: New photocathode...

290

Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Survey Conducted at Desert Peak, Nevada, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Survey Conducted at Desert Peak, Nevada, USA Abstract Temperature gradient drilling has historically been a key tool in the exploration for geothermal resources in the Great Basin, USA but regulatory, environmental, and accessibility issues, as well as the expense of drilling, are increasingly limiting its use. In cases where thermal groundwater is not overlain by near-surface cold aquifers, temperatures measured at a depth of 2-meters is an efficient method for mapping thermal anomalies at a high level of detail. This is useful for augmenting deeper

291

Technical Memorandum To: File From: Jim Eidem Subject: Environmental Soil Data, Proposed Turbine Area, UMore Park  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Technical Memorandum Technical Memorandum To: File From: Jim Eidem Subject: Environmental Soil Data, Proposed Turbine Area, UMore Park Date: October 1, 2010 Project: 23191060.00 c: Brian Kombrink (Ryan Co.), Janet Dalgleish (UMN), Dan Mielke (UMN), Jeff Marr (UMN), John Wachtler (Barr) Attached is a table summarizing the analytical data from the proposed wind turbine area and a map showing the locations of the test trenches. On May 19, 2010, a total of seventeen soil samples were collected from the original proposed turbine location, turbine laydown area, met tower location, and the area in the immediate vicinity of the met tower. Fourteen of the samples were collected at the ground surface (to evaluate soil disturbed during initial site clearing) and three samples were collected at depth in

292

Geothermal environmental assessment baseline study: vegetation and soils of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Resource Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Identification and elemental concentrations of indigenous soil and plant systems found on the Roosevelt Hot Spring KGRA are described. Twenty-three different soils and five separate plant communities are geographically mapped and identified. One hundred forty-seven plant species were identified. Forbs, shrubs, and grasses are represented by 58, 53, and 36 species respectively. Three sites, each measuring 25 hectares, were selected for long-term vegetative assessment. At these locations a permanent enclosure measuring 24.4 meters x 24.4 meters was constructed to assess long-term effects of livestock grazing. Biomass, plant species, percentage composition, ground cover and livestock carrying capacities were determined at each site. Surface soils and Artemisia tridentata leaf tissue were collected for elemental analysis.

Brown, K.W.; Wiersma, G.B.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

Rossabi, Joseph (105 Michael Ct., Aiken, SC 29801); May, Christopher P. (5002 Hesperus Dr., Columbia, MD 21044); Pemberton, Bradley E. (131 Glencarin Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Shinn, Jim (Box 65, RFD. #1, South Royalton, VT 05068); Sprague, Keith (Box 234 Rte. 14, Brookfield, VT 05036)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil solutions for a changing world, Brisbane, Australia 1-6 August 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The investigated ES were climate regulation through carbon sequestration in soil and biomass, soil conservation of these results are discussed. Key Words Land use change, socioeconomic drivers, carbon sequestration, soil

Boyer, Edmond

295

Effect of Mineral and Organic Soil Constituents on Microbial Mineralization of Organic Compounds in a Natural Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...remediation technology of in situ soil washing (10, 28). Most modern surfactants...Knaebel and Vestal (20). The surfactant-soil constituent complexes were added...small amount (100 mg) of the surfactant-soil constituent complex was mixed...

David B. Knaebel; Thomas W. Federle; Drew C. McAvoy; J. Robie Vestal

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Accumulation and replacement of exchangeable sodium in soils of Southeast Texas under turfgrass and its effect on soil infiltration rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in soils of this area. This study assessed the degree of Na accumulation on cation exchange sites as affected by gypsum treatments in soils that support turfgrass (bermudagrass) and the response of soil infiltration rate to different rates of gypsum...

Aydemir, Salih

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

SOME SOIL FACTORS AFFECTING TREE GROWTH  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...characterized by measuring the water held by a soil at varying...1931 ). MATTSON, S, Electrodialysis of the colloidal soil...normal entrance of both water and mineral nutrients...adequately controlled, any treatment which either de-creases...normal entrance of both water and mineral nutrients...

ROBT. M. SALTER

1940-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

298

Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

299

Analysis of large soil samples for actinides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

300

Soil Salinity Abatement Following Hurricane Ike  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The initial salt levels in November 2008 had an electrical conductivity (ECe) of the inundated soils as high as 26.7 dS/m. Fifty-four percent of the soils sampled in the 0-15 cm horizons and 9% in the 15-30 cm horizons of the edge area had an ECe >= 4 dS/m...

Mueller, Ryan

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mineral Soils as Carriers for Rhizobium Inoculants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...looked healthier and greener than the uninoculated...example, when peat-lime pelleted clover seeds...rhizobia survive better in mineral soil-based inoculant...inoculated plants were greener and looked healthier...ENVIRON. MICROBIOL. MINERAL SOILS AS CARRIERS FOR...

W.-L. Chao; Martin Alexander

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Original article Imidacloprid and pyrimethanil soil sorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Imidacloprid and pyrimethanil soil sorption Ettore CAPRIa*, M.G. CAMISAa, F 2000) Abstract ­ The sorption of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil was measured in different soils of southern Europe. Pyrimethanil sorption (Kf=1.2­4.60) was higher than that of imidacloprid (Kf=0

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

A heuristic model to predict earthworm biomass in agroecosystems based on selected management and soil properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Earthworm burrows can be significant preferential flow paths for water and contaminants to move to subsurface drainage networks and groundwater. Thus earthworm biomass could serve as an indicator of such transport potential, and therefore, inform risk assessments associated with water contamination resulting from land application of fertilizer amendments. In this study, we evaluated relationships and interactions between earthworm biomass, soil properties (bulk density, particle size, organic matter, surface residue), land management (crop type, tillage approach), and soil hydraulic properties (field saturated hydraulic conductivity and air-entry tension) for the purpose of building regionally based models to predict earthworm biomass. Data were collected from 43 fields distributed throughout eastern Ontario, Canada. Earthworm biomass was measured using “hot mustard” methods (early autumn) and in situ soil hydraulic properties were determined using pressure infiltrometers (late summer/early fall). Classification and Regression Tree (CART) data mining techniques were used to develop tree-structured models to predict biomass from site environmental data. CART regression tree models had coefficients of determination between 0.50 (not including soil hydraulic properties) and 0.55 (including soil hydraulic properties). Both regression trees split all earthworm biomass data (N = 243) into two groupings defined on the basis of tillage treatment. No-tilled field biomass averaged 192.1 g m?2 (S.D. = 71.5 g m?2), and biomass data for conventionally tilled sites subdivided into terminal groupings on the basis of “higher surface residue cover” (biomass average = 107.9 g m?2 (S.D. = 81.1 g m?2) and ‘lower surface residue cover’ (62.4 g m?2 (S.D. = 54.6 g m?2)) classes. Soil physical and hydraulic data were not important predictors of biomass for tilled datasets; whereas they were more important for no-tilled datasets. For both regression trees, no-till biomass stratified into terminal biomass groupings defined on the basis of bulk density, clay content, and silt content; and for the model including soil hydraulic properties, additionally by soil air-entry tension and surface residue cover. However, bulk density was deemed in the model to be a proxy for years a field was in no-tillage; a positive relationship existed between bulk density and biomass. Overall, the terminal tree groups with the highest average earthworm biomasses were for no-till soils with bulk densities >1.4 g cm?3 (longer term no-tillage). Regression tree variance reductions associated with the in situ measurements of field saturated hydraulic conductivity and air-entry tension were insignificant or small. Generally, empirical models predicting earthworm biomass at large spatial scales in agroecosystems using soils and land management information, should consider utilizing variables that express tillage practice, surface residue coverage, years in no-tillage, and soil particle size; however, variable interactions should be considered.

G. Ouellet; D.R. Lapen; E. Topp; M. Sawada; M. Edwards

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Estimating Soil C Sequestration Potential in U.S. Agricultural Soils Using the IPCC Approach  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Soil C Sequestration Potential in U.S. Agricultural Soils Using Estimating Soil C Sequestration Potential in U.S. Agricultural Soils Using the IPCC Approach M. Sperow Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 M. Eve US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit Fort Collins, Colorado 80522 K. Paustian Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 Abstract Field studies across the U.S. have been used to estimate soil C stock changes that result from changes in agricultural management. Data from these studies are not easily extrapolated to reflect changes at a national scale because soils and climate vary locally and regionally. These studies are also limited to addressing existing changes in

305

Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application for enhancing carbon sequestration . Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application...

306

Slick Rock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Slick Rock - Old North Continent Slick Rock - Union Carbide More Documents & Publications South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports...

307

Dynamics of decadally cycling carbon in subsurface soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dynamics in a California conifer forest, Soil Sci. Soc. Am.in a range of temperate conifer forest soils, Global Change

Koarashi, Jun; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Trumbore, Susan E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and laboratory experiments with CO2. Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and laboratory experiments...

309

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky...

310

Soil Gas Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Cox,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soil Gas Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Cox, 1980) Exploration Activity Details Location Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Soil Gas Sampling...

311

Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A study of the homogenization of soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, areas of land that have been contaminated must be returned to an environmental condition that permits less restrictive forms of use. In anticipation of being listed as an EPA Superfund Site, the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is evaluating existing the technologies, and supporting the development of new technologies, for the removal of plutonium contaminants from soils. During the 1950s, DOE conducted a series of tests on the NTS wherein attempts were made to detonate nuclear weapons by igniting charges of high explosives packed around the weapons` warheads. While the warheads never achieved criticality, each test disseminated particulate plutonium over several square miles, principally in Area 11 of the NTS.DOE`s Nevada Operations Office has committed to a Plutonium In Soils Integrated Demonstration Project (PuID) to evaluate existing and developmental technologies for the safe removal of plutonium contamination from soils. It is DOE`s intention to provide approximately one ton of Area 11 soil, traced with a non-radioactive plutonium surrogate, to each of several companies with expertise in the removal of soil contaminants. These companies have expressed an interest in contracting with DOE for remediation of NTS soils. DOE wishes to evaluate each company`s process in an unbiased and statistically justifiable manner. For this reason, DOE must provide to each company a large sample of soil for prototype testing. The soil must be homogenized such that the representativeness of each split is well documented and defensible. The process of uniformly mixing large volumes of soil has not been addressed, to our knowledge, in the hydrogeologic, soil science or mining literature. Several mixing devices are currently being evaluated by DOE for use in the PuID. This report describes the results of some initial experimentation with a small cement mixer.

Giovine, L.R.S.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

1994-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Biogenesis (trade name) soil washing technology: Innovative technology evaluation report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil washing technologies are designed to transfer contaminants from soil to a liquid phase. The BioGenesis Soil Washing Technology uses soil washing with a proprietary surfactant solution to transfer organic contaminants from soils to wastewater. The BioGenesis soil washing process was evaluated under the SITE program at a refinery where soils were contaminated with crude oil. Results of chemical analyses show that levels of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPH), an indicator of degraded crude oil, decreased by 65 to 73 percent in washed soils. The TRPH in residual soils were allowed to biodegrade for an additional 120 days. Results indicate that soil washing and biodegradation removed 85 to 88 percent of TRPH in treated soils. The Innovative Technology Evaluation Report provides information on the technology applicability, economic analysis, technology limitations, a technology description, process residuals, site requirements, latest performance data, the technology status, vendors claims, and the source of further information.

Bannerjee, P.

1993-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

315

Isotopic investigation of the colloidal mobility of depleted uranium in a podzolic soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The mobility and colloidal migration of uranium were investigated in a soil where limited amounts of anthropogenic uranium (depleted in the 235U isotope) were deposited, adding to the naturally occurring uranium. The colloidal fraction was assumed to correspond to the operational fraction between 10 kDa and 1.2 ?m after (ultra)filtration. Experimental leaching tests indicate that approximately 8–15% of uranium is desorbed from the soil. Significant enrichment of the leachate in the depleted uranium (DU) content indicates that uranium from recent anthropogenic DU deposit is weakly bound to soil aggregates and more mobile than geologically occurring natural uranium (NU). Moreover, 80% of uranium in leachates was located in the colloidal fractions. Nevertheless, the percentage of DU in the colloidal and dissolved fractions suggests that NU is mainly associated with the non-mobile coarser fractions of the soil. A field investigation revealed that the calculated percentages of DU in soil and groundwater samples result in the enhanced mobility of uranium downstream from the deposit area. Colloidal uranium represents between 10% and 32% of uranium in surface water and between 68% and 90% of uranium in groundwater where physicochemical parameters are similar to those of the leachates. Finally, as observed in batch leaching tests, the colloidal fractions of groundwater contain slightly less DU than the dissolved fraction, indicating that DU is primarily associated with macromolecules in dissolved fraction.

S. Harguindeguy; P. Crançon; F. Pointurier; M. Potin-Gautier; G. Lespes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Surfactant flooding technology for in situ cleanup of contaminated soils and aquifers---A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process of in situ, surfactant-enhanced soil washing has been investigated to determine its usefulness and limitations. Previous work on this subject has been reviewed critically. Entrapment/displacement mechanisms of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in porous media have been identified and are discussed. The effect of surfactant on each of these mechanisms has been investigated. A joint research project has been initiated with Howard University personnel to determine the effect of surfactant on contaminants that have sorbed onto soil surfaces. Results of this research are necessary to more fully determine the limitations of in situ, surfactant-enhanced soil washing. However, based on field observations of NAPLs and modification of an existing mass-transfer-based model, it is apparent that in situ, surfactant-enhanced soil washing alone will not be a sufficient remedial action plan because it cannot displace enough contaminant to clean the soil to within the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) guidelines of cleanliness. The process shows the most promise when it is used in conjunction with another remedial action plan such as biorestoration. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Porzucek, C.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Thermal Removal Of Tritium From Concrete And Soil To Reduce Groundwater Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg C (1,500 deg F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg C (212 deg F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of four units to batch treat concrete rubble and soil. Post treatment sampling verified that the activity in the treated soil and concrete met the treatment standards for each medium which allowed the treated concrete rubble and soil to be disposed of on site as backfill. During testing and operations a total of 1,261-m{sup 3} (1,650-yd{sup 3}) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m{sup 3} ($2,412/yd{sup 3}). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management.

Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

318

Surface reclamation of the Big Lake oil field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the discovery of 1 Santa Rita in 1923, millions of barrels of salt water have been produced along with 135 million bbl of oil from the Big Lake oil field in Reagan County, Texas. Until the early 1960s, the accepted disposal method for the produced water was surface discharge to a large evaporation pond north of the field. Produced water was allowed to flow from wells to the pond via natural topographic drainage. This practice resulted in 2000 ac of eroded, barren landscape, characterized by highly saline soils incapable of supporting vegetation. In 1989, the University of Texas System, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, and Marathon Oil Company, which acquired Big Lake field in 1962, initiated an experimental project to reclaim the affected land and restore rangeland productivity. An underground drainage system, consisting of 125,000 ft of buried drainage conduit and eight collection sumps, was installed over 205 ac of the affected area. Earthen terraces were constructed to capture and hold rain water to facilitate downward percolation and leaching of salts from the soil profile. Salts leached from the soil are captured by the drainage system and pumped to injection wells for disposal. The excellent revegetation that has occurred over the test area after three years of operations is encouraging and has shown the need for expanding and enhancing the existing system with supplemental water from fresh water wells, application of soil-amending agents, additional terracing, and selective planting with salt-tolerant species.

Weathers, M.L. (Univ. of Texas Lands, Midland, TX (United States)); Moore, K.R. (Univ. of Texas Lands, Big Lake, TX (United States)); Ford, D.L. (U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service, San Angelo, TX (United States)); Curlee, C.K. (Marathon Oil Company, Midland, TX (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Land surface cleanup of plutonium at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers approximately 3300 km{sup 2} of high desert and is located approximately 100 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Soil contaminated by plutonium exists on the NTS and surrounding areas from safety tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. About 150 curies of contamination have been measured over 1200 hectares of land surface. Most contamination is found in the top 5 cm of soil but may be found deep as 25 cm. The cost of conventional removal and disposal of the full soil volume has been estimated at over $500,000,000. This study is directed toward minimizing the volume of waste which must be further processed and disposed of by precisely controlling soil removal depth. The following soil removal machines were demonstrated at the NTS: (1) a CMI Corporation Model PR-500FL pavement profiler, (2) a CMI Corporation Model Tr-225B trimmer reclaimer, (3) a Caterpillar Model 623 elevating scraper equipped with laser depth control, (4) a Caterpillar Model 14G motor grader equipped with laser depth control, (5) a Caterpillar Model 637 auger scraper, and (6) a XCR Series Guzzler vacuum truck. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Ebeling, L.L.; Evans, R.B.; Walsh, E.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Formation and Stability of Ni-Al Hydroxide Phases in Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of mixed metal-aluminum hydroxide surface precipitates is a potentially significant uptake route for trace metals (including Co, Ni, and Zn) in environmental systems. This paper investigates the effect of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide precipitate formation and aging on Ni solubility and bioavailability in laboratory contaminated soils. Two Delaware agricultural soils were reacted with a 3 mM Ni solution for 12 months at pH's above and below the threshold for mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation. Ni speciation was determined at 1, 6, and 12 months using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Precipitate solubility was examined through desorption experiments using HNO{sub 3} and EDTA as desorbing agents, whereas metal bioavailability was assessed using a Ni-specific bacterial biosensor. For both soils, the formation of Ni-Al hydroxide surface precipitates resulted in a reduction in the fraction of desorbed and bioavailable Ni. However, precipitate dissolution was greater, particularly with EDTA, than in published studies on isolated soil clay fractions, and less affected by aging processes. These results suggest that mixed Ni-Al hydroxide phases forming in real world environments may be both longer-lasting and more susceptible to ligand-promoted dissolution than previously expected.

Peltier, E.; Van Der Lelie, D; Sparks, D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina) Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina) Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Construction Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Siting and Permitting The rules in this Subchapter apply to all persons proposing to construct, alter, extend, or operate any sewer system, treatment works, disposal system, contaminates soil treatment system, animal waste management system, stormwater management system or residual disposal/utilization system which does not discharge to surface waters of the state, including systems which discharge waste onto or below land surface.

322

T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE’s Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: Anexperimental study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the results of an experimentalstudytesting a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaimarsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from severalindustrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenicthrough heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. Themean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soilscollected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogicaland organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form,distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenictrioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320 341]indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associatedwith amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slowrelease against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphousaluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the mostsignificant effect on its ability to retain arsenic.Based on thisobservation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatmentsolutions in an effort to promote the formation of insolublearsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic.Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were usedas the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in threesets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO4; (2) FeSO4 and KMnO4; (3) FeSO4,KMnO4 and CaCO3. The optimum treatment solutions for each soil wereidentified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching oftreated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311[USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Testmethods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed.Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of SolidWaste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992]toxic characteristicsleaching procedure (TCLP) and EPA Method 1312 [USEPA.Method 1312:synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluatingsolid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office; 1994]synthetic precipitation leaching procedure(SPLP).Both FW and BH soils showed significant decreases in arsenicleachability for all three treatment solutions, compared to untreatedsoil. While soils treated with solution (3) showed the best results withsubsequent TCLP sequential leaching, SPLP sequential leaching of treatedsoils indicated that lowest arsenic mobility was obtained using treatmentsolution (1). Treatment solution (1) with only FeSO4 is considered thebest choice for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil because SPLPsequential leaching better simulates natural weathering. Analysis oftreated soils produced no evidence of newly-formed arsenic-bearing phasesin either soil after treatment. Sequential chemical extractions oftreated soils indicate that surface complexation of arsenic on ferrichydroxide is the major mechanism for the fixation process.

Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J.; Redwine, James C.

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

Innovative vitrification for soil remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB`s as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology.

Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, to separate petroleum-related contaminants and other hazardous pollutants from soil and sediments. In this process, water with added electrolytes (inexpensive and environmentally friendly) is used as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150-300 C). The use of electrolytes allows us to operate reactors under mild conditions and to obtain high separation efficiencies that were hitherto impossible. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. In developing this technology, our systematic approach was to (1) establish fundamental solubility data, (2) conduct treatability studies with industrial soils, and (3) perform a bench-scale demonstration using a highly contaminated soil. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise. The next step of the development process is the successful pilot demonstration of this technology. Once pilot tested, this technology can be implemented quite easily, since most of the basic components are readily available from mature technologies (e.g., steam stripping, soil washing, thermal desorption). The implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and will provide a stand-alone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

2001-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Modeling Storm Water Runoff and Soil Interflow in a Managed Forest, Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast US.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Forest Service-Savannah River is conducting a hectare-scale monitoring and modeling study on forest productivity in a Short Rotation Woody Crop plantation at the Savannah River Site, which is on Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Detailed surveys, i.e., topography, soils, vegetation, and dainage network, of small (2-5 ha) plots have been completed in a 2 square-km watershed draining to Fourmile Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. We wish to experimentally determine the relative importance of interflow on water yield and water quality at this site. Interflow (shallow subsurface lateral flow) can short-circuit rainfall infiltration, preventing deep seepage and resulting in water and chemical residence times in the watershed much shorter than that if deep seepage were the sole component of infiltration. The soil series at the site (Wagram, Dothan, Fuquay, Ogeechee, and Vaucluse) each have a clay-rich B horizon of decimeter-scale thickness at depths of 1-2 m below surface. As interflow is affected by rainfall intensity and duration and soil properties such as porosity, permeability, and antecedent soil moisture, our calculations made using the Green and Ampt equation show that the intensity and duration of a storm event must be greater than about 3 cm per hour and 2 hours, respectively, in order to initiate interflow for the least permeable soils series (Vaucluse). Tabulated values of soil properties were used in these preliminary calculations. Simulations of the largest rainfall events from 1972-2002 data using the Green and Ampt equation provide an interflow: rainfall ratio of 0 for the permeable Wagram soil series (no interflow) compared to 0.46 for the less permeable Vaucluse soil series. These initial predictions will be compared to storm water hydrographs of interflow collected at the outflow point of each plot and refined using more detailed soil property measurements.

Callahan, T.J.; Cook, J.D.; Coleman, Mark D.; Amatya, Devendra M.; Trettin, Carl C.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY09 Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE’s Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier. Each instrument nest is composed of a capacitance probe (CP) with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units (HDUs), and a neutron probe (NP) access tube. The monitoring results in FY09 are summarized below. The solar panels functioned normally and could provide sufficient power to the instruments. The CP in Nest C after September 20, 2009, was not functional. The CP sensors in Nest B after July 13 and the 0.9-m CP sensor in Nest D before June 10 gave noisy data. Other CPs were functional normally. All the HDUs were functional normally but some pressure-head values measured by HDUs were greater than the upper measurement-limit. The higher-than-upper-limit values might be due to the very wet soil condition and/or measurement error but do not imply the malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 and FY08, in FY09, the soil under natural conditions (Nest A) was generally recharged during the winter period (October-March) and discharged during the summer period (April-September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the surface barrier was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the surface barrier (Nests C and D), the CP measurements showed that water content at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was very stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water condition beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage seemed occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) in FY09. The HDU-measured water pressure decreased consistently in the soil above 5-m depth, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the surface barrier (Nest B), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year except at the 0.9-m depth; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than those in Nests C and D; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes in FY09 in Nest B were less than those for C and D but more than those for A. The soil-water-pressure head was more sensitive to soil water regime changes under dry conditions. In the soil beneath the barrier, the theoretical steady-state values of pressure head is equal to the negative of the distance to groundwater table. Hence, it is expected that, in the future, while the water content become stable, the pressure head will keep decreasing for a long time (e.g., many years). These results indicate that the T Tank Farm surface barrier was performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil and the soil was becoming drier gradually. The barrier also has some effects on the soil below the barrier edge but at a reduced magnitude.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Computer aided surface representation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

Barnhill, R E

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

Shinn, J.H.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Investigating the Ability of a Land Surface Model to Simulate Streamflow with the Accuracy of Hydrological Models: A Case Study Using MOPEX Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) project, after calibration of model parameters, complex rainfall–runoff hydrological models (HMs) simulated streamflow better than land surface models (LSMs), including the Soil–Water–...

Olga N. Nasonova; Yeugeniy M. Gusev; Yeugeniy E. Kovalev

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Satellite and Argo observed surface salinity variations in the tropical Indian Ocean and their association with the Indian Ocean Dipole mode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates sea surface salinity (SSS) variations in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) using the Aquarius/SAC-D and the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite data and the Argo observations during July 2010-July 2014. Compared ...

DU Yan; ZHANG Yuhong

333

Applicability of CS616 Soil Water Sensors for South  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

site water balance Image from: (Migliaccio 2007) #12;Background ­ Soil Water Sensors Time DomainApplicability of CS616 Soil Water Sensors for South Florida Urban Soils Kevin Koryto Water: Determine if CS616 soil water sensors are functioning adequately at field site. Hypothesis: Presence of air

Migliaccio, Kati White

334

Manoj Shukla Assistant Professor of Environmental Soil Physics,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of scales, and carbon sequestration in soils Professional Activities and Honors (last 6 years) Present

Johnson, Eric E.

335

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Soil Particle Analysis Procedure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil is an important component of an on-site wastewater treatment system. This publication explains the composition of soils, the sizing of soil particles, and the ways soil particles are analyzed to determine whether a site is suitable for a...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

336

Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

they develop over unconsolidated weathering materials ofthin soils derived from unconsolidated material and lacking

Quesada, C. A; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O; Fyllas, N. M; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Soil Architecture and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Soil Architecture and Physicochemical Func ons: An Introduc on Soils func engineers with the best educa on possible. The 16 papers in this special sec on on soil architecture measurement, visualiza on, and modeling of soil structure (architecture) and physical, chemical

Wildenschild, Dorthe

338

Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of \\{PAHs\\} in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove \\{PAHs\\} from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs.

Ee Von Lau; Suyin Gan; Hoon Kiat Ng; Phaik Eong Poh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

An evaluation of heat flow transducers as a means of determining soil heat flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

provided to the Micrometeorology Section, Department of Oceanography and Meteorology, ARM College of Texas by the Signal Corps of the United States Army, under Contract No. DA 36-039 AMC-02195 (E). The heat flow plates used in this study were provided... surface soil heat flow. The results show that acceptable performance of the plates in the measurement of heat flow is possible although in general should not be expected without thorough testing, and even then there are restrictive considerations...

King, Barney L. D

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

340

Long-Term Dynamics of Phosphorus Forms and Retention in Manure-Amended Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

All air-dried samples were stored in a dry and cool storage facility for no longer than a few weeks before processing. ... While these losses are insignificant in agronomic terms, peak concns. of P (?30,000 ?g/L TP) in surface water during a runoff event, could be of considerable concern in sensitive catchments. ... the immediate and long-term effects of animal waste application to soil in lab. ...

Johannes Lehmann; Zhongdong Lan; Charles Hyland; Shinjiro Sato; Dawit Solomon; Quirine M. Ketterings

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Tensile creep of soil-cement and its relationship to fatigue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanics to cement and concrete. He reported from the literature review that the presence of water appeared to enhance subcritical crack growth and confirmed it experimentally [34]. In addition, it was noted that the fracture surface energy (estimated...&t , due to the large elastic compliance. The creep data were then used to predict the fatigue life of soil-cement utilizing Schapery's crack growth theory in linear viscoelastic media. Paris' law was adopted to express both the predicteo (from...

Kim, Youngsoo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

Near-surface geophysics:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...plants, chemical plants, refineries, and waste-disposal...vulnerable to noise from power lines, pipelines, electrical...the variations in the electric field. Among these is...GPS-determined locations, demands information about soil...Schlumberger and Wenner sounding curves by Zohdy (Geophysics...

Don W. Steeples

343

Global Soil Data on CD-ROM, Nov. 2000  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Available on CD-ROM Available on CD-ROM The ORNL DAAC now offers a CD-ROM with global soil data prepared by the Global Soil Data Task for the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Data and Information Services (DIS). The CD is entitled "Global Soil Data Products CD-ROM (IGBP-DIS)." The new CD includes the IGBP's SoilData System, which links the Global Pedon Database to the FAO/UNESCO Digital Soil Map of the World. The system allows users to generate maps and data sets for a range of original and derived soil parameters for any part of the world at soil depths and resolutions selected by the user. The CD also contains 1125 soil profiles that provide information about fundamental soil properties (e.g., depth, particle size distribution, bulk density, extractable nutrient composition) for soil classes based on FAO

344

Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 289 (2006) 254255 Erratum to "Retention of mineral colloids in unsaturated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 289 (2006) 254­255 Erratum Erratum to "Retention. Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 256 (2005) 207­216) Gang Chen, Markus Flury Department of Crop and Soil Sciences.colsurfa.2006.06.029 #12;G. Chen, M. Flury / Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 289 (2006) 254

Flury, Markus

345

Solar-wind protons and heavy ions sputtering of lunar surface materials A.F. Barghouty a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar-wind protons and heavy ions sputtering of lunar surface materials A.F. Barghouty a, , F Available online 21 December 2010 Keywords: Solar wind sputtering Lunar regolith KREEP soil Potential a c t Lunar surface materials are exposed to $1 keV/amu solar-wind protons and heavy ions on almost

346

Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Growth of Phymatotrichum omnivorum in Branyon and Weswood soils: and its interactions with other soil microorganisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Pathogen vi vi I xiv Control of Phymatotr ichum omnivorum Interactions with Competitive Microflora Interactions wi th Antagonistic Micruflora Suppr essive Soils Survival of Antagonists 10 MATERIALS AND METHODS Selection of Soil 14 Source... 10 cm from the inoculum. Trial 1 67 14. P1ycel i a) growth in ster i le ( top ) and nonster i le & bottom & Br anyon clay pr i or to coming in contact with chitin-amended soil. Notice the browning of the mycelium in the nonsterile soil 69 15...

Powell, Rebecca Lynn

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Adsorption of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) onto soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption is one of the major industrial separation technique nowadays. Although adsorption is most commonly used as a separation method in some cases cause harmful and undesirable effects such as capture odorant from natural gas onto soil. In the event of an accident the gas can leak from pipes in two ways - either directly into the surrounding air or the soil where the odorant can be mostly absorbed depending of type of soil water content and temperature. Design of experimental apparatus for measurement of breakthrough curves is studied in detail. Alternative arrangement of experimental apparatus calibration of measuring devices method of measurement and processing the data are narrowly discussed. Moreover experimental measurements of breakthrough curves are presented. The actual measurement was made to identify the equilibrium adsorption capacity of THT (tetrahydrothiophene) onto soils. Experimental data were evaluated using Linear Freundlich Langmuir and Koble-Corrigan model.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Adsorption and transport of pyrithiobac in soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorbents (Gonzales bentonite, Georgia kaolinite, goethite, and Michigan peat) and four soils (Houston Black c, Hidalgo sl, Orelia scl, and Ships sic) having a wide range of physical and chemical properties. Adsorption isotherms were developed...

Matocha, Christopher John

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

350

Biodegradation of rubber particles in soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The biodegradation of rubber particles in rubber-soil mixtures at different rubber contents was monitored by the carbon dioxide production. The cumulative carbon dioxide production was modelled according to a two...

Guus T. G. Keursten; Pieter H. Groenevelt

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Soil Science  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic resonance imaging is based upon the physical effect of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of spin bearing atomic...1991; Blümich, 2000...). The most important NMR active nuclei in soil science applications...

Andreas Pohlmeier

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Soil Building as a Climate Mitigation Strategy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity? Promote soil formation Prevent erosion (increase cohesion, shield water and wind energy, The City College of New York nkrakauer@ccny.cuny.edu #12;"drought may become so widespread and so severe

Krakauer, Nir Y.

353

Soil Moisture Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Marketing SummaryIn the agriculture industry, it is critical to know the water content in the soil in order to maintain the viability and profitability of an agriculture...

354

Engineered Polymeric Nanoparticles for Soil Remediation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

compds. in soil-water systems in which surfactants play a role in contaminant remediation or facilitated transport. ... (9)?Abdul, A. S.; Ang, C. C. Ground Water 1994, 32, 727. ...

Warapong Tungittiplakorn; Leonard W. Lion; Claude Cohen; Ju-Young Kim

2004-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

355

Studies on the soil fungi of Iraq  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An investigation was carried out on soil fungi in the area around Basrah. Of the 37 species isolated, 3 belong to the phycomycetes, 32 to the fungi imperfecti and 2 to the Mycelia sterilia. In general, the myc...

A L S Ismail; Samir K Abdullah

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Soil phosphorus status in potato fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P deficiency in irrigated potatoes. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68,soil test P levels in these potato fields. References He,Introduction The potato crop requires substantial amounts of

He, Z.; Honeycutt, C. W.; Zhang, H.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of ...

Entekhabi, Dara

358

What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication explains the chemistry of nitrogen, the processes by which nitrogen is added to and removed from the soil, and methods of preventing nitrogen losses on agricultural lands....

Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

359

Surface Chemical Dynamics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Chemical Dynamics Surface Chemical Dynamics The goal of the Surface Chemical Dynamics Program is to elucidate the underlying physical processes that determine the products (selectivity) and yield (efficiency) of chemical transformations relevant to energy-related chemistry on catalytic and nanostructured surfaces. Achieving this end requires understanding the evolution of the reactant-molecule/surface complex as molecules adsorb, bonds dissociate, surface species diffuse, new bonds form and products desorb. The pathways and time scales of these processes are ultimately determined by a multidimensional potential energy surface that is a function of the geometric and electronic structures of the surface and the reactant, product, intermediate and transition-state molecular and atomic species.

360

surface chemistry | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface chemistry surface chemistry Leads No leads are available at this time. FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Possibilities of Sulphur as a Soil Amendment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 414 AUGUST, 1930 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY POSSIBILITIES OF SULPHUR AS A - SOIL AMENDMENT AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS... . --- Agronomist B. C. LANGLEY,'B. S., Assistant in Soils PUBLICATIONS: A. D. JACKSON, Chief VETERINARY SCIENCE: *M. FRANCIS, D. V. M., Chief. H SCHMIDT D V M Veferznarian E: JUNGHE~R, D. V. M.. Veterinarran W T HARDY D V RI., Veterinnrian F.'E.'CARROL;, D...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. +6CT /36 CHEMICAL SECTION, FEBRUARY, 191 1 I TECHNICAL BULLETIN Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist POSTOFFICE College Station, Brazos County, 'Texas. ,\\ustin... . ................................................ introduction 5 .............................. hmmonia-Soluble Phosphoric Acid 5 ................ Solubility of Phosphates in Ammonia 6 I Fixation of Phosphoric Acid from Ammonia .......... 7 Effect of Ratio of Soil to Solvent in Extraction of Phos- I I...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The behavior of piles in cohesionless soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the load- settlement behavior of single piles in cohesionless soils is addressed. The available data on instrumerted piles load-tested vertically in sands is collected and analyzed to determine the load transfer characteristics of the soil. A... the distribution of residual stresses in the piles, and methods of obtaining residual stresses from load test results are discussed. Correlations with the results of the Standard Penetration Test are presented and are used to develop a new design procedure which...

Tucker, Larry Milton

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Response of rice to soil phosphorus levels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESPORSE OF RICE TO SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS MOHJQRiD JL ~ QUDDUS Submitted te the Graduate Sohool of the kgrloultural and Mechanical College of Texas im partial fulfillment of the requirements for the legree of IGLSTER OF SCIENCE Luguet~ 1962... Eager Sub)cot& Agronomy RESPONSE OF RICE TO SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS A Thesis KIHAMNAD Ae QUDDUS Approwed as to style and content by& Chairman of Committee Cpt r Head of Department August, 1962 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express his...

Quddus, Mohammad Abdul

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare impacts for differ...- ent watershed regions on the continent. 2. METHODS In order to make a similar comparison between pro- jected climate change scenarios due to global warming © Inter-Research 2001 *E-mail: feddema@ku.edu Soil degradation, global warming and climate...

Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Survival of Salmonella typhimurium in soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hot (39 C) soil conditions were rapidly lethal to the organism, causing complete die-out within 3 weeks, Some cool, moist samples yielded via- ble Salmonella after 12 weeks of incubation. Inoculum carrier had no beneficial effect on survival... animal waste may be beneficial for crop production (31, 47), it may contain disease organisms, which, if they persist in manured soil, could be a health hazard for people coming into contact with manured oil (16) and For livestock in contact...

Zibilske, Larry Marvin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

367

Sources for Pu in near surface air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides evidence that most of the Pu in the near surface air today is due to resuspension. Vertical and particle size distribution in near surface air over a period of three years were measured. The seasonal variations of Pu in air and the influence of meteorological parameters on these variations are shown. Samples were taken before the Chernobyl accident in an area where only Pu fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests of the early sixties occurs. The comparison of the behavior of Pu with other trace elements, which were also measured, showed similar behavior of Pu and elements like Ca, Ti and Fe in near surface air. This confirms that most Pu is resuspended because the main source for these elements in air is the soil surface. Resuspension factors and resuspension rate are estimated for all measured elements. A resuspension factor of 0.8 X 10(-8) m-1 and a resuspension rate of 0.09 X 10(-9) s-1 is calculated for Pu.

Hartmann, G.; Thom, C.; Baechmann, K.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Soil-moisture accounting procedure for scheduling irrigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, were applied to four irrigation treatments. Each treatment received irrigation water by both methods. The irrigation treatments wore as follows: 32 50. 0 40. 0 A. Surface Soil 0-6 in. B. Subsoil 6-36 in. 30. 0 o 20. 0 H O 10. 0 0. 0 2 4 6... oj ?:, re of OBLAST;. R OF SCI" SCE DcccLuber 1SIO ' Its jar Subject: A;, jcu1 to:el L'n, , inner jog , '?Oi!, -I?IOI', , , ll! , '. I'?I'I!'!i?J, ',"I'l i C I' i!Ire' )I 'I !'i)!?, Iii I!i:rill I, ill' I i' 'I! I. OAl')ON y A?ice. . II r j 6...

Artachinda, Ackradej

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

370

SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS CONCLUDING REMARKS DYNAMIC TRANSITIONS OF SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION H.Dijkstra T. Sengul S. Wang #12;SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS

Wang, Shouhong

371

Ion Surface Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion Surface Engineering Southwest Research Institute® San Antonio, Texas surfaceengineering.swri.com #12;he ion surface engineering program at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI® ) is dedicated, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. SwRI's ion surface engineering activities include: s Thin

Chapman, Clark R.

372

The influence of soluble anions upon some physical and physico-chemical properties of soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Miller soil and solutions of various sodium salts ..................... ..................... . 22 Figure 2. Breaking strength of artificial soil crusts made from Miller soil and solutions of various potassium SaltS .................. ......... 23... Figure 3, Breaking strength of artificial soil crusts made from Lake Charles soil and solutions of various sodium salts ....................................... 24 Figure 4. Breaking strength of artificial soil crusts made from Lake Charles soil...

Longenecker, Donald Edwin

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

373

Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohling, Thomas [NON LANL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Characterization of the geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils on the Savannah River Site: Field sampling activities. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are 36,000 acres of wetlands on the Savannah River Site (SRS) and an additional 5,000 acres of floodplain. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste sites at SRS have shown that some wetlands have been contaminated with pollutants resulting from SRS operations. In general, releases of contaminants to wetland areas have been indirect. These releases may have originated at disposal lagoons or waste facilities located in the vicinity of the wetland areas. Transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, soil erosion, sediment transport, and groundwater seepage into downgradient wetland areas are responsible for the indirect discharges to the wetland areas. The SRS determined that a database of background geochemical and physical properties for wetland soils on the SRS was needed to facilitate future remedial investigations, human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, and feasibility studies for the wetland areas. These data are needed for comparison to contaminant data collected from wetland soils that have been affected by contamination from SRS operations. This report describes the efforts associated with the collection of soil cores, preparation of a lithologic log for each core, and the processing and packaging of individual soil samples for shipment to analytical laboratory facilities.

Dixon, K.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Effects of soil quality and depth on seed germination and seedling survival at the Nevada test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended in 1987, directs the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a potential site for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. DOE policy mandates the restoration of all lands disturbed by site characterization activities and DOE has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization activities at Yucca.Mountain. DOE is currently conducting reclamation feasibility trials as part of this environmental program. No topsoil was saved on disturbances during early site investigation and minimal soil remains at existing disturbances on Yucca Mountain. A study was developed to test the effects of soil quality and depth on seedling emergence and survival. A series of plots was established and two treatments were tested. The first treatment compared native topsoil to subsoil imported from a borrow pit. The second treatment compared four different depth ranges of both soil types. All plots received identical seeding treatments. Seedling density was measured after emergence. Overall seedling densities were low, averaging 10.3 {plus_minus} 8.8 (SD) plants/m{sup 2}. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the two treatment factors. The subsoil had increasing densities from the deep soil depths to the shallow depths while the topsoil had increasing densities from the shallow soil depths to the deep depths. The cause of this interaction may have resulted from the bedrock being close to the soil surface of the shallow plots.

Blomquist, K.W.; Lyon, G.E.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Plant Mounds as Concentration and Stabilization Agents for Actinide Soil Contaminants in Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around the base of shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. An important factor in their formation is that shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, 241Am, and U in plant mounds at safety experiment and storage-transportation test sites of nuclear devices. Although aerial concentrations of these contaminants were highest in the intershrub or desert pavement areas, the concentration in mounds were higher than in equal volumes of intershrub or desert pavement soil. The NAEG studies found the ratio of contaminant concentration of actinides in soil to be greater (1.6 to 2.0) in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. At Project 57 on the NTTR, 17 percent of the area was covered in mounds while at Clean Slate III on the TTR, 32 percent of the area was covered in mounds. If equivalent volumes of contaminated soil were compared between mounds and desert pavement areas at these sites, then the former might contain as much as 34 and 62 percent of the contaminant inventory, respectively. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. In addition, preservation of shrub mounds could be important part of long-term stewardship if these sites are closed by fencing and posting with administrative controls.

D.S. Shafer; J. Gommes

2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

377

Uranium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H seepage basins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. Soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of uranium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at this site. The distribution of uranium was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH, redox potential, cation and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation modeling. The uranium soil source term at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) is much smaller than has been used in previous modeling efforts. This should result in a much shorter remediation time and a greater effectiveness of a pump-and-treat design than previously predicted. Distribution coefficients at the (FHSB) were found to vary between 1.2 to 34,000 1 kg{sup {minus}1} for uranium. Differences in sorption of these elements can be explained primarily by changes in aqueous pH and the associated change in soil surface charge. Sorption models were fit directly to sorption isotherms from field samples. All models underestimated the fraction of uranium bound at low aqueous uranium concentrations. Linear models overestimated bound uranium at locations where the aqueous concentration was greater than 500 ppb. Mechanistic models provided a much better estimate of the bound uranium concentrations, especially at high aqueous concentrations. Since a large fraction of the uranium at the site is associated with the low-pH portion of the plume, consideration should be given to pumping water from the lowest pH portions of the plume in the F-Area.

Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, W.H.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Surface Temperature of IGUs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

117 117 Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith, Daniel Türler, and Dariush Arasteh Building Technologies Program Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Fax: 510-486-6046, email: D_Arasteh@lbl.gov Abstract Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions

379

Surface cleanliness measurement procedure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil-carbon analysis; however, these also are invasive and destructive techniques. The INS approach permits quantification in a relatively large volume of soil without disrupting the measurement site. The technique is very fast and provides nearly instantaneous results thereby reducing the cost, and speeding up the rate of analysis. It also has the potential to cover large areas in a mobile scanning mode. These capabilities will significantly advance the tracking carbon sequestration and offer a tool for research in agronomy, forestry, soil ecology and biogeochemistry.

WIELOPOLSKI,L.MITRA,S.HENDREY,G.ORION,I.ROGERS,H.TORBERT,A.PRIOR,S.RUNION,B.

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The effects of calcitic and dolomitic limestone rates and particle sizes on soil chemical changes, plant nutrient concentration, and yields of corn and Coastal bermudagrass on two acid Texas soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directed by Dr. Warren B. Anderson Two, 4, snd 6 tons/ acre of calcitic and dolomitic limestone in three particle size ranges were disked into a Katy fine sandy loam prior to planting corn. Identical treatments were broadcast on a Boy loamy fine sand... neutralized soil acidity faster than did the dolomitic source. All calcitic limestone treatments significantly increased Ca in the surface 6 inches of soil. The 4- and 6-ton/acre rates of fine, and the 6-ton/acre rate of medium calcitic limestone...

Haby, Vincent A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

382

GR via Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate the Einstein equations as equations for families of surfaces on a four-manifold. These surfaces eventually become characteristic surfaces for an Einstein metric (with or without sources). In particular they are formulated in terms of two functions on R4xS2, i.e. the sphere bundle over space-time, - one of the functions playing the role of a conformal factor for a family of associated conformal metrics, the other function describing an S2's worth of surfaces at each space-time point. It is from these families of surfaces themselves that the conformal metric - conformal to an Einstein metric - is constructed; the conformal factor turns them into Einstein metrics. The surfaces are null surfaces with respect to this metric.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - air soil water Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iii. Soil-Plant Relationships iv. Cation exchange IV. Pollution of Water, Soil, and Air: (Lecture... unsaturated unsteady water flow X. Gaseous Phase of Soils (Hillel pages...

384

E-Print Network 3.0 - air water soil Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iii. Soil-Plant Relationships iv. Cation exchange IV. Pollution of Water, Soil, and Air: (Lecture... unsaturated unsteady water flow X. Gaseous Phase of Soils (Hillel pages...

385

E-Print Network 3.0 - affected granular soils Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

platy, prismlike, and blocklike (see Figure 3... ). Soil structure affects soil water movement when a soil is saturated with water. Water can move quickly... between...

386

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting soil erosion Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 2 Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Water Erosion Summary: and in roadbeds. Many vegetation and soil properties affect the risk...

387

Water Transfer from Soil to the Atmosphere as Related to Climate and Soil Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/sec. Conductivity Studies - The conductivity of the Olton loam soil is very low at fairly low soil water pressures corresponding to high contents. This is an asset in preventing evaporation losses, but may be detrimental to crop production in that the crops need...

Wendt, C. W.

388

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation Zhenqing Shi, Lawrence, Kansas 66045-7609, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The kinetics of Ni sorption) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were

Sparks, Donald L.

389

DIVISION S-2--SOIL CHEMISTRY Sorption of Pyridine to Suspended Soil Particles Studied by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIVISION S-2--SOIL CHEMISTRY Sorption of Pyridine to Suspended Soil Particles Studied by Deuterium, studies of sorption by spectroscopic tech- niques are very limited. Fourier transform infrared-frequency solid stateshow that the strongest sorption occurs at the weak acidic condition NMR has been used

Herbert, Bruce

390

Eect of sludge-processing mode, soil texture and soil pH on metal mobility in undisturbed soil columns under accelerated loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eect of sludge-processing mode, soil texture and soil pH on metal mobility in undisturbed soil 8 September 1999 Abstract The eect of sludge processing (digested dewatered, pelletized, alkaline (Lamellic Hapludalf), at initial pH levels of 5 and 7. Sludges were applied during four accelerated cropping

Walter, M.Todd

391

Surface Impedance in the Surface Superconducting State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To enable a simple calculation of the microwave surface resistance, the surface superconducting state is approximated by a model in which a layer of uniform order parameter is considered superposed on the normal bulk. Appropriate values for the order parameter and thickness of this layer were chosen with the use of the numerical solutions of the Ginsburg-Landau equations by Fink and Kessinger. A Gorter-Casimir temperature dependence was used for the order parameter and the Maki temperature dependence for ?. Our experiments on Pb-In alloys at frequencies of 9.5, 23, and 55 Gc/sec are in good agreement with the calculations.

Allen Rothwarf; Jonathan I. Gittleman; Bruce Rosenblum

1967-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

392

Tools for Surface Analysis | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface analysis methods. Guides to surface analysis methods (see below) - (XPS, AES, SIMS, etc.) Data useful for surface analysis (see below) - (binding energies, sputter rates...

393

Soil and Water Conservation (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(Texas) (Texas) Soil and Water Conservation (Texas) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Schools Institutional Nonprofit Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Texas Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board The Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board is established to encourage and oversee soil-conserving land-use practices, and to provide for the conservation of soil and related resources and the control and prevention of soil erosion, and thereby to preserve natural resources,

394

Experiment Hazard Class 15.2 - USDA Soil Permit  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 - USDA Regulated Soil 2 - USDA Regulated Soil Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving soils regulated by the United States Department of Agricultute (USDA). Other hazard classifications and their associated hazard controls may also apply to experiments in this hazard class. Experiment Category Experiments involving this hazard class categorized as low risk experiments unless other hazard classes apply. Experiment Hazard Control Verification Statements Engineered Controls - None required. Procedural Controls - All work with regulated soils must be performed in compliance with the APS Protocols for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Untreated Foreign Soil and Regulated Domestic Soil. The APS protocols state the requirements for handling, storage, shipment, and disposal of regulated

395

Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Ettringite formation and behaviour in clayey soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failures in soil stabilization have been reported previously as being due to the formation of ettringite, an expansive mineral which develops in the presence of sulfate, calcium, and aluminum compounds of clay fraction in high pH levels between 10.36 and 14. By comparing the pattern of formation of ettringite, formed from different possible sources and specifically in stabilized soil, it is expected that a clearer picture of the kinetics of ettringite formation from different sources will be obtained. In this paper, a set of physico-chemical experiments and XRD tests were performed to investigate the process of ettringite formation and to explore its possible performance in clayey soils. The growth of the ettringite XRD peaks was used as a measure of the rate and its formation pattern. It is shown that the rate of ettringite formation in soil stabilization is much slower than that of artificial ettringite. Furthermore, it is shown that ettringite swells to the order of 50% and its fluid retention is significantly higher (by as much as 400%) than that of the soil sample studied in this research.

Vahid R. Ouhadi; Raymond N. Yong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

ARM - Measurement - Surface condition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

condition condition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface condition State of the surface, including vegetation, land use, surface type, roughness, and such; often provided in model output. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments NAV : Navigational Location and Attitude SURFLOG : SGP Surface Conditions Observations by Site Technicians S-TABLE : Stabilized Platform MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

398

Surface Water Quality Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AAs part of the ongoing program to manage Texaswater quality, the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) is currently review- ing the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards, including the standards... for contact recreation use. Preliminary public comment plus input from the Surface Water Quality Standards Advisory Work Group have provided guidance on options available for revising the standards, said Jim Davenport, leader of the TCEQ Water Quality...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Surface modification to waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1.mu. to 5.mu. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Ruzic, David N. (Kendall Park, NJ); Moore, Richard L. (Princeton, NJ); Cohen, Samuel A. (Pennington, NJ); Manos, Dennis M. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Ammonia volatilization from surface application of ammonium sulfate to carbonate systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

correspond- 3 ed to the simultaneous loss of H 0 and NH . Jewitt (1942) showed that as H 0 loss increased due to evaporation the amount of NH volatilized increased on four alkaline Sudan soils when (NHL?) 2SOL? was surface appli- ed. He proposed...?OH, (IKt) CO , or NH~HCO depending upon the factors mentioned above. This suggests a rather complicated reaction mechanism. Duplessis and Kroontje (1964) also supported Jewitt's (1942) mechanism. In their experiment, (NHL?) SOL? wes surface applied...

Feagley, Sam Edward

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Kicked surface muon beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of splitting a surface muon beam into three separate components using an ... and could be very effectively used to provide muons to time differential ?SR experiments.

J. L. Beveridge

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

EMSL - ion surfaces  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surfaces en Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsphysical-properties-ambient-and-laborato...

403

EMSL - surface chemistry  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface-chemistry en FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

404

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 16741684 (2009)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1674­1684 (2009) Copyright: 10.1002/esp.1859 The `humped' soil production function: eroding Arnhem Land, Australia Arjun M. Heimsath,1 * David Fink2 and Greg R. Hancock3 1 School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State

Heimsath, Arjun M.

405

Effects of Urban Surfaces and White Roofs on Global and Regional Climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Land use, vegetation, albedo, and soil-type data are combined in a global model that accounts for roofs and roads at near their actual resolution to quantify the effects of urban surface and white roofs on climate. In 2005, ~0.128% of the ...

Mark Z. Jacobson; John E. Ten Hoeve

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Granulometric characterization of sediments transported by surface runoff generated by moving storms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to investigate the influence of moving rainfall storms on the dynamics of sediment transport by surface runoff. Experiments were carried out, using a rain simulator and a soil flume. The movement of rainfall was generated by moving the rain simulator at a...

de Lima, J. L. M. P.; Souza, C. C. S.; Singh, V. P.

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

407

Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Developing Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels OSWER Directive 9285.7-55 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 November 2003 This Page Intentionally Left Blank EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This document describes the process used to derive a set of risk-based ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for many of the soil contaminants that are frequently of ecological concern for plants and animals at hazardous waste sites and provides guidance for their use. The Eco-SSL derivation process represents the group effort of a multi-stakeholder workgroup consisting of federal, state, consulting, industry, and academic participants led by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI). The

408

Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants. This method includes: Placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container; placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours; retrieving the container and collecting its contents; microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to innoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

Hazen, T.C.

1991-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

409

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of Ni sorption to two Delaware agricultural soils were studied to quantitatively assess the relative importance of Ni adsorption on soil organic matter (SOM) and the formation of Ni layered double hydroxide (Ni-LDH) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were conducted with both soils at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 7.5 from 24 h up to 1 month. Time-resolved Ni speciation in soils was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during the kinetic experiments. A kinetics model was developed to describe Ni kinetic reactions under various reaction conditions and time scales, which integrated Ni adsorption on SOM with Ni-LDH precipitation in soils. The soil Ni speciation (adsorbed phases and Ni-LDH) calculated using the kinetics model was consistent with that obtained through XAS analysis during the sorption processes. Under our experimental conditions, both modeling and XAS results demonstrated that Ni adsorption on SOM was dominant in the short term and the formation of Ni-LDH precipitates accounted for the long-term Ni sequestration in soils, and, more interestingly, that the adsorbed Ni may slowly transfer to Ni-LDH phases with longer reaction times.

Shi, Zhenqing; Peltier, Edward; Sparks, Donald L. (Delaware); (Kansas)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

410

Biointrusion test plan for the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a testing and monitoring plan for the biological component of the prototype barrier slated for construction at the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system. It is designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. The features of the barrier include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, covered with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype barrier over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions. Plants and animals will play a significant role in the hydrologic and water and wind erosion characteristics of the prototype barrier. Studies on the biological component of the prototype barrier will include work on the initial revegetation of the surface, continued monitoring of the developing plant community, rooting depth and dispersion in the context of biointrusion potential, the role of plants in the hydrology of the surface and toe regions of the barrier, the role of plants in stabilizing the surface against water and wind erosion, and the role of burrowing animals in the hydrology and water and wind erosion of the barrier.

Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Brandt, C.A.; Downs, J.L.; Rossi, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Relationship of Soil Respiration to Crop and Landscape in the Walnut Creek Watershed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil respiration is an important component of the carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Many factors exert controls on soil respiration, including temperature, soil water content, organic matter, soil texture, and plant root activity. This ...

T. B. Parkin; T. C. Kaspar; Z. Senwo; J. H. Prueger; J. L. Hatfield

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Soil C Accumulation in a White Oak CO2-Enrichment Experiment via Enhanced Root Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After four growing seasons, soil below white oak trees exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (ambient + 300 ppm) had an average of 14% more soil carbon than soil below trees exposed to ambient levels of carbon dioxide. The soil ...

Kevin G. Harrison; Richard J. Norby; Wilfred M. Post; Emily L. Chapp

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Soil solution chemistry at different positions on slope in a conifer plantation forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is known that soil property varies along the slope. It suggests that soil solution chemistry also differs topographically. To determine the variation in soil solution chemistry within one watershed, soil so...

Naoko Tokuchi; Goro Iwatsubo

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Soil Testing Following Flooding, Overland Flow of Wastewater and other Freshwater Disasters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Freshwater flooding can seriously affect soil fertility and the physical and chemical properties of soil. This publication explains how to reclaim flooded soil. Having the soil tested for microbes, pesticides, hydrocarbons and other contaminants...

Provin, Tony; Feagley, Sam E.; Pitt, John L.; McFarland, Mark L.

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

415

Soil Erosion (Minnesota) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(Minnesota) (Minnesota) Soil Erosion (Minnesota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Siting and Permitting The Board of Water and Soil Resources has adopted a model ordinance to serve as the minimum standard for local governments, which are asked to

416

Olton Soils - Distribution, Importance Variability and Management.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from about 101 ?10' to 103?50' West longitude and about 32?50' to 35?40' North latitude. Elevation of the sur face of Olton soils ranges from about 2,600 to 4 ,200 feet above mean sea level. The area is in a semiarid climatic zone where average.... The depth to a strong calcic horizon averages about 49 inches. The CaC03 content ofthis layer ranges from 35 to 56 percent and averages about 45 percent. The primary area of occurrence for Olton soils includes the area south and west of a line...

Unger, Paul W.; Pringle, Fred B.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

In situ removal of contamination from soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

418

ORNL researchers improve soil carbon cycling models | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

researchers improve soil carbon cycling models researchers improve soil carbon cycling models January 01, 2013 ORNL's new carbon cycling model could help scientists understand the role of soil microbes (MBC) in climate change by tracking extracellular enzymes (ENZ) that break down carbon-rich soil materials (SOC) into forms that microbes can respire (DOC). A more robust model of the soil carbon cycle developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) improves understanding of carbon residence time in soils and enables scientists to make more accurate climate predictions. The model does a better job than previous models of accounting for how microbes in the soil break down carbon-rich materials and release carbon dioxide. "Soil is a big reservoir of carbon," said co-author Melanie Mayes of the Environmental Sciences Division and the Climate Change Science

419

Estimated Annual Net Change in Soil Carbon per US County  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimated Annual Net Change in Soil Carbon per US County These data represent the estimated net change (Megagram per year) in soil carbon due to changes in the crop type and tillage intensity. Estimated accumulation of soil carbon under Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)lands is included in these estimates. Negative values represent a net flux from the atmosphere to the soil; positive values represent a net flux from the soil to the atmosphere. As such, soil carbon sequestration is represented here as a negative value. The method of analysis is based on empirical relationshipsbetween land management and soil carbon. The method for modeling land management and estimating soil carbonchange, used to generate these data, is described in the following publication:

420

Application of Polymeric Agents for Improved Soil Decontamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the Thrust II project include optimization of the technology for PO Mayak soils, identification of clean up requirements, design and construction of a mobile production-scale process system, installation and deployment of the soil washing technology.

Heiser, John

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Soil Science Education:5 Perceptions and Experiences of6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that soil science education can be reformed through the incorporation of an13 interdisciplinary focus colleges.23 Soil science education reform has been discussed even as early as 1994 with the24 publication

Ma, Lena

422

Cation Exchange and A1 Mobilization in Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Predicting the equilibria of cations distributed between soil solutions and exchange sites is a classical soil chemistry problem. Interest in such cation distribution problems has been motivated by a need to i...

D. D. Richter; D. W. Johnson; K. H. Dai

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Detecting preferential infiltration pathways in soils using geophysics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...vegetation or thin remedial soil cover...hydrogeological investigations. Suggested...sinkholes on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee...vegetation or thin remedial soil cover...hydrogeological investigations. Suggested...sinkholes on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee...

P. J. Carpenter; S. Ahmed

424

Agricultural soil and its conservation in Mexico as percei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

natural and human causes as somewhat major causes of agricultural soil degradation in Mexico, with human causes being more of a cause than natural causes. 3. Students felt that soil conservation efforts are needed; these efforts should...

Revello, Valerie Ann

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Non-linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction Method for Developing...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Contact - Sliding and Separation Non-linear springs * Material ElasticPlastic * Non-linear soil behavior * Non-linear behavior between soil and structure (i.e. the...

426

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Septic Tank/Soil Absorption Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For septic tank and soil absorption systems to work properly, homeowners must choose the right kind of system for their household size and soil type, and they must maintain them regularly. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

427

Beta Particle Dose Rates to Micro-Organisms in Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Copyright 1977 Japan Radiation Research Society May 1977 research-article Articles Beta Particle...soil are constantly exposed to betaradiations arising from the naturally occuring radionuclides in soil as in this case no overlying tissue shields......

M. Kabir; F.W. Spiers; T.A Iinuma

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Critical loads of acid deposition on Scottish soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The impact of acid deposition, attributable to sulphur and nitrogen pollutants, on the soils of Scotland has been analysed using a critical loads approach. The critical load of a soil (as an indicator of ecolo...

Simon J. Langan; M. J. Wilson

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Abstract: Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C...

430

PHYTOTOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM SOIL MICROORGANISMS AND CROP RESIDUES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thiamin, biotin, mineral salts, enzymes...acid Transpiration Green wt ppm 20 75 87...overcome by adequate mineral fertilization of...materials such as lime, soil, kaolin...of soil to which lime and complete mineral fertilization had...

T. M. McCalla; F. A. Haskins

1964-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Ground-based measurements of soil water storage in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Landslides EROSION Dust Weak SOIL STRENGTH Hard Latent heat SOLAR ENERGY Sensible heat Energy Stevens' HydraProbe Soil T, q, and ECapparent ADVANTAGES Lower initial cost Spatial distribution SDI

Yang, Zong-Liang

432

Earth pressures and deformations in civil infrastructure in expansive soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation includes the three major parts of the study: volume change, and lateral earth pressure due to suction change in expansive clay soils, and design of civil infrastructure drilled pier, retaining wall and pavement in expansive soils...

Hong, Gyeong Taek

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

433

Kinetics ofin situ surfactant soil flushing at moderate washing conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economicin situ soil flushing using common surfactants may be a good substitute for exhaustive, pressurized soil washing or bioremediation requiring high energy consumption or laborious technique. Two model surfactants

Daechul Cho; Hyun-Su Kim

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Effect of Ultrasound on Surfactant-Aided Soil Washing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of ultrasound as an enhancement mechanism in the surfactant-aided soil-washing process was examined by conducting desoption tests of soils contaminated with naphthalene or diesel-oil. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the effect of ultrasound on the mass transfer from soil to the aqueous phase using naphthalene-contaminated soil. In addition, the use of ultrasound for the diesel-oil-contaminated soil was investigated under a range of conditions of surfactant concentration, sonication power, duration, soil/liquid ratio, particle size and initial diesel-oil concentration. The ultrasound used in the soil-washing process significantly enhanced the mass transfer rate from the solid phase to the aqueous phase. The removal efficiency of diesel-oil from the soil phase generally increased with longer sonication time, higher power intensity, and large particle size.

Seungmin Na; Yongwoon Park; Anna Hwang; Jeongsook Ha; Younguk Kim; Jeehyeong Khim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Offsetting China's CO2 Emissions by Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fossil fuel emissions of carbon (C) in China in 2000 was ... % or more of the antecedent soil organic carbon (SOC) pool.Some of the depleted ... . A crude estimated potential of soil C sequestration in China is 1...

R. Lal

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The spatial and temporal organization of soil moisture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Runoff, infiltration, evaporation and transpiration and-at climatic scales-precipitation are hydrologic processes that strongly depend on soil moisture. From a descriptive viewpoint, soil moisture is. characterized by an extremely high degree...

Vogel, Gregor Klaus

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Soil moisture modeling and scaling using passive microwave remote sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil moisture in the shallow subsurface is a primary hydrologic state governing land-atmosphere interaction at various scales. The primary objectives of this study are to model soil moisture in the root zone in a distributed manner and determine...

Das, Narendra N.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

438

Microbial Biomass and Activity in Lead-Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Perspectives on risks of soil pollution and experience with innovative remediation technologies . Kuperman R. G. Carreiro M. M...acids organic compounds pH pollutants pollution remediation RNA soils toxic materials waste disposal sites GeoRef...

A. Konopka; T. Zakharova; M. Bischoff; L. Oliver; C. Nakatsu; R. F. Turco

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Avoiding and Mitigating Soil Compaction Associated with Natural Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-term impact of well drilling and pipeline instal- lation activities on your soils and their future and pipeline- laying activities; limit drilling activities to periods of expected drier soil conditions defined terms for repairs on dam

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

440

Development of the NIST Rocky Flats Soil Standard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Rocky Flats Soil-II Standard reference material (SRM) ... values and uncertainties for the radionuclides in the Rocky Flats Soil II SRM.

S. Nour; K. Inn; J. Filliben

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Modeling, estimation, and control of robot-soil interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the development of hardware, theory, and experimental methods to enable a robotic manipulator arm to interact with soils and estimate soil properties from interaction forces. Unlike the majority of ...

Hong, Won, 1971-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

SOIL PHYSICS, SWS 4602C I. COURSE INSTRUCTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides). Emphasis will be given to basic concepts of transport and retention (parameters) of soils and appropriate fate and transport parameters of agrochemicals in soils. 4. Use

Ma, Lena

443

An Open Source Simulation Model for Soil and Sediment Bioturbation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Open Source Simulation Model for Soil and Sediment Bioturbation Katja Schiffers1 *¤a , Lorna (2011) An Open Source Simulation Model for Soil and Sediment Bioturbation. PLoS ONE 6(12): e28028. doi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wastes Increases soil pH Add plant nutrients Low cost #12;UNH COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Food & Agriculture and scab-susceptible potatoes varieties thrive in acid soils, and should not be supplemented with wood ash

New Hampshire, University of

445

Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

Francis, C. W.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Studies of transport of waste radionuclides, through soil at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, waste-burial site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two areas at the waste-burial site are being used to study the interaction of soil with liquid waste - one near Trench 19S and the other between an experimental trench and Trench 27. Analyses of soil solutions near Trench 19S indicate that radionuclides have migrated from the waste-burial trench. The observed distribution of radionuclides in that area suggests that /sup 3/H, as tritiated water, has moved the greatest distance. Movement of /sup 137/Cs is essentially nonexistent. The migration of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 60/Co lies between those two extremes. The distance that /sup 3/H has moved, at an approximated depth of 4 m, is about 9 m. Additional porous cup samplers were installed at depths to 8 m to better evaluate the distribution of radionuclides near Trench 19S. Results from soil moisture measurements by R.K. Schulz of the University of California at Berkeley indicate a preferential movement of water into the waste trench through its cap. Our study of the /sup 3/H in surface soils outside the perimeter fence of the burial site suggests that contamination of the near-surface soil water occurs and could be from an airborne source, possible originating from the site evaporator. Another localized source could be associated with underflow from a burial trench that surfaces outside the perimeter fence. The /sup 3/H content in some soil solutions near an experimental trench suggest a preferential movement of water along an interface of an original soil profile and the overlying landfill. If such an interface were to intercept a burial trench and also outcrop off site, it could act as a preferential pathway for transport of radionuclides off site. The nonsorptive behavior of a small fraction of /sup 238/Pu in the Maxey Flats waste was interpreted as having been caused by an organic complex that is very slowly biodegradable. Organic constituents in the Maxey Flats soil, Tilsit Ap, may complex some of the /sup 238/Pu, making it mobile for some period of time.

Fowler, E.B.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

2000): Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matter dynamics that may result in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil

W. M. Post; K. C. Kwon

448

The adsorption of selected chemical compounds on soil clays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, California. The Yolo soil series is discussed in the U. S. D. A. Contra Costa County, California Soil Survey, Series 1933, No. 26. Montmorillonite de osit material. The relatively "pure" montmorillonite clay was purchased as Panther Creek Bentonite from..., California. The Yolo soil series is discussed in the U. S. D. A. Contra Costa County, California Soil Survey, Series 1933, No. 26. Montmorillonite de osit material. The relatively "pure" montmorillonite clay was purchased as Panther Creek Bentonite from...

Hoover, William Leroy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

449

Unsaturated soil behavior under monotonic and cyclic stress states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on triaxial apparatus and helping me on the calibration of equipment. I would like to say thank to Dr. Lianxi Ma for providing me USD testing knowledge and test results. I also would like to thank the Korean students in the Geotechnical Engineering.................. 6 2.1 Soil Suction in Unsaturated Soil....................................................... 6 2.2 Pore Water in Unsaturated Soil and Degrees of Saturation.............. 8 2.3 Soil-Water Characteristic Curve...

Mun, Byoung-Jae

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

450

Comparison of methods for determining soil hydraulic characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Soil cores were centrifuged and the redistribution of water was measured as change in weight with time. Inconsistent results and limited data obtained with this method, consequently, prevented ade- quate conclusions from being made. Hydraulic... storage capacity of a soil is determined by infiltration, redistribution and drainage processes which also rely on knowledge of soil moisture movement. Three approaches used to determine the relevant hydraulic properties utitilized in describing soil...

Byrd Humphreys, Kathryn

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Systematic Variability of Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Across Three Vertisol Catenas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of soil measured on small samples is log-normally distributed and related to physical properties of that soil sample (Mapa, 1995; Reynolds and Zebchuk, 1996; Lin et al., 1998; Baldock and Nelson, 2000). The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA... structure and water content for clayey soils (Mapa, 1995; Baldock and Nelson, 2000). 6 Measurement Methods A variety of laboratory and field methods of measuring Ks are available. Laboratory measurements are typically conducted on undisturbed soil...

Rivera, Leonardo Daniel

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

DIVISION S-2--SOIL CHEMISTRY Dissolution Kinetics of Nickel Surface Precipitates on Clay Mineral and Oxide Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sorption under ambient environmental conditions. in brucite-like octahedral sheets with anions in the inter, brucite-like metal hydroxide precipi-percentage of total Ni sorption, decreased from 96 to 30% and 23 at pH 4 and 6. Nickel de-brucite-like hydroxide layers, (ii) Si-for-NO3 exchange in the interlay

Sparks, Donald L.

453

A comparison of measured and simulated soil water depletion in the crop root zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(w) aH/ax) - r(x). [1/s] (8) If a single value relationship between h and w is assumed, and the diffusivity D in m /s is represented by K(w). ah/aw, Eq. {8) becomes: 2 aw/at = a/ax (D(w) aw/ax) - ak(w)/ ax - r(x). [I/s] (9) Equation (9... by rL 2 C = T/( ] R(x)D(w)dx) [I/m ] (11) 0 where T is the transpiration rate per unit soil surface area (m water/(m soil, s)) and L is the depth to the bottom of the root zone 2 (m). The e+fective root distribution function is defined as a...

Lascano A., Roberto

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

454

Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs Draft paper Bruce A Mc............................................................................................................. 5 2 Why Consider Promoting Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration?...................... 6 2 Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration....... 11 3.1 What is the cost of GHGE offsets arising from large

McCarl, Bruce A.

455

Soil to plant transfer of 238 Th on a uranium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil to plant transfer of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed The radioactive waste (e.g. tailings) produced by uranium mining activities contains a series of long

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

456

Soil Management Plan for the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Construction activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant have often required the excavation or other management of soil within the facility. Because some of this soil may be contaminated, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) adopted specific policies to ensure the proper management of contaminated or potentially contaminated soil at the plant. Five types of contaminated or potentially contaminated soil are likely to be present at the Y-12 Plant: Soil that is within the boundaries of a Comprehensive Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Area of Contamination (AOC) or Operable Unit (OU); Soil that contains listed hazardous wastes; Soil that is within the boundaries of a RCRA Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU); Soil that contains polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS); Soil that contains low-level radioactive materials. The regulatory requirements associated with the five types of contaminated soil listed above are complex and will vary according to site conditions. This Soil Management Plan provides a standardized method for managers to determine the options available for selecting soil management scenarios associated with construction activities at the Y-12 Plant.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Dr. Markus Flury, Professor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& Environmental Engineering, Chem- ical Engineering, Soil Science (with Soil Physics or Soil Chemistry emphasis, Engineering Science, or Biological Systems Engineering. The candidate will receive salary, health insurance eligibility verification as required by the US Citizenship and Immigration Services. PO Box 646420, Pullman

Flury, Markus

458

The Composition of the Soils of the Texas Panhandle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Soil Types by Counties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Armstrong County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Briecoe County... BY COUNTIES. The following is a list of the types of soils found in the varwus counties accoTding to maps published by the Bureau of Soils. Armstrong County. Amarillo silty clay loam. Amarillo loam. Amarillo sands. Rough broken land. Vernon loam...

Fraps, G. S.

1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Sediment Resulting from Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, U.K. Heavy metal pollution of soil and water is often associatedEnrichment of Heavy Metals in Sediment Resulting from Soil Erosion on Agricultural Fields J O H N N concentrations of these heavy metals were up to 3.98 times higher in the sediment than in the parent soil

Quinton, John

460

European Commission DG ENV Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

European Commission DG ENV Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers.turbe@biois.com In association with #12;2 European Commission - DG ENV Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy Putten, Eric Labouze, and Shailendra Mudgal. Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The Composition and Properties of Some Texas Soils.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would be advis- able. Organic materiaI, such as green crops plowed under, and stable ma- nure, have a very beneficial influence upon these soils. These soils are sry much benefited by leguminous crops which take nitrogen from the a Orangeburg Soils...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1907-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

GIS and Spectral Soil Laboratory Key faculty member: Sabine Grunwald  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

satellite images and various soil spectral technologies, digital soil mapping, and quantitative soil. Equipment / Instrumentation (1) Information Technology and Computer Equipment: There are about ~20 PCs-arrays for storage of large databases that are coupled in an intranet to all machines and instruments in the core

Ma, Lena

463

Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

Thompson, C.V.

1991-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

464

Sorption and Degradation of Fipronil in Flooded Anaerobic Rice Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorption and Degradation of Fipronil in Flooded Anaerobic Rice Soils ... The data predicted that fipronil was subject to rapid, reductive degradation or immediate sorption to the soil and any sorbed fipronil desorbed was reductively degraded. ... The reductive metabolite, fipronil sulfide, accumulated over the 184 day duration of the experiment and sorbed rapidly to the soil, where it accumulated and did not appear to degrade. ...

Gregory Doran; Philip Eberbach; Stuart Helliwell

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

465

Sewage sludge application in a plantation: Effects on trace metal transfer in soil–plant–snail continuum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We studied the potential bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by the snail Cantareus aspersus and evaluated the risk of leaching after application of sewage sludge to forest plantation ecosystems. Sewage sludge was applied to the soil surface at two loading rates (0, and 6 tons ha? 1 in dry matter) without incorporation into the soil so as to identify the sources of trace metal contamination in soil and plants and to evaluate effects on snail growth. The results indicated a snail mortality rate of less than 1% during the experiment, while their dry weight decreased significantly (sludge over the exposure period considered. Additions of sewage sludge led to higher levels of trace metals in forest litter compared to control subplots, but similar trace metal concentrations were observed in sampling plants. Bioaccumulation study demonstrated that Zn had not accumulated in snails compared to Cu which accumulated only after 28 days of exposure to amended subplots. However, Pb and Cd contents in snails increased significantly after 14 and 28 days of exposure in both the control and amended subplots. At the last sampling date, in comparison to controls the Cd increase was higher in snails exposed to amended subplots. Thus, sludge spread therefore appears to be responsible for the observed bioaccumulation for Cu and Cd after 28 days of exposure. Concerning Pb accumulation, the results from litter–soil–plant compartments suggest that soil is this metal's best transfer source.

Mohamed Bourioug; Frédéric Gimbert; Laurence Alaoui-Sehmer; Mohammed Benbrahim; Lotfi Aleya; Badr Alaoui-Sossé

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Cleanup and treatment (CAT) test: a land-area decontamination project utilizing a vacuum method of soil removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Areas 11 and 13 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are contaminated with varying concentrations of Pu-239, 240 and Am-241. An investigation of a vacuum method of soil removal, the Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test, was conducted over a 3-month period in the plutonium safety shot or Plutonium Valley portion of Area 11. Soil in Plutonium Valley is of the Aridisol Order. The surface 0 to 10 cm is a gravelly loam, and is strongly alkaline (pH 8.8). A large truck-mounted vacuum unit, rather than conventional earth-moving equipment, was used as the primary soil collection unit. Effectiveness of the vacuum method of soil removal was evaluated in relation to conventional earthmoving procedures, particularly in terms of volume reduction of removed soil achieved over conventional techniques. Radiological safety considerations associated with use of the vacuum unit were evaluated in relation to their impact on a full-scale land decontamination program. Environmental and operational impacts of devegetation with retention of root crowns or root systems were investigated. It is concluded that the CAT test was successful under difficult environmental conditions.

Orcutt, J.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soils R. L. Oshrain W. J. Wiebe...Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soilst R. L. OSHRAIN: AND W...Gallagher, J. L., R. J. Reimold, and D...Remote sensing and salt marsh productivity, p. 338-348...

R. L. Oshrain; W. J. Wiebe

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Healthy soils for food system resiliency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, air, and point sources like lead paint chips. This duality, emphasized in urban areas where more sources of pollution exist, means that urban gardeners must know their soils to participate effectively in sustainability. Gardeners must investigate... of mining and metallurgy ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37 3.2. History of waste management --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 38 3.3. History of industrial...

Jackson, Trisha L.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

469

Soil Washing Potential of a Natural Surfactant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil Washing Potential of a Natural Surfactant ... The aqueous solubilities of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and naphthalene in the natural surfactant solutions were found to vary linearly with the concentration of the surfactant showing trends comparable to that of typical com mercial surfactants. ...

D. Roy; R. R. Kommalapati; S. S. Mandava; K. T. Valsaraj; W. D. Constant

1997-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

470

ASSESSMENT OF ABORIGINAL SMALLHOLDER SOILS FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential and tree health Chemical property pH a,e Totallimiting pH and Ca levels, which may have been causing treepH can cause stunting or death Deficiency inhibits soil build-up of N; suboptimal productivity Deficiency increases immature stage of tree,

Kurt A. Schwabe

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

SOIL SAMPLING DERELICT, UNDERUSED AND NEGLECTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, insufficient identification and remediation of pollutant linkages could cause serious harm to receptors affected. At all stages of the site investigation process, professionals should not be afraid to conduct of a Preliminary Site Investigation Survey (Phase I). Soil sampling forms part of the intrusive site investigation

472

Soil Fungi in the Belgian Congo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... J. MEYEB has given a comprehensive account of soil and litter fungi in the Belgian Congo (region of Yangambi) (Publications de l'lnstitut National pour l'fitude Agronomique du ... (region of Yangambi) (Publications de l'lnstitut National pour l'fitude Agronomique du Congo Beige. SeYie Scienti-fique, No. 75: "Moississures du Sol et des Litieres ...

1959-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

473

Soils and Vegetation of the Congo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... responsible for the fifth International Congress of Soil Science being held in 1954 in the Congo. There have been numerous publications from this field, and this is one of a ... of a series on natural resources from L'Institut National pour 1'fitude Agronomique du Congo (Carte des Sols et de la Vegetation du ...

1963-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

474

Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil: Concentration Effects J O H N P . D I V I N C of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19717-1303 We investigated the sorption kinetics of pentachlorophenol (PCP in sorption. The onset of the slow sorption kinetics was also concentration dependent. At higher PCP

Sparks, Donald L.

475

de Sitter Extremal Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

Narayan, K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Running title: electrical resistivity in forest soils1 Title: Monitoring forest soil properties with electrical resistivity3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Running title: electrical resistivity in forest soils1 2 Title: Monitoring forest soil properties with electrical resistivity3 4 Authors: Yoan Paillet1,* , Nathalie Cassagne2 , Jean-Jacques Brun1 5 6 1 Cemagref in a monitoring purpose. We explored the correlations between electrical resistivity and19 forest soil properties

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

477

Accounting for soil carbon sequestration in national inventories: a soil scientist's  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As nations debate whether and how best to include the agricultural sector in greenhouse gas pollution reduction schemes, the role of soil organic carbon as a potential large carbon sink has been thrust onto center stage. Results from most agricultural field trials indicate a relative increase in soil carbon stocks with the adoption of various improved management practices. However, the few available studies with time series data suggest that this relative gain is often due to a reduction or cessation of soil carbon losses rather than an actual increase in stocks. On the basis of this observation, we argue here that stock change data from agricultural field trials may have limited predictive power when the state of the soil carbon system is unknown and that current IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) accounting methodologies developed from the trial results may not properly credit these management activities. In particular, the use of response ratios is inconsistent with the current scientific understanding of carbon cycling in soils and response ratios will overestimate the net–net sequestration of soil carbon if the baseline is not at steady state.

Jonathan Sanderman; Jeffrey A Baldock

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Soil solution chemistry of sewage-sludge incinerator ash and phosphate fertilizer amended soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical composition of the soil provides useful information on the feasibility of amending agricultural land with municipal and industrial waste, because the soil solution is the medium for most soil chemical reactions, the mobile phase in soils, and the medium for mineral adsorption by plant roots. The soil solutions studies in this research were from plots in a 4-yr field experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of the trace metals and P in sewage-sludge incinerator ash. Treatments compared ash with equivalent P rates from triple-superphosphate fertilizer and a control receiving no P application. Ash and phosphate fertilizer were applied annually at rates of 35, 70, and 140 kg citrate-soluble P ha{sup -1}. Cumulative ash applications during 4 yr amounted to 3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 Mg ash ha{sup -1}. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation-immiscible liquid displacement using a fluorocarbon displacing agent. Following chemical analysis, a chemical speciation model was used to determine possible solubility-controlling minerals for trace metals and P, and correlations between solution composition and plant uptake were analyzed. 37 refs., 5 tabs.

Bierman, P.M.; Rosen, C.J.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Soil remediation using a coupled process: soil washing with surfactant followed by photo-Fenton oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work the use of a coupled process, soil washing and photo-Fenton oxidation, was investigated for remediation of a soil contaminated with p,p?-DDT (DDT) and p,p?-DDE (DDE), and a soil artificially contaminated with diesel. In the soil washing experiments, Triton X-100 (TX-100) aqueous solutions were used at different concentrations to obtain wastewaters with different compositions. Removal efficiencies of 66% (DDT), 80% (DDE) and 100% (diesel) were achieved for three sequential washings using a TX-100 solution strength equivalent to 12 times the effective critical micelle concentration of the surfactant (12 CMCeff). The wastewater obtained was then treated using a solar photo-Fenton process. After 6 h irradiation, 99, 95 and 100% degradation efficiencies were achieved for DDT, DDE and diesel, respectively. In all experiments, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon decreased by at least 95%, indicating that residual concentration of contaminants and/or TX-100 in the wastewater was very low. The co-extraction of metals was also evaluated. Among the metals analyzed (Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Mn and Co), only Cr and Mn were detected in the wastewater at concentrations above the maximum value permitted by current Brazilian legislation. The effective removal of contaminants from soil by the TX-100 washing process, together with the high degradation efficiency of the solar photo-Fenton process, suggests that this procedure could be a useful option for soil remediation.

Ricardo D. Villa; Alam G. Trovó; Raquel F. Pupo Nogueira

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

Wing, N.R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "upland surface soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Soil sorption characteristics of imidacloprid in different Croatian regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Croatia, imidacloprid is increasingly used in olive growing areas against the olive fruit fly. Experiments were conducted to examine the relationship between soil properties, imidacloprid concentration and soil sorption capacity. The linear and the Freundlich model adequately described the imidacloprid sorption. Better sorption was observed at lower imidacloprid concentrations and in soils with higher organic carbon and clay content, but organic carbon content was predominant factor influencing sorption. Thus, for soils with lower sorption capacity a greater potential mobility of imidacloprid in the soil profile is expected, indicating a need for regular monitoring and strategy development against groundwater pollution.

Dalibor Brozni?; Jelena Marini?; Marin Tota; Gordana ?anadi Jureši?; ?edomila Milin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Raman spectroscopy of selected arsenates—implications for soil remediation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contamination of soils with heavy metals such as As, Cr and Cu is of great importance; the remediation of such soils even more so. Arsenic compounds are prevalent in soils either through leaching of mine tailings, the use of Cu/Cr/As as a wood preservative or through the use of arsenic in cattle dips. The arsenic compounds in soils and leachates can be highly reactive and mobile, resulting in the formation of metal arsenate compounds. Of these compounds, one such set of minerals that can be formed is the vivianite arsenate minerals. Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterise the vivianite arsenates and to identify arsenic contaminants in a soil.

Ray L. Frost; Theo Kloprogge; Matthew L. Weier; Wayde N. Martens; Z. Ding; Howell G.H. Edwards

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Surfaces and roughening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some recent results in the application of statistical mechanics to surfaces are discussed. Only exactly soluable models are described. First, we consider phase separation below the critical temperature in unia...

D. B. Abraham

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Entropy and surfaceness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The layer of the Earth's atmosphere which contains clouds and weather systems is a thin thermoregulatory surface. It maintains an exact energy budget between the Earth and the Sun. Recent work in theoretical physics is ...

Casper, James Kyle

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Structured surfaces for hemocompatibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rise of micro- and nano-technologies has brought to light intriguing examples of scale-driven performance in a diverse array of fields. The quest to create highly hydrophobic surfaces is one such field. The application ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Designing biomimetic antifouling surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...extreme environment where wave-swept rocky coasts place substantial hydrodynamic forces...2000) have been studied and modelled for flat surfaces using two- and three-dimensional...to biocorrosion, resulting in increased safety and financial concerns (Busalmen et al...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

ARM - Measurement - Surface albedo  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

albedo albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface albedo The fraction of incoming solar radiation at a surface (i.e. land, cloud top) that is effectively reflected by that surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer External Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

488

Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in soils, rocks and water in the vicinity of Chirano Gold Mine in Ghana  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......gamma-ray exposure from natural radioactivity concentrations...drinking water containing natural radioactivity due to...inhalation of airborne radon gas for the area where both...concentrations in surface soils in Cyprus. J. Environ. Radioact...UNSCEAR. Exposures from natural sources of radiation......

A. Faanu; H. Lawluvi; D. O. Kpeglo; E. O. Darko; G. Emi-Reynolds; A. R. Awudu; O. K. Adukpo; C. Kansaana; I. D. Ali; B. Agyeman; L. Agyeman; R. Kpodzro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Comparative Sorption and Leaching Study of the Herbicides Fluometuron and 4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic Acid (MCPA) in a Soil Amended with Biochars and Other Sorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluometuron desorption was hysteretic for all samples (1/nfdes sorption isotherms. ... Simazine sorption increased in the order of P2 ? P2 + LOA sorption increased in the same order as simazine. ... surface area, have been reported to be up to >2000 times more effective than soil in sorbing pesticides. ...

Alegria Cabrera; Lucia Cox; Kurt A. Spokas; Rafael Celis; M. Carmen Hermosín; Juan Cornejo; William C. Koskinen

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

490

Bespoke Materials Surfaces  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bespoke Materials Surfaces Bespoke Materials Surfaces Background The Department of Energy (DOE) has established performance and efficiency goals for power generation systems which will improve the ability of the U.S. energy sector to produce electricity efficiently with less impact to the environment. Power systems showing the most promise for reaching these goals require corrosion resistance alloys able to perform at very high pressures and temperatures. Increasing both the

491

Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Funding  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Funding Pays for Safe Disposal of 20,000 Truckloads of Soil Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Funding Pays for Safe Disposal of 20,000 Truckloads of Soil August 11, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Andre Armstrong, CH2M HILL Andre_L_Armstrong@rl.gov 509-376-6773 Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov 509-376-4171 RICHLAND, Wash. - U.S. Department of Energy contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company removed nearly half a million tons of contaminated soil over the last two years using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Workers shipped more than 20,000 truckloads of contaminated soil excavated

492

LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in Response to 2010 Flood LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in Response to 2010 Flood October 16, 2012 - 10:50am Addthis LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in Response to 2010 Flood LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in Response to 2010 Flood LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in Response to 2010 Flood LM Conducts Groundwater and Soil Investigation at Riverton, Wyoming, in Response to 2010 Flood What does this project do? Goal 1. Protect human health and the environment A team representing two Federal agencies-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management and U.S. Geological Survey-is evaluating

493

Chapter 18 - Management of Soil Biota and Their Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter explores the human management of soil microorganisms and the processes that microorganisms control through energetic metabolism. We detail examples of human manipulation of microorganisms to provide beneficial services to humankind, many inadvertent manipulations. Soil microorganisms play a central role in food and fiber production on a worldwide basis. They also play a major role in soil health, including nutrient cycling and aggregation of soil particles. Organic agriculture is particularly reliant on the microbial cycling of nutrients from organic amendments because inorganic plant nutrients are not applied. Other management strategies for soil microorganisms include the introduction of plant-growth promoting organisms, biocontrol agents for pests and weeds, and to control soil-borne pathogens. However, introduced organisms only survive for a period of days to weeks. Thus managing organisms for human benefit may be more up to the soil organism community than mankind.

Jeffrey L. Smith; Harold P. Collins; Alex R. Crump; Vanessa L. Bailey

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This act states regulations for the quality of surface water in the state. It also states designated uses of classified surface waters, surface water quality criteria and an antidegradation policy...

495

Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

496

Productive soil must be fertile physical fertility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-'weathering' · physical ­freezing, thawing, wetting, drying, organisms · chemical ­dissolved minerals moved in water ­soil ­loam, silty clay, loamy sand ­changing proportions not recommended · clay also group of minerals - 1 bu / 20 sq ft ­perennial gardens - 1 bu / 10 ft · do not add to tree/shrub planting hole · green

Balser, Teri C.

497

Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

498

A correlation between soil descriptions and {sup 226}Ra concentrations in Florida soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The soil radium content in Florida is highly variable. The range in radium concentrations, where the samples involved in this study are concerned, is from 0.1 pCi/g to 18.5 pCi/g. Low {sup 226}Ra concentrations (0.1 to 5 pCi/g) are evidenced in sands, moderate concentrations (5 to 11 pCi/g) are found in silt and gravel, and high {sup 226}Ra concentrations (>11 pCi/g) are found in soil horizons with shell, clay, and strata with phosphate. Strata containing phosphate yields a high concentration of {sup 226}Ra. The information obtained in this study, soil descriptions with their corresponding {sup 226}Ra concentrations, comes from geological cores drilled by geotechnical consultants with gamma spectrometry analysis performed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Concentration; of {sup 226}Ra generally increase with depth. These cores are usually termin