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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Diagnosis of Upper-Level Processes Influencing an Unusually Intense Extratropical Cyclone over Southeast Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On 1 December 1987, an unusual midlatitude cyclone affected much of southeastern Australia. The storm was characterized by unforced rapid deepening to a near record low (locally) mean sea-level pressure, high winds, anomalously cold surface ...

Christopher S. Velden; Graham A. Mills

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

BismuthCeramic Nanocomposites with Unusual Thermal Stability via High-Energy Ball Milling**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bismuth±Ceramic Nanocomposites with Unusual Thermal Stability via High-Energy Ball Milling, nanostructured bismuth±ceramic nanocomposites with unusual thermal stabil- ity. These materials contain a high. Important for electrical and thermoelectric applications, the ceramic phase is electrically and thermally

Braun, Paul

3

High level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

Crandall, J L

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

High-Generation Polycationic Dendrimers Are Unusually Effective at Disrupting Anionic Vesicles: Membrane Bending Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Generation Polycationic Dendrimers Are Unusually Effective at Disrupting Anionic Vesicles June 15, 2000 The membrane disruption properties of high generation (G4 to G7) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM of reactions (2). The number of surface amine groups doubles with each generation and the dendrimer diameter

Smith, Bradley D.

5

High-Level Waste Requirements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The guide provides the criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as high-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

6

Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

Wiersma, B

2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

7

Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being evaluated at Idaho National Laboratory and the facilities weve designed to evaluate options and support optimization.

Dirk Gombert

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

High Level Waste System Plan Revision 9  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Revision 9 of the High Level Waste System Plan documents the current operating strategy of the HLW System at SRS to receive, store, treat, and dispose of high-level waste.

Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.; Choi, A.S.; Paul, P.; Wise, F.E.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

An unusual space-time evolution for heavy ion collisions at high energies due to the QCD phase transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The space-time evolution of high energy non-central heavy ion collisions is studied with relativistic hydrodynamics. The results are very sensitive to the Equation of State(EoS). For an EoS with the QCD phase transition, an unusual matter distribution develops. Before freeze-out, two shells are formed which then physically separate and leave a maximum in the center. We make specific predictions for the azimuthal dependence of the flow and for two-pion interferometry, contrasting our results with a resonance gas EoS.

D. Teaney; E. V. Shuryak

1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

11

Unusual Space-Time Evolution for Heavy-Ion Collisions at High Energies due to the QCD Phase Transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The space-time evolution of high-energy noncentral heavy-ion collisions is studied with relativistic hydrodynamics. The results are very sensitive to the equation of state (EoS). For an EoS with the QCD phase transition, an unusual matter distribution develops. Before freeze-out, two shells are formed which physically separate and leave a maximum in the center. We make specific predictions for the azimuthal dependence of the flow and for two-pion interferometry, contrasting our results with a resonance gas EoS.

D. Teaney and E. V. Shuryak

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

12

An unusual isotope effect in a high-transition-temperature superconductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coupling in high-temperature superconductors. Nature 412,Properties of High Temperature Superconductors IV (ed.in a high-transition-temperature superconductor G. -H. Gweon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive...

14

High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter More Documents & Publications Corporate Board By-Laws...

15

High-Level Waste Corporate Board Presentation Archive | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

High-Level Waste Corporate Board Presentation Archive High-Level Waste Corporate Board Presentation Archive Archived Documents High-Level Waste Corporate Board, Dr. Ins Triay...

16

A Software Architecture for High Level Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

Shen,G.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

17

High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

19

Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation NREL, Ren Anderson Building America Technical Update Meeting July 25 th , 2012 Issue 5 - How Much Insulation is Too Much? How do we define the cost-effective limit for improvements in enclosure efficiency? Key Factors to Consider: -Cost of savings vs. cost of grid-supplied energy -Cost of efficiency savings vs. cost of savings from renewable generation. -Savings from envelope improvements vs. other efficiency options Context * It is widely believed that code-specified insulation levels also represent cost-effective limits. * However, the cost-effective insulation levels exceed IECC values in many climates. * The homeowner-driven value of modest increases in enclosure performance can create economies of scale that will reduce

20

High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

on 24 July 2008 1 on 24 July 2008 1 Office of Environmental Management High-Level Waste Corporate Board Charter Purpose This Charter establishes the High- Level Waste (HLW) Corporate Board, (hereinafter referred to as the 'Board') within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The Board will serve as a consensus building body to integrate the Department of Energy (DOE) HLW management and disposition activities across the EM program and, with the coordination and cooperation of other program offices, across the DOE complex. The Board will identify the need for and develop policies, planning, standards and guidance and provide the integration necessary to implement an effective and efficient national HLW program. The Board will also evaluate the implications of HLW issues and their

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Service-oriented high level architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Service-oriented High Level Architecture (SOHLA) refers to the high level architecture (HLA) enabled by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services etc. techniques which supports distributed interoperating services. The detailed comparisons between HLA and SOA are made to illustrate the importance of their combination. Then several key enhancements and changes of HLA Evolved Web Service API are introduced in comparison with native APIs, such as Federation Development and Execution Process, communication mechanisms, data encoding, session handling, testing environment and performance analysis. Some approaches are summarized including Web-Enabling HLA at the communication layer, HLA interface specification layer, federate interface layer and application layer. Finally the problems of current research are discussed, and the future directions are pointed out.

Wang, Wenguang; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Xichun

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,...

23

Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly...

24

High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Breakout Session 1B-Integration of Supply...

25

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the...

26

High accuracy electronic material level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

27

High accuracy electronic material level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to provide models and parameter values that can be used to calculate the dissolution rates for the different modes of water contact. The analyses were conducted to identify key aspects of the mechanistic model for glass dissolution to be included in the abstracted models used for PA calculations, evaluate how the models can be used to calculate bounding values of the glass dissolution rates under anticipated water contact modes in the disposal. system, and determine model parameter values for the range of potential waste glass compositions and anticipated environmental conditions. The analysis of a bounding rate also considered the effects of the buildup of glass corrosion products in the solution contacting the glass and potential effects of alteration phase formation. Note that application of the models and model parameter values is constrained to the anticipated range of HLW glass compositions and environmental conditions. The effects of processes inherent to exposure to humid air and dripping water were not modeled explicitly. Instead, the impacts of these processes on the degradation rate were taken into account by using empirically measured parameter values. These include the rates at which water sorbs onto the glass, drips onto the glass, and drips off of the glass. The dissolution rates of glasses that were exposed to humid air and dripping water measured in laboratory tests are used to estimate model parameter values for contact by humid air and dripping water in the disposal system.

W. Ebert

2001-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Sandia National Laboratories: high PV deployment level  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deployment level ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid...

30

Stuttering: high-level mistranslation in animal and bacterial cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stuttering: high-level mistranslation in animal...focusing dimension, a phenomenon we call "stuttering." The direction of charge shift depended...machinery from cell type to cell type. Stuttering: high-level mistranslation in animal...

J Parker; J W Pollard; J D Friesen; C P Stanners

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Chemistry related to isolation of high-level nuclear waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemistry related to isolation of high-level nuclear waste ... This article discusses the isolation of high-level nuclear waste. ... Radioactivity, Radiation, and the Chemistry of Nuclear Waste ...

Darleane C. Hoffman; Gregory R. Choppin

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Production and Properties of Solidified High-Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE. LEACHING; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DIS- POSAL; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; REVIEWS; SAFETY; SALT* 5 i ft Ml O & o o 0 00 y a^ Risø-R-431 Production and Properties of Solidified High-Level Waste PRODUCTION AND PROPERTIES OF SOLIDIFIED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE Knud Broders ;n This report has been worked out

33

High Radon Levels in Homes Spark Moves To Combat Pollutant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High Radon Levels in Homes Spark Moves To Combat Pollutant ... Federal, state agencies have initiated programs to monitor levels of this inert radioactive gas in homes in certain areas and work out control strategy ... Health care officials have been concerned about radon for more than 20 years, but public attention reached a new high recently with the discovery of high levels of radon inside homes in the New Jersey- Pennsylvania-New York area. ...

DAVID J. HANSON

1985-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

34

West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DRAFT_19507_1 DRAFT_19507_1 High-Level Waste Management Bryan Bower, DOE Director - WVDP DOE High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Savannah River Site April 1, 2008 West Valley Demonstration Project West Valley Demonstration Project DRAFT_19507_2 West Valley High-Level Waste To solidify the radioactive material from approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste into a durable, high-quality glass, both a pretreatment system to remove salts and sulfates from the waste and a vitrification system/process were designed. To solidify the radioactive material from approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste into a durable, high-quality glass, both a pretreatment system to remove salts and sulfates from the waste and a vitrification system/process were designed.

35

High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy Washington, DC July 29, 2014 Presented By: Kevin Comer, Associate...

36

2008 DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste Inventory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Management >> National Spent Nuclear Fuel INL Logo Search 2008 DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste Inventory Content Goes Here Skip Navigation Links Home Newsroom About INL...

37

Retraction: High levels of genetic change in rodents of Chernobyl  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... /36384 Retraction High levels of genetic change in rodents of Chernobyl Robert J.BakerR JRonald A.Van Den BusscheR A

Robert J. Baker; Ronald A. Van Den Bussche; Amanda J. Wright; Lara E. Wiggins; Meredith J. Hamilton; Erin P. Reat; Michael H. Smith; Michael D. Lomakin; Ronald K. Chesser

1997-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

38

MEMORY AWARE HIGH-LEVEL SYNTHESIS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEMORY AWARE HIGH-LEVEL SYNTHESIS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Gwenole Corre, Eric Senn, Nathalie Julien to take into account the memory architecture and the memory mapping in the High- Level Synthesis of Real-Time embedded systems. We formalize the memory mapping as a set of constraints for the synthesis, and defined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

HLW-OVP-97-0068 High Level Waste Management Division High-Level...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

not exceed the applicable concentration limits for Class C low-level waste as set out in 10 CFR Part 61; and (c) will be managed, pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act, so that safety...

40

NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation, October 29, 2010 NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation, October 29, 2010 North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) presentation to the Electricity Advisory Committee, October 29, 2010, on accommodating high levels of variable electricity eneration. Variable resources are types of electric power generation that rely on an uncontrolled, "variable" fuel (e.g. wind, sunlight, waves, tidal forces, and some types of rivers) to generate electricity. Most renewablesfall into this category. Reliably integrating these resources into the bulk power system will require significant changes to traditional methods used for system planning and operation. Ongoing efforts brought together by NERC and its stakeholders

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The High-Level Radioactive Waste Act (Manitoba, Canada)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Manitoba bars the storage of high-level radioactive wastes from spent nuclear fuel, not intended for research purposes, that was produced at a nuclear facility or in a nuclear reactor outside the...

42

High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1BIntegration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Kevin Comer, Associate Principal, Antares Group Inc.

43

Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel A Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy October 2009 #12 Safety (Germany) Peter De Preter: National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials

44

High-Level Information Fusion and Mission Planning in Highly Anisotropic Threat Spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Level Information Fusion and Mission Planning in Highly Anisotropic Threat Spaces Mark sharing and high-level information fusion to allow for the visualisation of highly anisotropic threat options. Keywords: Information Fusion, Threat Map, Tactical Planning. 1 Introduction We present a first

Witkowski, Mark

45

Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed...

Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Determination of the nuclear level density at high excitation energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaporation simulations are presented to illustrate the problems associated with the determination of the nuclear level density constant at high excitation energy from evaporation spectra. The methods of using either the total (whole chain) spectra or the difference (from two different initial excitation energies) spectra are discussed. Data from the study of the reaction 701 MeV Si28+100Mo are presented and both methods are used to extract the level density constant. We find that in order to reproduce the slopes of the light particle spectra the level density constant must have a value near 1/10A 1) / 11 A for excited nuclei with statistical temperatures in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 MeV. This presumes that the only parameter adjustment required to treat the decay of highly exited nuclei is the level density constant. If this is so, the shapes of the evaporation spectra imply a reduction in the level density constant from the value required to explain the decay of less highly excited nuclei, a conclusion reached by others. However, the reduced level density constant leads to an overproduction of deuterons and tritons. This suggests that a more complicated set of parameter adjustments may be required to treat the decay of highly excited nuclei.

A. Chbihi; L. G. Sobotka; N. G. Nicolis; D. G. Sarantites; D. W. Stracener; Z. Majka; D. C. Hensley; J. R. Beene; M. L. Halbert

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

System-Level Virtualization for High Performance Computing Geoffroy Vallee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

System-Level Virtualization for High Performance Computing Geoffroy Vall´ee Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA valleegr@ornl.gov Thomas Naughton Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA naughtont@ornl.gov Christian Engelmann Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN

Engelmann, Christian

48

Environmental Concerns High nutrient, bacterial and salinity levels--along  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of best management practices are critical to implementing these efforts. Through more than 130Environmental Concerns High nutrient, bacterial and salinity levels--along with low dissolved and participation vital to developing and implementing watershed-protection plans. Economic and Environmental

49

High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 09/11/08  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

UPCOMING UPCOMING EVENTS: The Low-Level Waste Federal Review Group (LFRG) in Washington, DC on 16-18 September 2008. Contact Maureen O'Dell for details (MAUREEN.O'DELL@hq.doe.gov) Next High-Level Waste Corporate Board meeting will be held at DOE- RL on 6 November 2008. Meeting details will be presented here and e- mailed to those persons with an interest to participate. Topics for discussion include but are not limited to:  Results of the Tank Integrity Workshop  Strategic Initiative Briefing  Performance Assessment Guide Proposal NEWS ITEMS 3 June 2008: WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced submittal of a License Application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission seeking authorization to construct America's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. (http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov) 8

50

On Programming Models for Service-Level High Availability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of existing programming models for service-level high availability and investigates their differences, similarities, advantages, and disadvantages. Its goal is to help to improve reuse of code and to allow adaptation to quality of service requirements by using a uniform programming model description. It further aims at encouraging a discussion about these programming models and their provided quality of service, such as availability, performance, serviceability, usability, and applicability. Within this context, the presented research focuses on providing high availability for services running on head and service nodes of high-performance computing systems.

Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL; Leangsuksun, Chokchai [ORNL; He, X. [Tennessee Technological University

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

High-Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Level Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee John E. Marra, Ph.D. Associate Laboratory Director November 6, 2008 Richland, WA DOE-EM HLW Corporate Board Meeting Background - Performance Assessment Process Performance assessments are the fundamental risk assessment tool used by the DOE to evaluate and communicate the effectiveness and long-term impact of waste management and cleanup decisions. This includes demonstrations of compliance, NEPA analyses, and decisions about technologies and 2 analyses, and decisions about technologies and waste forms. Background - Process Perception EM-2 'Precepts' for Improved High-Level Waste Management (HLW Corporate Board Meeting - April 2008) Improved Performance Assessments (PA) The PA process is not consistently applied amongst the 3 The PA process is not consistently applied amongst the major HLW sites PA

52

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Spring Meeting - May 15, 2012 Hilton Knoxville 501 West Church Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37902-2591 Agenda (Draft #1 - 4/18/12) ______________________________________________________________________________ Tuesday, May 15 - 9:00 AM - 3:30 PM / (need meeting room name) 8:00 a.m. Continental Breakfast - served in meeting room 9:00 a.m. Task Force Business Meeting - John Giarrusso, MEMA and Rich Pinney, NJDEP Co-chairs presiding  Welcome: Introductions; Agenda Review; Announcements  2012 funding  Co-Chair Election  Rules of Procedure  Membership: members & alternates appointment status  Legislative Liaisons  Staff Regional Meeting Attendance

53

High-Level Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008 Karthik Subramanian Bruce Wiersma November 2008 High Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting karthik.subramanian@srnl.doe.gov bruce.wiersma@srnl.doe.gov 2 Acknowledgements * Bruce Wiersma (SRNL) * Kayle Boomer (Hanford) * Michael T. Terry (Facilitator) * SRS - Liquid Waste Organization * Hanford Tank Farms * DOE-EM 3 Background * High level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks provide critical interim confinement for waste prior to processing and permanent disposal * Maintaining structural integrity (SI) of the tanks is a critical component of operations 4 Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008 * Discuss the HLW tank integrity technology needs based upon the evolving waste processing and tank closure requirements along with its continued storage mission

54

High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High-Level Waste Corporate Board High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Agenda Loews Hotel 1065 West Peachtree St, Atlanta, Georgia November 18, 2010 Time Topic Speaker 7:30 AM Closed Session - ratify Charter Board members 8:30 AM Welcome, Introduction, 2011 focus for HLW Corp Board Shirley Olinger 8:50 AM Introduction to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet  Show flowsheet w/ split locations  Describe recycle of LAW concept  Discuss baseline assumptions  Describe subsequent talks using flowsheet figure Gary Smith 9:15 AM Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP)  Tc/I split factors (w/ and w/o recycle)  Water management (w/ and w/o recycle) Albert Kruger 9:45 AM WTP Melter/Offgas Systems Decontamination Factors  Re as a stimulant for Tc  Issues that limit Tc incorporation in LAW glass

55

DOE high-level waste tank safety program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the work was to provide LANL with support to the DOE High-Level Waste Tank Safety Program. This effort included direct support to the DOE High-Level Waste Tank Working Groups, development of a database to track all identified safety issues, development of requirements for waste tank modernization, evaluation of external comments regarding safety-related guidance/instruction developed previously, examination of current federal and state regulations associated with DOE Tank farm operations, and performance of a conduct of operations review. All tasks which were assigned under this Task Order were completed. Descriptions of the objectives of each task and effort performed to complete each objective is provided.

NONE

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

Fox, K.

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

Life Extension of Aging High-Level Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

Bryson, D.; Callahan, V.; Ostrom, M.; Bryan, W.; Berman, H.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

58

Unusually large polarizabilities and previously unidentified atomic states in Ba  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric polarizabilities of four even-parity states of atomic barium in the range 35?60036?000cm?1, excited via two successive E1 transitions, are measured using direct spectroscopy. Several states have polarizabilities more than two orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from the known energy levels of Ba, implying the existence of two previously unobserved odd-parity states nearby. These two states are located using Stark-induced excitation, and tentatively identified as (Xe)6s8pP0,23. The (also unusually high) polarizabilities of these states, as well as that of a third odd-parity state, are reported.

C.-H. Li; S. M. Rochester; M. G. Kozlov; D. Budker

2004-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

Deffenbaugh, M.L.

1997-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy High-Level Response to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

62

Regulation of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been actively developing needed regulations over the last two years for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Technical criteria are about to be published in the form of a proposed regulation. The waste packages, underground facility, and geologic setting form the major elements of any geologic repository and the basis of a multibarrier system. Performance objectives and supporting technical criteria have been developed for each of these repository elements to provide benchmarks for scientists and engineers working in each of these major areas. 9 refs.

White, L.A.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, EIS-0287 (September 2002) EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition...

65

High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 06/03/08  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 June 2008 3 June 2008 UPCOMING EVENTS: Next High-Level Waste Corporate Board meeting will be held at DOE-ID on 24 July 2008. Meeting details will be presented here and e-mailed to those persons with an interest to participate. Topics for discussion include: * Strategic Planning Initiative * Technology Development / Needs Collection / Prioritization * Waste Acceptance Product Specification This meeting will include a members-only executive session OTHER NEWS DOE SELECTS WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS, LLC FOR TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT AT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), LLC has been selected as the tank operations contractor to store, retrieve and treat Hanford tank

66

Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than half a century, the Council of State Governments has served as a common ground for the states of the nation. The Council is a nonprofit, state-supported and -directed service organization that provides research and resources, identifies trends, supplies answers and creates a network for legislative, executive and judicial branch representatives. This List of Available Resources was prepared with the support of the US Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-89CH10402. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. The purpose of the agreement, and reports issued pursuant to it, is to identify and analyze regional issues pertaining to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and to inform Midwestern state officials with respect to technical issues and regulatory concerns related to waste transportation.

Dantoin, T.S.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kgler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

High-spin level scheme of {sup 194}Pb  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-spin states in {sup 194}Pb have been populated in the {sup 168}Er({sup 30}Si,4n) reaction at 142 MeV. The emitted {gamma} rays were detected by the EUROBALL III multidetector array. The level scheme was considerably extended and many previously observed {gamma}-ray transitions were reordered. Four new magnetic rotational bands were observed. The energies and spins of the bandheads of all previously observed magnetic rotational bands were corrected based on the observation of new transitions. From nine observed bands, only one could not be connected to the lower lying states. Based on comparison systematics with neighboring Pb isotopes and tilted-axis cranking model calculations previously reported, configuration assignments to the observed bands have been made.

Kutsarova, T.; Stefanova, E. A.; Minkova, A.; Lalkovski, S.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Hannachi, F.; Huebel, H.; Goergen, A.; Jansen, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Khoo, T. L.; Herskind, B.; Bergstroem, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Podolyak, Z. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, BAS, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia 'St. Kliment Ohridski', BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); CSNSM Orsay, IN2P3/CNRS, F-91405 (France); HISKP, Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 (Germany); ISKP, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 (Germany); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro (Italy)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

70

PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

J.A. Ziegler

2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

71

High {sup 222}Rn levels, enhanced plateout, increased diffusion coefficient  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a previous study of plateout and resuspension effects for {sup 222}Rn progeny, an unexpected suppression of the airborne {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po levels, which is total unrelated and not predicted by theory or other works, was observed when high {sup 222}Rn concentrations were utilized in a 0.283-m{sup 3} test chamber. Two separate time-dependent methods were used and are reported here to measure this airborne progeny suppression effect to attempt to possibly determine the magnitude and cause of the effect and possible consequences on prior and current ongoing radon research by others. The earlier buildup method was used to observe the buildup phase of {sup 222} Rn and its daughters from a constant emanation source, a constant air change rate (ACH), and initially zero concentrations Rn and progeny. The data were compared with theory using Leonard`s solutions to the Bateman equations to determine the magnitude of the suppression. The second method, referred to as the {open_quotes}down{close_quotes} method, was to measure the decrease in {sup 222}Rn and progeny concentrations from an initially injected high {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in the test chamber, the decrease resulting from a constant ACH of {approximately}0.1 h{sup -1} imposed by the gradual removal of air from the chamber at a constant rate of {approximately}0.5 l/min. No {sup 222}Rn emanation source was present during the second method after the initial injection so that the level of the {sup 222}Rn underwent a monotonic decrease in concentration.

Leonard, B.E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Closure Operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures. The cement and slag contents of a mix selected for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F should be limited to no more than 125 and 210 lbs/cyd, respectively, to limit the heat generated as the result of hydration reaction during curing and thereby enable mass pour placement. Trial mixes with water to total cementitious materials ratios of 0.550 to 0.580 and 125 lbs/cyd of cement and 210 lbs/cyd of slag met the strength and permeability requirements. Mix LP no.8-16 was selected for closing SRS Tanks 18-F and 19-F because it meets or exceeds the design requirements with the least amount of Portland cement and blast furnace slag. This grout is expected to flow at least 45 feet. A single point of discharge should be sufficient for unrestricted flow conditions. However, additional entry points should be identified as back-up in case restrictions in the tank impede flow. The LP no.8 series of trial mixes had surprisingly high design compressive strengths (2000 to 4000/5000 psi) which were achieved at extended curing times (28 to 90 days, respectively) given the small amount of Portland cement in the mixes (100 to 185 lbs/cyd). The grouts were flowable structural fills containing 3/8 inch gravel and concrete sand aggregate. These grouts did not segregate and require no compaction. They have low permeabilities (? 10{sup -9} cm/s) and are consequen

Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B. [URS Quality and Testing (United States); Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

The IFR pyroprocessing for high-level waste minimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process developed for the recycle of integral fast reactor (IFR) spent fuel utilizes a combination of pyrometallurgical and electrochemical methods and has been termed pyroprocessing. The process has been operated at full scale with simulated spent fuel using nonradioactive fission product elements. A comprehensive demonstration of the pyroprocessing of irradiated IFR fuel will begin later this year. Pyroprocessing involves the anodic dissolution of all the constituent elements of the IFR spent fuel and controlled electrotransport (electrorefining) to separate the actinide elements from the fission products present in the spent fuel. The process be applied to the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR oxide fuel to metallic form and a separation step to separate uranium from the transuranic (TRU) elements. The TRU elements are then recovered by electroefining in the same manner as the actinides from the IFR high-level wastes arising from pyroprocessing are virtually free of actinides, and the volume of the wastes is minimized by the intrinsic characteristics of the processing of the processing method.

Laidler, J.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of the Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems David A. Dixon Chemistry, University of Alabama,...

78

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual hanford high-level Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

three major facilities are planned: a pretreatment facility, a high-level... -shell tanks) that contain millions of liters of high-level liquid waste. The 400 Area is...

79

An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass. An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass. Abstract:...

80

Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Map of the United States of America showing the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)...

82

Amended Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste...

83

Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and...

84

Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain Groff, David ARM SGP Duchon, Claude University Of Oklahoma Category: Atmospheric State and Surface We investigate the cause of unusually high albedos at an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) extended facility near Morris, OK. In a previous study, daily albedos were calculated at several SGP extended facilities for 1998 and 1999 using broadband (.28 to 3 microns) pyranometers. The average daily albedo during this period was calculated to be at least about 5% higher at Morris than at any of the other SGP extended facilities. Surface based measurements of daily albedos at Morris and two nearby SGP extended facilities during 2004 and 2005 suggest the unusually high albedo measurements at Morris are real.

85

High-energy cosmic-ray muons at ground level and below ground level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sea-level muon spectrum predictions for the vertical and greatly ... and also by Cantrell by means of both energy-independent and energy-dependent hadron-nucleus inelastic crosssections. Most recently observed gr...

C. R. Paul; N. Chaudhuri

1976-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

86

High-energy cosmic-ray muons at ground level and below ground level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cosmic-ray muon interactions have been studied in an analysis of very recent measurements of cosmic-ray muons at sea-level and large depths underground ... By starting with the very carefully measured vertical muon

C. R. Paul; N. Chaudhuri

1977-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

87

High performance gamma measurements of equipment retrieved from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to 90% saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed.

Troyer, G.L.

1997-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

88

Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to date, which is from the definitions in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act: The term "high-level radioactive of waste streams as from the applicable definition of HLW in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. 5/11/20051 #12 defining High Level Waste: For the purpose of this statement of policy, "high-level liquid radioactive

89

Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste December 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The West Valley Demonstration Project’s high-level waste canisters will be relocated to interim onsite storage. The West Valley Demonstration Project's high-level waste canisters will be relocated to interim onsite storage. The first group of eight concrete storage casks for the West Valley Demonstration Project’s high-level waste. The first group of eight concrete storage casks for the West Valley Demonstration Project's high-level waste. Site subcontractor American DND completed demolition of the contaminated 01-14 Building in 2013. Site subcontractor American DND completed demolition of the contaminated

91

West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste December 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The West Valley Demonstration Project’s high-level waste canisters will be relocated to interim onsite storage. The West Valley Demonstration Project's high-level waste canisters will be relocated to interim onsite storage. The first group of eight concrete storage casks for the West Valley Demonstration Project’s high-level waste. The first group of eight concrete storage casks for the West Valley Demonstration Project's high-level waste. Site subcontractor American DND completed demolition of the contaminated 01-14 Building in 2013. Site subcontractor American DND completed demolition of the contaminated

92

High-spin positive-parity levels in Ca41  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of the K39(?,d)Ca41(j+), Ca41(?, ??)Ca41(j+), and K40(He3,d)Ca41(j+) experiments are interpreted in simple shell model terms. The resulting wave functions are shown to give good reproductions of the results of the above reactions populating the 17/2+, 15/2+, 13/2+, and 11/2+ levels in Ca41.NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Ca41, j?=112+-172+; calculated K39(?, d), Ca41(?, ??), and K40(He3,d) strengths. Assumed two-particle-one-hole states.

P. R. Goode and R. N. Boyd

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Vitrification of High-Level Alumina Nuclear Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Borophosphate glass compositions have been developed for the vitrification of a high alumina calcined defense waste. The effect of substituting SiO2 and P2O5 for B2O3 on the viscosity and leach resistance was mea...

J. R. Brotzman

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Very high radiation levels found in Swedish houses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... FOLLOWING the discovery of extremely high concentrations of radioactive radon daughter elements in Swedish houses, a government committee has proposed measures to allow maximum ... measures to allow maximum concen trations far higher than would be inter nationally acceptable. The radon producing the daughters derives not only from radium in the soil and rock on which ...

Wendy Barnaby

1979-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

95

High level of activation Coupled product is very stable, especially  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the cross-linked matrix makes it well-suited for use in large columns. Scaling up a purification with a gel between matrix and activated group is especially suitable for immobilising small proteins and peptides · Fast Flow matrix gives high productivity and is easy to scale up · Comprehensive technical

Lebendiker, Mario

96

A Review on the Portuguese Enterprises Web Accessibility Levels A Website Accessibility High Level Improvement Proposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Web accessibility issue has been subject of study for a wide number of organizations all around the World. The current paper describes an accessibility evaluation that aimed to test the Portuguese enterprises websites. Has the presented results state, the evaluated websites accessibility levels are significantly bad, but the majority of the detected errors are not very complex from a technological point-of-view. With this is mind, our research team, in collaboration with a Portuguese enterprise named ANO and the support of its UTAD-ANOgov/PEPPOL research project, elaborated an improvement proposal, directed to the Web content developers, which aimed on helping these specialists to better understand and implement Web accessibility features.

Ramiro Gonalves; Jos Martins; Frederico Branco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

EIS-0303: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

03: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure 03: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure EIS-0303: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure SUMMARY This EIS evaluates alternatives for closing 49 high-level radioactive waste tanks and associated equipment such as evaporator systems, transfer pipelines, diversion boxes, and pump pits. DOE selected the preferred alternative identified in the Final EIS, Stabilize Tanks-Fill with Grout, to guide development and implementation of closure of the high-level waste tanks and associated equipment at the Savannah River Site. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD March 5, 2012 EIS-0303: Supplement Analysis Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure, SC July 8, 2011 EIS-0303: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement

98

A13B-0215: Case study of the 9 April 2009 `brown' cloud: Observations of unusually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia, David J Delene, University of North Dakota (delene@aero.und.edu; http://aerosol.atmos.und.edu)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' cloud: Observations of unusually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia, David J Delene accumulation on the unprotected leading edge of the aircraft's wing during the 9 April 2009 research in Saudi diameters compared to a normal cell. Cloud base CCN measurements in Saudi Arabia are variable with some

Delene, David J.

99

PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

100

Conformance Tool High Level Design Document: IEC 61850 Cyber Security Acceleration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the high level design document for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IEC 62351-3, 4 and 6 standards conformance test software toolkit.

Edgar, Thomas W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Feasibility of lateral emplacement in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The U.S. Department of Energy recently filed a motion to withdraw the Nuclear Regulatory Commission license application for the High Level Waste Repository at Yucca (more)

Gibbs, Jonathan Sutton

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on the High Level Computational Chemistry given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

103

Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy: This document responds to DOE questions regarding smart grid policy. The approach followed herein is to write concise comments addressing the overall RFI document at a higher level. High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy More Documents & Publications Initial Comments of Honeywell, Inc. on Policy and Logistical Challenges in Implementing Smart Grid Solutions Comments of DRSG to DOE Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart

104

3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Highly photosensitive properties of CdS thin films doped with boron in high doping levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the photosensitive properties of CdS thin films doped with boron at high doping levels. Boron-doped CdS thin films were successfully prepared through the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The photosensitive properties of the boron-doped CdS thin films were significantly affected by the molar ratio of boric acid (H3BO3) to cadmium acetate (CdAc2) (0.001, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.25) and by NH3 concentration (7 and 14M). As the H3BO3/CdAc2 molar ratio increased, dark sheet resistance rapidly increased, and the boron-doped CdS thin film exhibited the highest room temperature photosensitivity (?1106 at 0.150.25 H3BO3/CdAc2 molar ratio). The photosensitive properties of the boron-doped CdS thin films were much higher than those previously reported in boron-doped CdS systems.

Kiran Kumar Challa; Edoardo Magnone; Eui-Tae Kim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

MapGraph: A High Level API for Fast Development of High Performance Graph Analytics on GPUs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High performance graph analytics are critical for a long list of application domains. In recent years, the rapid advancement of many-core processors, in particular graphical processing units (GPUs), has sparked a broad interest in developing high performance ... Keywords: GPU, Graph analytics, high-level API

Zhisong Fu; Michael Personick; Bryan Thompson

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Distributed control for reconfigurable FPGA systems: a high-level design approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distributed control for reconfigurable FPGA systems: a high-level design approach Chiraz Trabelsi to increase design productivity. This approach combines control distribution and high-level modeling in order to decrease design complexity and enhance design reuse and scalability. Control distribution is based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

An Investigation into the Oxidation State of Molybdenum in Simplified High Level Nuclear Waste Glass Compositions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Investigation into the Oxidation State of Molybdenum in Simplified High Level Nuclear Waste of Mo in glasses containing simplified simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW) streams has been originating from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Experiments using simulated nuclear waste streams

Sheffield, University of

109

A Mission Controller for High Level Control of Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous Underwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Mission Controller for High Level Control of Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous Underwater Vehicles to provide high-level control for autonomous and semi- autonomous vehicle operation. The mission controller autonomous AUVs, acoustically controlled AUVs and a new class of hybrid vehicle capable of operating both

Whitcomb, Louis L.

110

A Memory Aware High Level Synthesis Tool Gwenol Corre, Eric Senn, Nathalie Julien and Eric Martin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Memory Aware High Level Synthesis Tool Gwenolé Corre, Eric Senn, Nathalie Julien and Eric Martin.corre@univ-ubs.fr Abstract We introduce a new approach to take into account the memory architecture and the memory mapping in High- Level Synthesis for data intensive applications. We formalize the memory mapping as a set

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, EIS-0287 (September 2002) EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, EIS-0287 (September 2002) This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in liquid and solid forms. This EIS also analyzes alternatives for the final disposition of HLW management facilities at the INEEL after their missions are completed. Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, DOE/EIS-0287 (September 2002)

112

EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition 7: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition SUMMARY This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in liquid and solid forms. This EIS also analyzes alternatives for the final disposition of HLW management facilities at the INEEL after their missions are completed. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD January 12, 2010 EIS-0287: Amended Record of Decision Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition January 4, 2010

113

Preliminary estimates of cost savings for defense high level waste vitrification options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for realizing cost savings in the disposal of defense high-level waste through process and design modificatins has been considered. Proposed modifications range from simple changes in the canister design to development of an advanced melter capable of processing glass with a higher waste loading. Preliminary calculations estimate the total disposal cost (not including capital or operating costs) for defense high-level waste to be about $7.9 billion dollars for the reference conditions described in this paper, while projected savings resulting from the proposed process and design changes could reduce the disposal cost of defense high-level waste by up to $5.2 billion.

Merrill, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting March 13, 2006 - 11:48am Addthis Discuss Pakistan's energy opportunities; Follows United States-Pakistan Strategic Partnership launched by President Bush earlier this month WASHINGTON, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today visited Pakistan, the first stop in his four-nation swing where he will discuss ways that the U.S. and Pakistan can increase cooperation on energy-related issues. The Secretary's visit follows President Bush's pledge earlier this month to hold a high-level meeting between U.S. and Pakistani officials to collaborate on solutions to Pakistan's energy sources. "The U.S. and Pakistan are strong allies and America supports the people of

115

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report summarizes efforts to simulate coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes occurring within a generic hypothetical high-level waste (HLW) repository in bedded salt; chemical processes of the system allow precipitation and dissolution of salt with elevated temperatures that drive water and water vapor flow around hot waste packages. Characterizing salt backfill processes is an important objective of the exercise. An evidence-based algorithm for mineral dehydration is also applied in the modeling. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) is used to simulate coupled thermal,

116

EIS-0023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Wastes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive 023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Wastes (Research and Development Program for Immobilization) Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina EIS-0023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Wastes (Research and Development Program for Immobilization) Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina SUMMARY This EIS analyzes the potential environmental implications of the proposed continuation of a large Federal research and development (R&D) program directed toward the immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical separations operations for defense radionuclides production at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time.

117

Accelerated Weathering of High-Level and Plutonium-bearing Lanthanide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This configuration consists of a high-level waste (HLW) canister fitted with a rack that holds mini-canisters containing a Pu-bearing lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) waste...

118

Estimation of Failure Frequency for Type I and II High Level Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The failure frequency of Type I and Type II High Level Waste tanks was calculated. The degradation mechanism that could lead to large break failure and the credits taken for steps taken to prevent large break failure were considered.

Subramanian, K.H.

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). SNF is nuclear fuel that has been used as fuel in a reactor...

120

Brown, Lipton, and the Prospects of High-level IBE Brown's Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brown, Lipton, and the Prospects of High-level IBE Brown's Project With Brown's paper we turn question about the selection procedures which scientists use for identifying those theories which

Fitelson, Branden

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Renewable Northwest Comments on High-Level Indicators 1 October 31, 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable Northwest Comments on High-Level Indicators 1 October 31, 2014 VIA EMAIL Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act's Power Plan Goals Renewable Northwest appreciates (the "Act"). Our comments focus on the proposed metrics regarding renewable resource development

122

A Region Thesaurus Approach for High-Level Concept Detection in the Natural Disaster Domain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an approach on high-level feature detection using a region thesaurus. MPEG-7 features are locally extracted from ... This set of region types defines the region thesaurus. Using this thesaurus

Evaggelos Spyrou; Yannis Avrithis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Risk-informing decisions about high-level nuclear waste repositories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance assessments (PAs) are important sources of information for societal decisions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) management, particularly in evaluating safety cases for proposed HLW repository development. ...

Ghosh, Suchandra Tina, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Design of a high-level waste repository system for the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report presents a conceptual design for a High Level Waste disposal system for fuel discharged by U.S. commercial power reactors, using the Yucca Mountain repository site recently designated by federal legislation. ...

Driscoll, Michael J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Glass Formulation and Testing for U.S. High-Level Tank Wastes?Project...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formulation and Testing for U.S. High-Level Tank Wastes-Project 17210 JD Vienna, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA AA Kruger, U.S. Department of Energy,...

126

Novel Endogenous Type D Retroviral Particles Expressed at High Levels in a SCID Mouse Thymic Lymphoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Novel Endogenous Type D Retroviral Particles Expressed at High Levels in a SCID...University of Ballarat, St. John of God Hospital, Ballarat, Victoria 3350...activity. Electron microscopy revealed particles with type D retroviral morphology...

Sika Ristevski; Damian F. J. Purcell; John Marshall; Daniella Campagna; Sara Nouri; Simon P. Fenton; Dale A. McPhee; George Kannourakis

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

HIGH-LEVEL MULTI-STEP INVERTER OPTIMIZATION, USING A MINIMUM NUMBER OF POWER TRANSISTORS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH-LEVEL MULTI-STEP INVERTER OPTIMIZATION, USING A MINIMUM NUMBER OF POWER TRANSISTORS. Juan 56-41-246-999 e-mail lmoran@renoir.die.udec.cl ABSTRACT Multilevel inverters with a large number-5]. Multi-level inverters can operate not only with PWM techniques but also with amplitude modulation (AM

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

128

The tolerance of two varieties of cotton to relatively high levels of sodium and magnesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of MASTER OP SCIENCE August 1969 Major Subject Plant ~ph ~siolo THE TOLERANCE OF TvJO VARIETIES OF COTTON TO RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF SODIUN AND NAGNESIUN A Thesis by Nanhar C. Parekh Approved as to style and content by: (Head of Department...) (Nember) (Nemb ) August 1969 ABSTRACT The Tolerance of Two Varieties of Cotton to Relatively High Levels of Sodium and Magnesium. (August 1969) Masher C. Parekh, B. S. , Gujarat University, Directed by: Dr. H. E. Joham An experiment was conducted...

Parekh, Manhar C

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

129

Propagation of coleus under intermittent mist containing high levels of soluble salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPAGATION OF COLEUS UNDER INTERMITTENT MIST CONTAINING HIGH LEVELS OF SOLUBLE SALTS A Thesis SAMUEL DEAN ALLEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Horticulture PROPAGATION OF COLEUS UNDER INTERMITTENT MIST CONTAINING HIGH LEVELS OF SOLUBLE SALTS A Thesis SAMUEL DEAN ALLEN Approved as to style and content by: Edward L. McWilliams (Chairman of Committee...

Allen, Samuel Dean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

130

Event:World Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png World Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development: 9:00am Eastern Time on 2011/07/13 High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development Event Details Name World Bank-High-Level Dialogue on International Architecture to Scale-up Low-Emissions Development Date 2011/07/13 Time 9:00am Eastern Time Location Washington, District of Columbia Organizer World Bank Tags LEDS, CLEAN Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Event:World_Bank-High-Level_Dialogue_on_International_Architecture_to_Scale-up_Low-Emissions_Development&oldid=3681

131

Design of Microsecond Level and High Current Pulse Driver Systems for Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a microsecond, high current pulse generator to drive quantum cascade lasesrs. The driver systems consist of pulse generator; power amplifier; fast switches and constant current supply circuits. The pulse width and pulse repetition ... Keywords: microsecond level, high current, pulesd driver systems, quantum cascade laser

Lei Li; Chen Chen; Hai Yu; Chengjun Dong; Yiding Wang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

THE RETRIEVAL KNOWLEDGE CENTER EVALUATION OF LOW TANK LEVEL MIXING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK RETRIEVAL 10516  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation & Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation & Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same technology have proven to be difficult. Through the RKC, DOE-EM funded an evaluation of adaptable commercial technologies that could assist with the removal of the tank heels. This paper will discuss the efforts and results of developing the RKC to improve communications and discussion of tank waste retrieval through a series of meetings designed to identify technical gaps in retrieval technologies at the DOE Hanford and Savannah River Sites. This paper will also describe the results of an evaluation of commercially available technologies for low level mixing as they might apply to HLW tank heel retrievals.

Fellinger, A.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

133

Event:ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: on 2012/10/29 "ECREEE in cooperation with the Global Forum for Sustainable Energy (GSFE), and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), are organizing a three-day High Level Forum on the theme: "Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency". Hosted by the Government of Ghana, the forum will contribute to the UN Sustainable Energy For All Initiative and will follow-up on the key decisions of the Rio+20 Summit". Participants will

134

The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref.

Presgrove, S.B. (Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref.

Presgrove, S.B. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Public Utilities Commission All proposed nuclear power generation facilities must be certified by the Public Utilities Commission under this statute prior to construction and

137

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Record of Decision (ROO). This Record of Decision has been prepared pursuant to the Council on Environme~tal Quality ~egulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Pol icy Act (NEPAl (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and the Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). It is based on DOE's "Environmental Impact Statement for the Oi sposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes'' (OOE/EIS-0113) and consideration of ~11 public and agency comments received on the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). fJECISION The decision is to implement the ''Preferred Alternative'' as discussed in

138

MODELING OF THE THERMOHYDRODYNAMIC AND REACTIVE BEHAVIOR OF COMPACTED CLAY FOR HIGH-LEVEL RADIONUCLIDE WASTE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...proposed as an engineered-buffer material in high-level radionuclide...regarding the stability of benonite backfill in a high-level (HLW) repository...pp. Lide, D.R. (1997) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics...proposed as an engineered-buffer material in high-level radionuclide...

Ricardo Juncosa; Vicente Navarro; Jordi Delgado; Ana Vzquez

139

Levels of High Energy Phosphates in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines by 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Sciences Levels of High Energy Phosphates in Human...Cell Lines by 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance...Levels of high energy phosphates in human...cell lines by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance...Levels of High Energy Phosphates in Human...Cell Lines by 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance...

Richard H. Knop; Desmond N. Carney; Chi Wan Chen; Jack S. Cohen; and John D. Minna

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

ILPBased Scheduling with Time and Resource Constraints in High Level Synthesis \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The scheduling problem in high­level synthesis is con­ cerned with sequencing the operators of a control­ constrained scheduling (RCS) minimizes the number of control steps when the number of FU's are fixed; (2) time­constrained scheduling (TCS) minimizes the number of resources when the number of control steps is fixed. We can also

Walker, Robert A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Towards a modular and scalable architecture for high-level smart grid applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sensor and actor population within future smart distribution grids is much denser than within transmission grids. Thereby, future grid management systems have to cope with larger amounts of data than today's grid management systems. Also, future high-level ... Keywords: component-oriented software development, modular software design, smart grids, software architecture

Niels Streekmann, Simon Giesecke, Gerriet Reents, Matthias Rohr, Michael Stadler, Nils Vogel, Martin Frenzel, Jrg Friebe, Till Luhmann

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Modeling Mobile Agent Systems with High Level Petri Nets Dianxiang Xu and Yi Deng  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling Mobile Agent Systems with High Level Petri Nets Dianxiang Xu and Yi Deng School-based approach for architectural modeling of mobile agent systems. Agent template (net) is proposed to model as a component, consisting of mobility environment (system net), agent templates (agent nets), and internal

144

Brief Communication High temperature pulses decrease indirect chilling injury and elevate ATP levels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brief Communication High temperature pulses decrease indirect chilling injury and elevate ATP: Received 20 December 2009 Accepted 8 March 2010 Available online 15 March 2010 Keywords: ATP Energy supply by determining survival rates and ATP levels for flies that had undergone continuous long-term exposure at 0 °C

Lee Jr., Richard E.

145

Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

Burgard, K.C.

1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

146

Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

Not Available

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Sequential Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling of Variably Saturated Flow in High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sequential Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling of Variably Saturated Flow in High-Level Radioactive Waste long-lived radioactive wastes must be managed in a safe way for human health and for the environment. That is the raison why the French agency for the management of radioactive waste (ANDRA) is engaged to study

Boyer, Edmond

148

Under Vehicle Perception for High Level Safety Measures Using A Catadioptric Camera System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost. Moreover, displaying the under frames of the vehicles by typical perspective cameras that haveUnder Vehicle Perception for High Level Safety Measures Using A Catadioptric Camera System Caner Sahin and Mustafa Unel Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences Sabanci University Istanbul, Turkey

Yanikoglu, Berrin

149

Geological Constraints on High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal and their Relationship to Possible  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Possible Long Term Storage Solutions- A Case Study of the Yucca Mountain Project Teresa Dunn 2013 #12;Dunn systems and geologic composition in the selection and development of a secure, long-term storage facilityDunn 1 Geological Constraints on High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal and their Relationship

Polly, David

150

The HSP Terminator of Arabidopsis thaliana Induces a High Level of Miraculin Accumulation in Transgenic Tomatoes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Outchkourov, N. S.; Peters, J.; de Jong, J.; Rademakers, W.; Jongsma, M. A.The promoter-terminator of chrysanthemum rbcS1 directs very high expression levels in plants Planta 2003, 216, 1003 1012 ... Outchkourov, N. S.; Peters, J.; de Jong, J.; Rademakers, W.; Jongsma, M. A. ...

Tadayoshi Hirai; Natsuko Kurokawa; Narendra Duhita; Kyoko Hiwasa-Tanase; Kazuhisa Kato; Ko Kato; Hiroshi Ezura

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

151

Low and High-Level Visual Feature Based Apple Detection from Multi-modal Images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Low and High-Level Visual Feature Based Apple Detection from Multi-modal Images J. P. Wachs1 , H discusses the development of a machine vision system, capable of recognizing occluded green apples within a tree canopy. This involves the detection of "green" apples within scenes of "green leaves", shadow

Wachs, Juan

152

High-Level Support for Pipeline Parallelism on Many-Core Architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Level Support for Pipeline Parallelism on Many-Core Architectures Siegfried Benkner1 , Enes the pipeline pattern. We propose C/C++ language annotations for specifying pipeline patterns and describe - International European Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing - 2012 (2012)" #12;support for pipelined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Parameter Estimates for High-Level Nuclear Transport in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

accurate description of the transport and dispersion of nuclear contam- ination through a granitic medium with a standard model for the transport and dispersion of a nuclear chain in an unfractured, singleParameter Estimates for High-Level Nuclear Transport in Fractured Porous Media Jim Douglas, Jr. #3

Douglas Jr., Jim

154

Memory Accesses Management During High Level Gwenole Corre, Eric Senn, Pierre Bomel, Nathalie Julien, Eric Martin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Memory Accesses Management During High Level Synthesis Gwenol´e Corre, Eric Senn, Pierre Bomel architecture and the memory mapping in behavioral synthesis. We formalize the memory mapping as a set of constraints for the synthesis, and defined a Memory Con- straint Graph and an accessibility criterion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Unusual dielectric response in cobalt doped reduced graphene oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intensive research on cobalt doped reduced graphene oxide (Co-RGO) to investigate the modification in graphene magnetism and spin polarization due to presence of transition metal atom has been carried out, however, its dielectric spectroscopy, particularly, how capacitance changes with impurity levels in graphene is relatively unexplored. In the present work, dielectric spectroscopy along with magneto-dielectric effect are investigated in Co-RGO. Contrary to other materials, here permittivity increases abruptly with frequency in the low frequency region and continues to increase till 10{sup 7}?Hz. This unusual behavior is explained on the basis of trap induced capacitance created due to impurity levels.

Akhtar, Abu Jahid; Gupta, Abhisek; Kumar Shaw, Bikash; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

156

Simulations Reveal Unusual Death for Ancient Stars  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Certain primordial stars-those between 55,000 and 56,000 times the mass of our Sun, or solar masses-may have died unusually. In death, these objects-among the Universe's...

157

Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Strategic Minimization of High Level Waste from Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in two high-level waste streams--ceramic and metal waste. Ceramic waste contains active metal fission product-loaded salt from the electrorefining, while the metal waste contains cladding hulls and undissolved noble metals. While pyroprocessing was successfully demonstrated for treatment of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in 1999, it was done so without a specific objective to minimize high-level waste generation. The ceramic waste process uses throw-away technology that is not optimized with respect to volume of waste generated. In looking past treatment of EBR-II fuel, it is critical to minimize waste generation for technology developed under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). While the metal waste cannot be readily reduced, there are viable routes towards minimizing the ceramic waste. Fission products that generate high amounts of heat, such as Cs and Sr, can be separated from other active metal fission products and placed into short-term, shallow disposal. The remaining active metal fission products can be concentrated into the ceramic waste form using an ion exchange process. It has been estimated that ion exchange can reduce ceramic high-level waste quantities by as much as a factor of 3 relative to throw-away technology.

Simpson, Michael F.; Benedict, Robert W.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Unusual defect physics in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cell absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin-film solar cells based on Methylammonium triiodideplumbate (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) halide perovskites have recently shown remarkable performance. First-principle calculations show that CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} has unusual defect physics: (i) Different from common p-type thin-film solar cell absorbers, it exhibits flexible conductivity from good p-type, intrinsic to good n-type depending on the growth conditions; (ii) Dominant intrinsic defects create only shallow levels, which partially explain the long electron-hole diffusion length and high open-circuit voltage in solar cell. The unusual defect properties can be attributed to the strong Pb lone-pair s orbital and I p orbital antibonding coupling and the high ionicity of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}.

Yin, Wan-Jian, E-mail: wanjian.yin@utoledo.edu; Shi, Tingting; Yan, Yanfa, E-mail: yanfa.yan@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Performance of e/$?$-based Triggers at the CMS High Level Trigger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS reconstruction and analysis software running on a computer farm. In order to achieve a good rate reduction with as little as possible impact on the physics efficiency, the algorithms used at HLT are designed to follow as closely as possible the ones used in the offline reconstruction. Here, we will present the algorithms used for the online reconstruction of electrons and photons (e/$\\gamma$), both at L1 and HLT, and their performance and the planned improvements of these HLT objects.

Zeynep Demiragli

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Performance of e/$\\gamma$-based Triggers at the CMS High Level Trigger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS reconstruction and analysis software running on a computer farm. In order to achieve a good rate reduction with as little as possible impact on the physics efficiency, the algorithms used at HLT are designed to follow as closely as possible the ones used in the offline reconstruction. Here, we will present the algorithms used for the online reconstruction of electrons and photons (e/$\\gamma$), both at L1 and HLT, and their performance and the planned improvements of these HLT objects.

Demiragli, Zeynep

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Cold Crucible Induction Melting Technology for Vitrification of High Level Waste: Development and Status in India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold crucible induction melting is globally emerging as an alternative technology for the vitrification of high level radioactive waste. The new technology offers several advantages such as high temperature availability with long melter life, high waste loading, high specific capacity etc. Based on the laboratory and bench scale studies, an engineering scale cold crucible induction melter was locally developed in India. The melter was operated continuously to assess its performance. The electrical and thermal efficiencies were found to be in the range of 70-80 % and 10-20 % respectively. Glass melting capacities up to 200 kg m{sup -2} hr{sup -1} were accomplished using the ESCCIM. Industrially adaptable melter operating procedures for start-up, melting and pouring operations were established (author)

Sugilal, G.; Sengar, P.B.S. [Nuclear Recycle Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

DOE-EA-0179; Waste Form Selection for Savannah River Plant High-Level Waste  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

48326 (F.R.) 48326 (F.R.) NOTICES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Compliance With the National Environmental Policy Act Proposed Finding of No Significant Impact, Selection of Borosilicate Glass as the Defense Waste Processing Facility Waste Form for High -Level Radioactive Wastes Savanah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina Thursday, July 29, 1982 *32778 AGENCY: Energy Department. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA- 0179) on the proposed selection of borosilicate glass as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste form for the immobilization of the high -level radioactive wastes generated and stored at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP), Aiken, South Carolina. DOE recently decided to immobilize

164

Title: An Advanced Solution for the Storage, Transportation and Disposal of Vitrified High Level Waste  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Presented at Global 99, Jackson, Wyoming, August 29 - September 2, 1999 Presented at Global 99, Jackson, Wyoming, August 29 - September 2, 1999 1 AN ADVANCED SOLUTION FOR THE STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT FUEL AND VITRIFIED HIGH LEVEL WASTE William J. Quapp Teton Technologies, Inc. 860 W. Riverview Dr. Idaho Falls, ID 83401 208-535-9001 ABSTRACT For future nuclear power deployment in the US, certain changes in the back end of the fuel cycle, i.e., disposal of high level waste and spent fuel, must become a real options. However, there exists another problem from the front end of the fuel cycle which has until recently, received less attention. Depleted uranium hexafluoride is a by-product of the enrichment process and has accumulated for over 50 years. It now represents a potential environmental problem. This paper describes a

165

Regulatory standards for permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides a summary of observations drawn from twenty years of personal experience in working with regulatory criteria for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste for both the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository for transuranic defense waste and the proposed Yucca Mountain repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes. Rather than providing specific recommendations for regulatory criteria, my goal here is to provide a perspective on topics that are fundamental to how high-level radioactive waste disposal regulations have been implemented in the past. What are the main questions raised relevant to long-term disposal regulations? What has proven effective in the past? Where have regulatory requirements perhaps had unintended consequences? New regulations for radioactive waste disposal may prove necessary, but the drafting of these regulations may be premature until a broad range of policy issues are better addressed. In the interim, the perspective offered here may be helpful for framing policy discussions.

Swift, Peter N.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F. [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Unusual Inorganic Biradicals: A Theoretical Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triatomic ions in the series FX2+, where X = O, S, Se, Te and Po are the terminal atoms, exhibit unusually high biradical characters (0.76 < B < 0.92), as measured from the analysis of Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions. Candidates in this series have the largest biradical character among the homologous, 18 valence electron CX22-, NX2?, X3 and OX2 (X = O, S, Se, Te and Po) systems. In the same scale the biradical character of ozone (O3) is just 0.19, whereas that of trimethylenemethane [C(CH2)3] is 0.97 (B=1 for an "ideal" biradical). For the 24 electron XO2 series, consisting of molecules with two oxygen atoms and a moiety X that is isoelectronic to oxygen, i.e. X= CH2, NH, O, F+, the singlet (S) state is lower than the triplet (T) one and the S-T splitting as well the barrier between their "open" and "ring" configurations was found to depend linearly with the inverse of the biradical character.

Miliordos, Evangelos; Ruedenberg, Klaus; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

168

Unusual Doppler effect in He II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many years ago Khalatnikov described unusual properties of the Doppler shift for the second sound in He II, first of all the back-entrainment effect: at some temperatures (at the beginning of the roton region) the center of the spreading sound moves in the direction opposite to the normal-component velocity vn [?u2=?(T)vn, ?(T?0.6 K)Doppler shift of the first and fourth sounds as a trivial, kinematic effect: the center of the spreading sound moves with the velocity of the liquid as a whole [?u1,4?j/p=(1-?n/?)vs]. We show that the real situation is quite different. We find (1) the coefficient K in the Doppler-shift expression, ?u1,4=(1-K1,4?n/?)vs, substantially differs from the kinematic value K=1:?K?max reaches some tens. (2) K1(T) and K4(T) have different (qualitatively opposite) nontrivial temperature dependences, in particular a high peak (modulo) at the beginning of the roton region. (3) K1,4(T) can be negative: K1effect: the center of the spreading sound moves faster than the flowing superfluid part of the liquid itself.

Y. A. Nepomnyashchy

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Evaluation of systems specified to work at a high level of reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of Systems Specified. to Mork at a High Level of Reliability. (August 1974) I Luc Perrouin, Ingenieur civil des Telecommunications Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. H. 0. Hartley In order to evaluate the reliability of a system to a high... to express my sincerest appreciation and gratitude to Dr. H. 0. Hartley for his patience and understanding during the course of this research and for his invaluable help during my year of study at Texas AQ4 University. I am s1so thankfu1 to the members...

Perrouin, Luc Victor

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

170

What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

DOE

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Effects of attenuation, dispersion, and high sound?pressure levels on acoustic wave distortion in horns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High?power sound sources have received a lot of attention in the past few years due to renewed interest in industrial applications of high?intensity sounds such as the acoustic agglomeration of aerosols or combustion enhancement. Most high?power sound sources require a horn to match the source impedance to the medium where the sound is radiated. Such horns introduce distortion in the initial waveform which can be detrimental to the agglomeration or combustion enhancement process. Boundary?layer attenuation smooths the wave shape while dispersion breaks up the symmetry of the waveform. Horn?induced dispersion is usually the dominant dispersion mechanism resulting in strong peaks in the waveform. Finally due to the very high acoustic levels at the horn throat finite?amplitude effects are responsible for a significant amount of distortion at high frequencies. Simple examples of waveform distortion due to these various mechanisms are shown. The effects of sound?pressure level horn design and frequency on distortion are illustrated for an exponential horn and several initial wave shapes. Experimental results are presented that compare very well with theory.

Frederic G. Pla; Gerhard Reethof

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

ROGERS, C.A.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

Kelly, Steven E.

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

175

A Unified Multiple-Level Cache for High Performance Storage Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multi-level cache hierarchies are widely used in high-performance storage systems to improve I/O performance. However, traditional cache management algorithms are not suited well for such cache organizations. Recently proposed multi-level cache replacement algorithms using aggressive exclusive caching work well with single or multiple-client, low-correlated workloads, but suffer serious performance degradation with multiple-client, high-correlated workloads. In this paper, we propose a new cache management algorithm that handles multi-level buffer caches by forming a unified cache (uCache), which uses both exclusive caching in L2 storage caches and cooperative client caching. We also propose a new local replacement algorithm, Frequency Based Eviction-Reference (FBER), based on our study of access patterns in exclusive caches. Our simulation results show that uCache increases the cumulative cache hit ratio dramatically. Compared to other popular cache algorithms, such as LRU, the I/O response time is improved by up to 46% for low-correlated workloads and 53% for high-correlated workloads.

He, X. [Tennessee Technological University; Ou, Li [Tennessee Technological University; Kosa, Martha J. [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Steven L [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

High efficiency blue PhOLEDs using spiro-annulated triphenylamine/fluorene hybrids as host materials with high triplet energy, high HOMO level and high Tg  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Two spiro-annulated triphenylamine/fluorene oligomers, namely 4?-(9,9?-spirobifluoren-4-yl)-10-phenyl-10H-spiro[acridine-9,9?-fluorene] (NSF-SF), and 4,4?-di(spiro(triphenylamine-9,9?-fluorene)-2-yl)-spiro(triphenylamine-9,9?-fluorene) (NSF-NSF), are designed and synthesized. Their thermal, electrochemical and photophysical properties were investigated. The introduction of spiro-annulated triphenylamine moieties assurances the high HOMO energy levels of NSF-NSF and NSF-SF at ?5.31eV and ?5.33eV, respectively, which accordingly facilitates the hole injection from nearby hole-transporting layer. Meanwhile, the perpendicular arrangement of the spiro-conformation and the full ortho-linkage effectively prevents the extension of the ?-conjugation and consequently guarantees their high triplet energies of 2.83eV. Phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) with the configurations of ITO/MoO3/TAPC/EML/TmPyPB/LiF/Al were fabricated by using the two compounds as host materials and bis[2-(4?,6?-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C2?]iridium(III) picolate (FIrpic) as the dopant. The turn-on voltage of the device B based on NSF-NSF was 2.8V. Simultaneously, the device exhibited excellent performance with the maximum current efficiency of 41cdA?1, the maximum power efficiency of 42lmW?1 and the maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.1%. At a high brightness of 1000cdm?2, the device remained EQE of 16.2% and the roll-off value of external quantum efficiency is 15%.

Tengxiao Liu; Hengda Sun; Cong Fan; Dongge Ma; Cheng Zhong; Chuluo Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

3rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009, Nuremberg, Germany, March 30, 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009 for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009, Nuremberg, Germany, March 30, 2009 Outline · Background work #12;3/193rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009

Engelmann, Christian

180

Constructing a Risk Controversy: The Case of a Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository on the Skull Valley Goshute.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This thesis is a qualitative case study of a risk controversy generated by a proposal to construct a high-level nuclear waste repository on the (more)

Jones, Taunya J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conventional power plants and wind power. IEEE Transactionsplanning with significant wind power generation. IEEEmix with high level of wind power penetration. Applied

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables.

McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.; Juhas, M.C.; Logan, R.W.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At-labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

184

High-spin level structure of the doubly odd nucleus 104Ag  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high-spin level structure of the doubly odd nucleus 104Ag has been investigated via the 97Mo(11B, 4n)104Ag reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV. The newly established level scheme includes lower-lying two-quasiparticle states and several higher-lying bands. Two positive-parity bands associated with the ?g9/2?1??d5/2 and ?g9/2?1??g7/2 configurations are extended significantly. Based on the comparison with the analogous structures in neighboring nuclei and the features of nuclear chirality, the negative parity bands are suggested as candidate chiral doublet bands with the ?g9/2?1??h11/2 configuration.

Z. G. Wang; M. L. Liu; Y. H. Zhang; X. H. Zhou; B. T. Hu; N. T. Zhang; S. Guo; B. Ding; Y. D. Fang; J. G. Wang; G. S. Li; Y. H. Qiang; S. C. Li; B. S. Gao; Y. Zheng; W. Hua; X. G. Wu; C. Y. He; Y. Zheng; C. B. Li; J. J. Liu; S. P. Hu

2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

185

Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)] [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)] [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

High level seismic/vibrational tests at the HDR: An overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Phase II testing at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, two series of high-level seismic/vibrational experiments were performed. In the first of these (SHAG) a coast-down shaker, mounted on the reactor operating floor and capable of generating 1000 tonnes of force, was used to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction (SSI), and piping/equipment response at load levels equivalent to those of a design basis earthquake. The HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure exhibiting highly nonlinear response. In the load transmission from structure to piping/equipment significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies occurred. The performance of various pipe support configurations was evaluated. This latter effort was continued in the second series of tests (SHAM), in which an in-plant piping system was investigated at simulated seismic loads (generated by two servo-hydraulic actuators each capable of generating 40 tonnes of force), that exceeded design levels manifold and resulted in considerable pipe plastification and failure of some supports (snubbers). The evaluation of six different support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is essential to limiting pipe stresses. Pipe strains at loads exceeding the design level eightfold were still tolerable, indicating that pipe failure even under extreme seismic loads is unlikely inspite of multiple support failures. Conservatively, an excess capacity (margin) of at least four was estimated for the piping system, and the pipe damping was found to be 4%. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear computational results with measurements showed that analytical predictions have wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses, underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces.

Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schrammel, D.; Malcher, L. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Steinhilber, H. [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

High level seismic/vibrational tests at the HDR: An overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Phase II testing at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, two series of high-level seismic/vibrational experiments were performed. In the first of these (SHAG) a coast-down shaker, mounted on the reactor operating floor and capable of generating 1000 tonnes of force, was used to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction (SSI), and piping/equipment response at load levels equivalent to those of a design basis earthquake. The HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure exhibiting highly nonlinear response. In the load transmission from structure to piping/equipment significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies occurred. The performance of various pipe support configurations was evaluated. This latter effort was continued in the second series of tests (SHAM), in which an in-plant piping system was investigated at simulated seismic loads (generated by two servo-hydraulic actuators each capable of generating 40 tonnes of force), that exceeded design levels manifold and resulted in considerable pipe plastification and failure of some supports (snubbers). The evaluation of six different support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is essential to limiting pipe stresses. Pipe strains at loads exceeding the design level eightfold were still tolerable, indicating that pipe failure even under extreme seismic loads is unlikely inspite of multiple support failures. Conservatively, an excess capacity (margin) of at least four was estimated for the piping system, and the pipe damping was found to be 4%. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear computational results with measurements showed that analytical predictions have wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses, underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces.

Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Schrammel, D.; Malcher, L. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)); Steinhilber, H. (Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany)); Costello, J.F. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

High-Level Waste Corporate Board, Dr. Inᅢᄅs Triay  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office of Environmental Management Office of Environmental Management High-Level Waste Corporate Board April 1, 2008 safety v performance v cleanup v closure M E Environmental Management Environmental Management What Are Corporate Issues? * They usually occur at multiple sites * They usually have an impact that exceeds their initial point of application. Thus, they impact: - Policies - Planning - Standards & Guidance - EM's relationship with other agencies both internal and external to DOE safety v performance v cleanup v closure M E Environmental Management Environmental Management Current Corporate Issues * Performance Assessment * Quality Assurance * Methods to Determine the Waste Inventory * Chemical Processing * Waste Forms * Actual Disposition of Waste * Waste Treatment safety v

189

Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

190

Performance assessment overview for subseabed disposal of high level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) was part of an international program that investigated the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments. This report briefly describes the seven-step iterative performance assessment procedures used in this study and presents representative results of the last iteration. The results of the performance are compared to interim standards developed for the SDP, to other conceptual repositories, and to related metrics. The attributes, limitations, uncertainties, and remaining tasks in the SDP feasibility phase are discussed.

Klett, R.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel?s susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

Hoffman, E.

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

192

STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS FROM HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE SOLUTIONS USING MONOSODIUM TITANATE 1. SIMULANT TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal, and ion exchange/sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides with an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from simulated waste solutions. These tests evaluated the influence of ionic strength, temperature, solution composition and the oxidation state of plutonium.

HOBBS, D. T.; BARNES, M. J.; PULMANO, R. L.; MARSHALL, K. M.; EDWARDS, T. B.; BRONIKOWSKI, M. G.; FINK, S. D.

2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

193

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Performance of muon-based triggers at the CMS High Level Trigger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The trigger systems of the CERN LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with the detector readout, offline storage and analysis capabilities. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS reconstruction and analysis software running on a computer farm. Here we will present the design and performance of the main muon triggers used during the Run I data taking. We will show how these triggers contributed to the 2012 physics results. We will then present the improvements foreseen to meet the challenges of the Run II data taking. We will discuss the improvements being made at L1, and at various stages in the HLT reconstruction, ranging from the local drift tube and cathode strip chamber reconstruction, to ...

Alimena, Juliette

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Performance of Muon-Based Triggers at the CMS High Level Trigger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The trigger systems of the CERN LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with the detector readout, offline storage and analysis capabilities. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS reconstruction and analysis software running on a computer farm. Here we will present the design and performance of the main muon triggers used during the Run I data taking. We will show how these triggers contributed to the 2012 physics results. We will then present the improvements foreseen to meet the challenges of the Run II data taking. We will discuss the improvements being made at L1, and at various stages in the HLT reconstruction, ranging from the local drift tube and cathode strip chamber reconstruction, to L2 muon tracks, to the final L3 muons.

Juliette Alimena

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

196

World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E. [AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Piroux, J.C. [Joint Vitrification Laboratory - LCV, Marcoule, BP171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Vapor Corrosion Response of Low Carbon Steel Exposed to Simulated High Level Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program to resolve the issues associated with potential vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion in the Type III high level waste tanks is in place. The objective of the program is to develop understanding of vapor space (VSC) and liquid/air interface (LAIC) corrosion to ensure a defensible technical basis to provide accurate corrosion evaluations with regard to vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion. The results of the FY05 experiments are presented here. The experiments are an extension of the previous research on the corrosion of tank steel exposed to simple solutions to corrosion of the steel when exposed to complex high level waste simulants. The testing suggested that decanting and the consequent residual species on the tank wall is the predominant source of surface chemistry on the tank wall. The laboratory testing has shown that at the boundary conditions of the chemistry control program for solutions greater than 1M NaNO{sub 3}{sup -}. Minor and isolated pitting is possible within crevices in the vapor space of the tanks that contain stagnant dilute solution for an extended period of time, specifically when residues are left on the tank wall during decanting. Liquid/air interfacial corrosion is possible in dilute stagnant solutions, particularly with high concentrations of chloride. The experimental results indicate that Tank 50 would be most susceptible to the potential for liquid/air interfacial corrosion or vapor space corrosion, with Tank 49 and 41 following, since these tanks are nearest to the chemistry control boundary conditions. The testing continues to show that the combination of well-inhibited solutions and mill-scale sufficiently protect against pitting in the Type III tanks.

Wiersma, B

2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

199

NSLS-II HIGH LEVEL APPLICATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND CLIENT API DESIGN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The beam commissioning software framework of NSLS-II project adopts a client/server based architecture to replace the more traditional monolithic high level application approach. It is an open structure platform, and we try to provide a narrow API set for client application. With this narrow API, existing applications developed in different language under different architecture could be ported to our platform with small modification. This paper describes system infrastructure design, client API and system integration, and latest progress. As a new 3rd generation synchrotron light source with ultra low emittance, there are new requirements and challenges to control and manipulate the beam. A use case study and a theoretical analysis have been performed to clarify requirements and challenges to the high level applications (HLA) software environment. To satisfy those requirements and challenges, adequate system architecture of the software framework is critical for beam commissioning, study and operation. The existing traditional approaches are self-consistent, and monolithic. Some of them have adopted a concept of middle layer to separate low level hardware processing from numerical algorithm computing, physics modelling, data manipulating, plotting, and error handling. However, none of the existing approaches can satisfy the requirement. A new design has been proposed by introducing service oriented architecture technology. The HLA is combination of tools for accelerator physicists and operators, which is same as traditional approach. In NSLS-II, they include monitoring applications and control routines. Scripting environment is very important for the later part of HLA and both parts are designed based on a common set of APIs. Physicists and operators are users of these APIs, while control system engineers and a few accelerator physicists are the developers of these APIs. With our Client/Server mode based approach, we leave how to retrieve information to the developers of APIs and how to use them to form a physics application to the users. For example, how the channels are related to magnet and what the current real-time setting of a magnet is in physics unit are the internals of APIs. Measuring chromaticities are the users of APIs. All the users of APIs are working with magnet and instrument names in a physics unit. The low level communications in current or voltage unit are minimized. In this paper, we discussed our recent progress of our infrastructure development, and client API.

Shen, G.; Yang; L.; Shroff; K.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

200

EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EM Waste Acceptance Product EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms Presentation to the HLW Corporate Board July 24, 2008 By Tony Kluk/Ken Picha 2 Background * Originally Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications were Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) documents and project specific: - Defense Waste Processing Facility (PE-03, July 1989) - West Valley Demonstration Project (PE-04, January 1990) * Included many of same specifications as current version of WAPS * First version of RW Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document in January 1993 (included requirements for both SNF and HLW) * EM decided to extract requirements for HLW and put into the WAPS document 3 Background (Cont'd) * Lists technical specifications for acceptance of borosilicate HLW

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201

The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}d) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition, and the spinel solubility (c{sub o}) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of T{sub L} as a function of composition are based on T{sub L} measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c{sub o} versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates T{sub L} as a function of composition based on c{sub o} data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

203

Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

204

Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW) structural integrity program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site has fifty-one underground tanks for radioactive waste storage and processing with doubly-contained piping systems for waste transfer. The SRS High Level Waste structural Integrity Program provides a process for evaluation and documenting material aging issues for structures, systems and components (SSC) in these facilities to maintain their confinement function. SRS has been monitoring waste, waste storage tanks, testing transfer lines and controlling waste chemistry for many years. A successful structural integrity (SI) program requires the following: detailed understanding of applicable degradation mechanisms; controlled chemistries and additions, as necessary; regular chemistry sampling and monitoring; structural capacity considerations; and a combination of on-line and periodic inspection and testing programs to provide early detection of generic degradation and verify effectiveness of the management of degradation under aging conditions identified by the SI Program. The application of these elements in the HLW SI Program achieves confinement in the facilities throughout desired service life.

Marra, J.E.; Abodishish, H.A.; Barnes, D.M.; Sindelar, R.L.; Flanders, H.E.; Houston, T.W.; Wiersma, B.J.; McNatt, F.G. Sr.; Cowfer, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; LIU,J.; QIAN,M.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

206

The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni , Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (TL) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition and the spinel solubility (c0) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of TL as a function of composition are based on TL measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c0 versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates TL as a function of composition based on c0 data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

208

Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

Klett, R.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Cyclic voltammetric studies for the electrochemical determination of palladium in high-level nuclear waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cyclic voltammetric studies of Pd(II)/Pd(0) electrode process were carried out on a Glassy Carbon Electrode (GCE) in HCl for the development of an Anodic Stripping Voltammetric (ASV) method for the determination of palladium in High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW). Pd(II) reduces electrochemically to Pd(0) in a wide potential range, depending upon the concentration of HCl. No significant effect of concentration was observed on the oxidation of palladium, which more or less occurs at 500 mV. Effects of HCl concentration, potential scan range, scan rate and scan repetition were studied in detail. The oxidation of palladium in HCl medium was relatively more distinct than in nitric and sulphuric acids. Maximum anodic and cathodic peak currents of unequal heights were observed at 1.0 10?2 M concentration of HCl. An ASV method was developed successfully on the basis of these studies for the determination of palladium in HLNW.

T.K. Bhardwaj

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Resistance minimum observed at Landau level filling factor ?=1/2 in ultra high magnetic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the magnetotransport near Landau level filling factor ?=1/2 in a gated GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As square quantum well (width 35 nm) in magnetic field up to 45 T and in a temperature (T) range between 50 mK and 1.5 K. The longitudinal resistance at ?=1/2, Rxx(?=1/2), exhibits a steep valley that is flanked by a pair of rising resistance peaks in low T. The Rxx(?=1/2) shows nonmonotonous dependence on T, with a minimum resistance reached at T?0.5?K. The concomitant Hall resistance Rxy is not strictly linear with magnetic field and its slope shows a sharp cusp at ?=1/2, indicating a nonclassical Hall effect. The data are characteristic for ultra high field magnetotransport around ?=1/2 in thick, but single-layer, quantum wells.

Jian Zhang; R. R. Du; J. A. Simmons; J. L. Reno

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

211

Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

High-level numerical simulations of noise in CCD and CMOS photosensors: review and tutorial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many applications, such as development and testing of image processing algorithms, it is often necessary to simulate images containing realistic noise from solid-state photosensors. A high-level model of CCD and CMOS photosensors based on a literature review is formulated in this paper. The model includes photo-response non-uniformity, photon shot noise, dark current Fixed Pattern Noise, dark current shot noise, offset Fixed Pattern Noise, source follower noise, sense node reset noise, and quantisation noise. The model also includes voltage-to-voltage, voltage-to-electrons, and analogue-to-digital converter non-linearities. The formulated model can be used to create synthetic images for testing and validation of image processing algorithms in the presence of realistic images noise. An example of the simulated CMOS photosensor and a comparison with a custom-made CMOS hardware sensor is presented. Procedures for characterisation from both light and dark noises are described. Experimental results that confirm...

Konnik, Mikhail

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

United States Program on Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The President signed the Congressional Joint Resolution on July 23, 2002, that designated the Yucca Mountain site for a proposed geologic repository to dispose of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is currently focusing its efforts on submitting a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in December 2004 for construction of the proposed repository. The legislative framework underpinning the U.S. repository program is the basis for its continuity and success. The repository development program has significantly benefited from international collaborations with other nations in the Americas.

Stewart, L.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

215

SAGA: A Simple API for Grid Applications -- High-Level ApplicationProgramming on the Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grid technology has matured considerably over the past fewyears. Progress in both implementation and standardization is reaching alevel of robustness that enables production quality deployments of gridservices in the academic research community with heightened interest andearly adoption in the industrial community. Despite this progress, gridapplications are far from ubiquitous, and new applications require anenormous amount of programming effort just to see first light. A keyimpediment to accelerated deployment of grid applications is the scarcityof high-level application programming abstractions that bridge the gapbetween existing grid middle-ware and application-level needs. The SimpleAPI for Grid Applications (SAGA [1]) is a GGF standardization effort thataddresses this particular gap by providing a simple, stable, and uniformprogramming interface that integrates the most common grid programmingabstractions. These most common abstractions were identified through theanalysis of several existing and emerging Grid applications. In thisarticle, we present the SAGA effort, describe its relationship to otherGrid API efforts within the GGF community, and introduce the first draftof the API using some application programming examples.

Goodale, Tom; Jha, Shantenu; Kaiser, Hartmut; Kielmann, Thilo; Kleijer, Pascal; von Laszewski, Gregor; Lee, Craig; Merzky, Andre; Rajic,Hrabri; Shalf, John

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Options for Determining Equivalent MHTM (Metric Tons of Heavy Metal) for DOE High Level Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 114(d) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), limits the overall capacity of the first repository to 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM). Current DOE policy is to allocate DOE spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) at 10 percent of the total, or 7,000 MTHM. For planning purposes, 4,667 MTHM will be allocated for HLW. While the NWPA provides a technical basis for determining the MTHM equivalence of HLW, it does not address the significant technical differences between DOE HLW and commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Although more than 170,000 MTHM of DOE fuel has been reprocessed to produce the inventory of HLW, the amount of radioactive waste generated per metric ton of DOE fuel is only a few percent of that in a metric ton of commercial fuel. This study compares the results of four methods for determining the MTHM equivalence of DOE HLW. These methods include (1) using the actual weight of heavy metal in reprocessed DOE fuel, (2) assuming the historical equivalence of 0.5 MTHM/canister of vitrified DOE HLW, (3) comparing the total radioactivity in DOE HLW to the radioactivity of commercial SNF, and (4) comparing the total radiotoxicity of DOE HLW, as defined for those radionuclides identified in 10 CFR 20, with SNF at 1,000 and 10,000 years. This study concludes that either of the last two options would meet Congresss stated purposes of the NWPA, which are to (1) provide "reasonable assurance that the public and the environment will be adequately protected from the hazards posed by high-level radioactive waste and such spent nuclear fuel as may be disposed of in a repository", and (2) to "define Federal policy for the disposal of such waste and spent fuel".

Knecht, Dieter August; Valentine, James Henry; Luptak, Alan Jay; Staiger, Merle Daniel; Loo, Henry Hung Yiu; Wichmann, Thomas Leonard

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars...

218

A COMPARISON OF HANFORD AND SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH-LEVEL WASTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is a simple comparison of high-level waste from plutonium production stored in tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Savannah River principally used the PUREX process for plutonium separation. Hanford used the PUREX, Bismuth Phosphate, and REDOX processes, and reprocessed many wastes for recovery of uranium and fission products. Thus, Hanford has 55 distinct waste types, only 17 of which could be at Savannah River. While Hanford and Savannah River wastes both have high concentrations of sodium nitrate, caustic, iron, and aluminum, Hanford wastes have higher concentrations of several key constituents. The factors by which average concentrations are higher in Hanford salt waste than in Savannah River waste are 67 for {sup 241}Am, 4 for aluminum, 18 for chromium, 10 for fluoride, 8 for phosphate, 6 for potassium, and 2 for sulfate. The factors by which average concentrations are higher in Hanford sludges than in Savannah River sludges are 3 for chromium, 19 for fluoride, 67 for phosphate, and 6 for zirconium. Waste composition differences must be considered before a waste processing method is selected: A method may be applicable to one site but not to the other.

HILL RC PHILIP; REYNOLDS JG; RUTLAND PL

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

219

Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels, funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

220

Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

Schauder, C.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Assessing compliance with the EPA high-level waste standard: an overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency has set a standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The standard is divided into several sections, including a section on containment requirements. The containment requirement is probabilistic, in that it allows certain small amounts of radioactive waste to be released at high probabilities and larger amounts to be released at lower probabilities. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for implementing the standard. Implementation of the standard will probably involve development and screening of scenarios, assignment of probabilities to the scenarios, determination of consequences of the scenarios, and analysis of uncertainties. Scenario development consists of first, identifying events and processes that could initiate waste releases or affect waste transport, and second, combining the events and processes in physically reasonable ways. Scenarios can be screened on the basis of low probabilities or consequences. Consequences of scenarios are estimated using a series of models that simulate the movement of radionuclides out of the waste package and underground facility and the transport of the radionuclides by ground water or other means to the accessible environment. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis examines the sources and effects of uncertainties on the calculations. This document uses a simple example to illustrate techniques for the implementation of the standard.

Hunter, R.L.; Cranwell, R.M.; Chu, M.S.Y.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Physical Properties of High-Level Cloud over Land and Ocean from CloudSatCALIPSO Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unlike other cloud types, high-level clouds play an important role, often imposing a warming effect, in the earthatmosphere radiative energy budget. In this paper, macro- and microphysical characteristics of cirrus clouds, such as their ...

Juan Huo; Daren Lu

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Factors limiting microbial growth and activity at a proposed high-level nuclear repository, yucca mountain, nevada.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...High-Level Nuclear Repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada TL Kieft WP Kovacik Jr...part of the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nev., as a potential repository...from nine sites along a tunnel in Yucca Mountain. Microbial abundance was generally...

T L Kieft; W P Kovacik; D B Ringelberg; D C White; D L Haldeman; P S Amy; L E Hersman

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article is a study of the thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive high-level wastes in a geologic repository, with emphasis on the following subjects: waste characteristics, re...

J. S. Y. Wang; D. C. Mangold; C. F. Tsang

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Wind and Solar Power in California. Doctor of Philosophy,high-quality solar resource hubs in California with someCSP at low solar penetration levels in California is found

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were combined into three batches for a total of about 3.2 million gallons of liquid waste. The chemical and radiological composition of these batches was estimated from the SpaceMan Plus{trademark} model using the same data set and assumptions as the baseline plans.

McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

228

Automatic detection of users' skill levels using high-frequency user interface events  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computer users have different levels of system skills. Moreover, each user has different levels of skill across different applications and even in different portions of the same application. Additionally, users' skill levels change dynamically as users ... Keywords: Adaptive user interfaces, Expertise, GOMS, Graphical user interfaces, Intelligent user interfaces, Machine learning, Skill, User modeling

Arin Ghazarian; S. Majid Noorhosseini

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition, Final Environmental Impact Statement  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Appendix A Appendix A Site Evaluation Process A-iii DOE/EIS-0287 Idaho HLW & FD EIS TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page Appendix A Site Evaluation Process A-1 A.1 Introduction A-1 A.2 Methodology A-1 A.3 High-Level Waste Treatment and Interim Storage Site Selection A-3 A.3.1 Identification of "Must" Criteria A-3 A.3.2 Identification of "Want" Criteria A-3 A.3.3 Identification of Candidate Sites A-3 A.3.4 Evaluation Process A-4 A.3.5 Results of Evaluation Process A-6 A.4 Low-Activity Waste Disposal Site Selection A-6 A.4.1 Identification of "Must" Criteria A-7 A.4.2 Identification of "Want" Criteria A-8 A.4.3 Identification of Candidate Sites A-8 A.4.4 Evaluation Process A-8 A.4.5 Results of Evaluation Process A-9 A.4.6 Final Selection of a Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility

230

High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

231

Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

PERFORMANCE OF A BURIED RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS AFTER 24 YEARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radioactive high level waste glass was made in 1980 with Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 15 waste. This glass was buried in the SRS burial ground for 24 years but lysimeter data was only available for the first 8 years. The glass was exhumed and analyzed in 2004. The glass was predicted to be very durable and laboratory tests confirmed the durability response. The laboratory results indicated that the glass was very durable as did analysis of the lysimeter data. Scanning electron microscopy of the glass burial surface showed no significant glass alteration consistent with the results of the laboratory and field tests. No detectable Pu, Am, Cm, Np, or Ru leached from the glass into the surrounding sediment. Leaching of {beta}/{delta} from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the glass was diffusion controlled. Less than 0.5% of the Cs and Sr in the glass leached into the surrounding sediment, with >99% of the leached radionuclides remaining within 8 centimeters of the glass pellet.

Jantzen, C; Daniel Kaplan, D; Ned Bibler, N; David Peeler, D; John Plodinec, J

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

233

ESTIMATING HIGH LEVEL WASTE MIXING PERFORMANCE IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of high level waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tank Operations Contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is currently demonstrating mixing, sampling, and batch transfer performance in two different sizes of small-scale DSTs. The results of these demonstrations will be used to estimate full-scale DST mixing performance and provide the key input to a programmatic decision on the need to build a dedicated feed certification facility. This paper discusses the results from initial mixing demonstration activities and presents data evaluation techniques that allow insight into the performance relationships of the two small tanks. The next steps, sampling and batch transfers, of the small scale demonstration activities are introduced. A discussion of the integration of results from the mixing, sampling, and batch transfer tests to allow estimating full-scale DST performance is presented.

THIEN MG; GREER DA; TOWNSON P

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

234

HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FEED CERTIFICATION IN HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (l million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing ofHLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch-to-batch operational adjustments that reduce operating efficiency and have the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

THIEN MG; WELLS BE; ADAMSON DJ

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

235

US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

Sandra M Birk

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Analyses of high-level radioactive glasses and sludges at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reliable analyses of high level radioactive glass and sludge are necessary for successful operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This facility will convert the radioactive waste sludges at SRS into durable borosilicate glasses for final disposal in a geologic repository. Analyses that are crucial to DWPF operation and repository acceptance of the glass are measurement of the radioactive and nonradioactive composition of the waste sludges and final glasses and measurement of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in a vitrified sample of melter feed. These measurements are based on the remote dissolutions of the glass and sludge followed by appropriate chemical analyses. Glasses are dissolved by a peroxide fusion method and a method using HF, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, and HCl acids where the solutions are heated in a microwave oven. The resulting solutions are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for nonradioactive elements and appropriate counting techniques for radioactive elements. Results for two radioactive glasses containing actual radioactive waste are also presented. Sludges are dissolved by the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} fusion method and an aqua regia method. 8 refs., 4 tabs.

Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Dewberry, R.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

TWRS retrieval and disposal mission, immobilized high-level waste storage plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project plan has a two fold purpose. First, it provides a plan specific to the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Immobilized High-Level Waste (EMW) Storage Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1996) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan. Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 (DOE 1992a) and 430.1 (DOE 1995)). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the plan`s dual purpose. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed.

Calmus, R.B.

1998-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

238

Evaluation of DMDOHEMA based supported liquid membrane system for high level waste remediation under simulated conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract N,N?-dimethyl-N,N?-dioctyl-2,(2?-hexyloxyethyl) malonamide (DMDOHEMA) has been proposed as solvent for the partitioning of radiotoxic minor actinides from high-level waste (HLW) solutions. The facilitated transport of 241Am(III), 239Pu(IV), 233U(VI), 237Np(V) across supported liquid membrane (SLM) impregnated with DMDOHEMA solution in n-dodecane was investigated under varying conditions of feed acidity, receiver phase composition, carrier concentration, and membrane thickness. Micro porous PTFE membrane was used as the polymeric support. There was a decrease in the transport of metal ions under the pressurized heavy water reactor simulated HLW (PHWR-SHLW) conditions. The physical stability of the SLM impregnated with the carrier was investigated for ~60 days by performing Am(III) permeation studies. Marginal variation in the transport behavior suggested reasonably good stability of the impregnated carrier in the membrane pores. A simple mathematical model has been developed to simulate experimental data and to explain quantitatively the role of different parameters.

Ajay B. Patil; Pankaj Kandwal; V.S. Shinde; P.N. Pathak; P.K. Mohapatra

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Kinetic model for quartz and spinel dissolution during melting of high-level-waste glass batch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissolution of quartz particles and the growth and dissolution of crystalline phases during the conversion of batch to glass potentially affects both the glass melting process and product quality. Crystals of spinel exiting the cold cap to molten glass below can be troublesome during the vitrification of iron-containing high-level wastes. To estimate the distribution of quartz and spinel fractions within the cold cap, we used kinetic models that relate fractions of these phases to temperature and heating rate. Fitting the model equations to data showed that the heating rate, apart from affecting quartz and spinel behavior directly, also affects them indirectly via concurrent processes, such as the formation and motion of bubbles. Because of these indirect effects, it was necessary to allow one kinetic parameter (the pre-exponential factor) to vary with the heating rate. The resulting kinetic equations are sufficiently simple for the detailed modeling of batch-to-glass conversion as it occurs in glass melters. The estimated fractions and sizes of quartz and spinel particles as they leave the cold cap, determined in this study, will provide the source terms needed for modeling the behavior of these solid particles within the flow of molten glass in the melter.

Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

240

Sedimentation behavior of noble metal particles in simulated high-level waste borosilicate glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solubility of noble metal elements (NME) in the melted borosilicate glass is much smaller than its normal concentration of the high level liquid waste. Thus most of NME show small particles in the melted glass and tend to sediment in the bottom region of the vitrification melter due to their higher density than that of glass. Experiments of the sedimentation of NME particles in the melted glass were carried out under static condition. Three conditions of initial NME concentration (1.1, 3.0, 6.1 wt % with an equivalent for each oxide) in the simulated glass were set and held at 1100 C. degrees up to 2880 hours. The specimen with 1.1 wt % initial NME concentration indicated zone settling, and the settling rate of the interface is constant: 2.4 mm/h. This sedimentation behavior is the type of rapid settling. Following the rapid settling, the settling rate goes gradually slower; this is the type of compressive settling. The specimens with 3.0 wt % and 6.1 wt % initial NME concentration showed compression settling from the beginning. From the settling curve of the interface, the maximum concentration of NME in sediment was estimated to be around 23- 26 wt %. Growth of NME particles was observed by holding at 1100 C. degrees for up to 2880 hours. The viscosity becomes higher as NME concentration increases and the dependence on shear rate becomes simultaneously stronger. The effect of the particle growth to viscosity appears to be not significant.

Nakajima, M.; Ohyama, K.; Morikawa, Y.; Miyauchi, A.; Yamashita, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1109 (Japan); Komamine, S.; Ochi, E. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, Bussan-Bldg. Bekkan, 1-1-5 Nishi-Shinbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

242

A Unified Multiple-Level Cache for High Performance Storage Systems Li Ou, Xubin (Ben) He, Martha J. Kosa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Unified Multiple-Level Cache for High Performance Storage Systems Li Ou, Xubin (Ben) He, Martha in high- performance storage systems to improve I/O performance. However, traditional cache management a unified cache (uCache) which uses both ex- clusive caching in L2 storage caches and cooperative client

He, Xubin "Ben"

243

Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

Larson, D.E.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass composition and temperature, will evolve as additional data on crystal accumulation are gathered. Model validation steps will be included to guide the development process and ensure the value of the effort (i.e., increased waste loading and waste throughput). A summary of the stages of the road map for developing the crystal-tolerant glass approach, their estimated durations, and deliverables is provided.

Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

French Geological Repository Project for High Level and Long-Lived Waste: Scientific Programme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility study presented in the Dossier 2005 Argile set out to evaluate the conditions for building, operating and managing a reversible disposal facility. The research was directed at demonstrating a potential for confining long-lived radioactive waste in a deep clay formation by establishing the feasibility of the disposal principle. Results have been enough convincing and a Planning Act was passed on 28 June, 2006. Decision in principle has been taken to dispose of intermediate and high level long-lived radioactive waste in a geological repository. An application file for a license to construct a disposal facility is requested by end of 2014 and its commissioning is planned for 2025. Based on previous results as well as on recommendations made by various Dossier 2005 evaluators, a new scientific programme for 2006-2015 has been defined. It gives details of what will be covered over the 2006-2015 period. Particular emphasis is placed on consolidating scientific data, increasing understanding of certain mechanisms and using a scientific and technical integration approach. It aims at integrating scientific developments and engineering advances. The scientific work envisaged beyond 2006 has the benefit of a unique context, which is direct access to the geological medium over long timescales. It naturally extends the research carried out to date, and incorporates additional investigations of the geological medium, and the preparation of demonstration work especially through full-scale tests. Results will aim at improving the representation of repository evolutions over time, extract the relevant parameters for monitoring during the reversibility phases, reduce the parametric uncertainties and enhance the robustness of models for performance calculations and safety analyses. Structure and main orientation of the ongoing scientific programme are presented. (author)

Landais, P.; Lebon, P.; Ouzounian, G. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Production of a High-Level Waste Glass from Hanford Waste Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HLW glass was produced from a HLW sludge slurry (Envelope D Waste), eluate waste streams containing high levels of Cs-137 and Tc-99, solids containing both Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU), and glass-forming chemicals. The eluates and Sr-90/TRU solids were obtained from ion-exchange and precipitation pretreatments, respectively, of other Hanford supernate samples (Envelopes A, B and C Waste). The glass was vitrified by mixing the different waste streams with glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to 1150 degree C. Resulting glass analyses indicated that the HLW glass waste form composition was close to the target composition. The targeted waste loading of Envelope D sludge solids in the HLW glass was 30.7 wt percent, exclusive of Na and Si oxides. Condensate samples from the off-gas condenser and off-gas dry-ice trap indicated that very little of the radionuclides were volatilized during vitrification. Microstructure analysis of the HLW glass using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) showed what appeared to be iron spinel in the HLW glass. Further X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of nickel spinel trevorite (NiFe2O4). These crystals did not degrade the leaching characteristics of the glass. The HLW glass waste form passed leach tests that included a standard 90 degree C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Farrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS: INTERIM REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controls on the solution chemistry (minimum nitrite and hydroxide concentrations) are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in high level waste (HLW) tanks. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed on carbon steel coupons in simulated waste solutions. An experimental program was undertaken to investigate reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting. A statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall, when exposed to various dilute solutions, is being developed. Electrochemical and coupon testing are being performed within the framework of the statistical test matrix to determine the minimum necessary inhibitor concentrations and develop a quantitative model to predict pitting propensity. A subset of the original statistical test matrix was used to develop an applied understanding of the corrosion response of the carbon steel in the various environments. The interim results suggest that there exists some critical nitrite concentration that sufficiently inhibits against localized corrosion mechanisms due to nitrates/chlorides/sulfates, beyond which further nitrite additions are unnecessary. The combination of visual observation and the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans indicate the potential for significant inhibitor reductions without consequence specifically at nitrate concentrations near 1 M. The complete data sets will be used to determine the statistical basis to confidently inhibit against pitting using nitrite inhibition with the current pH controls. Once complete, a revised chemistry control program will be devised based upon the probability of pitting specifically for dilute solutions which will allow for tank specific chemistry control implementation.

Hoffman, E; Karthik Subramanian, K

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

248

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory High-Level Waste Roadmap. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) High-Level Waste (HLW) Roadmap takes a strategic look at the entire HLW life-cycle starting with generation, through interim storage, treatment and processing, transportation, and on to final disposal. The roadmap is an issue-based planning approach that compares ``where we are now`` to ``where we want and need to be.`` The INEL has been effectively managing HLW for the last 30 years. Calcining operations are continuing to turn liquid HLW into a more manageable form. Although this document recognizes problems concerning HLW at the INEL, there is no imminent risk to the public or environment. By analyzing the INEL current business operations, pertinent laws and regulations, and committed milestones, the INEL HLW Roadmap has identified eight key issues existing at the INEL that must be resolved in order to reach long-term objectives. These issues are as follows: A. The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs a consistent policy for HLW generation, handling, treatment, storage, and disposal. B. The capability for final disposal of HLW does not exist. C. Adequate processes have not been developed or implemented for immobilization and disposal of INEL HLW. D. HLW storage at the INEL is not adequate in terms of capacity and regulatory requirements. E. Waste streams are generated with limited consideration for waste minimization. F. HLW is not adequately characterized for disposal nor, in some cases, for storage. G. Research and development of all process options for INEL HLW treatment and disposal are not being adequately pursued due to resource limitations. H. HLW transportation methods are not selected or implemented. A root-cause analysis uncovered the underlying causes of each of these issues.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Design and performance of atomizing nozzles for spray calcination of high-level wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key aspect of high-level liquid-waste spray calcination is waste-feed atomization by using air atomizing nozzles. Atomization substantially increases the heat transfer area of the waste solution, which enhances rapid drying. Experience from the spray-calciner operations has demonstrated that nozzle flow conditions that produce 70-..mu.. median-volume-diameter or smaller spray droplets are required for small-scale spray calciners (drying capacity less than 80 L/h). For large-scale calciners (drying capacity greater than 300 L/h), nozzle flow conditions that produce 100-..mu.. median-volume-diameter or smaller spray droplets are required. Mass flow ratios of 0.2 to 0.4, depending on nozzle size, are required for proper operation of internal-mix atomizing nozzles. Both internal-mix and external-mix nozzles have been tested at PNL. Due to the lower airflow requirements and fewer large droplets produced, the internal-mix nozzle has been chosen for primary development in the spray calciner program at PNL. Several nozzle air-cap materials for internal-mix nozzles have been tested for wear resistance. Results show that nozzle air caps of stainless steel and Cer-vit (a machineable glass ceramic) are suceptible to rapid wear by abrasive slurries, whereas air caps of alumina and reaction-bonded silicon nitride show only slow wear. Longer-term testing is necessary to determine more accurately the actual frequency of nozzle replacement. Atomizing nozzle air caps of alumina are subject to fracture from thermal shock, whereas air caps of silicon nitride and Cer-vit are not. Fractured nozzles are held in place by the air-cap retaining ring and continue to atomize satisfactorily. Therefore, fractures caused by thermal shocking do not necessarily result in nozzle failure.

Miller, F.A.; Stout, L.A.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford?s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

Reboul, S. H.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

251

Application of Quantitative NDE Techniques to High Level Waste Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As various issues make the continued usage of high-level waste storage tanks attractive, there is an increasing need to sharpen the assessment of their structural integrity. One aspect of a structural integrity program, nondestructive evaluation, is the focus of this paper. In September 2000, a program to support the sites was initiated jointly by Tanks Focus Area and Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technologies Crosscutting Program of the Office of Environmental Management, Department of Energy (DOE). The vehicle was the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, one of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers that is operated in close collaboration with the Ames Laboratory, USDOE. The support activities that have been provided by the center will be reviewed. Included are the organization of a series of annual workshops to allow the sites to share experiences and develop coordinated approaches to common problems, the development of an electronic source of relevant information, and assistance of the sites on particular technical problems. Directions and early results on some of these technical assistance projects are emphasized. Included are the discussion of theoretical analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in curved plates to support the interpretation of tandem synthetic aperture focusing data to detect flaws in the knuckle region of double shell tanks; the evaluation of guided ultrasonic waves, excited by couplant free, electromagnetic acoustic transducers, to rapidly screen for inner wall corrosion in tanks; the use of spread spectrum techniques to gain information about the structural integrity of concrete domes; and the use of magnetic techniques to identify the alloys used in the construction of tanks.

Thompson, R. B.; Rehbein, D. K.; Bastiaans, G.; Terry, M.; Alers, R.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

252

Landau-Level Splitting in Graphene in High Magnetic Fields Z. Jiang,1,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indicates that the Landau level at the charge neutral Dirac point splits into four sublevels, lifting fields B > 20 T, indicating the lifting of the fourfold degeneracy of the previously observed QH states be attributed to lifting of the spin degeneracy of the n 1 Landau level. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96

Kim, Philip

253

Chemical Environment at Waste Package Surfaces in a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have conducted a series of deliquescence, boiling point, chemical transformation, and evaporation experiments to determine the composition of waters likely to contact waste package surfaces over the thermal history of the repository as it heats up and cools back down to ambient conditions. In the above-boiling period, brines will be characterized by high nitrate to chloride ratios that are stable to higher temperatures than previously predicted. This is clearly shown for the NaCl-KNO{sub 3} salt system in the deliquescence and boiling point experiments in this report. Our results show that additional thermodynamic data are needed in nitrate systems to accurately predict brine stability and composition due to salt deliquescence in dust deposited on waste package surfaces. Current YMP models capture dry-out conditions but not composition for NaCl-KNO{sub 3} brines, and they fail to predict dry-out conditions for NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} brines. Boiling point and deliquescence experiments are needed in NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} systems to directly determine dry-out conditions and composition, because these salt mixtures are also predicted to control brine composition in the above-boiling period. Corrosion experiments are needed in high temperature and high NO{sub 3}:Cl brines to determine if nitrate inhibits corrosion in these concentrated brines at temperatures above 160 C. Chemical transformations appear to be important for pure calcium- and magnesium-chloride brines at temperatures greater than 120 C. This stems from a lack of acid gas volatility in NaCl/KNO{sub 3} based brines and by slow CO{sub 2}(g) diffusion in alkaline brines. This suggests that YMP corrosion models based on bulk solution experiments over the appropriate composition, temperature, and relative humidity range can be used to predict corrosion in thin brine films formed by salt deliquescence. In contrast to the above-boiling period, the below-boiling period is characterized predominately by NaCl based brines with minor amounts of K, NO{sub 3}, Ca, Mg, F, and Br at less than 70% relative humidity. These brines are identified as sulfate and bicarbonate brines by the chemical divide theory. Nitrate to chloride ratios are strongly tied to relative humidity and halite solubility. Once the relative humidity is low enough to produce brines saturated with respect to halite, then NO{sub 3}:Cl increases to levels and may inhibit corrosion. In addition to the more abundant NaCl-based brines some measured pore waters will evaporate towards acid NaCl-CaCl{sub 2} brines. Acid volatility also occurs with this brine type indicating that chemical transformations may be important in thin films. In contrast to the above-boiling period, comparison of our experimental data with calculated data suggest that current YMP geochemical models adequately predict in-drift chemistry in the below-boiling period.

Carroll, S; Alai, M; Craig, L; Gdowski, G; Hailey, P; Nguyen, Q A; Rard, J; Staggs, K; Sutton, M; Wolery, T

2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

254

RPM-2: A recyclable porous material with unusual adsorption capability: self assembly via structural transformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-assembly of molecular electronics and smart materials will bring a new era in the field of material science.1 HoweverRPM-2: A recyclable porous material with unusual adsorption capability: self assembly via, fully recyclable porous material (RPM-2) with a very high sorption capability. Self

Li, Jing

255

Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

257

REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is divided into Part 1 that defines time-dependent releases from each regional site, Part 2 that defines transport conditions through the groundwater, and Part 3 that defines transport through surface water and populations using the surface waters for drinking.

W. Lee Poe, Jr

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Supplemental Performance Analyses for the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. Based on internal reviews of the S&ER and its key supporting references, the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (2) and the Analysis Model Reports and Process Model Reports cited therein, the DOE has recently identified and performed several types of analyses to supplement the treatment of uncertainty in support of the consideration of a possible site recommendation. The results of these new analyses are summarized in the two-volume report entitled FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis (SSPA) (3,4). The information in this report is intended to supplement, not supplant, the information contained in the S&ER. The DOE recognizes that important uncertainties will always remain in any assessment of the performance of a potential repository over thousands of years (1). One part of the DOE approach to recognizing and managing these uncertainties is a commitment to continued testing and analysis and to the continued evaluation of the technical basis supporting the possible recommendation of the site, such as the analysis contained in the SSPA. The goals of the work described here are to provide insights into the implications of newly quantified uncertainties, updated science, and evaluations of lower operating temperatures on the performance of a potential Yucca Mountain repository and to increase confidence in the results of the TSPA described in the S&ER (1). The primary tool used to evaluate the implications of the three types of supplemental information described in the SSPA (3,4) is the Yucca Mountain integrated TSPA model.

Sevougian, S. D.; McNeish, J. A.; Coppersmith, K.; Jenni, K. E.; Rickertsen, L. D.; Swift, P. N.; Wilson, M. L.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

A Deeply Pipelined CABAC Decoder for HEVC Supporting Level 6.2 High-tier Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is the latest video coding standard that specifies video resolutions up to 8K Ultra-HD (UHD) at 120 fps to support the next decade of video applications. This results in high-throughput ...

Chen, Yu-Hsin

260

I strongly urge that the forecasts recognize the high oil prices and gas prices experienced in 2008 and not treat them as an unusual occurrence in the next 20 years. In the long term with cap and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I strongly urge that the forecasts recognize the high oil prices and gas prices experienced in 2008 and the development of carbon capture and storage applied to new coal fired generating stations, gas prices will only go up. Gas from the Rockies will move east as quickly as transport is available. To the extent

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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261

High-level dosimetry at the demagnetization experiments of permanent magnets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......high-energy electron accelerator. The neutron insensitivity...the contributions of a vacuum window near the probe...supported by Korean Nuclear Research Foundation...high-energy electron accelerator are carried out using...high-energy electron accelerator has been discussed......

H. S. Lee; R. Qiu; S. Hong; C. W. Chung; T. Bizen; J. Li

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Effect of residual gases in high vacuum on the energy-level alignment at noble metal/organic interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces has traditionally been studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). However, since most devices are fabricated in high vacuum (HV), these studies do not accurately reflect the interfaces in real devices. We demonstrate, using UPS measurements of samples prepared in HV and UHV and current-voltage measurements of devices prepared in HV, that the small amounts of residual gases that are adsorbed on the surface of clean Cu, Ag, and Au (i.e., the noble metals) in HV can significantly alter the energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces.

Helander, M. G.; Wang, Z. B.; Lu, Z. H.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

Vieth, Donald L. [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States)] [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States); Voegele, Michael D. [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)] [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

THE STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY OF MOLYBDENUM IN MODEL HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES, INVESTIGATED BY MO K-EDGE X-RAY ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY OF MOLYBDENUM IN MODEL HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES, INVESTIGATED of molybdenum in model UK high level nuclear waste glasses was investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Molybdenum K-edge XAS data were acquired from several inactive simulant high level nuclear waste

Sheffield, University of

266

Neutron superfluidity and unusual nuclear shapes in neutron stars crusts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We calculate in the frame-work of a semiclassical model the neutron superfluidity in the crust of neutron stars, accounting for the presence of unusual....

G. Lazzari; F. V. De Blasio

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Effect of feeding high calcium levels and soft phosphate in the diet of laying hens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?ssfng. Figure rr Specitic Gravity of. Eegs f'rom r&-rrs on 'I"cree Biiets&. v Calcium Levels wich Varying Sources ol r'r rl r ic. c ?rrr Phosphorus. Fi. gure 5 Specific: Gravity of Eggs 1 ro&m &rene Peo r&'sr-y rir g 2 I r tery Calcium Levels Suppiieci... as Oys' r Shc I1. f irur Pic?f in the Laying Mash. Figure 6 Spec ific Cravity of. Eggs r rom Mens '. -. ' V-r& r rc Q? t?ry Calcium Levels with. Soli. Phosphare crr the Ba. ion. . . . , . . . Pigure 7 Specific: Gravity of Eggs from Bene f'=3 &r r. 'or...

Durham, James Ivey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

268

Application of Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline Engine Downsizing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discussed technologies applied in highly downsized efficient gasoline engine concept such as multiple injection, advanced boosting, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and electrical supercharger

269

Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

Fox, K. M.

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

270

MAR ASSESSMENTS OF THE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SYSTEM PLAN REVISION 16  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit of time) is primarily a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). Significant increases in waste throughput have been achieved at DWPF since initial radioactive operations began in 1996. Key technical and operational initiatives that supported increased waste throughput included improvements in facility attainment, the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) flowsheet, process control models and frit formulations. As a result of these key initiatives, DWPF increased WLs from a nominal 28% for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) to {approx}34 to 38% for SB3 through SB6 while maintaining or slightly improving canister fill times. Although considerable improvements in waste throughput have been obtained, future contractual waste loading targets are nominally 40%, while canister production rates are also expected to increase (to a rate of 325 to 400 canisters per year). Although implementation of bubblers have made a positive impact on increasing melt rate for recent sludge batches targeting WLs in the mid30s, higher WLs will ultimately make the feeds to DWPF more challenging to process. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) recently requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform a paper study assessment using future sludge projections to evaluate whether the current Process Composition Control System (PCCS) algorithms would provide projected operating windows to allow future contractual WL targets to be met. More specifically, the objective of this study was to evaluate future sludge batch projections (based on Revision 16 of the HLW Systems Plan) with respect to projected operating windows using current PCCS models and associated constraints. Based on the assessments, the waste loading interval over which a glass system (i.e., a projected sludge composition with a candidate frit) is predicted to be acceptable can be defined (i.e., the projected operating window) which will provide insight into the ability to meet future contractual WL obligations. In this study, future contractual WL obligations are assumed to be 40%, which is the goal after all flowsheet enhancements have been implemented to support DWPF operations. For a system to be considered acceptable, candidate frits must be identified that provide access to at least 40% WL while accounting for potential variation in the sludge resulting from differences in batch-to-batch transfers into the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and/or analytical uncertainties. In more general terms, this study will assess whether or not the current glass formulation strategy (based on the use of the Nominal and Variation Stage assessments) and current PCCS models will allow access to compositional regions required to targeted higher WLs for future operations. Some of the key questions to be considered in this study include: (1) If higher WLs are attainable with current process control models, are the models valid in these compositional regions? If the higher WL glass regions are outside current model development or validation ranges, is there existing data that could be used to demonstrate model applicability (or lack thereof)? If not, experimental data may be required to revise current models or serve as validation data with the existing models. (2) Are there compositional trends in frit space that are required by the PCCS models to obtain access to these higher WLs? If so, are there potential issues with the compositions of the associated frits (e.g., limitations on the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or Li{sub 2}O concentrations) as they are compared to model development/validation ranges or to the term 'borosilicate' glass? If limitations on the frit compositional range are realized, what is the impact of these restrictions on other glass properties such as the ability to suppress nepheline formation or influence m

Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

271

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

A multi-level distance learning-based course for high-school computer science leading-teachers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this poster we present a flexible model for a multi-level distance learning-based teacher training. The model was implemented to introduce curricular and pedagogical aspects of teaching logic programming (LP) to high-school computer science in-service ... Keywords: computer science education, distance learning, teacher training

Noa Ragonis; Bruria Haberman

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

EIS-0063: Waste Management Operations, Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High Level Radioactive Waste Storage, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the existing tank design and consider additional specific design and safety feature alternatives for the thirteen tanks being constructed for storage of defense high-level radioactive liquid waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This statement supplements ERDA-1538, "Final Environmental Statement on Waste Management Operation."

275

POMDP Planning for High Level UAV Decisions: Search vs. Strike Doug Schesvold, Jingpeng Tang, Benzir Md Ahmed, Karl Altenburg,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POMDP Planning for High Level UAV Decisions: Search vs. Strike Doug Schesvold, Jingpeng Tang Vehicles (UAVs). The type of UAV modeled is a flying munition with a limited fuel supply. The UAV is destroyed when it strikes a target. When a UAV detects a target, a decision has to be made whether

Nygard, Kendall E.

276

High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Dedicated-site, interim storage of high-level nuclear waste as part of the management system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...develop permanent repositories. A systems approach...reprocessed nuclear wastes from fuel rods...In- teragency Review Group (1) and...high-level wastes, including both...mined geologic repositories for permanent...Under current plans for mined geologic...and performance standards of permanent...

E-an Zen

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Evaluation of Options for Permanent Geologic Disposal of Spent NuclearFuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

[In Support of a Comprehensive National Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy, Volumes I and II (Appendices)] This study provides a technical basis for informing policy decisions regarding strategies for the management and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in the United States requiring geologic isolation.

279

A three-level buck converter to regulate a high-voltage DC-to-AC inverter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A three-level buck converter is designed and analyzed, and shown to be suitable as a high-voltage down converter as a pre-regulation stage for a 600 watt DC-to-AC power inverter. Topology selection for the inverter is ...

Schrock, Kenneth C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

High-spin level structure of {sup 115}Rh: Evolution of triaxiality in odd-even Rh isotopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-spin excited states in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 115}Rh have been identified for the first time by studying prompt {gamma} rays from the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf with the Gammasphere detector array. A new yrast band and a sideband are built in {sup 115}Rh. This level scheme is proposed to be built on the 7/2{sup +} ground state. The existence of a large signature splitting and an yrare band in {sup 115}Rh shows typical features of a triaxially deformed nucleus. The rigid triaxial rotor plus particle model is used to interpret the level structure of {sup 115}Rh. The level energies, the {gamma} branching ratios, the large signature splitting in the yrast band, and the inverted signature splitting in the yrare band in {sup 115}Rh are reproduced very well. Strong K mixing occurs in {sup 115}Rh at high spin.

Liu, S. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); UNIRIB/Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Brewer, N. T.; Hwang, J. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Gelberg, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Gu, L.; Yeoh, E. Y.; Zhu, S. J. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Y. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rasmussen, J. O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ma, W. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Daniel, A. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Ter-Akopian, G. M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Potential role of ABC-assisted repositories in U.S. plutonium and high-level waste disposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper characterizes the issues involving deep geologic disposal of LWR spent fuel rods, then presents results of an investigation to quantify the potential role of Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) in an integrated national nuclear materials and high level waste disposition strategy. The investigation used the deep geological repository envisioned for Yucca Mt., Nevada as a baseline and considered complementary roles for integrated ABC transmutation systems. The results indicate that although a U.S. geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of plutonium, the minor actinides, and selected long-lived fission products can result in the following substantial benefits: plutonium burndown to near zero levels, a dramatic reduction of the long term hazard associated with geologic repositories, an ability to place several-fold more high level nuclear waste in a single repository, electricity sales to compensate for capital and operating costs.

Berwald, David; Favale, Anthony; Myers, Timothy; McDaniel, Jerry [Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage New York 11714 (United States); Bechtel Corporation, 50 Beal St., San Francisco, California 94105 (United States)

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted following an analytical plan. A review of the individual oxides for each glass revealed that there were no errors in batching significant enough to impact the outcome of the study. A comparison of the measured compositions of the replicates indicated an acceptable degree of repeatability as the percent differences for most of the oxides were less than 5% and percent differences for all of the oxides were less than 10 wt%. Chemical durability was measured using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All but two of the study glasses had normalized leachate for boron (NL [B]) values that were well below that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass. The two highest NL [B] values were for the CCC versions of glasses US-18 and US-27 (10.498 g/L and 15.962 g/L, respectively). Nepheline crystallization was identified by qualitative XRD in five of the US-series glasses. Each of these five glasses (US-18, US-26, US-27, US-37 and US-43) showed a significant increase in NL [B] values after the CCC heat treatment. This reduction in durability can be attributed to the formation of nepheline during the slow cooling cycle and the removal of glass formers from the residual glass network. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of each glass in the study was determined by both optical microscopy and XRD methods. The correlation coefficient of the measured XRD TL data versus the measured optical TL data was very good (R{sup 2} = 0.9469). Aside from a few outliers, the two datasets aligned very well across the entire temperature range (829 C to 1312 C for optical data and 813 C to 1310 C for XRD crystal fraction data). The data also correlated well with the predictions of a PNNL T{sub L} model. The correlation between the measured and calculated data had a higher degree of merit for the XRD crystal fraction data than for the optical data (higher R{sup 2} value of 0.9089 versus 0.8970 for the optical data). The SEM-EDS analysis of select samples revealed the presence of undissolved RuO{sub 2} in all glasses due to the low solubility of RuO{sub 2} in borosilicate glass. These

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P; James Marra, J

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

283

Arabidopsis thaliana High-Affinity Phosphate Transporters Exhibit Multiple Levels of Posttranslational Regulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...first posttranslational regulatory level involves the PHF1...3), which concerns regulatory phosphorylation of particular...vacuoles. A similar regulatory event is observed in...transporters (for recent review on other Arabidopsis...lasers. A 63 HCX PLAN-APO Water immersible...

Vincent Bayle; Jean-François Arrighi; Audrey Creff; Claude Nespoulous; Jérôme Vialaret; Michel Rossignol; Esperanza Gonzalez; Javier Paz-Ares; Laurent Nussaume

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

284

Implementation of RFID in a low volume high flexibility assembly plant : item-level tagging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The implementation of an RFID checkpoint system in a low volume high flexibility assembly plant, aimed at tracking the flow of parts within the facility, was studied. A pilot revealed the suitability of the technology to ...

Koniski, Cyril (Cyril A.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Material characterization and modeling for piezoelectric actuation and power generation under high electromechanical driving levels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High electromechanical loads parallel to piezoelectric polarization might result in depolarization of the material, depending on the material property itself and the external excitations such as electrical field, electrical ...

Lin, Ching-Yu, 1972-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Level Computational Chemistry Approaches Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of the Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems David A. Dixon Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Cast: Myrna Hernandez-Matus, Daniel Grant, Jackson Switzer, Jacob Batson, Ronita Folkes, Minh Nguyen Anthony J. Arduengo & co-workers Maciej Gutowski (PNNL) Robert Ramsay Chair Fund Shelby Hall Funding provided in part by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy under the Hydrogen Storage Grand Challenge, Solicitation No. DE-PS36- 03GO93013 Chemical H 2 Storage Center of Excellence The Promise of Chemical Hydrogen Storage * Chemical reaction releases H 2 at suitable pressures and temperatures - Reaction thermodynamics dictate max. H 2 pressure as function of T -

287

Transparent Symmetric Active/Active Replication for Service-Level High Availability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As service-oriented architectures become more important in parallel and distributed computing systems, individual service instance reliability as well as appropriate service redundancy becomes an essential necessity in order to increase overall system availability. This paper focuses on providing redundancy strategies using service-level replication techniques. Based on previous research using symmetric active/active replication, this paper proposes a transparent symmetric active/active replication approach that allows for more reuse of code between individual service-level replication implementations by using a virtual communication layer. Service- and client-side interceptors are utilized in order to provide total transparency. Clients and servers are unaware of the replication infrastructure as it provides all necessary mechanisms internally.

Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL; Leangsuksun, Chokchai [Louisiana Tech University; He, X. [Tennessee Technological University

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Properties of Fr-like Th3+ from spectroscopy of high-L Rydberg levels of Th2+  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Binding energies of high-L Rydberg states (L ? 7) of Th2+ with n = 2729 were studied using the resonant excitation Stark ionization spectroscopy (RESIS) method. The core of the Th2+ Rydberg ion is the Fr-like ion Th3+ whose ground state is a 5?2F5/2 level. The large-core angular momentum results in a complex Rydberg fine-structure pattern consisting of six levels for each value of L that is only partially resolved in the RESIS excitation spectrum. The pattern is further complicated, especially for the relatively-low-L levels, by strong nonadiabatic effects due to the low-lying 6d levels. Analysis of the observed RESIS spectra leads to determination of five properties of the Th3+ ion: its electric quadrupole moment Q = 0.54(4); its adiabatic scalar and tensor dipole polarizabilities ?d,0 = 15.42(17) and ?d,2 = -3.6(1.3); and the dipole matrix elements connecting the ground 5?2F5/2 level to the low-lying 6??2D3/2 and 6??2D5/2 levels, |?5?2F5/2||D||62D3/2?|=1.435(10) and |?52F5/2||D||62D5/2?|=0.414(24). All are in atomic units. These are compared with theoretical calculations.

Julie A. Keele; M. E. Hanni; Shannon L. Woods; S. R. Lundeen; C. W. Fehrenbach

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

289

Non-local Higgs actions: Tree-level electroweak constraints and high-energy unitarity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider electroweak symmetry breaking by a certain class of non-local Higgs sectors. Extending previous studies employing the Mandelstam condition, a straight Wilson line is used to make the Higgs action gauge invariant. We show the unitarization of vector-boson scattering for a wide class of non-local actions, but find that the Wilson-line model leads to tree-level corrections to electroweak precision observables, which restrict the parameter space of the model. We also find that Unhiggs models cannot address the hierarchy problem, once the parameters are expressed in terms of low-energy observables.

M. Beneke; P. Knechtges; A. Mck

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

290

Two-Level Free-Form Deformation for High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

awakened global awareness.1 Its disastrous impacts on the environ- ment have long been linked to oil, whose diminishing world reserves have led to a substantial rise in fuel prices. As far as the aviation industry of incorporating an high-fidelity finite-element structural solver in the near future. Historically, shape control

Zingg, David W.

291

High levels of alkali-metal storage in thin films of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the potential use of these graphene materials in lithium-ion batteries with a high charge-storage capacity community.1 Rechargeable batteries, in particular ``lithium-ion'' batteries, are one of the most important com- mercialized energy storage devices. The most common struc- ture of lithium-ion batteries involves

Peters, Achim

292

SULFATE RETENTION IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 GLASSES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Early projections of the Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) composition predicted relatively high concentrations of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 23.5 wt%) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, 1.2 wt%) in the sludge. A high concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the sludge, combined with Na{sub 2}O additions in the frit, raises the potential for nepheline crystallization in the glass. However, strategic frit development efforts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have shown that frits containing a relatively high concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} can both suppress nepheline crystallization and improve melt rates. A high sulfate concentration is a concern to the DWPF as it can lead to the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten, sulfate-rich phase atop the melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit of 0.4 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass was originally set in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) used at DWPF. It was later shown that this limit could be increased to 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass for the Frit 418, Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) system.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

Novel Denitrifying Bacterium Ochrobactrum anthropi YD50.2 Tolerates High Levels of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...was replaced with argon gas by purging for 15 min...production was analyzed by gas chromatography as described...to easily visualize N2 bubbles generated by denitrification...exopolysaccharide in activated sludge. Bioresour. Technol...production in high-strength wastewater. Water Res...

Yuki Doi; Naoki Takaya; Noboru Takizawa

2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

294

IAEA/WHO TLD Postal Dose Audit Service and High Precision Measurements for Radiotherapy Level Dosimetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......International Atomic Energy Agency, together...performed postal TLD audits to verify calibration...WHO TLD postal dose audit service and high...International Atomic Energy Agency/World Health...International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA...performed postal TLD audits to verify calibration......

J. Izewska; P. Bera; S. Vatnitsky

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel report assesses the technical options for the safe and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) managed by the Department of Energy. Specifically, it considers whether DOE-managed HLW and SNF should be disposed of with commercial SNF and HLW in one geologic repository or whether there are advantages to developing separate geologic disposal pathways for some DOE-managed HLW and SNF. The report recommends that the Department begin implementation of a phased, adaptive, and consent-based strategy with development of a separate mined repository for some DOE-managed HLW and cooler DOE-managed SNF.

297

Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 {mu}m to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 14, 21941 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

298

Materials performance in a high-level radioactive waste vitrification system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy Facility designed to vitrify highly radioactive waste. An extensive materials evaluation program has been completed on key components in the DWPF after twelve months of operation using nonradioactive simulated wastes. Results of the visual inspections of the feed preparation system indicate that the system components, which were fabricated from Hastelloy C-276, should achieve their design lives. Significant erosion was observed on agitator blades that process glass frit slurries; however, design modifications should mitigate the erosion. Visual inspections of the DWPF melter top head and off gas components, which were fabricated from Inconel 690, indicated that varying degrees of degradation occurred. Most of the components will perform satisfactorily for their two year design life. The components that suffered significant attack were the borescopes, primary film cooler brush, and feed tubes. Changes in the operation of the film cooler brush and design modifications to the feed tubes and borescopes is expected to extend their service lives to two years. A program to investigate new high temperature engineered materials and alloys with improved oxidation and high temperature corrosion resistance will be initiated.

Imrich, K.J.; Chandler, G.T.

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

299

Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Unusually High Concentrations in a Fatal GHB Case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Although considered a drug of abuse, gamma-hydroxy- butyrate...be beneficialafter ecstasy abuse (5); drivers as a result of recreational abuse (6); and vic- tims of...available (e.g., on the Internet, on the street, in dance......

Pascal Kintz; Marion Villain; Anne-Laure Plissier; Vincent Cirimele; Georges Leonetti

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Unusual features in high statistics radar meteor studies at EISCAT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......frequencies of tens of MHz, a few reports...frequencies, at 400 MHz or higher...through the upper atmosphere create ionized plasma columns called...in the denser atmospheric layers. Brosch...echo comes from plasma with significant...EISCAT VHF (224 MHz) and UHF......

Noah Brosch; Ingemar Hggstrm; Asta Pellinen-Wannberg; Assar Westman

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

302

Unusual lattice dynamics of vanadium under high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT) (11). The vibrational...Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences...functional perturbation theory (DFPT). At...Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of...Sweden. wei.luo@fysik.uu.se | Journal...

Wei Luo; Rajeev Ahuja; Yang Ding; Ho-kwang Mao

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

High Resolution Parameter Space from a Two Level Model on Semi-Insulating GaAs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (SI-GaAs) samples experimentally show, under high electric fields and even at room temperature, negative differential conductivity in N-shaped form (NNDC). Since the most consolidated model for n-GaAs, namely, "the model", proposed by E. Scholl was not capable to generate the NNDC curve for SI-GaAs, in this work we proposed an alternative model. The model proposed, "the two-valley model" is based on the minimal set of generation recombination equations for two valleys inside of the conduction band, and an equation for the drift velocity as a function of the applied electric field, that covers the physical properties of the nonlinear electrical conduction of the SI-GaAs system. The "two valley model" was capable to generate theoretically the NNDC region for the first time, and with that, we were able to build a high resolution parameter-space of the periodicity (PSP) using a Periodicity-Detection (PD) routine. In the parameter space were observed self-organized periodic structu...

da Silva, S L; de Oliveira, A G; Ribeiro, G M; da Silva, R L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

What day-ahead reserves are needed in electric grids with high levels of wind power?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Day-ahead load and wind power forecasts provide useful information for operational decision making, but they are imperfect and forecast errors must be offset with operational reserves and balancing of (real time) energy. Procurement of these reserves is of great operational and financial importance in integrating large-scale wind power. We present a probabilistic method to determine net load forecast uncertainty for day-ahead wind and load forecasts. Our analysis uses data from two different electric grids in the US with similar levels of installed wind capacity but with large differences in wind and load forecast accuracy, due to geographic characteristics. We demonstrate that the day-ahead capacity requirements can be computed based on forecasts of wind and load. For 95% day-ahead reliability, this required capacity ranges from 2100 to 5700MW for ERCOT, and 1900 to 4500MW for MISO (with 10 GW of installed wind capacity), depending on the wind and load forecast values. We also show that for each MW of additional wind power capacity for ERCOT, 0.160.30MW of dispatchable capacity will be used to compensate for wind uncertainty based on day-ahead forecasts. For MISO (with its more accurate forecasts), the requirement is 0.070.13MW of dispatchable capacity for each MW of additional wind capacity.

Brandon Mauch; Jay Apt; Pedro M S Carvalho; Paulina Jaramillo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Building the institutional capacity for managing commercial high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July 1981, the Office of Nuclear Waste Management of the Department of Energy contracted with the National Academy of Public Administration for a study of institutional issues associated with the commercial radioactive waste management program. The two major sets of issues which the Academy was asked to investigate were (1) intergovernmental relationships, how federal, state, local and Indian tribal council governments relate to each other in the planning and implementation of a waste management program, and (2) interagency relationships, how the federal agencies with major responsibilities in this public policy arena interact with each other. The objective of the study was to apply the perspectives of public administration to a difficult and controversial question - how to devise and execute an effective waste management program workable within the constraints of the federal system. To carry out this task, the Academy appointed a panel composed of individuals whose background and experience would provide the several types of knowledge essential to the effort. The findings of this panel are presented along with the executive summary. The report consists of a discussion of the search for a radioactive waste management strategy, and an analysis of the two major groups of institutional issues: (1) intergovernmental, the relationship between the three major levels of government; and (2) interagency, the relationships between the major federal agencies having responsibility for the waste management program.

None

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

High-level waste canister storage final design, installation, and testing. Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s radioactive waste storage facility, the Chemical Process Cell (CPC). This facility is currently being used to temporarily store vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters. These canisters are stacked two-high in a seismically designed rack system within the cell. Approximately 300 canisters will be produced during the Project`s vitrification campaign which began in June 1996. Following the completion of waste vitrification and solidification, these canisters will be transferred via rail or truck to a federal repository (when available) for permanent storage. All operations in the CPC are conducted remotely using various handling systems and equipment. Areas adjacent to or surrounding the cell provide capabilities for viewing, ventilation, and equipment/component access.

Connors, B.J.; Meigs, R.A.; Pezzimenti, D.M.; Vlad, P.M.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Performance assessment modeling of high level nuclear wasteforms from the pyroprocess fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several performance assessment (PA) analyses have been completed to estimate the release to the accessible environment of radionuclides from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel emplaced in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Probabilistic methods were utilized based on the complexity of the repository system. Recent investigations have been conducted to identify the merits of a pyroprocess fuel cycle. This cycle utilizes high temperature molten salts and metals to partially separate actinides and fission products. In a closed liquid metal reactor (LMR) fuel cycle, this allows recycling of nearly all of the actinides. In a once-through cycle, this isolates the actinides for storage into a wasteform which can be specifically tailored for their retention. With appropriate front-end treatment, this Process can also be used to treat LWR spent fuel.

Nutt, W.M.; Hill, R.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bullen, D.B. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Unusual Outbursting State of a Z Cam-Type Star HL CMa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HL CMa is a Z Cam-type dwarf nova which was discovered as an Einstein X-ray source. In addition to normal outbursts and standstills, we noticed the presence of "the third" outbursting state. During this period, the star showed weak outbursts with a long outburst cycle length. We propose that this phenomenon is caused by a heating on the accretion disk. The presence of strong P Cyg feature in the ultraviolet and the unusual presence of high-excitation optical lines could be interpreted as an emerging signature of strong irradiation field. Since the object is still in this unusual state in 2002 March, we encourage X-ray and spectroscopic observations to detect further signatures of high-energy photons and irradiation.

T. Kato

2002-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

309

Melted Murataite Ceramics Containing Simulated Actinide/Rare Earth Fraction of High Level Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Murataite-based ceramics with three different chemical compositions containing simulated actinide/rare earth (RE) fraction of HLW were produced in a resistive furnace at a temperature of 1500 deg. C and two of them - in a cold crucible energized from a 5.28 MHz/10 kW high frequency generator. All the samples prepared in resistive furnace were composed of major murataite and minor perovskite, crichtonite, zirconolite, and pyrophanite/ilmenite. The samples produced in the cold crucible were composed of murataite, perovskite, crichtonite, and rutile. Higher content of perovskite and crichtonite in the cold crucible melted ceramic than in the ceramic with the same chemical composition but melted in resistive furnace may be due to higher temperature in the cold crucible (up to 1600-1650 deg. C) at which some fraction of murataite was subjected to decomposition yielding additional amount of perovskite and crichtonite. Method of melting may effect on elemental partitioning in the murataite-containing ceramics because light (Ce-group) REs enter preferably perovskite phase whereas Nd, Sm, and heavy (Y-group) REs are accommodated in the murataite polytypes. Thus, perovskite and murataite are major host phases for the Ce- and Y-group REs, respectively, whereas tetravalent actinides (U) enter murataite only.

Stefanovsky, S.V.; Ptashkin, A.G.; Knyazev, O.A.; Zen'kovskaya, M.S.; Stefanovsky, O.I. [State Unitary Enterprise SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yudintsev, S.V.; Nikonov, B.S.; Lapina, M.I. [Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Russian, Academy of Sciences (IGEM RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Characterization, Propagation and Analysis of Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainty in the 2008 Performance Assessment for the Proposed Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 2008 performance assessment (PA) for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, illustrates the conceptual...

Clifford W. Hansen; Jon C. Helton; Cdric J. Sallaberry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors

Lawrence, C B

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 3, Appendix 3A, ORIGEN2 decay tables for immobilized high-level waste; Appendix 3B, Interim high-level waste forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This appendix presents the results of decay calculations using the ORIGEN2 code to determine the radiological properties of canisters of immobilized high-level waste as a function of decay time for decay times up to one million years. These calculations were made for the four HLW sites (West Valley Demonstration Project, Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) using the composition data discussed in the HLW section of this report. Calculated ({alpha},n) neutron production rates are also shown.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . Le mieux est lennemi du bien (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on solutions that remain economically and/or politically out of reach.

Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Sterling science: Strain in silver nanoparticles creates unusual  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sterling science: Strain in silver nanoparticles creates unusual Sterling science: Strain in silver nanoparticles creates unusual "twinning" By Jared Sagoff * August 27, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint When twins are forced to share, it can put a significant strain on their relationship. While this observation is perhaps unsurprising in the behavior of children, it is less obvious when it comes to nanoparticles. After spending close to a decade examining the structure of nanowires made of pure silver, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a set of unusual behaviors in nanocrystals with a strained, five-fold symmetry formed by "twinning" in the crystal structure. The twinned crystals' unusual pentagonal symmetry and complicated structures distinguish them from the cubic

315

Unusual Condition Mining for Risk Management of Hydroelectric Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kyushu Electric Power Co.,Inc. collects different sensor data and weather information to maintain the safety of hydroelectric power plants while the plants are running. In this paper, we consider that the abnormal condition sign may be unusual condition. ...

Takashi Onoda; Norihiko Ito; Hironobu Yamasaki

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Unusual structure and magnetism in manganese oxide nanoclusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report an unusual evolution of structure and magnetism in stoichiometric MnO clusters based on an extensive and unbiased search through the potential-energy surface within density functional theory. The smaller clusters, ...

Ganguly, Shreemoyee

317

Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: glass monoliths vs metal matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matrix composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes.

Jardine, L.J.; Carlton, R.E.; Steindler, M.J.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J. [and others

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Electrochemical determination of the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys proposed for containment of high level nuclear waste in tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long-term geological disposal of nuclear waste requires corrosion-resistant canister materials for encapsulation. Several austenitic stainless steels are under consideration for such purposes for the disposal of high-level waste at the candidate repository site located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. With regard to corrosion considerations, a worst case scenario at this prospective repository location would result from the intrusion of vadose water. This preliminary study focuses on the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of the candidate canister materials under worst-case repository environments. Electrochemical parameters related to localized attack (e.g., pitting potentials) and the electrochemical corrosion rates have been examined. 15 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

Glass, R.S.; Overturf, G.E.; Garrison, R.E.; McCright, R.D.

1984-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

320

Audit of the Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator at Savannah River, ER-B-95-04  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL REPORT ON THE AUDIT OF THE REPLACEMENT HIGH LEVEL WASTE EVAPORATOR AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE The Office of Audit Services wants to make the distribution of its audit reports as customer friendly and cost effective as possible. Therefore, this report will be available electroni- cally through the Internet five to seven days after publication at the following alternative addresses: Department of Energy Headquarters Gopher gopher.hr.doc.gov Department of Energy Headquarters Anonymous FTP vm1.hqadmin.doe.gov U.S. Department of Energy Human Resources and Administration

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [URS, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

322

RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Radiological assessment of the consequences of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in subseabed sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiological assessment of the seabed option consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment that could result from the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) within the seabed sediments in deep oceans. The assessment is made for the high-level waste (vitrified glass) produced by the reprocessing of 10/sup 5/ tons of heavy metal from spent fuel, which represents the amount of waste generated by 3333 reactor-yr of 900-MW(electric) reactors, i.e., 3000 GW(electric) x yr. The disposal option considered is to use 14,667 steel penetrators, each of them containing five canisters of HLW glass (0.15 m/sup 3/ each). These penetrators would reach a depth of 50 m in the sediments and would be placed at an average distance of 180 m from each other, requiring a disposal area on the order of 22 x 22 km. Two such potential disposal areas in the Atlantic Ocean were studied, Great Meteor East (GME) and South Nares Abyssal Plains (SNAP). A special ship design is proposed to minimize transportation accidents. Approximately 100 shipments would be necessary to dispose of the proposed amount of waste. The results of this radiological assessment seem to show that the disposal of HLW in subseabed sediments is radiologically a very acceptable option.

de Marsily, G.; Behrendt, V.; Ensminger, D.A.; Flebus, C.; Hutchinson, B.L.; Kane, P.; Karpf, A.; Klett, R.D.; Mobbs, S.; Poulin, M.; Stanners, D.A.; Wuschke, D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Radiological assessment of the consequences of the disposal of high level radioactive waste in sub-seabed sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiological assessment of the Seabed option consists of estimating the detriment to man and to the environment that could result from the disposal of high-level nuclear waste within the seabed sediments in the deep oceans. The assessment is made for the high-level waste (vitrified glass) produced by the reprocessing of 10/sup 5/ tons of heavy metal from spent fuel, which represents the amount of waste generated by 3333 reactor-years of 900 MW(e) reactors, i.e., 3000 GW(E).a. The disposal option considered is to use 14,667 steel penetrators, each of them containing five canisters of HLW glass (0,15 m/sup 3/ each). These penetrators would reach a depth of 50 m in the sediments and would be placed at an average distance of 180 m from each other, requiring a disposal area on the order of 22 x 22 km. Two such potential disposal areas in the Atlantic ocean were studied, Great Meteor East (GME) and South Nares Abyssal Plains (SNAP). A special ship design is proposed to minimize transportation accidents. Approximately 100 shipments would be necessary to dispose of the proposed amount of waste. 1 ref.

de Marsily, G.; Behrendt, V.; Ensminger, D.A.; Flebus, C.; Hutchinson, B.L.; Kane, P.; Karpf, A.; Klett, R.D.; Mobbs, S.; Poulin, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)] [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Direct conversion of surplus fissile materials, spent nuclear fuel, and other materials to high-level-waste glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the end of the cold war the United States, Russia, and other countries have excess plutonium and other materials from the reductions in inventories of nuclear weapons. The United States Academy of Sciences (NAS) has recommended that these surplus fissile materials (SFMs) be processed so they are no more accessible than plutonium in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This spent fuel standard, if adopted worldwide, would prevent rapid recovery of SFMs for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. The NAS recommended investigation of three sets of options for disposition of SFMs while meeting the spent fuel standard: (1) incorporate SFMs with highly radioactive materials and dispose of as waste, (2) partly burn the SFMs in reactors with conversion of the SFMs to SNF for disposal, and (3) dispose of the SFMs in deep boreholes. The US Government is investigating these options for SFM disposition. A new method for the disposition of SFMs is described herein: the simultaneous conversion of SFMs, SNF, and other highly radioactive materials into high-level-waste (HLW) glass. The SFMs include plutonium, neptinium, americium, and {sup 233}U. The primary SFM is plutonium. The preferred SNF is degraded SNF, which may require processing before it can be accepted by a geological repository for disposal.

Forsberg, C.W.; Elam, K.R.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

DOE/EIS-0303D; High-Level Waste Tank Closure Draft Environmental Impact Statement (November 2000)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EIS-0303D EIS-0303D DRAFT November 2000 Summary S-iii COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TITLE: Savannah River Site, High-Level Waste Tank Closure Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0303D), Aiken, SC. CONTACT: For additional information or to submit comments on this environmental impact statement (EIS), write or call: Andrew R. Grainger, NEPA Compliance Officer U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office Building 742A, Room 183 Aiken, South Carolina 29802 Attention: Tank Closure EIS Local and Nationwide Telephone: (800) 881-7292 Email: nepa@srs.gov The EIS is also available on the internet at: http://tis.eh.doe.gov/nepa/docs/docs.htm For general information on the process that DOE follows in complying with the National Environmental

328

Hazards and scenarios examined for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper summarizes various hazards identified between 1978 when Yucca Mountain, located in arid southern Nevada, was first proposed as a potential site and 2008 when the license application to construct a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste was submitted. Although advantages of an arid site are many, hazard identification and scenario development have generally recognized fractures in the tuff as important features; climate change, water infiltration and percolation, and an oxidizing environment as important processes; and igneous activity, seismicity, human intrusion, and criticality as important disruptive events to consider at Yucca Mountain. Some of the scientific and technical challenges encountered included a change in the repository design from in-floor emplacement with small packages to in-drift emplacement with large packages without backfill. This change, in turn, increased the importance of igneous and seismic hazards.

Rob P. Rechard; Geoff A. Freeze; Frank V. Perry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of this development, a detailed performance assessment (PA) for the YM repository was completed in 2008 and supported a license application by the DOE to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the construction of the YM repository. The following aspects of the 2008 YM PA are described in this presentation: (i) conceptual structure and computational organization, (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques in use, (iii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for physical processes, and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for expected dose to the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) specified the NRCs regulations for the YM repository.

Jon C. Helton; Clifford W. Hansen; Cdric J. Sallaberry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The importance of zeolites in the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zeolitic rocks play an important role in retarding the migration of radionuclides that occur in solution as simple cations (Cs, Sr, Ba). However, the interaction of zeolites with complex transuranic species in solution provides little if any advantage over other common silicate minerals. The most important consequences of zeolite occurrences near a high-level radioactive waste repository environment are likely to be their response to thermal loading and their impact on site hydrology. Partial zeolite dehydration during the early thermal pulse from the repository and rehydration as the repository slowly cools can have an important impact on the water budget of a repository in unsaturated rocks, provided that the long-term heating does not result in zeolite destabilization.

Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

Hansen, E

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Performance of the online track reconstruction and impact on hadronic triggers at the CMS High Level Trigger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with the detector readout, offline storage and analysis capabilities. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS reconstruction and analysis software running on a computer farm. The software-base HLT requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. This is going to be even more challenging during Run II, with a higher centre-of-mass energy, a higher instantaneous luminosity and pileup, and the impact of out-of-time pileup due to the 25 ns bunch spacing. The online algorithms need to be optimised for such a complex environment in order to keep the output rate under control without impacting the physics efficiency of the online selection. Tracking, for instance, will play an even more important role in the event reconstruction. In this poster we will present the performance of the online track and vertex reconstruction algorithms, and their impact on the hadronic triggers that make use of b-tagging and of jets reconstructed with the Particle Flow technique. We will show the impact of these triggers on physics performance of the experiment, and the latest plans for improvements in view of the Run II data taking in 2015.

Valentina Gori

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

334

Impacts of high penetration level of fully electric vehicles charging loads on the thermal ageing of power transformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper develops a methodology to determine the impacts of high penetration level of fully electric vehicles (FEVs) charging loads on the thermal ageing of power distribution transformers. The method proposed in this paper is stochastically formulated by modelling the transformer life consumption due to \\{FEVs\\} charging loads as a function of ambient temperature, start time of \\{FEVs\\} charging, initial state-of-charge and charging modes. \\{FEVs\\} loads are modelled using the results from an analytical solution that predicts a cluster of \\{FEVs\\} chargers. A UK generic LV distribution network model and real load demand data are used to simulate FEVs impacts on the thermal ageing of LV power distribution transformers. Results show that the ambient temperature, \\{FEVs\\} penetration level, and start time of charging are the main factors that affect the transformer life expectancy. It was concluded that the smart charging scenario generally shows the best outcome from the loss of life reduction perspective. Meanwhile, public charging which shifts a large percentage of charging load to commercial and industrial areas can significantly alleviate the residential transformer loading thus has little impact on the loss of life of transformers. The proposed method in this paper can be easily applied to the determination of the optimum charging time as a function of existing loads, and ambient temperature.

Kejun Qian; Chengke Zhou; Yue Yuan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Refined Energetic Ordering for Sulfate-Water (n=3-6) Clusters Using High-Level Electronic Structure Calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work reports refinements of the energetic ordering of the known low-energy structures of sulfate-water clusters SO2? 4 (H2O)n (n = 3?6) using high-level electronic structure methods. Coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) is used in combination with an estimate of basis set effects up to the complete basis set limit using second order Mller-Plesset theory. Harmonic zero point energy (ZPE), included at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level, was found to have a significant effect on the energetic ordering. Limitations of the ZPE calculations, both due to electronic structure errors, and use of the harmonic approximation, probably constitute the largest remaining errors. Due to the often small energy differences between cluster isomers, and the significant role of ZPE, deuteration can alter the relative energies of low-lying structures, and, when it is applied in conjunction with calculated harmonic ZPEs, even alters the global minimum for n = 4.

Lambrecht, Daniel S.; McCaslin, Laura; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Head-Gordon, Martin P.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Electronic couplings for molecular charge transfer: Benchmarking CDFT, FODFT, and FODFTB against high-level ab initio calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a database (HAB11) of electronic coupling matrix elements (H{sub ab}) for electron transfer in 11 ?-conjugated organic homo-dimer cations. High-level ab inito calculations at the multireference configuration interaction MRCI+Q level of theory, n-electron valence state perturbation theory NEVPT2, and (spin-component scaled) approximate coupled cluster model (SCS)-CC2 are reported for this database to assess the performance of three DFT methods of decreasing computational cost, including constrained density functional theory (CDFT), fragment-orbital DFT (FODFT), and self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (FODFTB). We find that the CDFT approach in combination with a modified PBE functional containing 50% Hartree-Fock exchange gives best results for absolute H{sub ab} values (mean relative unsigned error = 5.3%) and exponential distance decay constants ? (4.3%). CDFT in combination with pure PBE overestimates couplings by 38.7% due to a too diffuse excess charge distribution, whereas the economic FODFT and highly cost-effective FODFTB methods underestimate couplings by 37.6% and 42.4%, respectively, due to neglect of interaction between donor and acceptor. The errors are systematic, however, and can be significantly reduced by applying a uniform scaling factor for each method. Applications to dimers outside the database, specifically rotated thiophene dimers and larger acenes up to pentacene, suggests that the same scaling procedure significantly improves the FODFT and FODFTB results for larger ?-conjugated systems relevant to organic semiconductors and DNA.

Kubas, Adam; Blumberger, Jochen, E-mail: j.blumberger@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, Felix [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lehrstuhl fr Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitt Bochum, Universittsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Heck, Alexander; Elstner, Marcus [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Oberhofer, Harald [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)] [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

337

Fundamental properties of monolithic bentonite buffer material formed by cold isostatic pressing for high-level radioactive waste repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methods of fabrication, handling, and emplacement of engineered barriers used in a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste should be planned as simply as possible from the engineering and economic viewpoints. Therefore, a new concept of a monolithic buffer material around a waste package have been proposed instead of the conventional concept with the use of small blocks, which would decrease the cost for buffer material. The monolithic buffer material is composed of two parts of highly compacted bentonite, a cup type body and a cover. As the forming method of the monolithic buffer material, compaction by the cold isostatic pressing process (CIP) has been employed. In this study, monolithic bentonite bodies with the diameter of about 333 mm and the height of about 455 mm (corresponding to the approx. 1/5 scale for the Japanese reference concept) were made by the CIP of bentonite powder. The dry densities: {rho}d of the bodies as a whole were measured and the small samples were cut from several locations to investigate the density distribution. The swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity as function of the monolithic body density for CIP-formed specimens were also measured. High density ({rho}d: 1.4--2.0 Mg/m{sup 3}) and homogeneous monolithic bodies were formed by the CIP. The measured results of the swelling pressure (3--15 MPa) and hydraulic conductivity (0.5--1.4 x 10{sup {minus}13} m/s) of the specimens were almost the same as those for the uniaxial compacted bentonite in the literature. It is shown that the vacuum hoist system is an applicable handling method for emplacement of the monolithic bentonite.

Kawakami, S.; Yamanaka, Y.; Kato, K.; Asano, H.; Ueda, H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Characterization, propagation and analysis of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 2008 performance assessment (PA) for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, illustrates the conceptual structure of risk assessments for complex systems. The 2008 YM PA is based on the following three ...

Clifford W. Hansen; Jon C. Helton; Cdric J. Sallaberry

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

MesoNetHS: A Mesoscopic Simulation Model of a Router-Level Internet-like Network with High Speed TCP Replacements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MesoNetHS: A Mesoscopic Simulation Model of a Router-Level Internet-like Network with High Speed TCP Replacements MesoNetHS is a mesoscopic (medium scale) simulation model of a router-level Internet of a larger transfer and associated multiplier on file size. During simulation, model state is captured

340

Seminar -4. letnik Landau Levels in Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seminar - 4. letnik Landau Levels in Graphene Author: Zala Lenarcic Mentor: prof. Anton Ramsak Ljubljana, December 2010 Abstract In this seminar I present graphene, a new material with promising to graphene's unusual energy dispersion. I will derive Landau levels for standard electrons, for electrons

Ramsak, Anton

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341

Gold, Copper, and Platinum Nanoparticles Dispersed on CeOx/TiO2(110) Surfaces: High Water-Gas Shift Activity and the Nature of the Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At small coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the CeO{sub x} nanoparticles have an unusual coordination mode. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional calculations point to the presence of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers, which form diagonal arrays that have specific orientations of 0, 24, and 42{sup o} with respect to the [1 -1 0] direction of the titania substrate. At high coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the surface exhibits two types of terraces. In one type, the morphology is not very different from that observed at low ceria coverage. However, in the second type of terrace, there is a compact array of ceria particles with structures that do not match the structures of CeO{sub 2}(111) or CeO{sub 2}(110). The titania substrate imposes on the ceria nanoparticles nontypical coordination modes, enhancing their chemical reactivity. This phenomenon leads to a larger dispersion of supported metal nanoparticles (M = Au, Cu, Pt) and makes possible the direct participation of the oxide in catalytic reactions. The M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces display an extremely high catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that follows the sequence Au/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Pt/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110). For low coverages of Cu and CeO{sub x}, Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) is 8-12 times more active than Cu(111) or Cu/ZnO industrial catalysts. In the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) systems, there is a strong coupling of the chemical properties of the admetal and the mixed-metal oxide: The adsorption and dissociation of water probably take place on the oxide, CO adsorbs on the admetal nanoparticles, and all subsequent reaction steps occur at the oxide-admetal interface. The high catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces reflects the unique properties of the mixed-metal oxide at the nanometer level.

Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Senanayake, S; Barrio, L; Liu, P; Fdez. Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; Rodriguez, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Gold, Copper and Platinum Nanoparticles Dispersed on CeOx/TiO2(110) Surfaces: High Water-Gas Shift Activity and the Nature of the Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At small coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the CeO{sub x} nanoparticles have an unusual coordination mode. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional calculations point to the presence of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers, which form diagonal arrays that have specific orientations of 0, 24, and 42{sup o} with respect to the [1 -1 0] direction of the titania substrate. At high coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the surface exhibits two types of terraces. In one type, the morphology is not very different from that observed at low ceria coverage. However, in the second type of terrace, there is a compact array of ceria particles with structures that do not match the structures of CeO{sub 2}(111) or CeO{sub 2}(110). The titania substrate imposes on the ceria nanoparticles nontypical coordination modes, enhancing their chemical reactivity. This phenomenon leads to a larger dispersion of supported metal nanoparticles (M = Au, Cu, Pt) and makes possible the direct participation of the oxide in catalytic reactions. The M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces display an extremely high catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that follows the sequence Au/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Pt/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110). For low coverages of Cu and CeO{sub x}, Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) is 8-12 times more active than Cu(111) or Cu/ZnO industrial catalysts. In the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) systems, there is a strong coupling of the chemical properties of the admetal and the mixed-metal oxide: The adsorption and dissociation of water probably take place on the oxide, CO adsorbs on the admetal nanoparticles, and all subsequent reaction steps occur at the oxide-admetal interface. The high catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces reflects the unique properties of the mixed-metal oxide at the nanometer level.

Rodriguez, J.A.; Park, J.B.; Graciani, J.; Evans, J.; Stacchiola, D.; Senanayake, S.D.; Barrio, L.; Liu, P.; Sanz, J.F.; Hrbek, J.

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

343

Assessment of degradation concerns for spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes in monitored retrievalbe storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been concluded that there are no significant degradation mechanisms that could prevent the design, construction, and safe operation of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities. However, there are some long-term degradation mechanisms that could affect the ability to maintain or readily retrieve spent fuel (SF), high-level wastes (HLW), and transuranic wastes (TRUW) several decades after emplacement. Although catastrophic failures are not anticipated, long-term degradation mechanisms have been identified that could, under certain conditions, cause failure of the SF cladding and/or failure of TRUW storage containers. Stress rupture limits for Zircaloy-clad SF in MRS range from 300 to 440/sup 0/C, based on limited data. Additional tests on irradiated Zircaloy (3- to 5-year duration) are needed to narrow this uncertainty. Cladding defect sizes could increase in air as a result of fuel density decreases due to oxidation. Oxidation tests (3- to 5-year duration) on SF are also needed to verify oxidation rates in air and to determine temperatures below which monitoring of an inert cover gas would not be required. Few, if any, changes in the physical state of HLW glass or canisters or their performance would occur under projected MRS conditions. The major uncertainty for HLW is in the heat transfer through cracked glass and glass devitrification above 500/sup 0/C. Additional study of TRUW is required. Some fraction of present TRUW containers would probably fail within the first 100 years of MRS, and some TRUW would be highly degraded upon retrieval, even in unfailed containers. One possible solution is the design of a 100-year container. 93 references, 28 figures, 17 tables.

Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Slate, S.C.; Partain, W.L.; Divine, J.R.; Kreid, D.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

DOE/EIS-0287 Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement (December 1999)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HLW & FD EIS HLW & FD EIS 3-13 DOE/EIS-0287D Calcine storag e i n b i n s ets Calcine storag e i n b i n s et s Cesium ion exchange & grouting Cesium ion exchange & grouting NWCF* NWCF* Calcine Mixed transuranic waste/SBW Mixed transuranic waste/NGLW Low-level waste disposa l*** disposa l*** Tank heels Transuranic waste (from tank heels) * * * * Mixed transuranic waste/ NGLW Mixed transuranic waste/ NGLW M i x e d t r a nsuran ic w a s t e / M i x e d t r a nsuran ic w a s t e / S B W s t o rage in Ta n k F a r m S B W s t o rage in Ta n k F a r m Low-leve l waste Low-leve l waste FIGURE 3-2. Continued Current Operations Alternative. LEGEND * Including high-temperature and maximum achievable control technology upgrades. Mixed transuranic waste/ newly generated liquid waste New Waste Calcining Facility ** Calcine would be transferred from bin set #1 to bin set #6 or #7.

346

Assessment of fission product content of high-level liquid waste supernate on E-Area vault package criteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses the tank farm`s high level waste supernate to determine any potential impacts on waste certification for the E-Area vaults (EAV). The Waste Acceptance Criteria procedure (i.e., WAC 3.10 of the 1S manual) imposes administrative controls on radioactive material in waste packages sent to the EAV, specifically on six fission products. Waste tank supernates contain various fission products, so any waste package containing material contaminated with supernate will contain these radioactive isotopes. This report develops the process knowledge basis for characterizing the supernate composition for these isotopes, so that appropriate controls can be implemented to ensure that the EAV WAC is met. Six fission products are listed in the SRS 1S Manual WAC 3.10: Se-79, which decays to bromine; Sr-90, which decays to niobium; Tc-99, which decays to ruthenium; Sn-126, which decays to tellurium; I-129, which decays to xenon; and Cs-137, which decays to barium.

Brown, D.F.

1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Summary discussion of the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste was proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This paper summarizes the historical development of the 2008 YM performance assessment (PA), and explains how the methods and results of the 2008 PA address regulatory requirements specified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Topics covered include (i) screening of features, events and processes, (ii) development of scenario classes, (iii) descriptions of barrier capability, and (iv) compliance with applicable quantitative standards for individual protection, individual protection following human intrusion, and ground water protection. This article is part of a special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety devoted to the 2008 YM PA and provides a brief summary of information presented in detail in multiple articles in this issue and interprets the results in the context of applicable EPA and NRC regulations.

Peter N. Swift; Clifford W. Hansen; Jon C. Helton; Robert L. Howard; M. Kathryn Knowles; Robert J. MacKinnon; Jerry A. McNeish; S. David Sevougian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Self-irradiation damage of a curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich high level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the polyphase titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich simulated high-level nuclear waste doped with 0.69 wt% of {sup 244}Cm to accelerate long-term self-irradiation due to {alpha} decays. {alpha} autoradiography showed that {alpha} emissions were almost uniformly distributed throughout the curium-doped samples on a {gt} 20{mu}m scale although micropore surfaces and titanium oxide agglomerates were free of {alpha} emitting nuclides. The phase assemblage of the curium-doped titanate ceramic included freudenbergite and loveringite in addition to the more abundant oxide phases: hollandite, perovskite, and zirconolite. Accumulation of {alpha} decays was accompanied by a gradual decrease in density. The increment of density was {minus}1% after an equivalent age of 5000 yr. Leach tests showed a slight rend toward higher total release of curium with equivalent age. The release of soluble nonradioactive elements (e.g., Na, Cs, Sr, and Ca) in the oldest specimens (equivalent age, 2000 yr) varied from specimen to specimen but, on average, were higher than specimens that had suffered a lower radiation dose.

Miyazaki, T. (Second Dept. of Nuclear Business, Ibaraki Center, Chiyoda Maintenance Ltd., Asahi, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-14 (JP)); White, T.J. (Electron Microscope Centre, Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane 4067 (AU)); Mitamura, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Nukaga, K.; Togashi, Y.; Sagawa, T.; Tashiro, S. (Dept. of Environmental Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-11 (JP)); Levins, D.M. (Environmental Science Program, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights Research Lab., Lucas Heights, New South Wales (AU)); Kikuchi, A. (Dept. of Reactor Fuel Examination, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-11 (JP))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Application of single ion activity coefficients to determine solvent extraction mechanism for components of high level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The TRUEX solvent extraction process is being developed to remove and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from high-level and TRU radioactive wastes currently stored at US Department of Energy sites. Phosphoric acid is one of the chemical species of concern at the Hanford site where bismuth phosphate was used to recover plutonium. The mechanism of phosphoric acid extraction with TRUEX-NPH solvent at 25{degrees}C was determined by phosphoric acid distribution ratios, which were measured by using phosphoric acid radiotracer and a variety of aqueous phases containing different concentrations of nitric acid and nitrate ions. A model was developed for predicting phosphoric acid distribution ratios as a function of the thermodynamic activities of nitrate ion and hydrogen ion. The Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) was used to calculate these activities based on the Bromley method. The derived model supports CMPO and TBP extraction of a phosphoric acid-nitric acid complex and a CMPO-phosphoric acid complex in TRUEX-NPH solvent.

Nunez, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or mostly heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), as well as the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. Although a rail line does not service the Yucca Mountain site, the Department has identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. If mostly rail is selected for Nevada, the Department would then identify a preference for one of the rail corridors in consultation with affected stakeholders, particularly the State of Nevada. DOE would then select the rail corridor and initiate a process to select a specific rail alignment within the corridor for the construction of a rail line. Five proposed rail corridors were analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. The assessment considered the impacts of constructing a branch rail line in the five 400-meter (0.25mile) wide corridors. Each corridor connects the Yucca Mountain site with an existing mainline railroad in Nevada.

Sweeney, Robin L,; Lechel, David J.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

352

Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste: Overview and requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper, and this topical session on Nuclear Waste Minimization, Management and Remediation, focuses on two nuclear systems, and their associated technologies, that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from present light-water reactors (LWR). Additionally these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes, long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while simultaneously burning long-lived actinide waste. IFR applications include burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), is based upon an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction.

Arthur, E.D.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institutes NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data, GH could be a new therapeutic target in melanoma.

Sustarsic, Elahu G. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States) [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Junnila, Riia K. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States)] [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Kopchick, John J., E-mail: kopchick@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

354

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Summary Our short-term outlook for a wide array of energy prices has been adjusted upward as international and domestic energy supply conditions have tightened. We think that crude oil prices are as likely as not to end the year $2 to $3 per barrel higher than our previous projections. Thus, we think that the probability of West Texas Intermediate costing an average of $30 per barrel or more at midwinter is about 50 percent. On their current track, heating oil prices are likely to be about 30 percent above year-ago levels in the fourth quarter. Prices for Q1 2001 seem more likely now to match or exceed the high level seen in Q1 2000. Tight oil markets this year and an inherent propensity for high gas utilization in incremental power supply have resulted in rising North American natural gas

355

Unusual degree of angular anisotropy in the resonant Auger spectrum of Kr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The angular distribution parameter, ?, has been measured for the resonant Auger spectra in Kr following 3d?5p excitation. Unusually low values, close to -1, were seen for two bands. From optical spectroscopy data these bands are assigned to the final states 4p4(3P)5p(4P5/2, 4P3/2, and 4D5/2). According to angular momentum transfer theory, some of the transitions could be parity unfavored, yielding ? values of -1, but additional theory is required for a complete understanding. Implications for angular studies of highly resolved Auger spectra are discussed.

Thomas A. Carlson; David R. Mullins; Charles E. Beall; Brian W. Yates; James W. Taylor; Dennis W. Lindle; B. P. Pullen; Frederick A. Grimm

1988-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

356

PERFORMING DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE VISION BEAM LINE TO ELIMINATE HIGH VIBRATION LEVELS AND PROVIDE A SUSTAINABLE OPERATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides variable energy neutrons for a variety of experiments. The neutrons proceed down beam lines to the experiment hall, which houses a variety of experiments and test articles. Each beam line has one or more neutron choppers which filter the neutron beam based on the neutron energy by using a rotating neutron absorbing material passing through the neutron beam. Excessive vibration of the Vision beam line, believed to be caused by the T0 chopper, prevented the Vision beam line from operating at full capacity. This problem had been addressed several times by rebalancing/reworking the T0 beam chopper but the problem stubbornly persisted. To determine the cause of the high vibration, dynamic testing was performed. Twenty-seven accelerometer and motor current channels of data were collected during drive up, drive down, coast down, and steady-state conditions; resonance testing and motor current signature analysis were also performed. The data was analyzed for traditional mechanical/machinery issues such as misalignment and imbalance using time series analysis, frequency domain analysis, and operating deflection shape analysis. The analysis showed that the chopper base plate was experiencing an amplified response to the excitation provided by the T0 beam chopper. The amplified response was diagnosed to be caused by higher than expected base plate flexibility, possibly due to improper grouting or loose floor anchors. Based on this diagnosis, a decision was made to dismantle the beam line chopper and remount the base plate. Neutron activation of the beam line components make modifications to the beam line especially expensive and time consuming due to the radiation handling requirements, so this decision had significant financial and schedule implications. It was found that the base plate was indeed loose because of improper grouting during its initial installation. The base plate was modified by splitting it into multiple sections, isolating the T0 chopper from the rest of the beam line, and each section was then reinstalled and re-grouted. After these modifications, the vibration levels were reduced by a factor of 30. The reduction in vibration level was sufficient to allow the Vision beam line to operate at full capacity for the first time since its completed construction date.

Van Hoy, Blake W [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE`s license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE`s experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC`s geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs.

Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); DeWispelare, A.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

[alpha]-Decay damage effects in curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-free high-level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A polyphase titanate ceramic incorporating sodium-free simulated high-level nuclear waste was doped with 0.91 wt% of [sup 224]Cm to accelerate the effects of long-term self-irradiation arising from [alpha] decays. The ceramic included three main constituent minerals: hollandite, perovskite, and zirconolite, with some minor phases. Although hollandite showed the broadening of its X-ray diffraction lines and small lattice parameter changes during damage in growth, the unit cell was substantially unaltered. Perovskite and zirconolite, which are the primary hosts of curium, showed 2.7% and 2.6% expansions, respectively, of their unit cell volumes after a dose of 12 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1]. Volume swelling due to damage in growth caused an exponential (almost linear) decrease in density, which reached 1.7% after a dose of 12.4 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1]. Leach tests on samples that had incurred doses of 2.0 [times] 10[sup 17] and 4.5 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1] showed that the rates of dissolution of cesium and barium were similar to analogous leach rates from the equivalent cold ceramic, while strontium and calcium leach rates were 2--15 times higher. Although the cerium, molybdenum, strontium, and calcium leach rates in the present material were similar to those in the curium-doped sodium-bearing titanate ceramic reported previously, the cesium leach rate was 3--8 times lower.

Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Tsuboi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Togashi, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)); Stewart, M.W.A.; Vance, E.R.; Hart, K.P.; Ball, C.J. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales (Australia). Lucas Heights Research Labs.); White, T.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

MATRIX 1 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). It has been proposed that a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America develop a systematic approach to increase HLW throughput (by increasing WL with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). Programmatically, this task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. The following four specific tasks have been proposed to meet this programmatic objective: (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. The details of these tasks can be found in the associated task plan WSRC-STI-2007-00483. The current study is focused on Task 2 (crystal accumulation modeling and higher waste loading glasses) and involves glass formulation and physical property testing by both PNNL and SRNL (as defined in the PNNL and SRNL test plans). The intent of this report is to document the chemical composition and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results and statistical analysis of PNNL's Test Matrix 1 glasses. Note that this document is only a compilation of the data collected by SRNL for PNNL's glasses in support of this task and no conclusions will be drawn.

Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

360

Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste - overview and requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major issue surrounding current nuclear power generation is the management and disposal of long-lived, high-level waste (HLW). The planned and scientifically acceptable destination for this waste is in deep underground, geologically stable, repositories. However, public concerns surrounding such disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes and other issues such as proliferation and safety negatively affect the potential role that nuclear power can play in meeting current and future national energy needs. This paper and this topical session on nuclear waste minimization, management, and remediation focus on two nuclear systems and their associated technologies that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in HLW. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from current light water reactors (LWRs). In addition, these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while burning long-lived actinide waste. The IFR applications include the burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW), is based on an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at the destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent-fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction.

Arthur, E.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM HIGH FREQUENCY APPLIANCE LEVEL ENERGY METERING?RESULTS FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the household electricity consumption in the EU, potentialon household electricity consumption: a tool for savinghourly appliance-level electricity consumption data for 124

Chen, Victor; Delmas, Magali A; Kaiser, William; Locke, Stephen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Unusual biophysics of intrinsically disordered proteins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Research of a past decade and a half leaves no doubt that complete understanding of protein functionality requires close consideration of the fact that many functional proteins do not have well-folded structures. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are highly abundant in nature and play a number of crucial roles in a living cell. Their functions, which are typically associated with a wide range of intermolecular interactions where \\{IDPs\\} possess remarkable binding promiscuity, complement functional repertoire of ordered proteins. All this requires a close attention to the peculiarities of biophysics of these proteins. In this review, some key biophysical features of \\{IDPs\\} are covered. In addition to the peculiar sequence characteristics of \\{IDPs\\} these biophysical features include sequential, structural, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity of IDPs; their rough and relatively flat energy landscapes; their ability to undergo both induced folding and induced unfolding; the ability to interact specifically with structurally unrelated partners; the ability to gain different structures at binding to different partners; and the ability to keep essential amount of disorder even in the bound form. \\{IDPs\\} are also characterized by the turned-out response to the changes in their environment, where they gain some structure under conditions resulting in denaturation or even unfolding of ordered proteins. It is proposed that the heterogeneous spatiotemporal structure of IDPs/IDPRs can be described as a set of foldons, inducible foldons, semi-foldons, non-foldons, and unfoldons. They may lose their function when folded, and activation of some \\{IDPs\\} is associated with the awaking of the dormant disorder. It is possible that \\{IDPs\\} represent the edge of chaos systems which operate in a region between order and complete randomness or chaos, where the complexity is maximal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The emerging dynamic view of proteins: Protein plasticity in allostery, evolution and self-assembly.

Vladimir N. Uversky

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Unusual Otto excitation dynamics and enhanced coupling of light to TE plasmons in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unusual Otto excitation dynamics and enhanced coupling of light to TE plasmons in graphene Daniel R are a unique and unusual aspect of graphene's plasmonic response that are predicted to manifest when the sign plasmons in graphene. We show that TE plasmons supported by graphene in an Otto configuration unusually

Park, Namkyoo

364

Final Environmental Impact Statement (Supplement to ERDA-1537, September 1977) Waste Management Operations Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Savannah River Plant  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Do Do E/EIS-0062 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT mATEIUIENT (Supplement to ERDA-1537, September 1977) Waste ~ Management Operations Savannah River Plant ! Aiken, South Carolina Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage April 1980 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON. D.C.20545 1980 WL 94273 (F.R.) NOTICES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Waste Management Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C. Wednesday, July 9, 1980 *46154 Record of Decision Decision. The decision has been made to complete the construction of the 14 double-shell tanks and use them to store defense high-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Background. The SRP, located near Aiken, South Carolina, is a major installation of the

365

An Unusual Mechanism for the Antimicrobial Target Flavine-dependant  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An Unusual Mechanism for the Antimicrobial An Unusual Mechanism for the Antimicrobial Target Flavine-dependant Thymidylate Synthase (FTDS) Classical thymidylate synthases, encoded by the thyA and TYMS genes, are present in most eukaryotes, including humans, and are frequently targeted by chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. A recently discovered class of thymidylate synthases, the FDTSs encoded by the thyX gene has been found primarily in prokaryotes and viruses including several pathogens and biological warfare agents (see http://www.cdc.gov). Several organisms, including human pathogens, rely solely on thyX for thymidylate synthesis. FDTSs share no structure or sequence homology with classical thymidylate synthases (Fig 1), and thus present a promising new frontier for antibacterial/antiviral drug development.

366

Water an Unusual Liquid; LCLS Provides New Insights | Stanford Synchrotron  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water an Unusual Liquid; LCLS Provides New Insights Water an Unusual Liquid; LCLS Provides New Insights Wednesday, November 13, 2013 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Anders Nilsson, SUNCAT The anomalous physical properties of water are responsible for sustaining much of life on earth; for example, water displays a higher heat capacity than common liquids and expands upon freezing. Some of these anomalous physical properties become dramatically enhanced upon supercooling below the freezing point. In particular, extrapolations of the thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity and correlation length can all be fitted with a power law divergence with the same apparent singularity temperature of about 228 K. Experiments on pure bulk water below about ~240 K have so far been difficult: water crystallization occurs

367

Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

COLD DUST BUT WARM GAS IN THE UNUSUAL ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4125  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and H I emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5 10{sup 6} M {sub ?}. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (<12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [C II] emission raises this limit to <39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r {sup 1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is toward the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures ?10{sup 4} K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

Wilson, C. D.; Cridland, A.; Foyle, K.; Parkin, T. J.; Cooper, E. Mentuch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Roussel, H. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7095, F-75014 Paris (France)] [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7095, F-75014 Paris (France); Sauvage, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universit Paris Diderot DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, Bt. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universit Paris Diderot DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, Bt. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Smith, M. W. L.; Gear, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; De Looze, I. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)] [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, G. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L. [Aix-Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)] [Aix-Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Galametz, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

369

Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

Rechard, R.P. [ed.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Accelerated weathering of high-level and plutonium-bearing lanthanide borosilicate waste glasses under hydraulically unsaturated conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed that a can-in-canister waste package design be used for disposal of excess weapons-grade Pu at the proposed mined geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This configuration consists of a high-level waste (HLW) canister fitted with a rack that holds mini-canisters containing a Pu-bearing lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) waste glass and/or titanate-based ceramic (?15% of the total canister volume). The remaining volume of the HLW canister is then filled with HLW glass (?85% of the total canister volume). A 6-a pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) test was conducted to investigate waste formwaste form interactions that may occur when water penetrates the canisters and contacts the waste forms. The PUF column volumetric water content was observed to increase steadily during the test because of water accumulation associated with alteration phases formed on the surfaces of the glasses. Periodic excursions in effluent pH, electrical conductivity, and solution chemistry were monitored and correlated with the formation of a clay phase(s) during the test. Geochemical modeling, with the EQ3NR code, of select effluent solution samples suggests the dominant secondary reaction product for the surrogate HLW glass, SRL-202, is a smectite di-octahedral clay phase(s), possibly nontronite [Na0.33 Fe2(AlSi)4O10(OH)2n(H2O)] or beidellite [Na0.33Al2.33Si3.67O10(OH)2]. This clay phase was identified in scanning electron microscope (SEM) images as discrete spherical particles growing out of a hydrated gel layer on reacted SRL-202 glass. Alpha energy analysis (AEA) of aliquots of select effluent samples that were filtered through a 1.8nm filter suggest that approximately 80% of the total measurable Pu was in the form of a filterable particulate, in comparison to unfiltered aliquots of the same sample. These results suggest the filterable particles are >1.8nm but smaller than the 0.2?m average diameter openings of the Ti porous plate situated at the base of the column. In this advection-dominated system, Pu appeared to be migrating principally as or in association with colloids after being released from the LaBS glass. Analyses of reacted LaBS glass particles with SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggest that Pu may have segregated into a discrete disk-like phase, possibly PuO2. Alteration products that contain the neutron absorber Gd have not been positively identified. Separation of the Pu and the neutron absorber Gd during glass dissolution and transport could be a criticality issue for the proposed repository. However, the translation and interpretation of these long-term PUF test results to actual disposed waste packages requires further analysis.

Eric M. Pierce; B.P. McGrail; P.F. Martin; J. Marra; B.W. Arey; K.N. Geiszler

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

EIS-0074: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Wastes Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Lab, Idaho  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this statement to analyze the environmental implications of the proposed selection of a strategy for long- term management of the high- level radioactive wastes generated as part of the national defense effort at the Department's Idaho Chemical Processing Plant a t the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

372

EIS-0081: Long-Term Management of Liquid High-Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action prepared this statement to analyze the environmental and socioeconomic impacts resulting from the Departments proposed action to construct and operate facilities necessary to solidify the liquid high level wastes currently stored in underground tanks at Wes t Valley, New York.

373

EIS-0023: Long-Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Wastes (Research and Development Program for Immobilization), Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzes the environmental implications of the proposed continuation of a large Federal research and development (R&D) program directed toward the immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical separations operations for defense radionuclides production at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina.

374

An Exploratory Study of the Levels of Technology Implementation in the Teaching of Writing to Students in Diverse, Low-income High Schools in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Exploratory Study of the Levels of Technology Implementation in the Teaching of Writing to Students in Diverse, Low-income High Schools in Texas. (August 2012) Courtney Faith Haggard Wellmann, B.S., Texas Christian University; M.Ed., Texas A&M University... .......................................................................................................... 121 APPENDIX A ........................................................................................................... 135 APPENDIX B...

Wellmann, Courtney Faith Haggard

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

375

High Level of Correlation of Human Papillomavirus-16 DNA Viral Load Estimates Generated by Three Real-time PCR Assays Applied on Genital Specimens  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...measure HPV DNA from individual types and has a sensitivity end point of 5,000 HPV DNA copies per test (26, 27). Furthermore...ancient pandemic spread of the virus and its coevolution with humankind. J Virol 1992;66:2057-66. High level of correlation...

Julie Fontaine; Patti Gravitt; Lee-Min Duh; Jonas Lefevre; Karina Pourreaux; Catherine Hankins; Franois Coutle; and The Canadian Women's HIV Study Group

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Human Herpesvirus 6 Chromosomal Integration in Immunocompetent Patients Results in High Levels of Viral DNA in Blood, Sera, and Hair Follicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...High Levels of Viral DNA in Blood, Sera, and Hair Follicles Katherine N. Ward 1 Corresponding author. Mailing address: Centre...478-484. 3 Clark, D. A., M. Ait-Khaled, A. C. Wheeler, I. M. Kidd, J. E. McLaughlin, M. A. Johnson, P...

Katherine N. Ward; Hoe Nam Leong; Elisabeth P. Nacheva; Julie Howard; Claire E. Atkinson; Nicholas W. S. Davies; Paul D. Griffiths; Duncan A. Clark

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

Burt, D.L.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Presented at the 2004 Applied Superconductivity Conference at Jacksonville, Florida, USA, Oct 3-8, 2004. Abstract--Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

these radiation doses. We plan to use stainless steel tape, that being a metal, is a robust radiation resistant-8, 2004. Abstract--Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term

Gupta, Ramesh

379

Value of Irrigation Water with Alternative Input Prices, Product Prices and Yield Levels: Texas High Plains and Rio Grande Valley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

risen to record levels; because of the energy crisis and the rapid rate of inflation, prices of fertilizer and fuel have at least doubled, and the price of other farm inputs have risen substantially. These price changes, in absolute and relative terms...

Lacewell, R. D.; Sprott, J. M.; Beattie, B. R.

380

A critical concern for embedded sys-tems is the need to deliver high levels of per-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- parison of standard configurations of Nokia 232 and Ericsson T68 phones). At the same time, mobile phones voltage scaling (DVS).1 Lowering clock frequency to the minimum required level exploits periods of low proces- sor utilization and allows a corresponding reduction in supply voltage. Because dynam- ic energy

Mudge, Trevor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A high selective and sensitive liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method for quantization of BPA urinary levels in children  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A selective and highly sensitive liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for determination of Bisphenol A (BPA) in human urine using labeled d6-BPA as internal stand...

Carla Nicolucci; Sergio Rossi; Ciro Menale

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Photoconductivity and luminescence of CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals at a high level of optical excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The luminance-current and spectral characteristics of photoluminescence of the CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals are studied. The superlinear portion of the excitation-intensity dependence of photoconductivity at low excitation intensities in compensated p-CuInSe{sub 2} crystals is explained on the basis of a recombination model. The emission band that peaked at 0.98 eV in the n-CuInSe{sub 2} photoluminescence spectrum corresponds to radiative recombination of electrons at the donor level with a depth of 0.04 eV. The maximum in the band intensity corresponds to the energy gap between the trap level and the valence band.

Guseinov, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M.; Mamedov, R. M. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)], E-mail: rovshan63@rambler.ru

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Proposed design requirements for high-integrity containers used to store, transport, and dispose of high-specific-activity, low-level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report develops proposed design requirements for high integrity containers used to store, transport and/or dispose of high-activity, low-level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II. The wastes considered are the dewatered resins produced by the EPICOR II waste treatment system used to clean-up the auxiliary building water. The radioactivity level of some of these EPICOR II liners is 1300 curies per container. These wastes may be disposed of in an intermediate depth burial (10 to 20 meter depth) facility. The proposed container design requirements are directed to ensure isolation of the waste and protection of the public health and safety.

Vigil, M.G.; Allen, G.C.; Pope, R.B.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Unusual Structure and Magnetism in MnO Nanoclusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report an unusual evolution of structure and magnetism in stoichiometric MnO clusters based on an extensive and unbiased search through the potential energy surface within density functional theory. The smaller clusters, containing up to five MnO units, adopt two-dimensional structures; and regardless of the size of the cluster, magnetic coupling is found to be antiferromagnetic in contrast to previous theoretical findings. Predicted structure and magnetism are strikingly different from the magnetic core of Mn-based molecular magnets, whereas they were previously argued to be similar. Both of these features are explained through the inherent electronic structures of the clusters.

Ganguly, Shreemoyee; Sanyal, Biplab; Mookerjee, Abhijit; 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.020411

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about $2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to targeted cuts, especially for the second quarter of 2000 (Figure 1). The expected decline in world petroleum inventories continues (Figure 2), and, given the generally stiff resolve of OPEC members to maintain production cuts, any sign of a turnaround in stocks may be postponed until later this year than previously assumed (Q3 instead of Q2). Our current estimate for the average import cost this past January is now $25 per barrel, a nearly $15-per-barrel increase from January 1999. Crude oil prices are expected to remain at relatively high levels for the first half of 2000, but

386

Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

Rechard, R.P. [ed.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

New line classifications in Ho I based on high-precision hyperfine-structure measurement of low levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Doppler-free laser-fluorescence and laser-rf double-resonance studies have been made of the hyperfine structure (hfs) of four strong, previously unclassified visible lines in Ho I; all are shown to connect with low levels. The hfs of the 4f/sup 11/6s/sup 2/ /sup 4/I/sub 11/2,9/2/ levels is measured in detail, allowing evaluation of the dipole (a/sup 01/, a/sup 12/, a/sup 10/) and quadrupole (b/sup 02/,b/sup 11/,b/sup 13/) hfs radial integrals. The results are in close agreement with the ab initio values of Lindgren and Rosen (Case Stud. Atom. Phys. 4, 93--292 (1974). The value found for b/sup 02/ in the 4f/sup 11/6s/sup 2/ configuration is in reasonable agreement with that of Wyart and Camus (Physica 93C, 227-236 (1978)), thereby confirming their finding of a substantial dependence of this parameter on the number of 4f electrons in the core.

Childs, W.J.; Cok, D.R.; Goodman, L.S.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Amended Record of Decision: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0287) (11/28/06)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

811 Federal Register 811 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 228 / Tuesday, November 28, 2006 / Notices Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339. [FR Doc. E6-20124 Filed 11-27-06; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Amended Record of Decision: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Amended Record of Decision. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its Record of Decision (ROD) published December 19, 2005 (70 Federal Register [FR] 75165), pursuant to the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) (DOE/EIS-0287, September 2002). The Final EIS analyzed two sets of alternatives for accomplishing DOE's

389

Design methodology to develop a conceptual underground facility for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the design methodology employed to develop conceptual underground layouts for a prospective high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study is in conjunction with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI), project studying the disposal of high level waste in densely welded tuff. The fundamental design effort concentraes on the effects of the heat released from the decaying waste forms and the impact of this heat on ventilation, waste emplacement configurations, and rock stability. This effort will perfect the design of the waste emplacement layout including emplacement hole spacing, emplacement drift spacing, and the areal power density (APD) for the installed waste. This paper contains only viewgraphs. 11 figs.

Zerga, D.P.; Badie, A.

1986-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

EIS-0062: Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High Level Waste Storage, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS analyzes the impacts of the various design alternatives for the construction of fourteen 1.3 million gallon high-activity radioactive waste tanks. The EIS further evaluates the effects of these alternative designs on tank durability, on the ease of waste retrieval from such tanks, and the choice of technology and timing for long-term storage or disposal of the wastes.

391

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Contents Contents CR-iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page 8. Transportation Modes, Routes, Affected Environment, and Impacts............................................ CR8-1 8.1 General Opposition to Transporting Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ............................................................................................................ CR8-6 8.2 Number of Shipments ..................................................................................................... CR8-37 8.3 Transportation Modes and Routes .................................................................................. CR8-41 8.3.1 State Highway 127, Hoover Dam, Nevada Department of Transportation Alternatives ..............................................................................................................

392

On the Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection, High-Level Cloud, and Upper Troposphere Water Vapor in the Multiscale Modeling Framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF), also called superparameterization, embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM) at each grid column of a general circulation model to replace traditional parameterizations of moist convection and large-scale condensation. This study evaluates the diurnal cycle of deep convection, high-level clouds, and upper troposphere water vapor by applying an infrared (IR) brightness temperature (Tb) and a precipitation radar (PR) simulator to the CRM column data. Simulator results are then compared with IR radiances from geostationary satellites and PR reflectivities from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). While the actual surface precipitation rate in the MMF has a reasonable diurnal phase and amplitude when compared with TRMM observations, the IR simulator results indicate an inconsistency in the diurnal anomalies of high-level clouds between the model and the geostationary satellite data. Primarily because of its excessive high-level clouds, the MMF overestimates the simulated precipitation index (PI) and fails to reproduce the observed diurnal cycle phase relationships among PI, high-level clouds, and upper troposphere relative humidity. The PR simulator results show that over the tropical oceans, the occurrence fraction of reflectivity in excess of 20 dBZ is almost 1 order of magnitude larger than the TRMM data especially at altitudes above 6 km. Both results suggest that the MMF oceanic convection is overactive and possible reasons for this bias are discussed. However, the joint distribution of simulated IR Tb and PR reflectivity indicates that the most intense deep convection is found more often over tropical land than ocean, in agreement with previous observational studies.

Zhang, Yunyan; Klein, Stephen A.; Liu, Chuntao; Tian, Baijun; Marchand, Roger T.; Haynes, J. M.; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yuying; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

393

Simulation and analysis of a solar assisted heat pump system with two different storage types for high levels of PV electricity self-consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The incentives for PV-systems in Europe is being gradually lowered or ended. This makes a higher level of self-consumption interesting for owners of PV-systems. Sweden has an incentive of 35% of the investment cost for PV-systems. Unfortunately not all consumers can get this incentive. Therefore a high level of self-consumption will be necessary if the PV-systems are to be profitable in Sweden. A reference system with two different energy storage technologies is investigated in this paper. One system with 48kWh of batteries and one system with a hot water storage tank where the electricity is stored as heat. The research questions in this paper are: Which storage system gives the highest level of PV electricity self-consumption? Are the storage systems profitable with the assumptions made in this paper? What are the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) for the reference system with different storage system? The system with batteries has a self-consumption of 89% of the annual PV-electricity output and the system with a hot water storage tank has 88%. The system with batteries has a levelized cost of electricity two times higher than the system with a hot water storage tank.

Richard Thygesen; Bjrn Karlsson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Two X-Ray Bright Cataclysmic Variables with Unusual Activities: GZ Cnc and NSV 10934  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a discovery of unexpected activities in two X-ray bright dwarf novae. GZ Cnc showed an anomalous clustering of outbursts in 2002, in contrast to a low outburst frequency in the past record. The activity resembles an increased activity seen in some intermediate polars or candidates. We identified NSV 10934, X-ray selected high-amplitude variable star, as a dwarf nova with unusually rapid decline. The outburst characteristics make NSV 10934 a twin of recently discovered intermediate polar (HT Cam) with dwarf nova-type outbursts. We propose that these activities in X-ray strong dwarf novae may be a previously overlooked manifestation of outburst activities in magnetic cataclysmic variables.

T. Kato; P. A. Dubovsky; R. Stubbings; M. Simonsen; H. Yamaoka; P. Nelson; B. Monard; A. Pearce; G. Garradd

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technologically enhanced levels of radiation in 34 representative soil samples that have been collected from an inshore oil field area which was found to have, in a previous study, the highest observed value of 226Ra concentration among 129 soil samples. The activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra have been inferred from gamma-ray transitions associated with their decay progenies and measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for all the samples collected from NW Dukhan. Discrete-line, gamma-ray energy transitions from spectral lines ranging in energy from ?100keV up to 2.6MeV have been associated with characteristic decays of the various decay products within the 235.8U and 232Th radioactive decay chains. These data have been analyzed, under the assumption of secular equilibrium for the U and Th decay chains. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented. The weighted mean value of the activity concentrations of 226Ra in one of the samples was found to be around a factor of 2 higher than the values obtained in the previous study and approximately a factor of 10 higher than the accepted worldwide average value of 35Bq/kg. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of 232Th and 40K were also deduced and found to be within the worldwide average values of 30 and 400Bq/kg, respectively. Our previous study reported a value of 201.91.5Stat.13Syst.Bq/kg for 226Ra in one sample and further investigation in the current work determined a measured value for 226Ra of 342.001.9Stat.25Syst.Bq/kg in a sample taken from the same locality. This is significantly higher than all the other investigated soil samples in the current and previous works. Notably, the Th levels in the same sample are within the worldwide average expectations, implying that the increased 226Ra concentration arises from TENORM processes.

Huda Al-Sulaiti; Tabassum Nasir; K.S. Al Mugren; N. Alkhomashi; N. Al-Dahan; M. Al-Dosari; D.A. Bradley; S. Bukhari; M. Matthews; P.H. Regan; T. Santawamaitre; D. Malain; A. Habib

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel electrical modulation cancellation method (E-MOCAM) is proposed to suppress the background noise in the case of the excitation light source with a poor beam quality. For its practical implementation, an E-MOCAM based on-beam QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of a commercial high-power wide-stripe LED is developed. The E-MOCAM ultimately suppressed the background noise caused by the stray light by three orders of magnitude. A 1? detection limit of 1.3ppb (part per billion by volume) was achieved at 1s integration time in this experiment, which corresponds to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA) 4.2נ10?9Wcm?1Hz?1/2. A 9h continuous on-line monitoring of ambient atmospheric NO2 was carried out on the campus of Shanxi University.

Huadan Zheng; Lei Dong; Xukun Yin; Xiaoli Liu; Hongpeng Wu; Lei Zhang; Weiguang Ma; Wangbao Yin; Suotang Jia

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Comparison of blends of conventional diesel fuel and CRBO containing high levels of FFA in a DI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work attempts to analyse the ability of high free fatty acid (FFA) crude rice bran oil (CRBO) in replacing diesel partially in a compression ignition (CI) engine. It was observed that the delay period and the maximum rate of pressure rise for CRBO blends are lower than diesel and is almost inversely proportional to FFA content. Maximum heat release rate for CRBO blends are lower and occur earlier than that of diesel. CRBO blends require longer duration to release 90% of heat than diesel and it decreases with increase in FFA content of CRBO. When operating with CRBO blends, all emission parameters were decreased significantly with a marginal increase in CO emission than that of diesel without affecting the brake thermal efficiency of the engine. It is concluded that higher FFA of CRBO blends does not inhibit its ability to be utilised as a fuel in CI engines.

S. Saravanan; G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Sampath; G. Nagarajan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Capacity allocation of a hybrid energy storage system for power system peak shaving at high wind power penetration level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High wind power penetration in power system leads to a significant challenge in balancing power production and consumption due to the intermittence of wind. Introducing energy storage system in wind energy system can help offset the negative effects, and make the wind power controllable. However, the power spectrum density of wind power outputs shows that the fluctuations of wind energy include various components with different frequencies and amplitudes. This implies that the hybrid energy storage system is more suitable for smoothing out the wind power fluctuations effectively rather than the independent energy storage system. In this paper, we proposed a preliminary scheme for capacity allocation of hybrid energy storage system for power system peak shaving by using spectral analysis method. The unbalance power generated from load dispatch plan and wind power outputs is decomposed into four components, which are outer-day, intra-day, short-term and very short-term components, by using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and spectral decomposition method. The capacity allocation can be quantified according to the information in these components. The simulation results show that the power rating and energy rating of hybrid energy storage system in partial smoothing mode decrease significantly in comparison with those in fully smoothing mode.

Pan Zhao; Jiangfeng Wang; Yiping Dai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Some unusual discrete VLF emissions observed at a low-latitude ground station at Agra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some unusual discrete VLF emissions observed at a low-latitude ground station at Agra B. Singh February 1997 / Accepted: 17 February 1997 Abstract. A detailed analysis of the VLF emissions data obtained°1¢ N, L = 1.15) has yielded some unusual discrete VLF emissions of the rising type. These include (1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Selecting Landscape Plants: Rare and Unusual Trees Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selecting Landscape Plants: Rare and Unusual Trees Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Bonnie Appleton, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech There are many tree and smooth, light gray bark make it a very handsome tree. Many unusual cultivars have been elected from

Liskiewicz, Maciej

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unusually high levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

An unusual pathway of excitation energy deactivation in carotenoids: Singlet-to-triplet conversion on an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An unusual pathway of excitation energy deactivation in carotenoids: Singlet-to-triplet conversion of this energy transfer process can be as low as 30%. Here, we present evidence that an unusual pathway direct obser- vation of a singlet-to-triplet conversion process on an ultrafast timescale

van Stokkum, Ivo

402

A report on high-level nuclear waste transportation: Prepared pursuant to assembly concurrent resolution No. 8 of the 1987 Nevada Legislature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report has been prepared by the staff of the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) in response to Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 8 (ACR 8), passed by the Nevada State Legislature in 1987. ACR 8 directed the NWPO, in cooperation with affected local governments and the Legislative committee on High-Level Radioactive Waste, to prepare this report which scrutinizes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans for transportation of high-level radioactive waste to the proposed yucca Mountain repository, which reviews the regulatory structure under which shipments to a repository would be made and which presents NWPO`s plans for addressing high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. The report is divided into three major sections. Section 1.0 provides a review of DOE`s statutory requirements, its repository transportation program and plans, the major policy, programmatic, technical and institutional issues and specific areas of concern for the State of Nevada. Section 2.0 contains a description of the current federal, state and tribal transportation regulatory environment within which nuclear waste is shipped and a discussion of regulatory issues which must be resolved in order for the State to minimize risks and adverse impacts to its citizens. Section 3.0 contains the NWPO plan for the study and management of repository-related transportation. The plan addresses four areas, including policy and program management, regulatory studies, technical reviews and studies and institutional relationships. A fourth section provides recommendations for consideration by State and local officials which would assist the State in meeting the objectives of the plan.

NONE

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

DOE/EIS-0287-SA-01: Supplement Analysis for the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (June 2005)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7 7 -SA-Ol SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS For The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement June 2005 United States Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 DOEÆIS-0287 -SA-O 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction......................................................................................................................... 4 Background......................................................................................................................... 4 Areas of Review.................................................................................................................. 6 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Proposed Waste Treatment Technology.......... .......................................................

404

High Level Waste Management Division High-Level Waste System...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

describes the HLW Program that will vitrify all HLW contained in the old and new-style tanks by FY2028. The canister production rate is projected to average 200 canisters per...

405

High Level Waste Management Division High. Level Waste System...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on a case-by-case basis, and requests will be filed with SCDHEC as required by Consent Order 95-22-HW. Offsite quantities are expected to be small, and thus their...

406

Final Report - High Level Waste Vitrification System Improvements, VSL-07R1010-1, Rev 0, dated 04/16/07  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work conducted to support the development and testing of new glass formulations that extend beyond those that have been previously investigated for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The principal objective was to investigate maximization of the incorporation of several waste components that are expected to limit waste loading and, consequently, high level waste (HLW) processing rates and canister count. The work was performed with four waste compositions specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP); these wastes contain high concentrations of bismuth, chromium, aluminum, and aluminum plus sodium. The tests were designed to identify glass formulations that maximize waste loading while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, increased glass processing temperature, increased crystallinity, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality.

Kruger, Albert A.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.; Champman, C. C.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

407

Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste - 13532  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source. (authors)

Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States)] [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States); Bryan, Samuel; Lines, Amanda; Levitskaia, Tatiana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Creep rupture properties of Hastelloy-X and Incoloy-800H in a simulated HTGR helium environment containing high levels of moisture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture tests on Incoloy-800H and Hastelloy-X have been carried out in a simulated steamcycle high-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium environment containing a high level of moisture. For the maximum test time of 16 000 h, the creep rupture behavior of Incoloy-800H in the helium environment was not significantly different from that in air. Hastelloy-X showed a slightly lower rupture life in helium in comparison with standard air tests. Surface cracks initiated at the grain boundaries penetrating surface and cavities formed at the grain boundary triple points have been identified as major fracture mechanisms in both environments. Oxidation was the only gas/metal interaction observed in the helium environment.

Lee, K.S.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Inverted Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless singularity and high-temperature algebraic order in an Ising model on a scale-free hierarchical-lattice small-world network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inverted Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless singularity and high-temperature algebraic order radically changes: We find a highly unusual phase transi- tion, namely an inverted Berezinskii

Thirumalai, Devarajan

411

I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project will provide additional options for fission product immobilization and waste management associated the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel.

S.M. Frank

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail routes for hazardous materials transport. The paper concludes that while the HM 164 regime is sufficient for certain applications, it does not provide an adequate basis for a national plan to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to centralized storage and disposal facilities over a period of 30 to 50 years. (authors)

Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States)] [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States)] [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)] [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance. There is currently a premium on processing and storage space in the radioactive liquid waste tank system. To enable continuation of risk reduction initiatives, the Plan establishes a processing strategy that provides tank space required to meet, or minimizes the impacts to meeting, programmatic objectives. The Plan also addresses perturbations in funding and schedule impacts. (authors)

Ling, Lawrence T. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Chew, David P. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologice Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mounta  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

v v COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TITLE: Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada - Nevada Rail Transportation Corridor (DOE/EIS-0250F-S2D; the Nevada Rail Corridor SEIS), and Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Rail Alignment for the Construction and Operation of a Railroad in Nevada to a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DOE/EIS-0369D; the Rail Alignment EIS) CONTACTS: For more information about this document, write or call: For general information on the DOE NEPA process, write or call: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

415

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada DOE/EIS-0250 Errata Sheet Since release of the Final EIS for Yucca Mountain on February 14, 2002 as part of the Site Recommendation documentation required under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, the Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a variety of errors in the document. These errors were found to include: editing errors - errors in editorial style, rounding, and unit conversions data entry errors, errors in typing a number transcription errors - errors in transcribing information from one part of the document to another, failures to update the text from the most current analyses at the time of the

416

Risk assessment for the off-site transportation of high-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of high-level waste (HLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers risks to collective populations and individuals under both routine and accident transportation conditions for truck and rail shipment modes. The report discusses the scope of the HLW transportation assessment, describes the analytical methods used for the assessment, defines the alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, and details important assessment assumptions. Results are reported for five alternatives. In addition, to aid in the understanding and interpretation of the results, specific areas of uncertainty are described, with an emphasis on how the uncertainties may affect comparisons of the alternatives.

Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Unsaturated flow modeling in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper summarizes the progression of modeling efforts of infiltration, percolation, and seepage conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository in the unsaturated zone for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scientific understanding of infiltration in a desert environment, unsaturated percolation flux in fractures and matrix of the volcanic tuff, and seepage into an open drift in a thermally perturbed environment was initially lacking in 1984. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased through site characterization and in situ testing, modeling of infiltration, percolation, and seepage evolved from simple assumptions in a single model in 1984 to three modeling modules each based on several detailed process models in 2008. Uncertainty in percolation flux through Yucca Mountain was usually important in explaining the observed uncertainty in performance measures:cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter.

Rob P. Rechard; Jens T. Birkholzer; Yu-Shu Wu; Joshua S. Stein; James E. Houseworth

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Relativistic nuclear recoil corrections to the energy levels of hydrogenlike and high-Z lithiumlike atoms in all orders in ?Z  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relativistic nuclear recoil corrections to the energy levels of low-lying states of hydrogenlike and high-Z lithiumlike atoms in all orders in ?Z are calculated. The calculations are carried out using the B-spline method for the Dirac equation. For low Z the results of the calculation are in good agreement with the ?Z-expansion results. It is found that the nuclear recoil contribution, in addition to Salpeters contribution, to the Lamb shift (n=2) of hydrogen is -1.32(6) kHz. The total nuclear recoil correction to the energy of the (1s)2p1/2-(1s)22s transition in lithiumlike uranium constitutes -0.07 eV and is largely made up of QED contributions.

A. N. Artemyev; V. M. Shabaev; V. A. Yerokhin

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Assessment of compliance with ground water protection standards in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In support of this development and an associated license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the DOE completed an extensive performance assessment (PA) for the proposed YM repository in 2008. This presentation describes the assessment of compliance with ground water protection standards in the 2008 YM PA. The following topics are addressed: (i) regulatory background, (ii) analysis structure including characterization of uncertainty, and (iii) analysis results for each of the ground water protection standards. The present article is part of a special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety devoted to the 2008 YM PA; additional articles in the issue describe other aspects of the 2008 YM PA.

C.W. Hansen; G.A. Behie; K.M. Brooks; Y. Chen; J.C. Helton; S.P. Hommel; K.P. Lee; B. Lester; P.D. Mattie; S. Mehta; S.P. Miller; C.J. Sallaberry; S.D. Sevougian; M. Wasiolek

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of this development, an extensive performance assessment (PA) for the YM repository was completed in 2008 [1] and supported a license application by the DOE to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the construction of the YM repository [2]. This presentation provides an overview of the conceptual and computational structure of the indicated PA (hereafter referred to as the 2008 YM PA) and the roles that uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis play in this structure.

Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

A critique of the Department of Energy's environmental programme for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Legislative standards, regulatory provisions, and US Department of Energy (DOE) policies have defined the environmental programme to study the planned high-level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DOE has limited environmental data collection for purposes of monitoring and mitigating impacts of proposed characterisation activities and repository development. Most of the plans are procedural and do not provide for the gathering of baseline data prior to site characterisation activities. The absence of baseline data prior to site characterisation activities reduces the chances of developing a comprehensive and integrated environmental programme to detect and remedy disturbed areas critical to the performance of the repository as well as to assess repository performance properly. The lack of long-term ecological studies means also that interactions between the geohydrologic setting of the repository and the biosphere will not be understood fully.

J. Lemons; D. J. Schaeffer; E. Saboski

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Impurities in rock-salt: consequences for the temperature increases at the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. [Kainite, Kieserite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In part A the thermal properties of halite and the other materials occurring in rock-salt (the 'impurities') are collected. Except for sylvite (the specific heat of this salt is about 70% of the value for halite) all specific heats are larger than the specific heat of halite. The consequences for the temperature increases at the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in rock-salt are discussed for impurity concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 15%. If the presence and distribution of the impurities are not taken into account, then - under the most unfavorable conditions - extra temperature increases of about 3% per cent impurity may occur. If, however, the geological composition and its geometry for the disposal region are known, the temperature increases can be calculated more accurately: they may or may not differ from those for pure halite. In part B the measurement of the thermal conductivity for four salts (kainite, kieserite, carnallite, and polyhalite) is described.

van den Broek, W.M.G.T.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Relativistic nuclear recoil corrections to the energy levels of hydrogen-like and high $Z$ lithium like atoms in all orders in $?Z$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The relativistic nuclear recoil corrections to the energy levels of low-laying states of hydrogen-like and high $Z$ lithium-like atoms in all orders in $\\alpha Z$ are calculated. The calculations are carried out using the B-spline method for the Dirac equation. For low $Z$ the results of the calculation are in good agreement with the $\\alpha Z$ -expansion results. It is found that the nuclear recoil contribution, additional to the Salpeter's one, to the Lamb shift ($n=2$) of hydrogen is $-1.32(6)\\,kHz$. The total nuclear recoil correction to the energy of the $(1s)^{2}2p_{\\frac{1}{2}}-(1s)^{2}2s$ transition in lithium-like uranium constitutes $-0.07\\,eV$ and is largely made up of QED contributions.

A. N. Artemyev; V. M. Shabaev; V. A. Yerokhin

1995-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

424

Unusual manifestations in two cases of necrotizing myopathy associated with SRP-antibodies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anti-SRP (signal recognition particle) positive necrotizing myopathy is commonly not associated with neoplasms. We demonstrate two histologically confirmed cases with unusual manifestations of anti-SRP positive necrotizing myopathy. A 65-year-old man presented with rapidly progressing weakness and mild difficulties in swallowing and speaking. Screening for underlying disorders revealed a moderately differentiated renal adenocarcinoma. The muscular symptoms partially improved after tumor nephrectomy and prednisone treatment. However, the patient developed pulmonary metastases and died of the sequelae of pneumonia 11 months after the diagnosis of renal cancer. The second patient developed rapidly complete external ophthalmoplegia, severe bulbar dysarthrophonia and dysphagia, bilateral facial palsy, loss of patellar and ankle jerk reflexes, and severe symmetrical tetraparesis of both proximal and distal muscles. CSF showed mildly increased protein levels, neurography axonal impairment of motor nerves. Screening revealed no evidence for infections, ganglioside antibodies, and carcinoma. MRI was normal. The disease course suggested an overlap syndrome of Miller-Fisher-syndrome, axonal Guillain-Barr-syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. In conclusion SRP antibodies might be found in necrotizing myopathies associated with autoimmune mediated overlap syndromes and neoplasms. The pathomechanism is not clear. Any otherwise unexplained evidence of necrotizing myopathy should prompt the screening for SRP antibodies.

F. Hanisch; T. Mller; G. Stoltenburg; S. Zierz

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

426

Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow processes at a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two complementary numerical models for analyzing high-level nuclear waste emplacement at Yucca Mountain have been developed. A vertical cross-sectional (X-Z) model permits a realistic representation of hydrogeologic features, such as alternating tilting layers of welded and non-welded tuffs. fault zones, and surface topography. An alternative radially symmetric (R-Z) model is more limited in its ability to describe the hydrogeology of the site, but is better suited to model heat transfer in the host rock. Our models include a comprehensive description of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes, including strong enhancements of vapor diffusion from pore-level phase change effects. The neighborhood of the repository is found to partially dry out from the waste heat. A condensation halo of large liquid saturation forms around the drying zone, from which liquid flows downward at large rates. System response to infiltration from the surface and to ventilation of mined openings is evaluated. The impact of the various flow processes on the waste isolation capabilities of the site is discussed.

Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Automated Detection of Unusual Events on Stairs Jasper Snoek Jesse Hoey Liam Stewart Richard S. Zemel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automated Detection of Unusual Events on Stairs Jasper Snoek Jesse Hoey Liam Stewart Richard S, Canada {jasper,jhoey,liam,zemel}@cs.toronto.edu Abstract This paper presents a method for automatically

Zemel, Richard

428

UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS Controls Meristem Identity and Organ Primordia Fate in Arabidopsis.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...identified in Arabidopsis. This gene has been designated UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), with five corresponding nuclear recessive alleles designated ufo[middot]1 to ufo[middot]5. Under short day-length conditions, ufo homozygotes generate...

429

Parallels between UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS and FIMBRIATA, genes controlling flower development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...United Kingdom The unusual floral organs (ufo) mutant of Arabidopsis has flowers with...To determine the relationship between UFO and previously characterized meristem and organ identity genes, we cloned UFO and determined its expression pattern...

430

Causes of the Unusual Coastal Flooding Generated by Typhoon Winnie on the West Coast of Korea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On 19 August 1997 Typhoon Winnie brought unusually strong and extensive coastal flooding from storm surges to the west coast ... authors. The AMI analysis and the numerical simulation of the surge event showed th...

I.-J. Moon; I. S. Oh; T. Murty; Y.-H. Youn

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

An unusually large turtle barnacle (Chelonibia p. patula) on a blue crab from Delaware Bay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A turtle barnacle,Chelonibia patula patula (Ranzani) of unusually large size was found on a large female blue crab in Delaware Bay in September, 1954. This appears to be the largest known specimen ofC. p. patula....

Austin B. Williams; Hugh J. Portner

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Polyanthra[1,9,8-b,c,d,e][4,10,5-b,c,d,e]bis-[1,6,6a(6a-S) trithia]pentalene-active material for cathode of lithium secondary battery with unusually high specific capacity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polyanthra[1,9,8-b,c,d,e][4,10,5-b,c,d,e]bis-[1,6,6a(6a-S)trithia]pentalene (PABTP) was prepared and investigated as cathode active material for lithium secondary batteries. The organic disulfide polymer was prepared by the direct sulfurization of anthracene and the oxidative coupling polymerization of the sulfide anthracene, characterized by FT-IR, Raman, elemental analysis, XPS and XRD. The polymer was used as cathode active material and the lithium secondary batteries were assembled and tested. The polymer had high specific capacity up to 1500mAhg?1, which remained the value of 800mAhg?1 at the 77th cycle, and kept high chargedischarge efficiency of 85% in the whole test.

Z.J. Liu; L.B. Kong; Y.H. Zhou; C.M. Zhan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Waste package degradation from thermal and chemical processes in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper summarizes modeling of waste container degradation in performance assessments conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, modeling of container degradation evolved from a component of the source term in 1984 to a separate module describing both container and drip shield degradation in 2008. A thermal module for evaluating the influence of higher heat loads from more closely packed, large waste packages was also introduced. In addition, a module for evaluating drift chemistry was added in later \\{PAs\\} to evaluate the potential for localized corrosion of the outer barrier of the waste container composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickelchromiumtungstenmolybdenum alloy. The uncertainty of parameters related to container degradation contributed significantly to the estimated uncertainty of performance measures (cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter).

Rob P. Rechard; Joon H. Lee; Ernest L. Hardin; Charles R. Bryan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Metabolic engineering of seeds can achieve levels of omega-7 fatty acids comparable to the highest levels found in natural plant sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plant oils containing {omega}-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} and cis-vaccenic 18:1{Delta}{sup 11}) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of {omega}-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased {omega}-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the {beta}-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of {omega}-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased {omega}-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds.

Nguyen, H.T.; Shanklin, J.; Mishra, G.; Whittle, E.; Bevan, S. A.; Merlo, A. O.; Walsh, T. A.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Secretary-General's High-level Group on Sustainable Energy for All commissioned this document to assess the opportunities for meeting the universal energy access objective set by the Secretary-General. It  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12; The Secretary-General's High-level Group on Sustainable Energy for All commissioned this document to assess the opportunities for meeting the universal energy access objective set by the Secretary-level Group on Sustainable Energy for All, its members, United Nations, its Member

Kammen, Daniel M.

436

Update to Assessment of Direct Disposal in Unsaturated Tuff of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Waste Owned by U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this study is to provide information and guidance to the Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) about the level of characterization necessary to dispose of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The disposal option modeled was codisposal of DOE SNF with defense high-level waste (DHLW). A specific goal was to demonstrate the influence of DOE SNF, expected to be minor, in a predominately commercial repository using modeling conditions similar to those currently assumed by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). A performance assessment (PA) was chosen as the method of analysis. The performance metric for this analysis (referred to as the 1997 PA) was dose to an individual; the time period of interest was 100,000 yr. Results indicated that cumulative releases of 99Tc and 237Np (primary contributors to human dose) from commercial SNF exceed those of DOE SNF both on a per MTHM and per package basis. Thus, if commercial SNF can meet regulatory performance criteria for dose to an individual, then the DOE SNF can also meet the criteria. This result is due in large part to lower burnup of the DOE SNF (less time for irradiation) and to the DOE SNF's small percentage of the total activity (1.5%) and mass (3.8%) of waste in the potential repository. Consistent with the analyses performed for the YMP, the 1997 PA assumed all cladding as failed, which also contributed to the relatively poor performance of commercial SNF compared to DOE SNF.

P. D. Wheatley (INEEL POC); R. P. Rechard (SNL)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

High-resolution core-level photoemission study of Eu-induced (32)?(34) reconstruction on Ge(111)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated Eu-induced Ge(111)-(32)?(34) reconstruction by high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation and low-energy electron diffraction. Recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observations [Phys. Rev. B 73, 125332 (2006)] revealed that the Ge arrangement of this reconstruction can be well described in terms of the honeycomb chain-channel (HCC) geometry proposed earlier for metal/Si(111)-(31) and -(32) surfaces; the Eu atoms, however, were found to reside at two different adsorption sites in the Eu?Ge(111)-(32)?(34) reconstruction, in contrast to the equivalent adsorption sites (e.g., T4) occupied in the case of Si. The present photoemission results provide further information about the atomic arrangement of Eu?Ge(111)-(32)?(34). In particular, we show that the Ge 3d core-level data cannot be interpreted by the HCC structure with the Eu atoms adsorbed only on T4 sites, giving a spectroscopic support for the suggestions based on the earlier STM data. We consider here a modified HCC-based configuration for the Eu?Ge(111)-(32)?(34) surface where the Eu atoms occupy two different sites in the empty channel between the neighboring Ge honeycomb chains. The atomic models are discussed in the context of the Ge 3d and Eu 4f data as well as the previous results available in the literature. Finally, we propose a structural model that allows us to account for the present photoemission and earlier STM findings.

M. Kuzmin; R. E. Perl; P. Laukkanen; M. Ahola-Tuomi; I. J. Vyrynen

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

438

MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

STEREO-Wind Radio Positioning of an Unusually Slow Drifting Event  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On 13 March 2010 an unusually long duration event was observed by radio spectrographs onboard the STEREO-B and Wind spacecraft. The event started at about 13:00 UT and ended at approximately 06:00 UT on 14 March. The event presents itself as slow drifting, quasi-continuous emission in a very narrow frequency interval, with an apparent frequency drift from about 625 kHz to approximately 425 kHz. Using the Leblanc, Dulk, and Bougeret (1998) interplanetary density model we determined that the drift velocities of the radio source are $\\approx$33km s$^{-1}$ and $\\approx$52km s$^{-1}$ for 0.2 and 0.5 times the densities of Leblanc model, respectively with a normalization density of 7.2cm$^{-3}$ at 1AU and assuming harmonic emission. A joint analysis of the radio direction finding data, coronograph white-light observations and modeling revealed that the radio sources appear to be localized in regions of interaction with relatively high density and slow solar wind speed.

Martnez-Oliveros, J C; Bain, H; Liu, Y; Pulupa, M; Saint-Hilaire, P; Higgins, P; Krupar, V; Krucker, Sm; Bale, S D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

STATUS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF IN-TANK/AT-TANK SEPARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PROCESSING FOR THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development, the Office of Waste Processing manages a research and development program related to the treatment and disposition of radioactive waste. At the Savannah River (South Carolina) and Hanford (Washington) Sites, approximately 90 million gallons of waste are distributed among 226 storage tanks (grouped or collocated in 'tank farms'). This waste may be considered to contain mixed and stratified high activity and low activity constituent waste liquids, salts and sludges that are collectively managed as high level waste (HLW). A large majority of these wastes and associated facilities are unique to the DOE, meaning many of the programs to treat these materials are 'first-of-a-kind' and unprecedented in scope and complexity. As a result, the technologies required to disposition these wastes must be developed from basic principles, or require significant re-engineering to adapt to DOE's specific applications. Of particular interest recently, the development of In-tank or At-Tank separation processes have the potential to treat waste with high returns on financial investment. The primary objective associated with In-Tank or At-Tank separation processes is to accelerate waste processing. Insertion of the technologies will (1) maximize available tank space to efficiently support permanent waste disposition including vitrification; (2) treat problematic waste prior to transfer to the primary processing facilities at either site (i.e., Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) or Savannah River's Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF)); and (3) create a parallel treatment process to shorten the overall treatment duration. This paper will review the status of several of the R&D projects being developed by the U.S. DOE including insertion of the ion exchange (IX) technologies, such as Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at Savannah River. This has the potential to align the salt and sludge processing life cycle, thereby reducing the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) mission by 7 years. Additionally at the Hanford site, problematic waste streams, such as high boehmite and phosphate wastes, could be treated prior to receipt by WTP and thus dramatically improve the capacity of the facility to process HLW. Treatment of boehmite by continuous sludge leaching (CSL) before receipt by WTP will dramatically reduce the process cycle time for the WTP pretreatment facility, while treatment of phosphate will significantly reduce the number of HLW borosilicate glass canisters produced at the WTP. These and other promising technologies will be discussed.

Aaron, G.; Wilmarth, B.

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

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441

A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as well as non-radioactive traffic fatalities. The Yucca Mountain EIS Transportation Database was developed using Microsoft Access 97{trademark} software and the Microsoft Windows NT{trademark} operating system. The database consists of tables for storing data, forms for selecting data for querying, and queries for retrieving the data in a predefined format. Database queries retrieve records based on input parameters and are used to calculate incident-free and accident doses using unit risk factors obtained from RADTRAN results. The next section briefly provides some background that led to the development of the database approach used in preparing the Yucca Mountain DEIS. Subsequent sections provide additional details on the database structure and types of impacts calculated using the database.

Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross; R. Best

2001-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

442

Design of electrochemical processes for treatment of unusual waste streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UCRL- JC- 129438 PREPRINT This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or the University of California. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the University of California, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Introduction. An overview of work done on the development of three electrochemical processes that meet the specific needs of low- level waste treatment is presented. These technologies include: mediated electrochemical oxidation [I- 4]; bipolar membrane electrodialysis [5]; and electrosorption of carbon aerogel electrodes [6- 9]. Design strategies are presented to assess the suitability of these electrochemical processes for Mediated electrochemical oxidation. Mixed wastes include both hazardous and radioactive components. It is desirable to reduce the overall volume of the waste before immobilization and disposal in repositories. While incineration is an attractive technique for the destruction of organic fractions of mixed wastes, such high-temperature thermal processes pose the threat of volatilizing various radionuclides. By destroying organics in the aqueous phase at low temperature and ambient pressure, the risk of volatilization can be reduced. One approach that is attractive is the use of eiectrochemically generated mediators such as Ag( ll), Co( Ill) and Fe( III). These oxidants react with organicsin Bipolar membrane electrodialysis. in the aqueous processing of nuclear materials, process steps arise that require the neutralization of an acidic stream with a strong base. Ultimately, these neutralized salt solutions become aqueous waste streams, requiring further treatment and disposal. By "splitting" such neutralized salt solutions into their acid and base components, the generation of aqueous mixed waste can be greatly reduced. At LLNL, a bipolar membrane electrodialysis cell has been used to separate neutral solutions of NaCl, NaNO1 and Na, SO, into product streams of NaOH, HCI, HNOj and H2S0,, which could be recycled. The eftlciency of this particular process will be discussed, as well as practical limitations of the technology. Basic principles of engineering design of such systems will be reviewed.

Farmer, J.C.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 115{degrees}C volume 1: Chapters 1-11  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Composition Variation study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g} ), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 1150{degrees}C volume 2: Chapters 12-16 and appendices A-K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

High-resolution survey of tidal energy towards power generation and influence of sea-level-rise: A case study at coast of New Jersey, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The first and a crucial step in development of tidal power, which is now attracting more and more attention worldwide, is a reliable survey of temporal and spatial distribution of tidal energy along coastlines. This paper first reviews the advance in assessment of tidal energy, in particular marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, and discusses involved challenges and necessary approaches, and then it makes a thorough survey as an illustrative case study on distributions and top sites of MHK energy within the Might-Atlantic-Bight (MAB) with emphasis on the New Jersey (NJ) coastlines. In view of the needs in actual development of tidal power generation and sensitivity of tidal power to flow speed, the former being proportional to the third power of the latter, a high-resolution and detailed modeling is desired. Data with best available accuracy for coastlines, bathymetry, tributaries, etc. are used, meshes as fine as 20m and less for the whole NJ coast are generated, and the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) and high performance computing (HPC) facilities are employed. Besides comparison with observation data, a series of numerical tests have been made to ensure reliability of the modeling results. A detailed tidal energy distribution and a list of top sites for tidal power are presented. It is shown that indeed sea-level-rise (SLR) affects the tidal energy distribution significantly. With SLR of 0.5m and 1m, tidal energy in NJ coastal waters increases by 21% and 43%, respectively, and the number of the top sties tends to decrease along the barrier islands facing the Atlantic Ocean and increase in the Delaware Bay and the Delaware River. On the basis of these results, further discussions are made on future development for accurate assessment of tidal energy.

H.S. Tang; S. Kraatz; K. Qu; G.Q. Chen; N. Aboobaker; C.B. Jiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Appeared in the Sixth International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), January 2000. Impact of Chip-Level Integration on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), January 2000. Impact of Chip-Level Integration on Performance of OLTP Workloads Luiz Andr´e Barroso

Barroso, Luiz André

447

Waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper summarizes modeling of waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments (PAs) conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, the waste degradation module, or succinctly called the source-term, evolved from initial assumptions in 1984 to results based on process modeling in 2008. In early PAs, waste degradation had significant influence on calculated behavior but as the robustness of the waste container was increased and modeling of the container degradation improved, waste degradation had much less influence in later PAs. The variation of dissolved concentrations of radionuclides progressed from simple probability distributions in early \\{PAs\\} to functions dependent upon water chemistry in later PAs. Also, transport modeling of radionuclides in the waste, container, and invert were added in 1995; and, colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides was added in 1998.

Rob P. Rechard; Christine T. Stockman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

High level modeling and automated generation of heterogeneous SoC architectures with optimized custom reconfigurable cores and on-chip communication media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a framework for modeling and automated generation of heterogeneous SoC architectures with emphasis on reconfigurable component integration and optimized communication media. In order to facilitate rapid development of SoC architectures, communication-centric platforms for data intensive applications, high level modeling of reconfigurable components for quick simulation and a tool for generation of complete SoC architectures is presented. Four different communication-centric platforms based on traditional bus, crossbar, hierarchical bus and novel hybrid communication media are proposed. These communication-centric platforms are proposed to cater for the different communication requirement of future SoC architectures. Multi-Standard telecommunication application is chosen as our target application domain and a case study of WiMAX is used as a real world example to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. A system consisting of an ARM processor, reconfigurable FFT and reconfigurable Viterbi decoder is considered with the option of system scalability for future upgrades. Behavior of system with different communication platforms is analyzed for its throughput and power characteristics with different reconfigurable scenarios to show the effectiveness of our approach.

Balal Ahmad; Ali Ahmadinia; Tughrul Arslan

2010-01-01T