National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for unseasonably warm temperatures

  1. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

  2. Impact of the global warming hiatus on Andean temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuille, Mathias

    Impact of the global warming hiatus on Andean temperature Mathias Vuille1 , Eric Franquist1 , René Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología, Quito, Ecuador Abstract The recent hiatus in global warming in global warming has spurred a debate regarding its underlying causes. While some have suggested

  3. Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air rises.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air of the cold water because warm air (or water) is less dense than cold air (or water). This concept can be seen the bottom floor of a house. Less dense warm air settles on top of cold air when winds are light

  4. Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulin, Robert

    Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites R Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways

  5. Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1, * and Mark R in Philadelphia, as a function of the number of years of observation. We then consider the case of global warming question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

  6. Role of global warming on the statistics of recordbreaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R. Petersen 2,+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    Role of global warming on the statistics of record­breaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R of global warming, where the mean temperature systematically in­ creases with time. Over the 126­year time question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

  7. What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1), relative to the average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1 anomalies an example of what we can expect global warming to look like? Maps of temperature anomalies, such as Figure 1, are useful for helping people understand the role of global warming in extreme events

  8. Comparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional Passive Warming Methods for Optimizing Perioperative Body Core Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bender, M; Self, B; Schroeder, E; Giap, B

    2015-01-01

    provided the new-technology passive warming devices (Opt-on the most effective passive warming method to improve theComparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional

  9. Borehole temperatures and a baseline for 20th-century global warming estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.N.; Chapman, D.S.

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorologicl archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological network, Yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6{degrees} {+-} 0.1{degrees}C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The Spacing of Ceiling Fans for Human Comfort in Warm Temperature Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spain, S.

    1987-01-01

    FOR HUMAN COMFORT IN WARM TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS Syd Spain, Ph.D. Research Specialist CRS Sirrine, Inc. Houston, Tx ABSTRACT Airspeed tests of a commerci a1 1 y popular 52 in. ceiling fan operating at a low speed of 155 fpm provided sufficient...

  11. Diversity of deep-water cetaceans in relation to temperature: implications for ocean warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Ransom A.

    LETTER Diversity of deep-water cetaceans in relation to temperature: implications for ocean warming anthropogenic change. Here we analyse a large, long-term data set of sightings of deep-water cetaceans from that deep-water oceanic communities that dominate > 60% of the planetÕs surface may reorganize in response

  12. Comparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional Passive Warming Methods for Optimizing Perioperative Body Core Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bender, M; Self, B; Schroeder, E; Giap, B

    2015-01-01

    BCG Medical provided the new-technology passive warmingpersonal copy Comparing New-Technology Passive Warmingreducing hypothermia. New-technology passive warming holds

  13. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We reportmore »on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.« less

  14. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates; 200 SW 35th St.; Corvallis; OR; 97333; USA; Wilson, John K. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates; 200 SW 35th St.; Corvallis; OR; 97333; USA

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

  15. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Claire L. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregg, Jillian W. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States); Wilson, John K. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

  16. The Effect of Diurnal Sea Surface Temperature Warming on Climatological Air–Sea Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayson, Carol Anne

    Diurnal sea surface warming affects the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and upwelling longwave radiation. Diurnal warming most typically reaches maximum values of 3°C, although very localized events may reach 7°–8°C. ...

  17. Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lüdecke, Horst-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot ...

  18. Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

    2011-10-09

    Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot numbers, is put forward as an explanation. The long-term low-frequency fluctuations in sunspot numbers are not detectable by the DFA in the monthly instrumental records, resulting in the common low Hurst exponents. The same does not hold true for the 2000-year-long reconstructed records, which explains both their higher Hurst exponents and the higher probabilities of strong 100-year temperature fluctuations. A long-term synthetic record that embodies the reconstructed sunspot number fluctuations includes the different Hurst exponents of both the instrumental and the reconstructed records and, therefore, corroborates the conjecture.

  19. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/ #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. #12;MORE EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

  20. SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Jefferson's Ferry Public Affairs century. The warmest year of the millennium was 1998. #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed significantly since the late 1940s: more than half

  1. Long-memory effects in linear-response models of Earth's temperature and implications for future global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rypdal, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A linearized energy-balance model for global temperature is formulated, featuring a scale-free long-range memory (LRM) response and stochastic forcing representing the influence on the ocean heat reservoir from atmospheric weather systems. The model is parametrized by an effective response strength, the stochastic forcing strength, and the memory exponent. The instrumental global surface temperature record and the deterministic component of the forcing are used to estimate these parameters by means of the maximum-likelihood method. The residual obtained by subtracting the deterministic solution from the observed record is analyzed as a noise process and shown to be consistent with a long-memory time-series model and inconsistent with a short-memory model. By decomposing the forcing record in contributions from solar, volcanic, and anthropogenic activity one can estimate the contribution of each to 20'th century global warming. The LRM model is applied with a reconstruction of the forcing for the last millenni...

  2. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  3. Our Sun. V. A Bright Young Sun Consistent with Helioseismology and Warm Temperatures on Ancient Earth and Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. -Juliana Sackmann; Arnold I. Boothroyd

    2002-10-05

    The relatively warm temperatures required on early Earth and Mars have been difficult to account for via warming from greenhouse gases. We tested whether this problem can be resolved for both Earth and Mars by a young Sun that is brighter than predicted by the standard solar model. We computed high-precision solar evolutionary models with slightly increased initial masses of M_i = 1.01 to 1.07 M_sun; for each mass, we considered three different mass loss scenarios. We then tested whether these models were consistent with the current high-precision helioseismic observations. The relatively modest mass loss rates in these models are consistent with observational limits from young stars and estimates of the past solar wind obtained from lunar rocks, and do not significantly affect the solar lithium depletion. For appropriate initial masses, all three mass loss scenarios are capable of yielding a solar flux 3.8 Gyr ago high enough to be consistent with water on ancient Mars. We find that all of our mass-losing solar models are consistent with the helioseismic observations. The early solar mass loss of a few percent does indeed leave a small fingerprint on the Sun's internal structure. However, for helioseismology to significantly constrain early solar mass loss would require higher accuracy in the observed solar parameters and input physics, namely, by a factor of about 3 for the observed solar surface composition, and a factor of 2 for the solar interior opacities, the pp nuclear reaction rate, and the diffusion constants for gravitational settling.

  4. A SOLAR WARMING MODEL (SWarm) TO ESTIMATE DIURNAL CHANGES IN NEAR-SURFACE SNOWPACK TEMPERATURES FOR BACK-COUNTRY AVALANCHE FORECASTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Bruce

    be used to measure incoming solar radiation, but they are not common due to cost and maintenance issuesA SOLAR WARMING MODEL (SWarm) TO ESTIMATE DIURNAL CHANGES IN NEAR-SURFACE SNOWPACK TEMPERATURES. To facilitate use in large forecast areas where representative meteorological data are typically scarce

  5. Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

  6. Impact of Desert Dust Radiative Forcing on Sahel Precipitation: Relative Importance of Dust Compared to Sea Surface Temperature Variations, Vegetation Changes, and Greenhouse Gas Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation Changes, and Greenhouse Gas Warming M ASARU Yin the simulation. Greenhouse gas warming * The Nationalvegetation change, and greenhouse gas (GHG) warming using

  7. Does the problem of global warming exist at all? Insight from the temperature drift induced by inevitable colored noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusov, V D; Eingorn, M V; Zelentsova, T N; Linnik, E P; Beglaryan, M E; Vachev, B

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we state a problem of the colored noise nonremovability on the climatic 30-year time scale, which essentially changes the angle of view on the known problem of global warming.

  8. Analysis of trait mean and variability versus temperature in trematode cercariae: is there scope for adaptation to global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulin, Robert

    for adaptation to global warming? A. Studer , R. Poulin Department of Zoology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56 t The potential of species for evolutionary adaptation in the context of global climate change has recently come

  9. A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Race, Caitlin; Steinbach, Michael; Ganguly, Auroop R; Semazzi, Fred; Kumar, Vipin

    2010-01-01

    The connections among greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, global warming, and frequencies of hurricanes or tropical cyclones are among the least understood in climate science but among the most fiercely debated in the context of adaptation decisions or mitigation policies. Here we show that a knowledge discovery strategy, which leverages observations and climate model simulations, offers the promise of developing credible projections of tropical cyclones based on sea surface temperatures (SST) in a warming environment. While this study motivates the development of new methodologies in statistics and data mining, the ability to solve challenging climate science problems with innovative combinations of traditional and state-of-the-art methods is demonstrated. Here we develop new insights, albeit in a proof-of-concept sense, on the relationship between sea surface temperatures and hurricane frequencies, and generate the most likely projections with uncertainty bounds for storm counts in the 21st-century warming environment based in turn on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our preliminary insights point to the benefits that can be achieved for climate science and impacts analysis, as well as adaptation and mitigation policies, by a solution strategy that remains tailored to the climate domain and complements physics-based climate model simulations with a combination of existing and new computational and data science approaches.

  10. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz http IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al 1000-1850) 1998 THE TEMPERATURE'S RISING #12;GLOBAL ANNUAL TEMPERATURE ANOMALY, 1880-2008 0.8 0.6 0.4 0

  11. Thermal Comfort under Transient Metabolic and Dynamic Localized Airflow Conditions Combined with Neutral and Warm Ambient Temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugursal, Ahmet

    2012-02-14

    , in practice, people move between spaces, and thermal conditions such as metabolic rate, surface temperatures, airflow speed and direction vary in a typical day. A human subject test was designed to determine the transient relationship between the people...

  12. Warm Humid Climate: Methodology to Study Air Temperature Distribution: Mobile Phones Base Stations as Viable Alternative for Fixed Points 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, V.; Costa, A.; Labaki, L.

    2006-01-01

    . The summer period, from October to March is characterized by higher temperatures, lower relative humidity and relatively low wind speeds with southeast predominance, presenting small variations in the direction east - northeast. 2 METHODOLOGY...: METHODOLOGY TO STUDY AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION: MOBILE PHONES BASE STATIONS AS VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR FIXED POINTS Angelina Dias Leão Costa (1); Lucila Labaki (2); Virgínia Araújo (3) (1) and (2) School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban...

  13. Transport and optical properties of warm dense aluminum in the two-temperature regime: Ab initio calculation and semiempirical approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knyazev, D. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg. 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutskiy per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation—Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics of National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute,” Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Levashov, P. R. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Izhorskaya 13 Bldg. 2, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Lenin Prospekt 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-15

    This work is devoted to the investigation of transport and optical properties of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature case. At first optical properties, static electrical, and thermal conductivities were obtained in the ab initio calculation which is based on the quantum molecular dynamics, density functional theory, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula. Then the semiempirical approximation was constructed based on the results of our simulation. This approximation yields the dependences ?{sub 1{sub D{sub C}}}?1/T{sub i}{sup 0.25} and K?T{sub e}/T{sub i}{sup 0.25} for the static electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, respectively, for liquid aluminum at ??=?2.70?g/cm{sup 3}, 3?kK???T{sub i}???T{sub e}???20?kK. Our results are well described by the Drude model with the effective relaxation time ??T{sub i}{sup ?0.25}. We have considered a number of other models for the static electrical and thermal conductivities of aluminum, they are all reduced in the low-temperature limit to the Drude model with different expressions for the relaxation time ?. Our results are not consistent with the models in which ??T{sub i}{sup ?1} and support the models which use the expressions with the slower decrease of the relaxation time.

  14. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

    2013-12-31

    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  15. Warm Dark Matter via Ultra-Violet Freeze-In: Reheating Temperature and Non-Thermal Distribution for Fermionic Higgs Portal Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John McDonald

    2015-12-20

    Warm dark matter (WDM) of order keV mass may be able to resolve the disagreement between structure formation in cold dark matter simulations and observations. The detailed properties of WDM will depend upon its energy distribution, in particular how it deviates from the thermal distribution usually assumed in WDM simulations. Here we focus on WDM production via the Ultra-Violet (UV) freeze-in mechanism, for the case of fermionic Higgs portal dark matter $\\psi$ produced the portal interaction $\\overline{\\psi}\\psi H^{\\dagger}H/\\Lambda$. We show that the reheating temperature must satisfy $T_{R} \\gtrsim 0.3 $ TeV in order to account for the observed dark matter density when $m_{\\psi} \\approx 2 $ keV, where the lower bound on $T_{R}$ corresponds to the limit where the fermion mass is entirely due to electroweak symmetry breaking via the portal interaction. The corresponding bound on the interaction scale is $\\Lambda \\gtrsim 1.5 \\times 10^{10}$ GeV. We introduce a new method to simplify the computation of the non-thermal energy distribution of dark matter from freeze-in. We show that the non-thermal energy distribution from UV freeze-in is much broader and flatter than the corresponding thermal distribution.

  16. Group Work: Global warming & natural variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you

  17. Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

  18. REGULAR ARTICLE Warming and increased precipitation frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    REGULAR ARTICLE Warming and increased precipitation frequency on the Colorado Plateau: implications in temperature and precipitation are expected to influence ecosystem processes worldwide. Despite their globally how increased temperature and frequency of summertime precipitation affect the contributions of crust

  19. The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    The Science of Global Warming ·Energy Balance ·Feedback Loops Global Warming can be understood complexities ·Introduce a Simple Model of Energy Balance ·Understand the Vocabulary ·Point out some units of energy input from the Sun = Temperature: 5.3 oC Greenhouse Effect 101: A Balance is Achieved

  20. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING: GREENHOUSE GASES, AEROSOLS, RADIATIVE FORCING dioxide increase: sources, mixing ratio, forcing Global temperature change Climate sensitivity and time;#12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL

  1. Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1 and Sang-Ki Lee2 Received 18] A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase

  2. Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming Michael response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures

  3. 9 Global warming stephane.gaiffas@cmap.polytechnique.fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaïffas, Stéphane

    9 Global warming stephane.gaiffas@cmap.polytechnique.fr Goal The aim of this project is to study time-series measuring the evolution of global temperature. We consider a particular global temperature

  4. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  5. Integrated assessment of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, K.O.

    1996-12-31

    The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

  6. Cows Causing Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-08-06

    Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

  7. St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but has a high tolerance for shade-season grass. It does best in full sun and high temperatures. Goes dormant and turns brown in winter. Very

  8. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  9. Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tim

    Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal? Pang future sea surface temperature (SST) warming patterns. The results show that the global monsoon area. Zhao (2012), Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal

  10. Global warming, convective threshold and false thermostats Ian N. Williams,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming, convective threshold and false thermostats Ian N. Williams,1 Raymond T thermostats. Citation: Williams, I. N., R. T. Pierrehumbert, and M. Huber (2009), Global warming, convective. To first order this consists of a shift to warmer temperatures as climate warms, without change of shape

  11. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  12. Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

  13. Global Warming, endogenous risk and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony C.; Narain, Urvashi

    2002-01-01

    The economics of global warming, Institute for InternationalEconomic Models of Global Warming, Cambridge, Mass. MITstochastic losses from global warming, Risk Analysis 16(2):

  14. Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakoff, George

    2012-01-01

    Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandyby George Lakoff Yes, global warming systemically causedExplain to others why global warming systemically caused the

  15. Global Warming* The Perfect Storm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming* The Perfect Storm Jim Hansen 29 January 2008 Health Implications of Climate Change opinion #12;Perfect Storm, Perfect Disaster 1. Great Inertia of Systems - Ocean: Half of Warming still "In

  16. Forecasting phenology under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silander Jr., John A.

    Forecasting phenology under global warming Ine´s Iba´n~ez1,*, Richard B. Primack2, Abraham J in phenology. Keywords: climate change; East Asia, global warming; growing season, hierarchical Bayes; plant is shifting, and these shifts have been linked to recent global warming (Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Root et al

  17. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  18. Land–Ocean Warming Contrast over a Wide Range of Climates: Convective Quasi-Equilibrium Theory and Idealized Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Michael Patrick

    Surface temperatures increase at a greater rate over land than ocean in simulations and observations of global warming. It has previously been proposed that this land–ocean warming contrast is related to different changes ...

  19. Global warming from HFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.

    1998-11-01

    Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

  20. INTRODUCTION There is growing recognition that responses to global warming will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Bryan D.

    3436 INTRODUCTION There is growing recognition that responses to global warming will vary among increase with temperature (Gillooly et al., 2001; Sogard and Spencer, 2004). SUMMARY Global warming poses species (Pörtner et al., 2008; Eliason et al., 2011). With the average global air temperature projected

  1. Changes in microclimate induced by experimental warming and clipping in tallgrass prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the diurnal air-temperature range. Keywords: climate warming, clipping, infrared heater, soil moisture, solar as the secondary factor. Infrared heater was used in order to simulate climatic warming and clipping to mimic in reduced diurnal air-temperature range. Infrared heaters substantially increased daily maximum (2.5 and 3

  2. Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creel, Scott

    Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) consensus forecast for climate is an increase in global temperature by 2 - 5o C of atmospheric CO2 would yield an increase in global mean temperature of T2X = 3.5o C (6.7 o F, with 95

  3. Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s Jinlun.203°C. The warming of the world ocean is associated with an increase in global surface air temperature heat flux. Citation: Zhang, J. (2005), Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global

  4. The future of water, ice, snow underThe future of water, ice, snow under global warmingglobal warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurricane Katrina, the Kerry--Gingrich debate over globalGingrich debate over global warming, the local and regional warming.effects of global warming. Climate extends beyond temperature and rainfall, toClimate extendsThe future of water, ice, snow underThe future of water, ice, snow under global warmingglobal

  5. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO? enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO?) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO? enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms?¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO? had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO?. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.

  6. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO? enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO?) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO? enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night)more »but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms?¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO? had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO?. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.« less

  7. Hot/Warm Gas Cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissett, Larry A.

    2001-11-06

    Using regenerable sorbents and transport or fluid-bed contacting, the Gas Process Development Unit (GPDU) at NETL-Morgantown will be used to demonstrate the process feasibility of removing sulfur from coal gasification or other fuel gas streams at temperatures above dew point of the gas. This technology, also known as hot or warm gas desulfurization, is expected to remove sulfur to concentrations lower than conventional systems at comparable cost. The project was constructed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system program and is an ''enabling technology'' in the Vision 21 program. The GPDU was designed to be the smallest scale research and development facility capable of providing viable scale-up design data for new integrated transport or fluid-bed desulfurization processes. With the capability to test at process conditions representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, major compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling, the unit is expected to generate important information on process control, configuration, and sorbent suitability. In this way, the GPDU fills a strategic role between past/current small-scale testing and large-scale demonstrations. A primary objective of the project is to gain insight into which reactor combination (i.e., both transport, both fluid bed, or mixed) is more suitable for desulfurization technology and why. Assuming process feasibility is demonstrated, this guides future development or commercial ventures by answering the question of what to build, and provides performance and scale-up data (e.g., required transport reactor densities). Another important objective, which naturally derives from the process development activities, is demonstration of sorbent suitability and readiness for commercial deployment (e.g., sorbent attrition and cycle life). In this sense, the GPDU can serve as a final testing ground to reduce the risks of large-scale sorbent failure.

  8. The distinct behaviors of Pacific and Indian Ocean warm pool properties on seasonal and interannual time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seon Tae; Yu, Jin-Yi; Lu, Mong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AND INDIAN OCEAN WARM POOL Rayner, N. A. , D. E. Parker, E.Temperature data set (HadISST) [Rayner et al. , 2003], which

  9. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  10. A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes. Climatology--History. 3. Meteorology--History. 4. Climatology--Technological innovation. 5. Global temperature

  11. Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

  12. Global Warming Hole 31 March 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Hole 31 March 2015 James Hansen Sorry to have disappeared for two months. I-thirds of North America know that global warming is really happening. In fact, 2015 should be the year that stifles discussion of a warming hiatus. A substantial developing El Nino will add to the global warming

  13. PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

  14. More data needed to support or disprove global warming theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-26

    Reports of global warming are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But environmental pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-warming research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural warming and anthropogenic warming (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global warming over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.

  15. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  16. What Geology Has To Say About Global Warming William Menke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menke, William

    insights about earth's climate that can be applied to the present-day global warming debate. The geological record of ancient climate is excellent. Ancient temperatures can be determined very precisely, because the composition of the shells of corals and other marine organisms varies measurably with it. Furthermore

  17. I. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    such as solar panels, wind turbines or diesel generators. Typically, and more so recently dueI. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional sources of energy physical and operational state, including environmental sensor data (e.g. temperature), operational state

  18. Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming forecasts of how global warming will affect polar icepacks. See also: Earth & Climate q Global Warming q the effects of climate warming, and its presence greatly reduces solar heating of the polar oceans." "Sea ice

  19. Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a Post Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 3 Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World Worry About Global Warming.. 14 Everybody Loses on Fuel Efficiency

  20. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

    2007-06-28

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

  1. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, T

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

  2. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  3. Climate-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in the rapidly warming Antarctic coastal ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, Sian Frances

    2013-07-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a hotspot of climatic and oceanographic change, with a 6°C rise in winter atmospheric temperatures and >1°C warming of the surface ocean since the 1950s. These trends are having ...

  4. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  5. Successive Modulation of ENSO to the Future Greenhouse Warming Department of Atmospheric Sciences/Global Environmental Laboratory, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, In-Sik

    . In most coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) a dominant warming trend of the global-mean troposphere temperature, but also robust response patterns to global warming have been identi- fied (Cubasch et al. 2001), dynamical understanding of ENSO responses to global warming is still in a toddling stage. The early low

  6. Direct health effects of global warming in Japan and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial and agricultural activities are resulting in greater emissions of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, therefore contributing to global warming. Using general circulation models, it is estimated that surface temperatures in temperate regions will rise 1 to 3 degrees C during the next 100 years. Because global warming may increase the frequency and length of high temperatures during hot summer months, various health risks caused by heat stress have been studied. According to our epidemiological survey, the incidence of heat-related illness was significantly correlated to hot environments in Tokyo, Japan and in Nanjing and Wuhan, China. The epidemiological results also showed that the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality in the elderly increased very rapidly in summer. The regression analysis on these data showed that the number of heat stroke patients increased exponentially when the mean daily temperature and maximum daily temperature exceeded 27C and 32C in Tokyo and 31C and 36C in Wuhan and Nanjing, respectively. Since the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality has been shown to increase as a result of exposure to long periods of hot summer temperatures, it is important to determine to what extent the incidence of heat stress-related morbidity and mortality will be affected as a result of global warming.

  7. {sup 85}Kr induced global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    It`s well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as {sup 85}Kr is at present about 10{sup 6} cm{sup {minus}3} and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of {sup 85}Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global warming. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of {sup 85}Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to {sup 85}Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of {sup 85}Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of warming of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered.

  8. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Ethical Culture Society of Suffolk;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter 343 237 237 254K 390

  9. On global warming T. C. Dorlas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorlas, Teunis C.

    On global warming T. C. Dorlas Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies School of Theoretical Physics- ature curve The ongoing debate about global warming prompted me to have a look at the physics myself

  10. Climate Whiplash: What Happens AFTER Global Warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    Climate Whiplash: What Happens AFTER Global Warming? with Dr. Curt Stager Author and Professor, Paul Smith's College Department of Natural Sciences Most debate over global warming looks only as far

  11. Warming trends: Adapting to nonlinear change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jonko, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-28

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to warm more than others. Research suggests that whether warming will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.

  12. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

  13. Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet* Jim Hansen 17 April 2007 2007 Leo Szilard Lecture. Graham Red Squirrel #12;Survival of Species 1. "Business-as-Usual" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 3ºC - Likely Extinctions ~ 50 percent 2. "Alternative" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 1ºC - Likely Extinctions

  14. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

  15. 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd Does global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, Geoff

    © 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd Does global warming make Triton blush? Neptune's largest moon (refs 5,6), and global warming has now been observed7 . We obtained four spectra of Triton between 0. Both the spectral changes and the global warming may have been caused by a triggering event

  16. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course Spring 2014 Instructors: Peter Huybers and Eli Tziperman of global warming", please prepare by reading "the climate of man", IPCC introduction, and Lindzen article. background basics. l 1. Mountain Glaciers: Are mountain glaciers melting? Due to global warming? First, see

  17. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course spring 2012 Instructors: Eli Tziperman and Peter Huybers Hurricanes due to global warming? Apr 7: Stratospheric cooling: Why is the stratosphere cooling? Apr 14: Mid will be the impact of global warming on agriculture? Apr 28: Final Debate: Take sides! Should we act to curb global

  18. Global Warming and the Free State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Global Warming and the Free State Comprehensive Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Maryland of the report. Citation Boesch, D.F. (editor). 2008. Global Warming and the Free State: Comprehensive AssessmentJuskelis,MarylandSierraClub Global Warming and the Free State Comprehensive Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Maryland Report

  19. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course spring 2010 Instructors: Eli Tziperman and Peter Huybers Hurricanes due to global warming? Apr 7: Stratospheric cooling: Why is the stratosphere cooling? Apr 14: Mid will be the impact of global warming on agriculture? Apr 28: Final Debate: Take sides! Should we act to curb global

  20. weekly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    unseasonably high temperatures in the 60s were recorded in several cities, including Baltimore, Pittsburgh, and New York City. The only area experiencing winter weather is the...

  1. The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

  2. A possible relationship between Global Warming and Lightning Activity in India during the period 1998-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Pereira B.; Priyadarsini G.; T. E. Girish

    2010-12-15

    Lightning activity on a global scale has been studied season wise using satellite data for the period from 1998 to 2009. Lightning activity shows an increasing trend during the period of study which is highly correlated with atmospheric warming. A similar increasing trend of lightning activity is observed in the Indian region during the pre-monsoon season which is correlated with global lightning trends and warming trends of surface temperature in India. Key words: Global warming, lightning activity, Solar cycle changes

  3. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  4. Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galam, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationality while it should be a scientific debate. The degree of hostility used to mull any dissonance voice demonstrates that the current debate has acquired a quasi-religious nature. Scientists are behaving as priests in their will "to save the planet". We are facing a dangerous social phenomenon, which must be addressed from the social point of view. The current unanimity of citizens, scientists, journalists, intellectuals and politicians is intrinsically worrying. The calls to sacrifice our way of life to calm down the upset nature is an emotio...

  5. Global warming: A geothermal evidence from northern Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodri, L.

    1996-12-31

    The greatest potential climatic changes induced by an increasing greenhouse effect are expected to occur in the high latitudes. Due to the great natural climatic variability in such areas, it is difficult to detect the greenhouse signal from meteorologic records. A reliable documentation of climate changes requires the examining of all available climatic records. In present study, temperature-depth profiles from two Finnish boreholes from over the Arctic circle have been considered to reconstruct ground surface temperature histories. The holes have been carefully selected to exclude any possible disturbances from underground water circulation, and to minimize the human effects as completely as possible. Both boreholes indicate continuous warming by {approximately}1--1.5 K through the last hundred years. The rate of warming increases from about the 1960`s. The results are in good agreement with those obtained for the Alaskan Arctic in a similar study by Lachenbruch and Marshall.

  6. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  7. Evidences of global warming for various regions of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batyreva, O.V.; Pischehko, V.A.; Vilfand, R.M.; Vasiliev, A.A.

    1997-12-31

    The automatical classification of mean monthly temperature fields of Russia was carried out. The data of 42 years in regular grid-points 5 x 10{degree} of Northern Hemisphere were used. The combination of land`s algorithm of K-averages was applied. The increasing of prevailing occurrence of warm types during last decades was discovered. It turned out that different regions had different dynamics of type occurrences.

  8. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decai Sun

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramicâ?¢ and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. Another achievement in the development of the phosphor integration technology is the demonstration of tight color control. The high power WW LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability. The manufacturing of the product will be done in Philips Lumiledsâ?? LUXEON Rebel production line which has produced billions of high power LEDs. The first high power WW LED product will be released to the market in 2011.

  9. The contribution of cosmic rays to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Terry

    2011-01-01

    A search has been made for a contribution of the changing cosmic ray intensity to the global warming observed in the last century. The cosmic ray intensity shows a strong 11 year cycle due to solar modulation and the overall rate has decreased since 1900. These changes in cosmic ray intensity are compared to those of the mean global surface temperature to attempt to quantify any link between the two. It is shown that, if such a link exists, the changing cosmic ray intensity contributes less than 8% to the increase in the mean global surface temperature observed since 1900.

  10. Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

    2001-01-01

    stream_size 21847 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Feddema_Soil_Degradation_Global_Warming.pdf.txt stream_source_info Feddema_Soil_Degradation_Global_Warming.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text.... This study will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare...

  11. Vegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    by insulating vegetation from winter wind and temperature extremes, modifying winter soil temperaturesVegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow ) open-topped fiberglass chambers (OTCs) to study the effects of changes in winter snow cover and summer

  12. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 50% compared to today's best common practice - Alternative refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) are needed to achieve these goals - Provide guidance to the...

  13. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of planet formation and structures as well as the evolution of an imploding inertial fusion capsule depends on our understanding of matter in the complex warm dense matter...

  14. Nuclear energy output slows as climate warms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-06-01

    New reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US government say the window is closing for actions to avert the worst effects of warming.

  15. Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakoff, George

    2012-01-01

    Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy by George Lakoffsystemically caused Hurricane Sandy -- and the Midwestenormous energy and size of Hurricane Sandy, as well as the

  16. Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ." #12;Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation Sources in Minnesota A Study gas (GHG) emissions from Minnesota's transportation sector. #12;Research Study Team UniversityBackground: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems

  17. Warming and Intensified Summer Drought Influence Leaf Dark Respiration and Related Plant Traits in Three Dominant Species of the Southern Oak Savanna 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Kourtnee Marr

    2011-08-08

    The short-term temperature-response of dark respiration may be altered by climate warming through temperature acclimation; however the role of drought in influencing thermal acclimation is not known. We hypothesized that leaf dark respiration...

  18. Link between land-ocean warming contrast and surface relative humidities in simulations with coupled climate models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Michael Patrick

    Simulations of warming climates with coupled climate models exhibit strong land-ocean contrasts in changes in surface temperature and relative humidity, but little land-ocean contrast in changes in equivalent potential ...

  19. Toxicological and epidemiological aspects of global warming on human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Kawahara, I.; Asanuma, S.

    1996-12-31

    Since human activities are responsible for anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions, climate models project an increase in the global surface temperature of 0.9 C to 4.0 C by 2100. For human health, it is projected that global warming may have a critical effect on the increased periods of severe heat stress in summer throughout the world. Global warming may have a critical issue on the increased periods of severe heat stress that have a potential impact on peroxidative damage in humans and animals. Lipid peroxidative damage is markedly related to GSH peroxidase activities, therefore the study was carried out to analyze the relationship between biochemical adaptability and the lipid peroxidative damage especially intracellular structure, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum depending on the exposure time of heat stress.

  20. Remote sensing, global warming, and vector-borne disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, B.; Beck, L.; Dister, S.; Lobitz, B.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between climate change and the pattern of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are changes such as global warming, which are continental in scale and occur over periods of years, decades, or longer. At the opposite extreme are changes associated with severe weather events, which can occur at local and regional scales over periods of days, weeks, or months. Key ecological factors affecting the distribution of vector-borne diseases include temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability, and their impact on vectors, pathogens, reservoirs, and hosts. Global warming can potentially alter these factors, thereby affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of disease.

  1. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

  2. PATTERNS OF GREENHOUSE WARMING "Projected warming in the 21st century shows scenario-independent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PATTERNS OF GREENHOUSE WARMING "Projected warming in the 21st century shows scenario in response to increasing greenhouse gas levels will not be geographically uniform. · Computer models indicate greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. However, the warming is not expected to be uniform over the globe, nor

  3. ON THE INSTABILITY OF TROPICAL WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL DURING THE BOREAL WINTER AND SPRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARR-KUMARAKULASINGHE,S.A.

    1998-03-23

    A source of instability in the western Pacific warm pool is shown to be due to sea surface elevation variations caused by changes in the zonal sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient and the changes in the Pacific Ocean basin length in relation to the warm pool latitudinal location. The variation of the sea-surface elevation is measured by using the thermocline depth response calculated from a two-layer ocean. The warm pool is shown to be barely at equilibrium during the boreal late winter and early spring by comparing the measured thermocline at 110{degree}W, 0{degree}E with the calculated thermocline depth. Based on this analysis, a failure or reversal of the climatological zonal winds are apparently not a necessary precursor for the instability of the warm pool and initiation of a warm event. A warm event can be initiated by an increase in the size of the warm pool and/or an increase in zonal SST differences during the boreal/winter spring. This mechanism could be an alternate mechanism for El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics to that postulated by Bjeknes (1969).

  4. Wildfires ignite debate on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Max A.

    Wildfires ignite debate on global warming Astemperaturessoar. Is there a link with global warming? We have good reason to think so, and not taking the link seriously could have on climate change and global fire predictions last month, and I have been in my own media storm ever since

  5. Advanced Review Drought under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Advanced Review Drought under global warming: a review Aiguo Dai This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 of the warmest SSTs in the Atlantic and warming in the Indian Ocean are responsible for the recent Sahel droughts

  6. PRINCETON//989 Princeton WarmBore Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    in that it has a horizontal ``warm bore'' passing completely through the solenoidal coil, giving easy access, the internal Helium valve has been capped off. On the other hand, the cold volume service lines open directly pumpout port, opening the valve and pumping down. When warm, the system will eventually pump down to about

  7. Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming Pieter De Frennea,b,1 , Francisco of Land Use Systems, Leibniz-ZALF, DE-15374 Müncheberg, Germany; u Beechwood House, St. Briavels Common, Stanford, CA, and approved September 24, 2013 (received for review June 13, 2013) Recent global warming

  8. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  9. Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar Co LtdWareham,Waretown,

  10. Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar Co

  11. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar CoFacility | Open Energy

  12. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: EnergyRocklinRohm andNew Mexico:Dist JumpGeothermal

  13. Brooks Warm Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank, Maine: EnergyEnergy Information BronzeTexas: Energy Resources Jump

  14. The Impact of Global Warming and Air Pollution on Patient Visits in the Emergency Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derlet, Robert W

    2001-01-01

    Review The Impact sf Global Warming and 1 Air pollution onair pollution problems and global warming will effect thesites in the human body. Global Warming Global warming goes

  15. Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming and Jiaxu Zhang #12;· Anthropogenic global warming causes "robust" changes in the global in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic global warming Atmospheric radiative

  16. WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

  17. Global Temperature November 3, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    of instrumental temperature measurements occurred when the 1997-98 "El Nino of the century" occurred on the back of a strong two-decade warming trend; in addition, the global temperature impact of the El Nino, which typically lags the El Nino by a few months, coincided almost precisely with calendar year 1998. As a result

  18. Man made global warming explained - closing the blinds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, T

    2010-01-01

    One of the big problems of the age concerns 'Global Warming', and whether it is 'man-made' or 'natural'. Most climatologists believe that it is very likely to be the former but some scientists (mostly non-climatologists) subscribe to the latter. Unsurprisingly, the population at large is often confused and and is not convinced either way. Here we try to explain the principles of man-made global warming in a simple way. Our purpose is to try to understand the story which the climatologists are telling us through their rather complicated general circulation models. Although the effects in detail are best left to the climatologists' models, we show that for the Globe as a whole the effects of man-made global warming can be demonstrated in a simple way. The simple model of only the direct heating from the absorption of infrared radiation, illustrates the main principles of the science involved. The predicted temperature increase due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last century descr...

  19. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, John

    2003-02-03

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

  20. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot...

  1. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle...

  2. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, John

    2002-06-07

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

  3. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

  4. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  5. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of Standards and Technology -...

  6. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot more to the observed climate warming than current...

  7. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods. June 7, 2015...

  8. Signal and noise in global warming detection. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, G.R.

    1998-11-01

    The specific objectives of this study were the following: (1) What is the expected sampling error and bias incurred in estimation of the global average temperature from a finite number of point gauges? (2) What is the best one can do by optimally arranging N point gauges, how can one make best use of existing data at N point gauges by optimally weighting them? (3) What is a good estimation of the signal of global warming based upon simple models of the climate system? (4) How does one develop an optimal signal detection technique from the knowledge of signal and noise?

  9. Microclimatic Performance of a Free-Air Warming and CO2 Enrichment Experiment in Windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night)more »but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms-1 average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.« less

  10. Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

    While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of ...

  11. Interpretation of simulated global warming using a simple model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watterson, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    A simple energy balance model with two parameters, an effective heat capacity and an effective climate sensitivity, is used to interpret six GCM simulations of greenhouse gas-induced global warming. By allowing the parameters to vary in time, the model can be accurately calibrated for each run. It is found that the sensitivity can be approximated as a constant in each case. However, the effective heat capacity clearly varies, and it is important that the energy equation is formulated appropriately, and thus unlike many such models. For simulations with linear forcing and from a cold start, the capacity is in each case close to that of a homogeneous ocean with depth initially 200 m, but increasing some 4.3 m each year, irrespective of the sensitivity and forcing growth rate. Analytic solutions for t his linear capacity function are derived, and these reproduce the GCM runs well, even for cases where the forcing is stabilized after a century or so. The formation of a subsurface maximum in the mean ocean temperature anomaly is a significant feature of such cases. A simple model for a GCM run with a realistic forcing scenario starting from 1,880 is constructed using component results for forcing segments. Given this, an estimate of the cold start error of a simulation of the warming due to forcing after the present would be given by the negative of the temperature drift of the anomaly due to the past forcing. The simple model can evidently be used to give an indication of likely warming curves, at lest for this range of scenarios and GCM sensitivities.

  12. Shifts in ENSO coupling processes under global warming Sjoukje Philip1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    state of the Pacific Ocean between the current climate and a high CO2 climate. Next, shifts in ENSO warming may shift the properties and dynamics of El Nin~o. We study the shifts in ENSO couplings in IPCC couplings between sea surface temperature (SST), thermocline depth and wind stress are discussed. Although

  13. Recent Bottom Water Warming in the Pacific Ocean* GREGORY C. JOHNSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Recent Bottom Water Warming in the Pacific Ocean* GREGORY C. JOHNSON NOAA/Pacific Marine) ABSTRACT Decadal changes of abyssal temperature in the Pacific Ocean are analyzed using high-quality, full the source of bottom water for the Pacific Ocean, which enters the main deep basins of this ocean southeast

  14. Role of anomalous warm gulf waters in the intensification of Hurricane Menas Kafatos,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    Role of anomalous warm gulf waters in the intensification of Hurricane Katrina Menas Kafatos,1 several strong hurricanes intensifying in the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall that severely damaged the Gulf States, especially Hurricane Katrina. Remarkable similarities between sea surface temperature

  15. Why the Earth has not warmed as much as expected?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.

    2010-05-01

    The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation, by empirical determination of the earth's climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluted by their performance over this period, is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

  16. Why hasn't earth warmed as much as expected?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.; Charlson, R.; Kahn, R.; Ogren, J.; Rodhe, H.

    2010-03-15

    The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation by empirical determination of Earth’s climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluated by their performance over this period is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

  17. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  18. Thermal Plasticity of Photosynthesis: the Role of Acclimation in Forest Responses to a Warming Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; O'Hara, Keiran H [ORNL; Campion, Christina M [ORNL; Walker, Ashley V [ORNL; Edwards, Nelson T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The increasing air temperatures central to climate change predictions have the potential to alter forest ecosystem function and structure by exceeding temperatures optimal for carbon gain. Such changes are projected to threaten survival of sensitive species, leading to local extinctions, range migrations, and altered forest composition. This study investigated photosynthetic sensitivity to temperature and the potential for acclimation in relation to the climatic provenance of five species of deciduous trees, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Quercus falcata, Betula alleghaniensis, and Populus grandidentata. Open-top chambers supplied three levels of warming (+0, +2, and +4 C above ambient) over 3 years, tracking natural temperature variability. Optimal temperature for CO2 assimilation was strongly correlated with daytime temperature in all treatments, but assimilation rates at those optima were comparable. Adjustment of thermal optima was confirmed in all species, whether temperatures varied with season or treatment, and regardless of climate in the species' range or provenance of the plant material. Temperature optima from 17 to 34 were observed. Across species, acclimation potentials varied from 0.55 C to 1.07 C per degree change in daytime temperature. Responses to the temperature manipulation were not different from the seasonal acclimation observed in mature indigenous trees, suggesting that photosynthetic responses should not be modeled using static temperature functions, but should incorporate an adjustment to account for acclimation. The high degree of homeostasis observed indicates that direct impacts of climatic warming on forest productivity, species survival, and range limits may be less than predicted by existing models.

  19. Are we seeing global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1997-05-09

    Despite considerable progress, the question of whether the observed gradual increase in global mean temperature over the last century is indeed caused by human activities or is simply an expression of natural climate variation on a larger spatial and temporal scales remains a controversial issue. To answer this question three things are needed: prediction of the anthropogenic climate change signal; determination of the natural climate variability noise; and computation of the signal-to-noise ratio and test of whether the ratio exceeds some predefined statistical detection threshold. This article discusses all these issues and the uncertainties involved in getting definitive answers. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  20. An Occam's razor view of the lead-lag dispute in global warming Tadeusz J. Ulrych1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    1 An Occam's razor view of the lead-lag dispute in global warming Tadeusz J. Ulrych1 and Allan D the argument that temperature leads CO2 in the climatic record. The principle of causality therefore with the issue of lead-lag in the temperature record and follow by showing why the `non

  1. INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON NICKEL FILMS: A LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DETECTION TECHNIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Robert Brian

    2011-01-01

    is proportional to the outgassing rate of the warm metalat temperature 1.6 K, outgassing ceases, and the only source

  2. Global warming: Science or politics. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-04-01

    ``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a warming effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global warming was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global warming and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.

  3. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  4. Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

  5. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  6. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmittner, A.; Stocker, T.F.

    1999-04-01

    A simplified climate model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is used to perform extensive sensitivity studies concerning possible future climate change induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Supplemented with an active atmospheric hydrological cycle, experiments with different rates of CO{sub 2} increase and different climate sensitivities are performed. The model exhibits a threshold value of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration beyond which the North Atlantic Deep Water formation stops and never recovers. For a climate sensitivity that leads to an equilibrium warming of 3.6 C for a doubling of CO{sub 2} and a rate of CO{sub 2} increase of 1% yr{sup {minus}1}, the threshold lies between 650 and 700 ppmv. Moreover, it is shown that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the rate of increase of greenhouse gases. For a slower increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2} the final amount that can be reached without a shutdown of the circulation is considerably higher. This rate-sensitive response is due to the uptake of heat and excess freshwater from the uppermost layers to the deep ocean. The increased equator-to-pole freshwater transport in a warmer atmosphere is mainly responsible for the cessation of deep water formation in the North Atlantic. Another consequence of the enhanced latent heat transport is a stronger warming at high latitudes. A model version with fixed water vapor transport exhibits uniform warming at all latitudes. The inclusion of a simple parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback increases the model sensitivity and further decreases the pole-to-equator temperature difference in a greenhouse climate. The possible range of CO{sub 2} threshold concentrations and its dependency on the rate of CO{sub 2} increase, on the climate sensitivity, and on other model parameters are discussed.

  7. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  8. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  9. Where contributes most to the present century-scale global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhaomei Zeng; Zhongwei Yan; Duzheng Ye

    1997-12-31

    In recent years, the temporal and spatial patterns of climate changes have received serious attention, by which some authors tried to recognize anthropogenic influences on climate and others tended to explain signals as resulted from natural processes. Yet, there are still many features of the present climate changes remaining open to be explained. As implied in many numerical modeling reviewed in recent literature, the warming induced by enhanced atmospheric greenhouse effect should be larger at higher latitudes. Proxy data indicated also that during past warm periods temperature anomalies at high latitudes were larger than at low latitudes. It gives people the impression that the enhanced greenhouse effect induced global warming should be more easily looked for in near-polar regions. However, this paper will show some new findings.

  10. The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1999-08-01

    To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

  11. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  12. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  13. Editorial – The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back,” Are You Ready?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankowska, Marta Maja

    2006-01-01

    2006, September 25). Is global warming raising a tempest?or her behavior towards global warming in 2007. *Timberlake,Editorial: The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy

  14. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andZ. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andAir Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and

  15. Is the Ozone Depletion Regime a Model for an Emerging Regime on Global Warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Winfried

    1991-01-01

    the for- mation of a global warming regime produces a highlydepletion and the global warming regimes was recognized byan Emerging Regime on Global Warming? by Winfried Lang I.

  16. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Canada Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming:His timely book, Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,

  17. Global surface temperature changes since the 1850s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    Temperature data from land and marine areas form the basis for many studies of climatic variations on local, regional and hemispheric scales, and the global mean temperature is a fundamental measure of the state of the climate system. In this paper it is shown that the surface temperature of the globe has warmed by about 0.5{degrees}C since the mid-nineteenth century. This is an important part of the evidence in the {open_quote}global warming{close_quote} debate. How certain are we about the magnitude of the warming? Where has it been greatest? In this paper, these and related issues will be addressed.

  18. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  19. Central issues in the negotiations on limiting greenhouse warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The three central questions in the international negotiations on greenhouse warming are: (1) How much global warming should be tolerated? (2) How much responsibility for past emissions should be assigned to present ...

  20. Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  1. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore »unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  2. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    -012-1336-1 #12;affected by warm water temperatures. Long-term stream temperature monitoring is useful biological surveys; thus, using temperature is appealing as a first-cut metric for monitoring fishPRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus

  3. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed.more »Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.« less

  4. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  5. Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

  6. Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

  7. Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust Reprinted from the CD Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35, 263-277. ­ or ­ Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35

  8. California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

  9. The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill Vaughan Pratt Stanford University June 23, 2011 Vaughan PrattStanford University () The Logic of Global WarmingA bitter pill June 23, 2011 1 / 1 What is climate population growth. 2. Accumulation of hazardous materials: lead, mercury, CFCs, . . . 3. Global warming

  10. GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Alex

    GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

  11. Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in Drosophila subobscura" Francisco in response to global warming. However, that conclusion is not adequately buttressed by their data, because that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms of Drosophila subobscura are evolving in response to global warming. (2

  12. Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Uma

    Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

  13. Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft James Hansen American: "Subversion of Public Affairs Chart 7: The Global Warming Story C. Tenets of a Democracy: "An Informed Public, not as a spokesman for NASA There is a huge gap between what is understood about global warming and what is known

  14. Strategies to Address Global Warming Is Sundance Kid a Criminal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Strategies to Address Global Warming & Is Sundance Kid a Criminal? Jim Hansen In my opinion, it is still feasible to solve the global warming problem before we pass tipping points that would guarantee ppm yields global warming about 2°C (3.6°F) above the preindustrial level. Such a level of atmospheric

  15. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

  16. Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster James Hansen 26 October 2009 Club statements relating to policy are personal opinion Global Warming Status 1. Knowledge Gap Between - What Benefits of Solution Despite the publicity that global warming has received, there is a large gap between

  17. Laughing Turfgrass Warms Mother Earth Dale Bremer, Kansas State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    warming and climate change. In truth, none of us would be able to survive on the earth were be global warming and climate change. So why are we measuring nitrous oxide emissions from turfgrass at KLaughing Turfgrass Warms Mother Earth Dale Bremer, Kansas State University Published October 2005

  18. The Science and Ethics of Global Warming George Philander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Storch, Hans

    The Science and Ethics of Global Warming George Philander (Lecture given on 26 August 2009, Cape Town, South Africa) The controversies of global warming are ostensibly about divergent interpretations at the equator, which is similar to global warming in having both scientific and ethical aspects, but which

  19. Global warming is real, and Nevertheless, practical actions, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Global warming is real, and Nevertheless, practical actions, which ICEBERG BREAKS OFF the San BY JAMES HANSEN Global Warming Defusing the #12;became strikingly apparent to me one summer afternoon. Objective analysis of global warming requires quantitative knowledge of three issues: the sensitivity

  20. Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming Henrik Svensen a carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global warming, and the Toarcian global warming. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: climate change; Toarcian

  1. Transient Floral Change and Rapid Global Warming at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, S. Kathleen

    #12;Transient Floral Change and Rapid Global Warming at the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Scott L. Wing. Freeman3 Rapid global warming of 5- to 10-C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) coincided shape and size suggest that climate warmed by È5-C during the PETM and that precipitation was low early

  2. Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2 Fortunat Joos,* Gian-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming

  3. Estimating present climate in a warming world: a model-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raeisaenen, J.; Ruokolainen, L. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Division of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics

    2008-09-30

    Weather services base their operational definitions of 'present' climate on past observations, using a 30-year normal period such as 1961-1990 or 1971-2000. In a world with ongoing global warming, however, past data give a biased estimate of the actual present-day climate. Here we propose to correct this bias with a 'delta change' method, in which model-simulated climate changes and observed global mean temperature changes are used to extrapolate past observations forward in time, to make them representative of present or future climate conditions. In a hindcast test for the years 1991-2002, the method works well for temperature, with a clear improvement in verification statistics compared to the case in which the hindcast is formed directly from the observations for 1961-1990. However, no improvement is found for precipitation, for which the signal-to-noise ratio between expected anthropogenic changes and interannual variability is much lower than for temperature. An application of the method to the present (around the year 2007) climate suggests that, as a geographical average over land areas excluding Antarctica, 8-9 months per year and 8-9 years per decade can be expected to be warmer than the median for 1971-2000. Along with the overall warming, a substantial increase in the frequency of warm extremes at the expense of cold extremes of monthly-to-annual temperature is expected.

  4. BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 1999Byrne, Yun / EFFICIENT GLOBAL WARMING Efficient Global Warming: Contradictions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 1999Byrne, Yun / EFFICIENT GLOBAL WARMING Efficient Global Warming: Contradictions in Liberal Democratic Responses to Global Environmental Problems democracies can be ex- pected to pursue a policy regime of "efficient global warming." Key words

  5. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  6. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soer, Wouter

    2012-06-14

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. The high-power warm-white LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability through extensive reliability tests. The new kilo-lumen package has been commercialized under the product name LUXEON M. As of the end of the program, the LUXEON M product has been released in the following CCT/CRI combinations: 3000K/70, 4000K/70, 5000K/70, 5700K/70, 2700K/80, 3000K/80 and 4000K/80. LM-80 tests for the products with CCTs of 4000 K and higher have reached 8500 hours, and per IESNA TM-21-11 have established an L70 lumen maintenance value of >51,000 hours at A drive current and up to 120 °C board temperature.

  7. Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santer, Benjamin D.

    Despite continued growth in atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, global mean surface and tropospheric temperatures have shown slower warming since 1998 than previously. Possible explanations for the slow-down include ...

  8. Warm inflation with coupled thermal quantum fluctuations: a new semiclassical approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2000-10-25

    I consider a new semiclassical expansion for the inflaton field in the framework of warm inflation scenario. The fluctuations of the matter field are considered as thermally coupled with the particles of the thermal bath. This coupling parameter depends on the temperature of the bath. The power spectrum remains invariant under this new semiclassical expansion for the inflaton. However, I find that the thermal component of the amplitude for the primordial field fluctuations should be very small at the end of inflation.

  9. Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-15

    Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

  10. The existence of warm and optically thick dissipative coronae above accretion disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rozanska, A; Belmont, R; Czerny, B; Petrucci, P -O

    2015-01-01

    In the past years, several observations of AGN and X-ray binaries have suggested the existence of a warm T around 0.5-1 keV and optically thick, \\tau ~ 10-20, corona covering the inner parts of the accretion disk. These properties are directly derived from spectral fitting in UV to soft-X-rays using Comptonization models. However, whether such a medium can be both in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium with an accretion disk is still uncertain. We investigate the properties of such warm, optically thick coronae and put constraints on their existence. We solve the radiative transfer equation for grey atmosphere analytically in a pure scattering medium, including local dissipation as an additional heating term in the warm corona. The temperature profile of the warm corona is calculated assuming it is cooled by Compton scattering, with the underlying dissipative disk providing photons to the corona. Our analytic calculations show that a dissipative thick, (\\tau_{cor} ~ 10-12) corona on the top of a standard ac...

  11. Effects of experimental warming and clipping on metabolic change of microbial community in a US Great Plains tallgrass prairie

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Jianping; Liu, Xinxing; Liu, Xueduan; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Qiu, Guanzhou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    While more and more studies are being conducted on the effects of global warming, little is known regarding the response of metabolic change of whole soil microbial communities to this phenomenon. In this study, functional gene changes at the mRNA level were analyzed by our new developed GeoChip 3.0. Soil samples were taken from a long-term climate warming experiment site, which has been conducted for ~;;8 years at the Kessler Farm Field Laboratory, a 137.6-ha farm located in the Central Redbed Plains, in McClain County, Oklahoma. The experiment uses a paired factorial design with warming as the primary factor nested with clipping as a secondary factor. An infrared heater was used to simulate global warming, and clipping was used to mimic mowing hay. Twelve 2m x 2m plots were divided into six pairs of warmed and control plots. The heater generates a constant output of ~;;100 Watts m-2 to approximately 2 oC increase in soil temperature above the ambient plots, which is at the low range of the projected climate warming by IPCC. Soil whole microbial communities? mRNA was extracted, amplified, labeled and hybridized with our GeoChip 3.0, a functional gene array covering genes involved in N, C, P, and S cycling, metal resistance and contaminant degradation, to examine expressed genes. The results showed that a greater number and higher diversity of genes were expressed under warmed plots compared to control. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all detected genes showed that the soil microbial communities were clearly altered by warming, with or without clipping. The dissimilarity of the communities based on functional genes was tested and results showed that warming and control communities were significantly different (P<0.05), with or without clipping. Most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling were expressed at higher levels in warming samples compared to control samples. All of the results demonstrated that the whole microbial communities increase functional gene expression under warming with or without clipping in order to adapt the changed out environment. More detail analysis is underway.

  12. Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V.

    1997-12-31

    Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

  13. Delaying the waterfall transition in warm hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Berera, Arjun; Metcalf, Thomas P. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Rosa, João G., E-mail: mbg@ugr.es, E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: t.p.metcalf@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: joao.rosa@ua.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and I3N, Campus de Santiago, Aveiro, 3810-183 (Portugal)

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the dynamics and observational predictions of supersymmetric hybrid inflation in the warm regime, where dissipative effects are mediated by the waterfall fields and their subsequent decay into light degrees of freedom. This produces a quasi-thermal radiation bath with a slowly-varying temperature during inflation and further damps the inflaton's motion, thus prolonging inflation. As in the standard supercooled scenario, inflation ends when the waterfall fields become tachyonic and can no longer sustain a nearly constant vacuum energy, but the interaction with the radiation bath makes the waterfall fields effectively heavier and delays the phase transition to the supersymmetric minimum. In this work, we analyze for the first time the effects of finite temperature corrections and SUSY mass splittings on the quantum effective potential and the resulting dissipation coefficient. We show, in particular, that dissipation can significantly delay the onset of the tachyonic instability to yield 50–60 e-folds of inflation and an observationally consistent primordial spectrum, which is not possible in the standard supercooled regime when inflation is driven by radiative corrections.

  14. Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar CoFacility | Open EnergyWarm

  15. Global warming: Science or politics? Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-05-01

    Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing spread by travelers. Whether these forecasts abet the claimed relation of human activity to global warming, they are not a new phenomenon. In the space of several decades, dire consequences have been forecast in three sectors: natural resource consumption, energy resources and environmental fate. These three areas are reviewed.

  16. Predictive study on the risk of malaria spreading due to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Masaji

    1996-12-31

    Global warming will bring about a temperature elevation, and the habitat of vectors of infectious diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, will spread into subtropical or temperate zone. The purpose of this study is to simulate the spreading of these diseases through reexamination of existing data and collection of some additional information by field survey. From these data, the author will establish the relationship between meteorological conditions, vector density and malaria occurrence. And then he will simulate and predict the malaria epidemics in case of temperature elevation in southeast Asia and Japan.

  17. Hansen, J. et al., 2002: Global warming continues. Science, 295, 275. Global Warming Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    50 years (4). The greatest warm anomalies in 2001 were in Alaska-Canada, in a band from North Africa. Geophys. Res. 106, 23947, 2001. 2. R.W. Reynolds, N.A. Rayner, T.M. Smith, D.C. Stokes, W. Wang, J

  18. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  19. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke...

  20. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies...

  1. Call for emission limits heats debate on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, S.F.

    1997-08-01

    Emission limits on carbon dioxide is recommended by an Intergovernmental Panel in a discussion on global warming. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heimbucher, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    charged particle physics Introduction . . . . . . . . .Driven Warm Dense Matter Physics, Four Point Sher- atonIntroduction to Plasma Physics, Plenum Press, New York [18

  3. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska Citation...

  4. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium forinertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-principles opacity table of...

  5. Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  6. Q&A on "Impacts of Wind Farms on Land Surface Temperature" Published by Nature Climate Change on April 29, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Liming

    1 Q&A on "Impacts of Wind Farms on Land Surface Temperature" Published by Nature Climate Change? This study presents the first observational evidence of wind farm impacts on land surface temperature downwind of wind farms. Why do the operating wind turbines warm nighttime temperature? This warming effect

  7. Effects of chronic warming and nutrient additions on ecosystem respiration and methane fluxes along a tundra moisture gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadelhoffer, K.; Murray, G.; Giblin, A.; Shaver, G.; Laundre, J.; Johnson, L.; Stanley, A. (Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States)); Schimel, J. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

    1994-06-01

    We measured ecosystem respiration (ER: or CO[sub 2] flux), methane (CH[sub 4]) fluxes and net ecosystem production (NEP) near Toolik Lake, Alaska to compare effects of temperature, moisture and nutrients on tundra C balances. We measured fluxes using closed chambers in control, warmed and fertilized plots in wet, moist and dry tundra. ER rankings of tundra types differed between years. In 1992 ER was [approximately]70 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and moist tundra and was 50% lower in dry tundra. In 1993 ER was >150 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in moist tundra and [approximately]55 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and dry tundra. CH[sub 4] emissions ranged from 3.5 to 7 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and from 0.6 to 2.8 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in moist tundra. Dry tundra consumed about 0.1 g CH[sub 4]-C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]. In wet tundra ER increased slightly with warming but dramatically with fertilization. Wet tundra NEP increased with fertilization but not with warming. CH[sub 4] emissions from wet tundra increased with warming but decreased with fertilization. Warming and fertilization increased ER but neither treatment affected NEP in moist tundra. CH[sub 4] emissions from moist tundra responded similarly but less dramatically to treatments than did wet tundra CH[sub 4] fluxes. Warming did not affect ER or NEP in dry tundra, fertilization increased both process. Consumption of CH[sub 4] in dry tundra increased with warming but decreased with fertilization.

  8. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  9. EIA Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    22, at 2.870 per MMBtu, 0.033 higher than Friday&20;s settlement price. Last week&20;s weather was highlighted by unseasonably high temperatures in parts of the South and Southwest...

  10. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  11. Heat sources within the Greenland Ice Sheet: dissipation, temperate paleo-firn and cryo-hydrologic warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lüthi, M. P.; Ryser, C.; Andrews, L. C.; Catania, G. A.; Funk, M.; Hawley, R. L.; Hoffman, M. J.; Neumann, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ice temperature profiles from the Greenland Ice Sheet contain information on the deformation history, past climates and recent warming. We present full-depth temperature profiles from two drill sites on a flow line passing through Swiss Camp, West Greenland. Numerical modeling reveals that ice temperatures are considerably higher than would be expected from heat diffusion and dissipation alone. The possible causes for this extra heat are evaluated using a Lagrangian heat flow model. The model results reveal that the observations can be explained with a combination of different processes: enhanced dissipation (strain heating) in ice-age ice, temperate paleo-firn, and cryo-hydrologic warming in deep crevasses.

  12. Analysis of laser shock experiments on precompressed samples using a quartz reference and application to warm dense hydrogen and helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brygoo, Stephanie; Loubeyre, Paul; Lazicki, Amy E; Hamel, Sebastien; Qi, Tingting; Celliers, Peter M; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H; Fratanduono, Dayne E; Hicks, Damien G; Rygg, J Ryan; Smith, Raymond F; Swift, Damian C; Collins, Gilbert W; Jeanloz, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Megabar (1 Mbar = 100 GPa) laser shocks on precompressed samples allow reaching unprecedented high densities and moderately high 10000-100000K temperatures. We describe here a complete analysis framework for the velocimetry (VISAR) and pyrometry (SOP) data produced in these experiments. Since the precompression increases the initial density of both the sample of interest and the quartz reference for pressure-density, reflectivity and temperature measurements, we describe analytical corrections based on available experimental data on warm dense silica and density-functional-theory based molecular dynamics computer simulations. Using our improved analysis framework we report a re-analysis of previously published data on warm dense hydrogen and helium, compare the newly inferred pressure, density and temperature data with most advanced equation of state models and provide updated reflectivity values.

  13. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levermann, Anders

    The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming Anders Levermanna,b,1 , Peter U. Clarkc of as much as several meters per degree of warming during previous intervals of Earth history when global. Moore, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing, China, and accepted by the Editorial

  14. Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stireman III, John O.

    Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming J. O that are associated with global warming (1, 2). Additional studies have demon- strated changes in ecological outbreaks are expected to increase in frequency and inten- sity with projected changes in global climate

  15. On warming, Williams is 'just plain wrong' Durham Herald Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    run we know that these emissions can retard warming, but we also know that carbon dioxide stays dampened the warming response to increased carbon dioxide. These aerosols result from inceased smokestack in the atmosphere 1,000 times longer than the aerosols, so ultimately the carbon dioxide will win out. In fact

  16. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pederson, Joel L.

    LETTERS Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere Mousumi Roy1 , Thomas H. Jordan2 & Joel Pederson3 The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high experienced 2 km of rock uplift7 without significant internal deformation2­4 . Here we propose that warming

  17. Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1 Received 6 July 2010 feedbacks are positive, then warming causes changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) sources and sinks that increase increased carbon dioxide concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22122, doi:10.1029/2010JD014725. 1

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling the impacts of global warming on predation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling the impacts of global warming on predation and biotic resistance in regulating or limiting exotic prey. We investigate how global warming potentially alters the strength damselfly Megalag- rion calliphya as predator and the invasive southern house mosquito Culex

  19. Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc mmccull3@nd.edu ABSTRACT: The recent destruction due to hurricanes and the apparent increase in frequency. Warm water holds more energy to fuel hurricanes and may contribute to the conditions needed

  20. Infrared Spectroscopy of U Equulei's Warm Circumstellar Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Geballe; C. Barnbaum; Keith S. Noll; M. Morris

    2005-03-18

    Medium and high resolution spectroscopy of U Equulei from 1 to 4 microns during 1997-2003 has revealed information about its unusual circumstellar envelope, observed previously at optical and radio wavelengths. Strong absorption bands of H2O and of CO dominate the 1-4um spectrum. The gas has a mean temperature of 600 K and 12C/13C =< 10. The CO 2-0 line profiles and velocities imply no net ejection or infall and indicate either rapid radial gas motions being seen along a narrow continuum beam, or absorption by orbiting gas that is nearly coincident with a highly extended continuum source. The gas could be located in a disk-like structure. The observed high column densities of warm CO and H2 normally would be associated with sufficient dust to completely obscure the star at optical wavelengths. The observations thus indicate either a highly abnormal gas-to-dust ratio, consistent with the earlier optical observation of abundant refractory metal oxides in the circumstellar gas, or peculiar geometry and/or illumination.

  1. Global Warming: What It Is What Is Controversial About It and What We Might Do in Response to It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botkin, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    along coasts. If global warming occurs, many environmentalSee, eg. , S. SCHNEIDER, GLOBAL WARMING: ARE WE ENTERING THETRANSITION (1989); Roberts, Global Warming: Blaming The Sun,

  2. Will U.S. Agriculture Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting for Irrigation in the Hedonic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

    2004-01-01

    Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting forR. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: Comment,”371–411. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A

  3. Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Malcolm K.W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Molnar, Gyula; Prather, Michael J

    1993-01-01

    and their replacements on global warming. Nature Hansen J. ,gas emissions to global warming. Nature London Amendment toNature 315, 649-652, Global warming time scales WMO (World

  4. Review: Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2014-01-01

    realities of global warming history and contemporary climatemoral discussions about global warming at home that gives meScience and the Politics of Global Warming By Joshua P. Howe

  5. Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing About Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2013-01-01

    Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of WritingMcKibben, Bill, ed. The Global Warming Reader: A Century ofrecord of no action on global warming. Those who have done

  6. Regional calibration of coral-based climate reconstructions from Palau, West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborne, Michael C; Dunbar, Robert B; Mucciarone, David A; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Druffel, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    of the western Paci?c Warm Pool. Climate Dynamics 33, 565–of the Paci?c warm pool: implications for ENSO. Sciencein the western Paci?c warm pool. Coral Reefs 29, 413–418.

  7. Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arblaster, Julie

    show much less reduction in DTR in the model simulations due to greater warming of maximum temperatures years, observed surface warming over land has been associated with relatively larger increases in daily indices, that are independent in internal climate variations and show a coherent response to green- house

  8. A policy synthesis approach for slowing global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timilsina, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming is a burning environmental issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global warming mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global warming. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global warming. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global warming. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global warming problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global warming in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach.

  9. Warm-hot baryons comprise 5-10 per cent of filaments in the cosmic web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckert, Dominique; Shan, HuanYuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Erben, Thomas; Israel, Holger; Jullo, Eric; Klein, Matthias; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan; Tchernin, Celine

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background indicate that baryons account for 5% of the Universe's total energy content. In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of this estimate by a factor of two. Cosmological simulations indicate that the missing baryons might not have condensed into virialized haloes, but reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web (where matter density is larger than average) as a low-density plasma at temperatures of $10^5-10^7$ kelvin, known as the warm-hot intergalactic medium. There have been previous claims of the detection of warm baryons along the line of sight to distant blazars and of hot gas between interacting clusters. These observations were, however, unable to trace the large-scale filamentary structure, or to estimate the total amount of warm baryons in a representative volume of the Universe. Here we report X-ray observations of filamentary structures of gas at $10^7$ kelvin associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. Previous obs...

  10. Modelling estimation on the impacts of global warming on rice production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Futang

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, based on the validation and sensitivity analyses of two rice growth models (ORYZA1 and DRISIC--Double Rice Cropping Simulation Model for China), and their joining with global warming scenarios projected by GCMs (GFDL, UKMO-H, MPI and DKRZ OPYC, DKRZ LSG, respectively), the modelling experiments were carried out on the potential impacts of global warming on rice production in China. The results show that although there are the some features for each rice cropping patterns because of different models and estimated methods, the rice production for all cropping patterns in China will trend to decrease with different degrees. In average, early, middle and later rice production, as well as, double-early and double-later rice production in different areas of China will decrease 3.7%, 10.5% and 10.4%, as well as, 15.9% and 14.4%, respectively. It do illustrates that the advantage effects induced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis does not compensate the adverse effects of temperature increase. Thus, it is necessary to adjusting rice cropping patterns, cultivars and farming techniques to the global warming timely.

  11. Emerging local warming signals in observational data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahlstein, Irina

    The global average temperature of the Earth has increased, but year-to-year variability in local climates impedes the identification of clear changes in observations and human experience. For a signal to become obvious in ...

  12. Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

    2001-05-29

    Discrepancies have emerged between the predictions of standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory and observations of clustering on sub-galactic scales. Warm dark matter (WDM) is a simple modification of CDM in which the dark matter particles have initial velocities due either to their having decoupled as thermal relics, or having been formed via non-equilibrium decay. We investigate the nonlinear gravitational clustering of WDM with a high resolution N-body code, and identify a number of distinctive observational signatures. Relative to CDM, halo concentrations and core densities are lowered, core radii are increased, and large halos emerge with far fewer low mass satellites. The number of small halos is suppressed, and those present are formed by `top down' fragmentation of caustics, as part of a `cosmic web' connecting massive halos. Few small halos form outside this web. If we identify small halos with dwarf galaxies, their number, spatial distribution, and formation epoch appear in better agreement with the observations for WDM than they are for CDM.

  13. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  14. A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  15. Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Mechanical...

  16. High-resolution paleoceanography and modeling of abrupt warming events on greenhouse earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Sandra Kirtland

    2012-01-01

    simulation of an Eocene Greenhouse Climate, GeophysicalDelaney, (2009), Coupled greenhouse warming and deep-seaanalogues for a future greenhouse warming? Philosophical

  17. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,and hazards related to pollution, Professor Mark Z. Jacobson

  18. Editorial – The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back,” Are You Ready?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankowska, Marta Maja

    2006-01-01

    The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back”*, Are Youwas something fun to fight about, but it never gained thepersonal contribution to the fight against global warming.

  19. Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for total global heat flow Venus, geotherm for total global heat flow, 500 Ma #12;Temperature, Temperature, #12;Earth's modern regional continental geotherms Venusian Geotherms, 500 Ma Temperature, Temperature, After Blatt, Tracy, and Owens Petrology #12;Ca2Mg5Si8

  20. Environmental Impact on Applied Technology- Global Warming CFCs & VOCs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    Hardly a day goes by that the threats to our environment are not brought to our attention. Whether you are following oil spills, groundwater contamination, global warming, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), you must...

  1. Press Pass - Press Release - Fermilab Hosts Global Warming Presentatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Office, 630-840-5588 For immediate release Fermilab Hosts Presentation on Global Warming on Feb. 28 Program is free and open to the public Dr. David Carlson,...

  2. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-05-10

    Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part...

  3. The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

  4. The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming J. T.analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects ofnet effect of a boreal forest fire on climate, on the basis

  5. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, UK 4 Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics

  6. Trait variation within a species determines warming responses at different scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Souza, Lara [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Plant species, and the traits associated with them, can help buffer ecosystems to environmental perturbations. Few studies have examined whether within species variation, both among and within populations, can similarly buffer ecosystems to environmental perturbations, such as climatic warming, across levels of organization. Using a dominant plant species in the eastern US, Solidago altissima, we examined whether genotypes of the same species from both southern and northern latitude populations exhibited differential short-term responses to temperature at the cell, leaf, and plant level. At the cell level we quantified the production of reactive oxygen species (by-product of temperature stress) and total oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (which ameliorates temperature stress by-products). At the leaf and plant levels, we measured CO2 assimilation. Increasing temperatures had strong negative impacts on plant-level carbon gain, but weak impacts on cell-level antioxidant capacity. Southern latitude genotypes had greater total antioxidant capacity, but lower leaf-level carbon gain, than did northern genotypes under elevated temperature. At the plant level, northern and southern genotypes exhibited similar declines in carbon gain under elevated temperature, likely because total plant leaf area was higher for southern genotypes than northern genotypes, which compensated for their lower per unit area leaf-level carbon gain. Overall, short-term temperature-induced declines in carbon gain at the plant level may scale to reduce within species variation, both across and within populations, potentially altering ecosystem carbon cycling.

  7. Geographical features of global water cycle during warm geological epochs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georgiadi, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of global warming on the water cycle can be extremely complex and diverse. The goal of the investigation was to estimate the geographic features of the mean annual water budget of the world during climatic optimums of the Holocene and the Eemian interglacial periods. These geological epochs could be used as analogs of climatic warming on 1 degree, centigrade and 2 degrees, centigrade. The author used the results of climatic reconstructions based on a simplified version of a GCM.

  8. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 1126,Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory.

  9. The COMPLETE Nature of the Warm Dust Ring in Perseus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naomi A. Ridge; Scott L. Schnee; Alyssa A. Goodman; Jonathan B. Foster

    2006-01-30

    The Perseus molecular cloud complex is a ~30pc long chain of molecular clouds most well-known for the two star-forming clusters NGC1333 and IC348 and the well-studied outflow source in B5. However, when studied at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths the region is dominated by a ~10pc diameter shell of warm dust, likely generated by an HII region caused by the early B-star HD278942. Using a revised calibration technique the COMPLETE team has produced high-sensitivity temperature and column-density maps of the Perseus region from IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) 60 and 100um data. In this paper, we combine the ISSA based dust-emission maps with other observations collected as part of the COMPLETE Survey, along with archival H-alpha and MSX observations. Molecular line observations from FCRAO and extinction maps constructed by applying the NICER method to the 2MASS catalog provide independent estimates of the ``true'' column-density of the shell. H-alpha emission in the region of the shell confirms that it is most likely an HII region located behind the cloud complex, and 8um data from MSX indicates that the shell may be interacting with the cloud. Finally, the two polarisation components previously seen towards background stars in the region can be explained by the association of the stronger component with the shell. If confirmed, this would be the first observation of a parsec-scale swept-up magnetic field.

  10. Soil organic matter stability and the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Nancy Rosalind

    2012-11-29

    Soil respiration is an important source of atmospheric CO2, with the potential for large positive feedbacks with global warming. The size of these feedbacks will depend on the relative sensitivity to temperature of very ...

  11. Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

  12. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2 Aaron warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR. global warming | climate feedbacks | energy accumulation Global global warm- ing, with the world ocean as the primary reservoir for energy accumulation (1). In turn

  13. Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schecter, Stephen

    Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University) Mary Lou Zeeman global warming game It's time to negotiate a new treaty to stop global warming. · Player 1: Governments, Brazil, Mexico, . . . ). Situation: · An investment of $2 trillion is needed to stop global warming

  14. Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1 Atsumu Ohmura,1 and Knut February 2007. [1] Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming

  15. Global Warming? Reid A. Bryson Ph.D., D.Sc., D.Engr.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Global Warming? Reid A. Bryson Ph.D., D.Sc., D.Engr.1 The Built-in Nonsense Detector Hardly a day Warming". A quick search of the internet uncovers literally hundreds of items about "Global Warming, usually meaning "Global Warming" or some aspect thereof. Whole generations of graduate students have been

  16. http://www.yfes.tn.edu.tw/environment/main1.htm Global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    ; : #12; Global warming Stratospheric ozone depletion Acid deposition Deforestation Desertification Ocean

  17. How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming? Haifeng Qian Advisor: Prof. Ning IPCC report, global warming was predicted under different CO2 scenarios. Under such warming conditions carbon cycle to the climate system, which means that under the global warming condition, the ecosystem

  18. keV Warm Dark Matter via the Supersymmetric Higgs Portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John McDonald; Narendra Sahu

    2009-05-14

    Warm dark matter (WDM) may resolve the possible conflict between observed galaxy halos and the halos produced in cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. Here we present an extension of MSSM to include WDM by adding a gauge singlet fermion, \\bar{\\chi}, with a portal-like coupling to the MSSM Higgs doublets. This model has the property that the dark matter is {\\it necessarily warm}. In the case where M_{\\bar{\\chi}} is mainly due to electroweak symmetry breaking, the \\bar{\\chi} mass is completely determined by its relic density and the reheating temperature, T_R. For 10^2 GeV < T_{R} < 10^{5} GeV$, the range allowed by \\bar{chi} production via thermal Higgs annihilation, the \\bar{\\chi} mass is in the range 0.3-4 keV, precisely the range required for WDM. The primordial phase-space density, Q, can directly account for that observed in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, Q \\approx 5 x 10^{6}(eV/cm^3)/(km/s)^3,, when the reheating temperature is in the range T_R \\approx 10-100 TeV, in which case M_{\\bar{\\chi}} \\approx 0.45 keV. The free-streaming length is in the range 0.3-4 Mpc, which can be small enough to alleviate the problems of overproduction of galaxy substructure and low angular momentum of CDM simulations.

  19. Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost Wendt; Sung Jun Lee; Paul Blowers

    2008-09-30

    The research was directed towards a sorbent injection/particle removal process where a sorbent may be injected upstream of the warm gas cleanup system to scavenge Hg and other trace metals, and removed (with the metals) within the warm gas cleanup process. The specific objectives of this project were to understand and quantify, through fundamentally based models, mechanisms of interaction between mercury vapor compounds and novel paper waste derived (kaolinite + calcium based) sorbents (currently marketed under the trade name MinPlus). The portion of the research described first is the experimental portion, in which sorbent effectiveness to scavenge metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at high temperatures (>600 C) is determined as a function of temperature, sorbent loading, gas composition, and other important parameters. Levels of Hg{sup 0} investigated were in an industrially relevant range ({approx} 25 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) although contaminants were contained in synthetic gases and not in actual flue gases. A later section of this report contains the results of the complementary computational results.

  20. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manz, P.; Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching ; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Müller, H. W.; Scott, B. D.; Müller, S. H.; Fuchert, G.; Stroth, U.; Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching

    2013-10-15

    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  1. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

    2010-06-10

    The central objective of the proposed work was to develop a genomic approach (nucleic acid-based) that elucidates the mechanistic basis for the observed impacts of experimental soil warming on forest soil respiration. The need to understand the mechanistic basis arises from the importance of such information for developing effective adaptation strategies for dealing with projected climate change. Specifically, robust predictions of future climate will permit the tailoring of the most effective adaptation efforts. And one of the greatest uncertainties in current global climate models is whether there will be a net loss of carbon from soils to the atmosphere as climate warms. Given that soils contain approximately 2.5 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, a net loss could lead to runaway climate warming. Indeed, most ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon, producing such a positive feedback to rising global temperatures. Yet the IPCC highlights the uncertainty regarding this projected feedback. The uncertainty arises because although warming-experiments document an initial increase in the loss of carbon from soils, the increase in respiration is short-lived, declining to control levels in a few years. This attenuation could result from changes in microbial physiology with temperature. We explored possible microbial responses to warming using experiments and modeling. Our work advances our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their activities are structured, generating insight into how soil carbon might respond to warming. We show the importance of resource partitioning in structuring microbial communities. Specifically, we quantified the relative abundance of fungal taxa that proliferated following the addition of organic substrates to soil. We added glycine, sucrose, cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein to soils in conjunction with 3-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a nucleotide analog. Active microbes absorb BrdU from the soil solution; if they multiply in response to substrate additions, they incorporate the BrdU into their DNA. After allowing soils to incubate, we extracted BrdU-labeled DNA and sequenced the ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Fungal taxa that proliferated following substrate addition were likely using the substrate as a resource for growth. We found that the structure of active fungal communities varied significantly among substrates. The active fungal community under glycine was significantly different from those under other conditions, while the active communities under sucrose and cellulose were marginally different from each other and the control. These results indicate that the overall community structure of active fungi was altered by the addition of glycine, sucrose, and cellulose and implies that some fungal taxa respond to changes in resource availability. The community composition of active fungi is also altered by experimental warming. We found that glycine-users tended to increase under warming, while lignin-, tannin/protein-, and sucrose-users declined. The latter group of substrates requires extracellular enzymes for use, but glycine does not. It is possible that warming selects for fungal species that target, in particular, labile substrates. Linking these changes in microbial communities and resource partitioning to soil carbon dynamics, we find that substrate mineralization rates are, in general, significantly lower in soils exposed to long-term warming. This suggests that microbial use of organic substrates is impaired by warming. Yet effects are dependent on substrate identity. There are fundamental differences in the metabolic capabilities of the communities in the control and warmed soils. These differences might relate to the changes in microbial community composition, which appeared to be associated with groups specialized on different resources. We also find that functional responses indicate temperature acclimation of the microbial community. There are distinct seasonal patterns and to long-term soil warming, with

  2. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Mattson, Earl D.; McLing, Travis L.; Palmer, Carl D.; Smith, Robert W.; Wood, Thomas R.; Podgorney, Robert K.

    2015-03-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 – 61 ºC/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 ºC) to over 175 ºC. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  3. Temperature Influence on Commercial Lake Whitefish Harvest in Eastern Lake Michigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the relationship between lake whitefish harvest, water temperature statistics, and fishing effort. Several vari in describing the fish harvest with surface water temperatures is most likely the consequence of warm surfaceTemperature Influence on Commercial Lake Whitefish Harvest in Eastern Lake Michigan Holly Price1

  4. Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, P.E.

    1999-05-20

    The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

  5. The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  6. Link between K-absorption edges and thermodynamic properties of warm-dense plasmas established by improved first-principles method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-01-01

    A precise calculation that translates shifts of X-ray K-absorption edges to variations of thermodynamic properties allows quantitative characterization of interior thermodynamic properties of warm dense plasmas by X-ray absorption techniques, which provides essential information for inertial confinement fusion and other astrophysical applications. We show that this interpretation can be achieved through an improved first-principles method. Our calculation shows that the shift of K-edges exhibits selective sensitivity to thermal parameters and thus would be a suitable temperature index to warm dense plasmas. We also show with a simple model that the shift of K-edges can be used to detect inhomogeneity inside warm dense plasmas when combined with other experimental tools.

  7. American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening · What might have caused global warming · Whether global warming

  8. High-Power Warm-White Hybrid LED Package for Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soer, Wouter

    2013-09-19

    In this project, an integrated warm-white hybrid light engine was developed. The hybrid approach involves combining phosphor-converted off-white InGaN LEDs and direct-emitting red AlInGaP LEDs in a single light engine to achieve high efficacy together with high color rendering index. We developed and integrated technology improvements in InGaN and AlInGaP die technology, phosphor technology, package architecture and encapsulation, to realize a hybrid warm-white LED package with an efficacy of 140 lm/W at a correlated color temperature of 3000K and a color rendering index of 90, measured under representative operating conditions. This efficacy is 26% higher than the best warm-white LEDs of similar specification that are commercially available at the end of the project. Since the InGaN- and AlInGaP-based LEDs used in the hybrid engine show different behavior as a function of current and temperature, a control system needs to be in place to ensure a stable color point over all operating conditions. In this project, we developed an electronic control circuit that is fully integrated into the light engine in such a way that the module can simply be driven by a conventional single-channel driver. The integrated control circuit uses a switch-mode boost converter topology to control the LED drive currents based on the temperature and the input current of the light engine. A color control performance of 5 SDCM was demonstrated, and improvement to 3 SDCM is considered well within reach. The combination of high efficacy and ease of integration with existing single-channel drivers is expected to facilitate the adoption of the hybrid technology and accelerate the energy savings associated with solid-state lighting. In the product commercialization plan, downlights and indirect-lit troffers have been selected as the first target applications for this product concept. Fully functional integrated prototypes have been developed for both applications, and the business case evaluation is ongoing as of the end of the project.

  9. Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in an old-field grassland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Shiqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Childs, Joanne [ORNL; Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2007-01-01

    Responses of soil respiration to atmospheric and climatic change will have profound impacts on ecosystem and global C cycling in the future. This study was conducted to examine effects on soil respiration of the concurrent driving factors of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, rising temperature, and changing precipitation in a constructed old-field grassland in eastern Tennessee, USA. Model ecosystems of seven old-field species in 12 open-top chambers (4 m in diameter) were treated with two CO2 (ambient and ambient plus 300 ppm) and two temperature (ambient and ambient plus 3 C) levels. Two split plots with each chamber were assigned with high and low soil moisture levels. During the 19-month experimental period from June 2003 to December 2004, higher CO2 concentration and soil water availability significantly increased mean soil respiration by 35.8% and 15.7%, respectively. The effects of air warming on soil respiration varied seasonally from small reductions to significant increases to no response, and there was no significant main effect. In the wet side of elevated CO2 chambers, air warming consistently caused increases in soil respiration, whereas in other three combinations of CO2 and water treatments, warming tended to decrease soil respiration over the growing season but increase it over the winter. There were no interactive effects on soil respiration among any two or three treatment factors irrespective of testing time period. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was reduced by air warming, lower in the wet than the dry side, and not affected by CO2 treatment. Variations of soil respiration responses with soil temperature and soil moisture ranges could be primarily attributable to the seasonal dynamics of plant growth and its responses to the three treatments. Using a conceptual model to interpret the significant relationships of treatment-induced changes in soil respiration with changes in soil temperature and moisture observed in this study, we conclude that elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability had both direct and indirect effects on soil respiration via changes in the three controlling factors: soil temperature, soil moisture, and C substrate. Our results demonstrate that the response of soil respiration to climatic warming should not be represented in models as a simple temperature response function. A more mechanistic understanding of the direct and indirect impacts of concurrent global change drivers on soil respiration is needed to facilitate the interpretation and projection of ecosystem and global C cycling in response to atmospheric and climate change.

  10. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaladze, T.; I.Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 0186 Georgia ; Mahmood, S.

    2014-03-15

    Electrostatic ion-acoustic periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons are investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived with appropriate boundary conditions for periodic waves. The corresponding analytical and various numerical solutions are presented with Sagdeev potential approach. Differences between the results caused by the kappa and Maxwell distributions are emphasized. It is revealed that only hump (compressive) structures of the cnoidal waves and solitons are formed. It is shown that amplitudes of the cnoidal waves and solitons are reduced in an EPI plasma case in comparison with the ordinary electron-ion plasmas. The effects caused by the temperature variations of the warm ions are also discussed. It is obtained that the amplitude of the cnoidal waves and solitons decreases for a kappa distributed (nonthermal) electrons and positrons plasma case in comparison with the Maxwellian distributed (thermal) electrons and positrons EPI plasmas. The existence of kappa distributed particles leads to decreasing of ion-acoustic frequency up to thermal ions frequency.

  11. Remarkable waxing, waning, and wandering of populations of Mimulus guttatus: An unexpected example of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vickery, R.K. Jr.

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the dynamics of a meta-population of Mimulus guttatus. Changes in size and location of 16 original populations and the new populations established in their vicinities in Big Cottonwood Canyon, Salt Lake county, Utah, were observed for 25 yr. Twenty-three new populations appeared. Seven original populations and 13 new populations had become extinct by the end of the observation period in 1996. Many populations died out and were reestablished, often repeatedly, during the observation period. Altogether there were 54 population disappearances and 34 reappearances. Many populations changed size as much as 100-fold or more from year to year. There were spectacular examples of populations expanding to fill newly available, large habitats. Frequent extinctions were due overwhelmingly to the canyon drying trend, which led to the drying up of most Mill D North drainage springs, creeks, and ponds. Precipitation and minimum temperatures increased moderately during the observation period. The growing season lengthened almost 50%, a typical consequence of global warming. The drying trend, lengthened growing season, and disappearance of Mimulus populations in Big Cottonwood Canyon appear to be a clear, local example of global warming.

  12. Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

  13. Role of anthropogenic direct heat emissions in global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Li, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are widely realized as the predominant drivers of global warming, but the huge and increasing anthropogenic direct heat emissions (AHE) has not gained enough attention in terms of its role in the warming of the climate system. Based on two reasonable assumptions of (1) AHE eventually transfers to the Earth energy system and (2) the net warming is only driven by the net radioactive forcing (RF) from either GHG or other causes, we analyzed the role of AHE in global warming. The mean annual total AHE of the four main sources including energy consumption, residual heat of electricity generation, biomass decomposition by land use and cover change (LUCC) and food consumption was estimated to be 4.41*10^20 J in 1970-2010, accounting for 6.23% of the net annual heat increase of the Earth reported by IPCC AR5 for the period. The mean annual radioactive forcing (RF) by AHE was up to 29.94 mW m^(-2) globally in 1981-2010, less than the annual net increase of total GH...

  14. Global warming. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies and general studies on global warming. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. 8th Global warming international conference and exposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts are presented from The 8th Annual Global Warming international conference and expo. Topics centered around greenhouse gas emission and disposal methods, policy and economics, carbon budget, and resource management. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  16. Tachyon warm inflationary universe model in the weak dissipative regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio del Campo; Ramon Herrera; Joel Saavedra

    2008-12-05

    Warm inflationary universe model in a tachyon field theory is studied in the weak dissipative regime. We develop our model for an exponential potential and the dissipation parameter $\\Gamma=\\Gamma_0$=constant. We describe scalar and tensor perturbations for this scenario.

  17. Primordial fluctuations of the metric in the warm inflation scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2000-05-16

    I consider a semiclassical expansion of the scalar field in the warm inflation scenario. I study the evolution for the fluctuations of the metric around the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker one. The formalism predicts that, in the power-law expansion universe, the fluctuations of the metric decreases with time.

  18. Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavaleta, Erika

    that global warming may increase aridity in water- limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. We University, Stanford, CA, and approved June 16, 2003 (received for review April 7, 2003) Models predict for the unexpected rise in soil moisture. Our findings illustrate the potential for organism­environment interactions

  19. The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming J. T. Randerson,1 * H. Liu,2 M. G. Flanner,1 S measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black the concept of radiative forcing (12) to assess quantitatively the net effect of a boreal forest fire

  20. Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Kitaev, Ilya N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russia Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), 37 Mira Ave., Nizhny Novgorod region, Sarov 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov State Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI), National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 607186 Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.

  1. Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies S. K. Fischer P. J. Hughes P Arthur D. Little, Inc. Sponsored by the Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) December 1991 #12;This report was printed as two

  2. PAINTING TALENT QUESTIONNAIRE: Before beginning painting warm-up session

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haro, Antonio

    PAINTING TALENT QUESTIONNAIRE: Before beginning painting warm-up session: Age: _______ Gender: M the following questions: (1) Have you ever painted as an artistic activity, as opposed to painting a house? Yes / No (1a) If you answered yes to Question 1, when was the last time you painted? (2) Have you ever drawn

  3. Dynamics of substructures in warm dark-matter cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastian Arnold; Alexander Knebe; Chris Power; Brad K. Gibson

    2008-11-13

    We performed cosmological simulations based upon both a cold dark matter (CDM) and a warm dark matter (WDM) model. The focus of our investigations lies with selected spatial and kinematic properties of substructure halos (subhalos) orbiting within host halos, that form in both dark-matter cosmologies. We aim at using the dynamics of the subhalos as a probe of the respective cosmology.

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation processes in the Middle East a good job of simulating the precipitation for most of the domain, though it performs relatively poorly. The results also show widespread decreases in precipitation over the eastern Mediterranean and Turkey

  5. Viscosity and mutual diffusion of deuterium-tritium mixtures in the warm-dense-matter regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kress, J. D.; Cohen, James S.; Horner, D. A.; Collins, L. A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lambert, F. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2010-09-15

    We have calculated viscosity and mutual diffusion of deuterium-tritium (DT) in the warm, dense matter regime for densities from 5 to 20 g/cm{sup 3} and temperatures from 2 to 10 eV, using both finite-temperature Kohn-Sham density-functional theory molecular dynamics (QMD) and orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD). The OFMD simulations are in generally good agreement with the benchmark QMD results, and we conclude that the simpler OFMD method can be used with confidence in this regime. For low temperatures (3 eV and below), one-component plasma (OCP) model simulations for diffusion agree with the QMD and OFMD calculations, but deviate by 30% at 10 eV. In comparison with the QMD and OFMD results, the OCP viscosities are not as good as for diffusion, especially for 5 g/cm{sup 3} where the temperature dependence is significantly different. The QMD and OFMD reduced diffusion and viscosity coefficients are found to depend largely, though not completely, only on the Coulomb coupling parameter {Gamma}, with a minimum in the reduced viscosity at {Gamma}{approx_equal}25, approximately the same position found in the OCP simulations. The QMD and OFMD equations of state (pressure) are also compared with the hydrogen two-component plasma model.

  6. Comparison of Community Climate System Model Simulations and Paleoclimate Data for the Western Pacific Warm Pool Climate during the Last Glacial Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittman, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Pacific Warm Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proxy datain and around the warm pool. Streamlines are coloredyears ago. CLIMAP found warm pool cooling of ?1 ? C during

  7. Macroeconomic Impacts of the California Global Warming Solutions Act on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    101 Macroeconomic Impacts of the California Global Warming Solutions Act on the Southern California California Assembly Bill 32 (AB32), the California Global Warming Solutions Act, calls for the cutback

  8. Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change Alireza/Democrats are more likely to ex- press personal concern about global warming than are self-identified conservatives

  9. Review: Dead Pool: Lake Powell, Global Warming, and the Future of Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, David

    2009-01-01

    Review: Dead Pool: Lake Powell, Global Warming, and theJames Lawrence. Dead Pool: Lake Powell, Global Warming, andFortunately, too, Dead Pool is not simply about Glen Canyon

  10. Warm Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar Co LtdWareham,Waretown,Energy

  11. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Pool & Spa Low Temperature

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: EnergyRocklinRohm andNew Mexico:Dist Jump

  12. The Impact of Global Warming on U.S. Agriculture: An Econometric Analysis of Optimal Growing Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

    2004-01-01

    Really Bene?t From Global Warming? Accounting for IrrigationR. , The Economics of Global Warming, Washington, D.C. :1992. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture:

  13. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Six, J; Ogle, S M; Breidt, F J; Conant, R T; Mosier, A R; Paustian, K

    2004-01-01

    The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillageNT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP)soil for purposes of global warming mitigation. Our results

  14. Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter's intentions, pollsters know that statements like "40%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter theory. So what about global warming? Shouldn't we apply the same on determining how much confidence we have in the truth of anthropogenic warming

  15. Impacts of Central America gap winds on the SST annual cycle in the eastern Pacific warm pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Fengpeng; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2006-01-01

    the eastern Pacific warm pool, gap winds, thermocline dome,in the eastern Pacific warm pool Fengpeng Sun 1 and Jin-Yiin the eastern Pacific warm pool and its relation to Central

  16. The distinct behaviors of Pacific and Indian Ocean warm pool properties on seasonal and interannual time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seon Tae; Yu, Jin-Yi; Lu, Mong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    are there trop- ical warm pools? , J. Clim. , 18, 5294–5331,P. J. Webster (1999), Warm pool SST variability in relationin the western Pacific warm pool, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. ,

  17. A retrospective study of ecosystem effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the eastern Pacific warm pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilchis, L. Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    of the eastern Pacific warm pool: Can community structure bein the eastern Pacific warm pool A dissertation submitted inthe eastern Pacific warm pool (5-20°N, 90-110°W). Values are

  18. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  19. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature Shu-Shi Penga , Shilong Piaoa,b,1) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on aver- age. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapo- transpiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease

  20. Ground surface temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    show that the ground has warmed about 0.7 K in the last 100 years. Spatial variability is significant temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10), 1499, doi:10.1029/2003GL inferred from geothermal data have shown that the study of perturbations to the Earth's energy balance

  1. Discussion on common errors in analyzing sea level accelerations, solar trends and global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Errors in applying regression models and wavelet filters used to analyze geophysical signals are discussed: (1) multidecadal natural oscillations (e.g. the quasi 60-year Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) need to be taken into account for properly quantifying anomalous accelerations in tide gauge records such as in New York City; (2) uncertainties and multicollinearity among climate forcing functions prevent a proper evaluation of the solar contribution to the 20th century global surface temperature warming using overloaded linear regression models during the 1900-2000 period alone; (3) when periodic wavelet filters, which require that a record is pre-processed with a reflection methodology, are improperly applied to decompose non-stationary solar and climatic time series, Gibbs boundary artifacts emerge yielding misleading physical interpretations. By correcting these errors and using optimized regression models that reduce multico...

  2. Using the past to constrain the future: how the palaeorecord can improve estimates of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Tamsin L; Harrison, Sandy P; 10.1177/0309133307083295

    2012-01-01

    Climate sensitivity is defined as the change in global mean equilibrium temperature after a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration and provides a simple measure of global warming. An early estimate of climate sensitivity, 1.5-4.5{\\deg}C, has changed little subsequently, including the latest assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The persistence of such large uncertainties in this simple measure casts doubt on our understanding of the mechanisms of climate change and our ability to predict the response of the climate system to future perturbations. This has motivated continued attempts to constrain the range with climate data, alone or in conjunction with models. The majority of studies use data from the instrumental period (post-1850) but recent work has made use of information about the large climate changes experienced in the geological past. In this review, we first outline approaches that estimate climate sensitivity using instrumental climate observations and then summarise attem...

  3. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A.? B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Frenje, J.? A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grabowski, P. E. [Univ. of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Li, C. ?K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Collins, G.? W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fitzsimmons, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Glenzer, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Graziani, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, S.? B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hu, S. X. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Johnson, M. Gatu [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Keiter, P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Reynolds, H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Rygg, J.? R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Séguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories in WDM plasma.

  4. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A.? B.; Frenje, J.? A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. ?K.; Collins, G.? W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.? B.; Hu, S. X.; et al

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories inmore »WDM plasma.« less

  5. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P.? E.; Li, C.? K.; Collins, G.? W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.? B.; Hu, S.? X.; et al

    2015-05-01

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV , corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a)/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm-dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theoriesmore »in WDM plasma.« less

  6. Warming accelerates decomposition of decades-old carbon in forest soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, FM; Torn, MS; Trumbore, SE

    2012-01-01

    and climate warming in earth system models is particularlyor ?eld studies. Earth system models are designed to predict

  7. Estimated impacts of climate warming on California’s high-elevation hydropower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madani, Kaveh; Lund, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Cubed M (2005) Potential changes in hydropower productionpotential effects of climate warming on high-elevation hydropower

  8. Global Warming Twenty Years Later: Tipping Points Near James Hansen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Twenty Years Later: Tipping Points Near James Hansen1 My presentation today is exactly 20 years after my 23 June 1988 testimony to Congress, which alerted the public that global warming has developed between what is understood about global warming by the relevant scientific community

  9. Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

  10. What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by the collective actions rainandozonedepletioninanattempt toconfusethepublicaboutthescience of global warming and delay regula- tion of greenhouse of Engineering,itdiffersfromtheothers in its attitude towards those who deny the reality of global warming, or hu

  11. Estimating the Response of Extreme Precipitation over Mid-latitude1 Mountains to Global Warming2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimating the Response of Extreme Precipitation over Mid-latitude1 Mountains to Global Warming2@atmos.washington.edu8 Generated using v4.3.1 (5-19-2014) of the AMS LATEX template1 #12;ABSTRACT Global warming induced-wave theory as arising from global-warming in- duced changes in the upper-tropospheric static stability

  12. Indian Ocean Dipole Response to Global Warming in the CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Indian Ocean Dipole Response to Global Warming in the CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble* XIAO-TONG ZHENG,1 The response of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode to global warming is investigated based on simu- lations- mospheric feedback and zonal wind variance weaken under global warming. The negative skewness in eastern

  13. Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location MinHo Kwon,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tim

    Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location Tim Li,1 MinHo Kwon,1,3 Ming Zhao,3 Jong) is used to investigate the change of tropical cyclone frequency in the North Pacific under global warming, and W. Yu (2010), Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L

  14. The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming Jim Hansen 3 October 2007 presented provides most important information on global warming. Recorded human history occurs within the Holocene for these large climate change is perturbations of Earth's orbit. #12;Continental Drift Fig. 1 "Global Warming

  15. Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming* JIAN MA change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model globally in response to SST warming. A diagnostic framework is developed based on a linear baroclinic model

  16. Reply to comment by Joseph J. Barsugli on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    Reply to comment by Joseph J. Barsugli on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes'', Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01706, doi:10, may represent global warming, ENSO-like (including the Pacific decadal oscillation), and the Atlantic

  17. 16 APRIL 2004 VOL 304 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org388 Future Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    16 APRIL 2004 VOL 304 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org388 Future Global Warming Scenarios INA STUDY the short-term consequences of global warming. This scenario, which predicts a shutdown of the Atlantic, if global warming were to cause a repeat of such an abrupt change, the consequences would be akin to those

  18. Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    and Global Warming Brian Blais Science and Technology Department Bryant College bblais@bryant.edu August 29, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming analysis, but is much more intuitive for students. 1 Introduction The topic of global warming is of current

  19. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously information suggest that ethanol is neither clean nor has it been shown that it can slow global warming in the U.S. It will also divert resources from the primary practical solutions to global warming and air

  20. DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENT? By Michael E. Mann I. Introduction The subjects of "global warming" and "climate change" have become parts of both the popular lexicon and the public discourse. Discussions of global warming often evoke passionate

  1. Global warming and hyperbolic discounting 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Global warming and hyperbolic discounting Larry Karp 207 Giannini Hall, University of California-lived environmental problems such as global warming has two disadvantages: the prescribed policy is sensitive illustrates the role of hyperbolic discounting in a model of global warming. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Thursday, November 13 2014 Global warming could increase U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, David M.

    Thursday, November 13 2014 Ad Wonkblog Global warming could increase U.S. lightning strikes by 50, a team of researchers deliver an alarming prediction: A global warming world will see a major increase affect lightning. The upshot was that while precipitation may increase in some areas under global warming

  3. Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming* XIAO-TONG ZHENG under global warming are in- vestigated using a pair of integrations with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics itself weakens in response to global warming. In the prior spring, an antisymmetric pattern of rainfall

  4. Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    354 Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354­368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED how Rocky Mountain mam- malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized not) in different ways. Nevertheless, examination of past global warming episodes suggested

  5. VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming Our over global warming continue, becoming more strident again as differing models predict widely varying, following the warmth of 1998, here are our two cents worth on global warming, written in the knowledge

  6. Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation record over recent decades. Citation: Douville, H. (2006), Detection-attribution of global warming at recent climate scenarios, Douville et al. [2005] showed that the precipitation response to global warming

  7. A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE"?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE on the global warming that can be tolerated without risking dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. I" mainly as a metaphor for the danger posed by global warming. So I changed "Hell" to "disaster." What

  8. Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard Schmalensee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard of this issue. One day we hear that all responsible scientists agree that global warming is a dagger be slashed immediately to save our planet. The next day we're told that global warming is the illegitimate

  9. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming Michael E. Dillon and projected climate warming2,13,14 . Global warming is probably having profound and diverse effects phenology3,4 , community interactions5 , genetics3,6 and extinctions7 have been attributed to recent global

  10. NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory Global warming and U.S. landfalling hurricanes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory Global warming and U.S. landfalling worldwide (plus many TV & radio shows). An AOML's paper "Global warming and United States landfalling & Meteorological Laboratory Warming Occurs Almost Everywhere over the Global Ocean The first EOF mode from

  11. A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes this: Global warming is a myth. It's all model predictions, nothing but simulations. Before you believe

  12. Global warming of the mantle beneath continents back to the Archaean Nicolas Coltice a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming of the mantle beneath continents back to the Archaean Nicolas Coltice a, , Hervé triggering melting events without the involvement of hot plumes. This model, called mantle global warming.R., Bertrand, H., Ricard, Y., Rey, P. (2007) Global warming of the mantle at the origin of flood basalts over

  13. Response of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent and its Variability to Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    1 Response of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent and its Variability to Global Warming of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) and its variability to global warming is examined where mode water forms. Keywords: North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent, global warming, decadal

  14. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Arctic hydrology during global warming at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2006 Nature Publishing Group Arctic hydrology during global warming at the Palaeocene The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum represents a period of rapid, extreme global warming ,55 million years ago global warming6 . The terrestrial-plant carbon isotope excursion (about 24.5 to 26 per mil

  15. Global warming and changes in risk of concurrent climate extremes: Insights from the 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AghaKouchak, Amir

    Global warming and changes in risk of concurrent climate extremes: Insights from the 2014 for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing, University of California, Irvine, California, USA Abstract Global warming The warming global climate has increased concurrent climatic extremes such as droughts and heat waves [Leonard

  16. Global warming and positive fitness response in mountain populations of common lizards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danchin, Etienne

    Global warming and positive fitness response in mountain populations of common lizards Lacerta, Madrid, Spain Abstract Recent global warming threatens many species and has already caused population and individual-based approaches. Keywords: body size, fitness, global warming, life-history trade-offs, lizards

  17. Towards a more saline North Atlantic and a fresher Arctic under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drange, Helge

    Towards a more saline North Atlantic and a fresher Arctic under global warming I. Bethke,1,2,3 T global warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21712, doi:10.1029/ 2006GL027264. 1. Introduction [2.g., Cubasch et al., 2001; Ra¨isa¨nen, 2002]. At the high northern latitudes, a combination of warming

  18. Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean Marlos compositedevents.For the cold(warm)eventthe EUC shows a greater (reduced) transport and core velocity, and a deeper.Wainer, Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res

  19. Global Warming as a Detectable Thermodynamic Marker of Earth-like Extrasolar Civilizations: The Case for a Telescope like

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    1 Global Warming as a Detectable Thermodynamic Marker of Earth-like Extrasolar Civilizations also have broad social implications. Keywords: extraterrestrial civilizations, global warming

  20. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

  1. Heat sources within the Greenland Ice Sheet: dissipation, temperate paleo-firn and cryo-hydrologic warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lüthi, M. P.; Ryser, C.; Andrews, L. C.; Catania, G. A.; Funk, M.; Hawley, R. L.; Hoffman, M. J.; Neumann, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ice temperature profiles from the Greenland Ice Sheet contain information on the deformation history, past climates and recent warming. We present full-depth temperature profiles from two drill sites on a flow line passing through Swiss Camp, West Greenland. Numerical modeling reveals that ice temperatures are considerably higher than would be expected from heat diffusion and dissipation alone. The possible causes for this extra heat are evaluated using a Lagrangian heat flow model. The model results reveal that the observations can be explained with a combination of different processes: enhanced dissipation (strain heating) in ice-age ice, temperate paleo-firn, and cryo-hydrologic warmingmore »in deep crevasses.« less

  2. A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-15

    A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.

  3. Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasco, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

  4. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Wu, Zhengwei, E-mail: wuzw@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Low Temperature Plasma Application, Yunnan Aerospace Industry Company, Kunming, 650229 Yunnan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-15

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  5. Inert-sterile neutrino: Cold or warm dark matter candidate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Osoba, Efunwande [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    In usual particle models, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter of the Universe only if they have masses in the keV range and are warm dark matter. Stringent cosmological and astrophysical bounds, in particular, imposed by x-ray observations, apply to them. We point out that in a particular variation of the inert doublet model, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter in the Universe and may be either cold or warm dark matter candidates, even for masses much above the keV range. These inert-sterile neutrinos, produced nonthermally in the early Universe, would be stable and have very small couplings to standard model particles, rendering very difficult their detection in either direct or indirect dark matter searches. Their existence could be revealed only by discovering other particles of the model in collider experiments.

  6. A LEO-Based Solar-Shade System to Mitigate Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahul Suresh; Andrew Meulenberg

    2015-04-20

    The development of a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) based solar-shade system, as part of a technically- and financially-viable multipurpose system to provide long-term solutions to global warming and the energy crisis is discussed. The proposed solar-shade and power system would be enabled by the development of a previously-proposed less-expensive, environment-friendly, space-elevator system to lift mass into space. The solar shades, even during their early deployment and growth in LEO, would provide benefits such as reduction of space-debris and depletion of the Van Allen radiation belts.The Terrestrial temperature profile has been approximated for each latitudinal zone with a one-dimensional model. A shade ring at an altitude of 2000-4000 km, consisting of thin-film mega panels totaling up to 4% of the earths surface area (to block ~1% of insolation), is proposed. The effects of such near-polar rings on the global temperature pattern has been examined using the simple model. Specific emphasis has been laid on this effect in the Polar Regions. One such proposed ring could reduce the peak summer temperature of the Polar Regions (80-90 degree latitude) by almost 3K. The tilting of the solar-shades, to reduce their cooling effect at the poles and to increase it in the near-polar regions, is recommended.

  7. Contribution of circulation changes to recent and future temperature extremes in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contribution of circulation changes to recent and future temperature extremes in Europe J. Cattiaux.cattiaux@meteo.fr The exceptionally mild autumn 2006 T2m anomaly: on average 2.5K (3.2 ), and exceeding 5K over North-Western Europe = 0.7) misses the recent warming (Fig 4). Recent warming and extremes in Europe Figure 2. T2m (left

  8. Chemical and mechanical instability in warm and dense nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavagno, A; 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.024917

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possible thermodynamic instability in a warm and dense nuclear medium (Tliquid-gas phase transition, we show that the nucleon-Delta matter phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the charge concentration) in asymmetric nuclear matter. We then perform an investigation and a comparative study on the different nature of such instabilities and phase transitions.

  9. Warm inflation and scalar perturbations of the metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2001-01-16

    A second-order expansion for the quantum fluctuations of the matter field was considered in the framework of the warm inflation scenario. The friction and Hubble parameters were expended by means of a semiclassical approach. The fluctuations of the Hubble parameter generates fluctuations of the metric. These metric fluctuations produce an effective term of curvature. The power spectrum for the metric fluctuations can be calculated on the infrared sector.

  10. Warm inflation with back - reaction: a stochastic approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    1999-10-25

    I study a stochastic approach for warm inflation considering back - reaction of the metric with the fluctuations of matter field. This formalism takes into account the local inhomogeneities fo the spacetime in a globally flat Friedmann - Robertson - Walker metric. The stochastic equations for the fluctuations of the matter field and the metric are obtained. Finally, the dynamics for the amplitude of these fluctuations in a power - law expansion for the universe are examined.

  11. Cores and cusps in warm dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Dalal, Neal, E-mail: villa@ific.uv.es, E-mail: neal@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S3H8 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    The apparent presence of large core radii in Low Surface Brightness galaxies has been claimed as evidence in favor of warm dark matter. Here we show that WDM halos do not have cores that are large fractions of the halo size: typically, r{sub core}/r{sub 200}?<10{sup ?3}. This suggests an astrophysical origin for the large cores observed in these galaxies, as has been argued by other authors.

  12. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Winners and losers in a world with global warming: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caplan, A.J.; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few environmental problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global warming. The general perception is that global warming is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

  14. A Ring of Warm Dust in the HD 32297 Debris Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael P. Fitzgerald; Paul G. Kalas; James R. Graham

    2007-07-22

    We report the detection of a ring of warm dust in the edge-on disk surrounding HD 32297 with the Gemini-N/MICHELLE mid-infrared imager. Our N'-band image shows elongated structure consistent with the orientation of the scattered-light disk. The Fnu(11.2 um) = 49.9+/-2.1 mJy flux is significantly above the 28.2+/-0.6 mJy photosphere. Subtraction of the stellar point spread function reveals a bilobed structure with peaks 0.5"-0.6" from the star. An analysis of the stellar component of the SED suggests a spectral type later than A0, in contrast to commonly cited literature values. We fit three-dimensional, single-size grain models of an optically thin dust ring to our image and the SED using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm in a Bayesian framework. The best-fit effective grain sizes are submicron, suggesting the same dust population is responsible for the bulk of the scattered light. The inner boundary of the warm dust is located 0.5"-0.7" (~65 AU) from the star, which is approximately cospatial with the outer boundary of the scattered-light asymmetry inward of 0.5". The addition of a separate component of larger, cooler grains that provide a portion of the 60 um flux improves both the fidelity of the model fit and consistency with the slopes of the scattered-light brightness profiles. Previous indirect estimates of the stellar age (~30 Myr) indicate the dust is composed of debris. The peak vertical optical depths in our models (~0.3-1 x 1e-2) imply that grain-grain collisions likely play a significant role in dust dynamics and evolution. Submicron grains can survive radiation pressure blow-out if they are icy and porous. Similarly, the inferred warm temperatures (130-200 K) suggest that ice sublimation may play a role in truncating the inner disk.

  15. Home News & Views Columns Correspondents Community Forum Arts Calendar February 19, 2008 Area Experts Debate Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Experts Debate Global Warming Editor's Comment: While the issue of man-caused global warming is much more people on the street if mankind's activities are causing global warming, and at least eight will say yes-have distorted the subject of human-induced global warming out of all sensible proportion. Many have been lead

  16. ATM S 211 Climate and Climate Change Prof. David Catling EXAMPLES OF MISINFORMATION FROM GLOBAL WARMING DENIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catling, David C.

    in great detail in the IPCC report. The IPCC consensus concluded: - There was a global warming trend warming. Kuwaiti Foundation funded Balling's skeptic book on global warming. Prof. Richard Lindzen (MIT) Mostly has his own scientific reasons for "opposing" global warming. But 1991 trip to Senate hearings

  17. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  18. 02/09/2009 16:58Warming Of Arctic Current Over 30 Years Triggers Release Of Methane Gas Page 1 of 2http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090814103231.htm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohling, Eelco

    Climate Environmental Issues Renewable Energy Oceanography Water Reference Geologic temperature record Installation Course Solar energy heating installation & renewable energ02/09/2009 16:58Warming Of Arctic Current Over 30 Years Triggers Release Of Methane Gas Page 1 of 2

  19. Current status and direction of US global warming policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.

    1997-12-31

    The pace and intensity of U.S. global warming efforts have been increasing over the past few years for three main reasons: (1) steady improvement in the underlying science that is in turn strengthening public support for action; (2) the likelihood that the United States will fall short of our national goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000; and (3) U.S. participation in international negotiations to address global climate change. The expansion of U.S. global warming activities can be seen at the state, federal, and international levels. At the state level, for example, a majority of states have completed greenhouse gas emissions inventories, several have undertaken analyses of mitigation options, and some are already beginning to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the federal level, all federal agencies with an interest in global warming are working together to define the likely consequences of continued increases in greenhouse gas emissions, inform the public about Such consequences, and assess the costs and benefits of different response options. Among the response options being assessed are actions to expand the use of energy efficient technologies; new controls on greenhouse gas emissions through -- for example - government standards, regulations, or emissions trading programs; and increased research and development of technologies less dependent on fossil fuels. Finally, at the international level, the United States is continuing to develop the position it will take to the climate change negotiations to be held in Japan this December. Among, other things, we have proposed enforceable emissions targets for developed countries, a strong program of reporting and compliance, new efforts by developing countries to prepare emissions inventories and mitigate emissions, and an international emissions trading program.

  20. Impacts of global warming on climate change over East Asia as simulated by 15 GCMs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zong-ci Zhao; Xiaodong Li

    1997-12-31

    About 15 GCMs (GFDL1, GISS, LLNL, MPI, OSU, UKMOL, UKMOH, GCMs90-92, GFDL2, NCAR, OPYC, LSG, HADL, GCMs95) obtained from the IPCC WG 1 1990, 1992 and 1995 reports have been chosen to examine the impacts of global warming, on the climate chance over East Asia. Although the models scenarios of the human activities were different for the different GCMs, the climate change over East Asia (70E-140E, 15N-60N) for tile doubled CO{sub 2} as simulated by about 15 GCMs have been analysed. The Simulations shown that the temperature might increased by about 0.5 - 1.5 C over East Asia, especially in winter and northwestern parts of East Asia. The precipitation might increase in northwestern and northeastern parts of East Asia and decrease in the central part of East Asia. The evaluations and assessments of the GCMs over East Asia have indicated that the GCMs have the abilities to simulate the climate change over East Asia, especially for the temperature and the winter season. There are some uncertainties for the simulations to compare with the observations, especially for tile precipitation and tile summer season.

  1. A LEO-Based Solar-Shade System to Mitigate Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The development of a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) based solar-shade system, as part of a technically- and financially-viable multipurpose system to provide long-term solutions to global warming and the energy crisis is discussed. The proposed solar-shade and power system would be enabled by the development of a previously-proposed less-expensive, environment-friendly, space-elevator system to lift mass into space. The solar shades, even during their early deployment and growth in LEO, would provide benefits such as reduction of space-debris and depletion of the Van Allen radiation belts.The Terrestrial temperature profile has been approximated for each latitudinal zone with a one-dimensional model. A shade ring at an altitude of 2000-4000 km, consisting of thin-film mega panels totaling up to 4% of the earths surface area (to block ~1% of insolation), is proposed. The effects of such near-polar rings on the global temperature pattern has been examined using the simple model. Specific emphasis has been laid on this e...

  2. The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staten, Paul; Reichler, Thomas; Lu, Jian

    2014-12-15

    Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. But the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate, and the attending regional hydrological changes, are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises from our lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the circulation shifts themselves. In order to better delineate circulation shifts and their respective causes, we decompose the circulation response into (1) the "direct" response to radiative forcings themselves, and (2) the "indirect" response to changing sea surface temperatures. Using ensembles of 90-day climate model simulations with immediate switch-on forcings, including perturbed greenhouse gas concentrations, stratospheric ozone concentrations, and sea surface temperatures, we document the direct and indirect transient responses of the zonal mean general circulation, and investigate the roles of previously proposed mechanisms in shifting the midlatitude jet. We find that both the direct and indirect wind responses often begin in the lower stratosphere. Changes in midlatitude eddies are ubiquitous and synchronous with the midlatitude zonal wind response. Shifts in the critical latitude of wave absorption on either flank of the jet are not indicted as primary factors for the poleward shifting jet, although we see some evidence for increasing equatorward wave reflection over the southern hemisphere in response to sea surface warming. Mechanisms for the northern hemisphere jet shift are less clear.

  3. Evidence for a Global Warming at the Termination I Boundary and Its Possible Cosmic Dust Cause

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul A. LaViolette

    2005-03-18

    A comparison of northern and southern hemispheric paleotemperature profiles suggests that the Bolling-Allerod Interstadial, Younger Dryas stadial, and subsequent Preboreal warming which occurred at the end of the last ice age were characterized by temperatures that changed synchronously in various parts of the world, implying that these climatic oscillations were produced by significant changes in the Earth's energy balance. These globally coordinated oscillations are not easily explained by ocean current mechanisms such as bistable flipping of ocean deep-water production or regional temperature changes involving the NW/SE migration of the North Atlantic polar front. They also are not accounted for by Earth orbital changes in seasonality or by increases in atmospheric CO-2 or CH-4. On the other hand, evidence of an elevated cosmic ray flux and of a major interstellar dust incursion around 15,800 years B.P. suggest that a cosmic ray wind driven incursion of interstellar dust and gas may have played a key role through its activation of the Sun and alteration of light transmission through the interplanetary medium.

  4. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Amit K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  5. Subarctic warming: Results from the global treeline project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siren, G.; Shen, S.

    1996-12-31

    The authors reported last year at the 6th Global Warming Science and Policy Conference (GW6), April 3--6, 1995, San Francisco USA, the Global Treeline Project (BLECSCO) has definitively established the northward movement in the 20th century of the northernmost limit for pine trees in Finland. this movement is due to climate warming. The Finnish Forest Research Institute has been working on this problem between 1951 and 1996. The authors have observed over half a century the movements of the coniferous treeline. The subarctic pine tree line is used as a permanent bioindicator of climate change. The dynamic pine tree line in the subarctic of Finland serves as a reliable indicator of expected climate change in the future as well as of climatic fluctuations in the past. The FFRI has tracked comprehensively seed year frequencies, performed dendrochronological studies, fire studies, and ecological studies since the abundant seed year of 1948--50 to the present, and discovered that climate change has favored the northward movement of the pine limit. The authors report the detailed scientific methodology, data, and conclusions.

  6. Coal-Derived Warm Syngas Purification and CO2 Capture-Assisted Methane Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; King, David L.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Xing, Rong; Spies, Kurt A.; Zhu, Yunhua; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Liyu; Braunberger, B.

    2014-10-31

    Gasifier-derived syngas from coal has many applications in the area of catalytic transformation to fuels and chemicals. Raw syngas must be treated to remove a number of impurities that would otherwise poison the synthesis catalysts. Inorganic impurities include alkali salts, chloride, sulfur compounds, heavy metals, ammonia, and various P, As, Sb, and Se- containing compounds. Systems comprising multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the removal of impurities from gasified coal using a warm cleanup approach. This approach has the potential to be more economic than the currently available acid gas removal (AGR) approaches and improves upon currently available processes that do not provide the level of impurity removal that is required for catalytic synthesis application. Gasification also lends itself much more readily to the capture of CO2, important in the regulation and control of greenhouse gas emissions. CO2 capture material was developed and in this study was demonstrated to assist in methane production from the purified syngas. Simultaneous CO2 sorption enhances the CO methanation reaction through relaxation of thermodynamic constraint, thus providing economic benefit rather than simply consisting of an add-on cost for carbon capture and release. Molten and pre-molten LiNaKCO3 can promote MgO and MgO-based double salts to capture CO2 with high cycling capacity. A stable cycling CO2 capacity up to 13 mmol/g was demonstrated. This capture material was specifically developed in this study to operate in the same temperature range and therefore integrate effectively with warm gas cleanup and methane synthesis. By combining syngas methanation, water-gas-shift, and CO2 sorption in a single reactor, single pass yield to methane of 99% was demonstrated at 10 bar and 330oC when using a 20 wt% Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst and a molten-phase promoted MgO-based sorbent. Under model feed conditions both the sorbent and catalyst exhibited favorable stability after multiple test cycles. The cleanup for warm gas cleanup of inorganics was broken down into three major steps: chloride removal, sulfur removal, and the removal for a multitude of trace metal contaminants. Na2CO3 was found to optimally remove chlorides at an operating temperature of 450ºC. For sulfur removal two regenerable ZnO beds are used for bulk H2S removal at 450ºC (<5 ppm S) and a non-regenerable ZnO bed for H2S polishing at 300ºC (<40 ppb S). It was also found that sulfur from COS could be adsorbed (to levels below our detection limit of 40 ppb) in the presence of water that leads to no detectable slip of H2S. Finally, a sorbent material comprising of Cu and Ni was found to be effective in removing trace metal impurities such as AsH3 and PH3 when operating at 300ºC. Proof-of-concept of the integrated cleanup process was demonstrated with gasifier-generated syngas produced at the Western Research Institute using Wyoming Decker Coal. When operating with a ~1 SLPM feed, multiple inorganic contaminant removal sorbents and a tar-reforming bed was able to remove the vast majority of contaminants from the raw syngas. A tar-reforming catalyst was employed due to the production of tars generated from the gasifier used in this particular study. It is envisioned that in a real application a commercial scale gasifier operating at a higher temperature would produce lesser amount of tar. Continuous operation of a poison-sensitive copper-based WGS catalyst located downstream from the cleanup steps resulted in successful demonstration. ?

  7. Simulated Impacts of Global Warming on Building Thermal Loads Throughout the 21st Century 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L.

    2007-01-01

    of Global Warming on Building Thermal Loads Throughout the 21st Century Presented at ASHRAE Seminar 48 ?Climate Change: Modeling the Weather and Its Potential Impacts on Building Performance? Tuesday, 8:00 a.m., 26 June 2007 Long Beach, CA by Larry O.... Degelman, P.E. Professor Emeritus of Architecture Texas A&M University ldegelman@suddenlink.net Outline handptrightTrends in global warming handptrightModels matched against global warming records handptrightFactors contributing to global warming...

  8. Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. DOE commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that...

  9. Elevated air temperature alters an old-field insect community in a multi-factor climate change experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villalpando, Sean [Appalachian State University; Williams, Ray [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    To address how multiple, interacting climate drivers may affect plant-insect community associations, we sampled the insect community from a constructed old-field plant community grown under simultaneous [CO2], temperature, and water manipulation. Insects were identified to morphospecies, assigned to feeding guilds and abundance, richness and evenness quantified. Warming significantly increased Order Thysanoptera abundance and reduced overall morphospecies richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly supported the effect of warming on insect community composition. Reductions in richness for herbivores and parasitoids suggest trophic-level effects within the insect community. Analysis of dominant insects demonstrated the effects of warming were limited to a relatively small number of morphospecies. Reported reductions in whole-community foliar N at elevated [CO2] unexpectedly did not result in any effects on herbivores. These results demonstrate climatic warming may alter certain insect communities via effects on insect species most responsive to higher temperature, contributing to a change in community structure.

  10. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexicoConference Tight Oil1 Soil Water and Temperature

  11. Storage and Retrieval of Thermal Light in Warm Atomic Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-Wook Cho; Yoon-Ho Kim

    2010-07-12

    We report slowed propagation and storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm rubidium vapor using the effect of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). We first demonstrate slowed-propagation of the probe thermal light beam through an EIT medium by measuring the second-order correlation function of the light field using the Hanbury-Brown$-$Twiss interferometer. We also report an experimental study on the effect of the EIT slow-light medium on the temporal coherence of thermal light. Finally, we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of thermal light beam in the EIT medium. The direct measurement of the photon number statistics of the retrieved light field shows that the photon number statistics is preserved during the storage and retrieval process.

  12. CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System program was the development of an economically viable coal water slurry (CWS) fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During the first phase of the program, a novel state-of-the-art Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) combustor was designed and tested. The second phase of the program focused on evaluating the interaction between the individual components and system design optimization. Testing was conducted on the prototype furnace. This work concentrated on optimizing the combustor configuration to yield high combustion efficiencies and prevent the possible agglomeration of coal within the combustor. Also, a new twin-fluid CWS atomizer was designed and tested. This atomizer employed a supersonic airstream to shear the CWS external to the nozzle and thereby eliminated erosion problems. Also, a new furnace system was designed, constructed, and extensively tested. This furnace, called the third-generation system, served as a basis for a manufacturing prototype and included all the necessary controls needed for automatic operation. In life testing of the third-generation furnace system, the unit operated for 200 hours and burned 1,758 pounds of CWS. This translated into an average input rate throughout the test period of 87,200 Btu/hr. During this period, combustion efficiencies ranged from 98.2 to 99.1 percent, with a noted increase in efficiency with time. This furnace was also tested in a cyclic manner for an additional period of 54 hours to evaluate the effect of thermal transients. During cyclic testing, the furnace went through repeated transient cycles, which included startup on oil, transition to CWS, and cool-down. As part of an economic evaluation the high volume cost of a CWS-fired warm air furnace was determined. 90 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Cold Weather I usually start my climate presentations with a chart showing maps of the surface temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    . The 10-11 year cycle of solar irradiance has a just barely detectable effect on global temperature in the Illinois Wesleyan presentation. A global warming much smaller than weather fluctuations has the potential. Figure 1. Global distributions of surface temperature anomalies of the last four months (GISS analysis

  14. A Large Ozone-Circulation Feedback & Its Implications for Global Warming Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    Peer A Large Ozone-Circulation Feedback & Its Implications for Global Warming Assessments PeerCO2, b T by 4xCO2, c T by O3 and d water vapour by O3. 4. GLOBAL WARMING RESPONSE 0 50 100 150 200 250) Figure 1 | Temporal evolution of the annual and global mean surface tem- perature anomalies. Interactive

  15. Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Michael Williams

    2001-02-21

    Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

  16. Crystal coat warms up LED light 16:46 01 February 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    in the home. Now researchers have used nanocrystals to create LEDs that give off a warm white light. FineCrystal coat warms up LED light 16:46 01 February 2008 NewScientist.com news service Mason Inman Topping LEDs with a coating of carefully tuned nanocrystals makes their light warmer and less clinical

  17. Harbingers and agents of global warming The rapid retreat of mountain glaciers makes them an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    Harbingers and agents of global warming The rapid retreat of mountain glaciers makes them of the many reasons why we should keep a close eye on these harbingers and agents of global warming. Our one-third (approx. 1 mm/year) to the total rise in the global mean sea level of 3 mm/year. Locally

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming may freeze the invasion of big-headed ants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courchamp, Franck

    ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming may freeze the invasion of big-headed ants Cleo Bertelsmeier · Gloria is that these threats interact, and that a globally warming climate could favour invasive species. In this study we techniques, 3 Global Circu- lation Models and 2 CO2 emission scenarios, we generated world maps with suitable

  19. The change in oceanic O2 inventory associated with recent global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph

    The change in oceanic O2 inventory associated with recent global warming Ralph F. Keeling, 2002 (received for review September 24, 2001) Oceans general circulation models predict that global warming may cause a decrease in the oceanic O2 inventory and an associated O2 outgassing. An independent

  20. DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz Environmental Chemistry of the United States Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016. #12;Schwartz--Fossil Fuel--Fri, Dec 1, 2006 DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz Environmental

  1. The impact of Arctic warming on the midlatitude jet-stream: Can it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.

    Opinion The impact of Arctic warming on the midlatitude jet-stream: Can it? Has it? Will it. An open question, however, is whether these Arctic changes have an effect on the jet-stream and thereby inquiries around three distinct questions: Can Arctic warming influence the midlatitude jet-stream? Has

  2. Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2009-05-28

    The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, volcanic and other aerosols, as well as the extraordinary solar activity of the late 20th century are discussed in the context of the warming since the mid-1970s. Much of that warming is found to be due to natural causes.

  3. Greenhouse warming by nitrous oxide and methane in the Proterozoic Eon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halevy, Itay

    Greenhouse warming by nitrous oxide and methane in the Proterozoic Eon A. L. ROBERSON,1 J. ROADT,2 are possible during this time. The combined greenhouse effect of CH4 and N2O could have pro- vided up to 10 at the beginning of the Proterozoic and still 5% dimmer at its end (Gough, 1981). Greenhouse warm- ing by CO2 and H

  4. Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1 R. S. Maheskumar,1 J. R effective radius (re) increased with distance above cloud base (D). Warm rain became detectable, i.e., rain water content >0.01 g/Kg, at the tops of growing convective clouds when re exceeded 12 mm. The re

  5. P1.26 ROLE OF WARM OCEAN FEATURES ON INTENSITY CHANGE: HURRICANE OPAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P1.26 ROLE OF WARM OCEAN FEATURES ON INTENSITY CHANGE: HURRICANE OPAL Lynn K. Shay, Gustavo J. Goni elds during hurricane Opal. 2. HURRICANE OPAL As shown in Fig. 1a., the passage of hurricane Opal, hurricane Opal moved over a warm core eddy detected by the altimeter onboard the NASA oceanographic TOPogra

  6. New Observations of Precipitation Initiation in Warm Cumulus Clouds JENNIFER D. SMALL AND PATRICK Y. CHUANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Patrick Y.

    New Observations of Precipitation Initiation in Warm Cumulus Clouds JENNIFER D. SMALL AND PATRICK Y) to initiate precipitation (termed collision­coalescence initiators or CCIs) are found preferentially at cloud locally enhances collision­coalescence rates. 1. Introduction The initiation of precipitation in warm

  7. Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate J. Cattiaux,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codron, Francis

    Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate J. Cattiaux,1 R. Vautard,1 C. Cassou,2 P spells over Northern and Western Europe. This somehow unusual winter with respect to the most recent ones. Yiou, V. MassonDelmotte, and F. Codron (2010), Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming

  8. LUMINOUS AND VARIABLE STARS IN M31 AND M33. I. THE WARM HYPERGIANTS AND POST-RED SUPERGIANT EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Grammer, Skyler; Kneeland, Nathan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Martin, John C. [University of Illinois, Springfield, IL (United States); Weis, Kerstin; Burggraf, Birgitta, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu [Astronomical Institute, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2013-08-10

    The progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) have an apparent upper limit to their initial masses of about 20 M{sub Sun }, suggesting that the most massive red supergiants evolve to warmer temperatures before their terminal explosion. But very few post-red supergiants are known. We have identified a small group of luminous stars in M31 and M33 that are candidates for post-red supergiant evolution. These stars have A-F-type supergiant absorption line spectra and strong hydrogen emission. Their spectra are also distinguished by the Ca II triplet and [Ca II] doublet in emission formed in a low-density circumstellar environment. They all have significant near- and mid-infrared excess radiation due to free-free emission and thermal emission from dust. We estimate the amount of mass they have shed and discuss their wind parameters and mass loss rates, which range from a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. On an H-R diagram, these stars will overlap the region of the luminous blue variables (LBVs) at maximum light; however, the warm hypergiants are not LBVs. Their non-spherical winds are not optically thick, and they have not exhibited any significant variability. We suggest, however, that the warm hypergiants may be the progenitors of the ''less luminous'' LBVs such as R71 and even SN1987A.

  9. High performance flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light-emitting devices and chromaticity shift mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Hongying; Deng, Lingling; Chen, Shufen E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaofei; Cheng, Fan; Huang, Wei E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn; Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio- Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 211816

    2014-04-15

    Flexible warm-white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices (TEOLEDs) are fabricated onto PET substrates with a simple semi-transparent cathode Sm/Ag and two-color phosphors respectively doped into a single host material TCTA. By adjusting the relative position of the orange-red EML sandwiched between the blue emitting layers, the optimized device exhibits the highest power/current efficiency of 8.07 lm/W and near 13 cd/A, with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4105 K and a color rendering index (CRI) of 70. In addition, a moderate chromaticity variation of (-0.025, +0.008) around warm white illumination coordinates (0.45, 0.44) is obtained over a large luminance range of 1000 to 10000 cd/m{sup 2}. The emission mechanism is discussed via delta-doping method and single-carrier device, which is summarized that the carrier trapping, the exciton quenching, the mobility change and the recombination zone alteration are negative to color stability while the energy transfer process and the blue/red/blue sandwiched structure are contributed to the color stability in our flexible white TEOLEDs.

  10. Linear accelerator design study with direct plasma injection scheme for warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M.

    2011-03-28

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) is a challenging science field, which is related to heavy ion inertial fusion and planetary science. It is difficult to expect the behavior because the state with high density and low temperature is completely different from ideal condition. The well-defined WDM generation is required to understand it. Moderate energy ion beams ({approx} MeV/u) slightly above Bragg peak is an advantageous method for WDM because of the uniform energy deposition. Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with a Interdigital H-mode (IH) accelerator has a potential for the beam parameter. We show feasible parameters of the IH accelerator for WDM. WDM physics is a challenging science and is strongly related to Heavy Ion Fusion science. WDM formation by Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with IH accelerator, which is a compact system, is proposed. Feasible parameters for IH accelerator are shown for WDM state. These represents that DPIS with IH accelerator can access a different parameter region of WDM.

  11. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Coustenis, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Tokano, T., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Institut fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie, Universitaet zu Koeln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, 50923 Koeln (Germany)

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  12. Dust Bowl migration as an analog for possible global warming-induced migration from Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, M.H.; Longstreth, J.D.; Johnson, A.K.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-06-01

    As a result of increases in CO{sub 2} and other radiatively important trace gases, scientists have predicted increases in mean worldwide temperatures of 2--5 degrees C over the next 50 to 100 years. Such temperature increases may result in climate modifications that would in turn be associated with increases in drought and desertification and could even change the patterns of the monsoons and tropical rains, which are important to agriculture throughout the world. They predicted that the rise in sea level caused by melting and thermal expansion of glaciers and polar icecaps could flood large population centers, destroying habitation and displacing populations. This will result in approximately 50 million ``environmental refugees`` worldwide, triple the number of today. The expected shifts in precipitation are also likely to result in (1) increased runoff contaminated with pesticides, salts, garbage, sewage, and eroded soil, and (2) drought also leading to increased soil erosion and salinization, as well as depletion of limited water resources. The total impact of global warming on agriculture and human habitation could considerably slow the economic development of some nations and would particularly affect agricultural production. Loss of homes, the inability to raise food, an increased prevalence of disease and worsened economic conditions may drive people to leave their homelands, seeking entry into countries which have more resources and greater resistance to the economic consequences of climatic change. This report looks at the possible environmental impacts and economic impacts of the greenhouse effect on Mexico while using the American Dust Bowl event as an analog.

  13. Global warming and its implications for conservation. 3. How does it work? Part two: atmospheric science and the layer model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creel, Scott

    Global warming and its implications for conservation. 3. How does it work? Part two: atmospheric warms the surface of the planet as it moves toward an equilibrium of energy fluxes in and out. The layer

  14. A very oligotrophic zone observed from space in the equatorial Pacific warm pool1 Marie-Hlne Radenaca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    penetration of nutrient-rich water due to the following processes. 1/ The34 equatorial oligotrophic warm pool tropical Pacific, and especially the eastern part of the warm pool,51 is one of the world ocean regions

  15. Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    such as coal, oil and natural gas are burned for trans- portation, heating, or the production of electricity! Climate Change And Global Glacier Decline Global Warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world that global warming is occurring1 . It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man

  16. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  17. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petit, Christophe; Canestrari, Francesco; Pannunzio, Valter; Virgili, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  18. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Petit; Anne Millien; Francesco Canestrari; Valter Pannunzio; Amadeo Virgili

    2012-03-13

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  19. Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  20. WARM MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION IN NORMAL EDGE-ON GALAXIES NGC 4565 AND NGC 5907

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laine, Seppo; Appleton, Philip N.; Gottesman, Stephen T.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Garland, Catherine A. E-mail: apple@ipac.caltech.ed E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-09-15

    We have observed warm molecular hydrogen in two nearby edge-on disk galaxies, NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, using the Spitzer high-resolution infrared spectrograph. The 0-0 S(0) 28.2 {mu}m and 0-0 S(1) 17.0 {mu}m pure rotational lines were detected out to 10 kpc from the center of each galaxy on both sides of the major axis, and in NGC 4565 the S(0) line was detected at r = 15 kpc on one side. This location is beyond the transition zone where diffuse neutral atomic hydrogen starts to dominate over cold molecular gas and marks a transition from a disk dominated by high surface-brightness far-infrared (far-IR) emission to that of a more quiescent disk. It also lies beyond a steep drop in the radio continuum emission from cosmic rays (CRs) in the disk. Despite indications that star formation activity decreases with radius, the H{sub 2} excitation temperature and the ratio of the H{sub 2} line and the far-IR luminosity surface densities, {Sigma}(L{sub H{sub 2}})/{Sigma}(L{sub TIR}), change very little as a function of radius, even into the diffuse outer region of the disk of NGC 4565. This suggests that the source of excitation of the H{sub 2} operates over a large range of radii and is broadly independent of the strength and relative location of UV emission from young stars. Although excitation in photodissociation regions is the most common explanation for the widespread H{sub 2} emission, CR heating or shocks cannot be ruled out. At r = 15 kpc in NGC 4565, outside the main UV- and radio-continuum-dominated disk, we derived a higher than normal H{sub 2} to 7.7 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission ratio, but this is likely due to a transition from mainly ionized PAH molecules in the inner disk to mainly neutral PAH molecules in the outer disk. The inferred mass surface densities of warm molecular hydrogen in both edge-on galaxies differ substantially, being 4(-60) M{sub sun} pc{sup -2} and 3(-50) M{sub sun} pc{sup -2} at r = 10 kpc for NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, respectively. The higher values represent very unlikely point-source upper limits. The point-source case is not supported by the observed emission distribution in the spectral slits. These mass surface densities cannot support the observed rotation velocities in excess of 200 km s{sup -1}. Therefore, warm molecular hydrogen cannot account for dark matter in these disk galaxies, contrary to what was implied by a previous Infrared Space Observatory study of the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 891.

  1. Role of the upper ocean structure in the response of ENSO-like SST variability to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noh, Yign

    Role of the upper ocean structure in the response of ENSO-like SST variability to global warming)-like variability to global warming varies comparatively between the two different climate system models, i are reduced in the eastern equatorial Pacific under global warming, which erodes the thermo- cline feedback

  2. Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment of native, epigeic, or all three together) and 4°C warming on soil water content, litter turnover and seedling establishment of four native and four exotic herbaceous plant species. Warming and worming exerted independent

  3. Response and impact of equatorial ocean dynamics and tropical instability waves in the tropical Atlantic under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Atlantic under global warming: A regional coupled downscaling study Hyodae Seo1,2 and ShangPing Xie1. Under global warming, both global and regional models exhibit an increased (decreased) rainfall thermal stratification is suggested to be more important under global warming. The strengthened upwelling

  4. Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    1121 Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment, endogeic, epigeic, or all three together) and 4°C warming on soil water content, litter turnover and seedling establishment of four native and four exotic herbaceous plant species. Warming and worming exerted

  5. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 1 APRIL 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1461 135 years of global ocean warming between the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riser, Stephen C.

    of global warming. Warming in the Atlantic Ocean is stronger than in the Pacific. Systematic errors and indicates that globally the oceans have been warming at least since the late-nineteenth or earlyLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 1 APRIL 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1461 135 years of global ocean

  6. "Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real or presumed developments is a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    "Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real of catastrophic global warming the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people" What is climate change we have ever seen" What is climate change? Lord Nicholas Stern, October 2006 #12;"Global warming

  7. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If global warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip

  8. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genet, Helene [Institute of Arctic Biology (IAB), University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF)] [Institute of Arctic Biology (IAB), University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF); McGuire, A. David [University of Alaska] [University of Alaska; Barrett, K. [USGS Alaska Science Center] [USGS Alaska Science Center; Breen, Amy [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF)] [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF); Euskirchen, Eugenie S [University of Alaska] [University of Alaska; Johnstone, J. F. [University of Saskatchewan] [University of Saskatchewan; Kasischke, Eric S. [University of Maryland, College Park] [University of Maryland, College Park; Melvin, A. M. [University of Florida, Gainesville] [University of Florida, Gainesville; Bennett, A. [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF)] [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF); Mack, M. C. [University of Florida, Gainesville] [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rupp, Scott T. [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF)] [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF); Schuur, Edward [University of Florida] [University of Florida; Turetsky, M. R. [University of Guelph, Canada] [University of Guelph, Canada; Yuan, Fengming [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layercaused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness of 1.1 m on average by 2100. The combination of warming and fire led to a simulated cumulative loss of 9.6 kgC m 2 on average by 2100. Our analysis suggests that ecosystem carbon storage in boreal forests in interior Alaska is particularly vulnerable, primarily due to the combustion of organic layer thickness in fire and the related increase in active layer thickness that exposes previously protected permafrost soil carbon to decomposition.

  9. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  10. Incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modifies modeled ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modifies model PnET-CN. We examined the new algorithms' effects on modeled net primary production (NPP), total] and warming was 9% greater when RA algorithms were used, relative to responses using fixed respiration

  11. Constraining snowmelt in a temperature-index model using simulated snow densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Constraining snowmelt in a temperature-index model using simulated snow densities Kathryn J. Georgakakos, Editor-in-Chief Keywords: Snow density Snow modelling Melt factor Degree-day factor Warm maritime snowpack dynamics Snow depth s u m m a r y Current snowmelt parameterisation schemes are largely untested

  12. Tropical Temperature Variations Since 20,000 Years Ago: Modulating Interhemispheric Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairbanks, Richard G.

    ), as thermodynamically recorded in Barbados corals, were 50C colder than present values 19,000 years ago. Variable the south coast of Barbados. Barbados corals monitor the temperature of the deep surface mixed layer of the western equatorial Atlantic, the Atlantic "warm pool." Cores recovered from the Barbados offshore reefs

  13. Unfolding the relation between global temperature and ENSO A. A. Tsonis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsner, James B.

    Nino event and a La Nina event follows an El Nino event. Thus, El Nino forces global temperature. While to trigger an El Nino (La Nina). Thus, in a warming climate El Nino events will be more frequent than La Nina water in the eastern Pacific Ocean called an El Nino event. During both events increased convection over

  14. 674 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES FACTORS GOVERNING THE TEMPERATURE OF THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thin surface stratum of the sea is.warmed by direct solar radiation. Further transference of the heat by the sun's rays, and cooling by the radiation of heat from the water to the air in autumn and winter. Added to all of which the temperature at any given depth, date, and local- ity depends to a large degree

  15. SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSVWONVS PELAMIS, HABITAT BASED ON TEMPERATURE AND OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSVWONVS PELAMIS, HABITAT BASED ON TEMPERATURE AND OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS RICHARD A,Katsuwonus pelamis, has generally been assumed to be the warm surface layers oftropical and subtropical ocean, where. For skipjack tuna, Katsllwonus pelamis (Lin- naeus), the question "Where are the fish?" is par- ticularly hard

  16. Transitional solar dynamics, cosmic rays and global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2009-04-12

    Solar activity is studied using a cluster analysis of the time-fluctuations of the sunspot number. It is shown that in an Historic period the high activity components of the solar cycles exhibit strong clustering, whereas in a Modern period (last seven solar cycles: 1933-2007) they exhibit a white-noise (non-)clustering behavior. Using this observation it is shown that in the Historic period, emergence of the sunspots in the solar photosphere was strongly dominated by turbulent photospheric convection. In the Modern period, this domination was broken by a new more active dynamics of the inner layers of the convection zone. Then, it is shown that the dramatic change of the sun dynamics at the transitional period (between the Historic and Modern periods, solar cycle 1933-1944yy) had a clear detectable impact on Earth climate. A scenario of a chain of transitions in the solar convective zone is suggested in order to explain the observations, and a forecast for the global warming is suggested on the basis of this scenario. A relation between the recent transitions and solar long-period chaotic dynamics has been found. Contribution of the galactic turbulence (due to galactic cosmic rays) has been discussed. These results are also considered in a content of chaotic climate dynamics at millennial timescales.

  17. After Kyoto, science still probes global warming causes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, G.

    1998-01-19

    The Kyoto meeting has come and gone. In the US, the treaty still has to be signed by President Bill Clinton and ratified by the Senate, an action that is most unlikely in view of last year`s 95-0 vote on the issue. In the short term 36 senators are up for reelection in November and therefore likely to come under intense pressure to change their positions, to support the Kyoto treaty, and to push for Senate action. Senators will need support, additional inputs, and overall reinforcement of their positions. One area that this writer believes still has much to offer in this context is the quality--more specifically, the lack of quality--of much of the scientific evidence behind this treaty. Part of that subject is the natural variability in the climate. Natural climate variability is based on cyclical forces, random events, and the Earth`s response to these two factors. These forces create the variability in the climate, the background noise above which any signal of anthropogenic warming must rise in order to be detected. A review of key climatic cycles is the subject of this article.

  18. Warm and cold fermionic dark matter via freeze-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E. E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uni-muenster.de

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-in mechanism of dark matter production provides a simple and intriguing alternative to the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we analyze whether freeze-in can be used to account for the dark matter in the so-called singlet fermionic model. In it, the SM is extended with only two additional fields, a singlet scalar that mixes with the Higgs boson, and the dark matter particle, a fermion assumed to be odd under a Z{sub 2} symmetry. After numerically studying the generation of dark matter, we analyze the dependence of the relic density with respect to all the free parameters of the model. These results are then used to obtain the regions of the parameter space that are compatible with the dark matter constraint. We demonstrate that the observed dark matter abundance can be explained via freeze-in over a wide range of masses extending down to the keV range. As a result, warm and cold dark matter can be obtained in this model. It is also possible to have dark matter masses well above the unitarity bound for WIMPs.

  19. The First Billion Years of a Warm Dark Matter Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maio, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    We present results of cosmological N-body hydrodynamic chemistry simulations of primordial structure growth and evolution in a scenario with warm dark matter (WDM) having a mass of 3keV and compare with a model consisting of standard cold dark matter (CDM). We focus on the high-redshift universe ($z>6$), where the structure formation process should better reflect the primordial (linear) differences in terms of matter power spectrum. We find that early epochs are exceptional probes of the dark-matter nature. Non-linear CDM and WDM power spectra differ by up to 2 dex at early times and show spreads of factor of a few persisting in the whole first Gyr. Primordial WDM objects with masses $\\lesssim 10^8\\,\\rm M_\\odot$ are less abundant by $\\gtrsim 1\\,\\rm dex$, both in terms of dark matter and of baryon content. Runaway molecular cooling in primordial WDM mini-haloes results severely inhibited due to the damping of power at large $k$ modes. As a consequence, the cosmic (population III and II-I) star formation activi...

  20. The Dynamics of Subhalos in Warm Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Knebe; Bastian Arnold; Chris Power; Brad K. Gibson

    2008-02-12

    We present a comparison of the properties of substructure halos (subhalos) orbiting within host halos that form in Cold Dark Matter (CDM) and Warm Dark Matter (WDM) cosmologies. Our study focuses on selected properties of these subhalos, namely their anisotropic spatial distribution within the hosts; the existence of a "backsplash'' population; the age-distance relation; the degree to which they suffer mass loss; and the distribution of relative (infall) velocities with respect to the hosts. We find that the number density of subhalos in our WDM model is suppressed relative to that in the CDM model, as we would expect. Interestingly, our analysis reveals that backsplash subhalos exist in both the WDM and CDM models. Indeed, there are no statistically significant differences between the spatial distributions of subhalos in the CDM and WDM models. There is evidence that subhalos in the WDM model suffer enhanced mass loss relative to their counterparts in the CDM model, reflecting their lower central densities. We note also a tendency for the (infall) velocities of subhalos in the WDM model to be higher than in the CDM model. Nevertheless, we conclude that observational tests based on either the spatial distribution or the kinematics of the subhalo population are unlikely to help us to differentiate between the CDM model and our adopted WDM model.

  1. Energy balance in two phase models for temperature fluctuations in HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Giammanco; J. E. Beckman

    2006-02-14

    Aims. The main objective of this article is to provide a simple physical framework with permits a quantitative comparison of measurements of the temperature fluctuations in the ionized interstellar medium with possible mechanisms which can produce them. Methods. We assume a generalized two phase ISM and derive expressions relating the mean amplitude of the temperature fluctuations to the temperatures of the phases and to the energy input, in excess of the basic component due to photoionization, required to maintain them. We apply these expressions to a set of limiting cases for the temperature and density differences between the phases. Finally we compare the most plausible case with the most complete data set available: the temperature fluctuations observed in the Orion Nebula. Results. We first list the cases considered and our general inferences: (a) Very hot tenuous substrate and warm moderately dense clouds; discarded as requiring too much excess energy input. (b) Two phases with equal densities but different temperatures, both warm; feasible but not general. (c) Two warm phases at moderately different temperatures and densities; the most probable case. This case is then used to quantify a specific hypothesis, reconnection of turbulent magnetic fields, as the source of the fluctuations observed in the Orion Nebula. Field strengths of a few hundred microG are required, not out of line with the limited observations available. Time variability on scales of months is a testable prediction of the scenario.

  2. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in north-central Box Elder County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.C.; Kolesar, P.T.

    1984-12-01

    The low-temperature geothermal resources of north-central Box Elder County, Utah were assessed. Exploration techniques used included chemical analyses of water from wells and springs, temperature surveys, and temperature-depth measurements in unused wells within the study area. The highest water temperatures (31/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, and 29/sup 0/C) recorded in this research were located in three separate geographic regions, suggesting that no single warm water occurrence dominates the study area. Total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations ranged from 294 to 11,590 mg/l. Areas of warm water occurrences generally had TDS values of greater than 1100 mg/l. Reservoir temperatures were estimated using chemical geothermometers. Calculated temperatures ranged between 50/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C. Temperature-depth measurements were logged in 16 unused wells. Thermal gradients calculated from the profiles ranged from isothermal to 267/sup 0/C/km. The background gradient for the study area appears to be slightly above the average Basin and Range gradient of 35/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradients were calculated for the area approximately eight kilometers west of Snowville, Utah, which is also an area of warm water. 61 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground net primary production (NPP) budgets. Autotrophic respiration budgets will be constructed using chamber measurements for each tissue and NPP and standard allometry techniques (Gower et al. 1999). (4) Compare microbial and root dynamics, and net soil surface CO2 flux, of control and warmed soils to identify causes that may explain the hypothesized minimal effect of soil warming on soil surface CO2 flux. Fine root production and turnover will be quantified using minirhizotrons, and microbial dynamics will be determined using laboratory mineralization incubations. Soil surface CO2 flux will be measured using automated soil surface CO2 flux systems and portable CO2 analyzers. The proposed study builds on the existing research programs Gower has in northern Manitoba and would not be possible without in-kind services and financial support from Manitoba Hydro and University of Wisconsin.

  4. Upward Shift of the Atmospheric General Circulation under Global Warming: Theory and Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Martin Simran

    Many features of the general circulation of the atmosphere shift upward in response to warming in simulations of climate change with both general circulation models (GCMs) and cloud-system-resolving models. The importance ...

  5. Collective guilt for harming future ingroup members: The case of American identity and global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Mark Allen

    2008-08-20

    members on willingness to engage in behaviors that mitigate global warming. An experimental study extended these results by showing similar effects for actual behavior and pro-environmental attitudes. A final experiment extended the other studies...

  6. Tropical Pacific response to 20th century Atlantic warming F. Kucharski,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, In-Sik

    and L. Feudale1 Received 16 November 2010; accepted 13 December 2010; published 1 February 2011. [1. Feudale (2011), Tropical Pacific response to 20th century Atlantic warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L

  7. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Comment on 'Discussions on common errors in analyzing sea level accelerations, solar trends and global warming'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benestad, R E

    2013-01-01

    Comment on Scafetta, Nicola. 'Discussion on Common Errors in Analyzing Sea Level Accelerations, Solar Trends and Global Warming.' arXiv:1305.2812 (May 13, 2013a). doi:10.5194/prp-1-37-2013.

  9. The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost: An Experimental and Field Based Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Impact...

  10. Warm Time-Sampling: Fast and Accurate Cycle-Level Simulation of Cache Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    the cold-start problems. Thus, we will term this technique warm time-sampling (WTS). It considerably section presents our simulation environment. Section 3 describes the steps to imple- ment WTS. In section

  11. Evidence for early warming and cooling in North Atlantic surface waters during the last interglacial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Born, Andreas

    interglacial Henning A. Bauch1 and Evguenia S. Kandiano2 Received 1 December 2005; revised 9 August 2006 the warm interglacial OIS 5e into the next cold phase, stadial OIS 5d [Chapman and Shackleton, 1999; Adkins

  12. Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005 Scientists gun' that we have been looking for" according to Jim Hansen, a climatologist who directs the NASA

  13. Interactive responses of old-field plant growth and composition to warming and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    and rain addition) over 2 years. Warming suppressed total production, shoot production, and species limited knowledge of climate change impacts on the terrestrial carbon cycle and its feedbacks to global

  14. ENERGY AND GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS OF NOT-IN-KIND AND NEXT GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;ENERGY AND GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS OF NOT-IN-KIND AND NEXT GENERATION CFC AND HCFC ALTERNATIVES Generation Technologies .............................. xvi Transcritical CO2 Compressors Refrigeration .......................................... xviii Acoustic Compressors and Thermoacoustic

  15. Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: An interdisciplinary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1995-07-01

    This book focuses on ozone depletion first, global warming second. It is a collection of perspectives from a variety of disciplines and includes a limited amount of technical assessment information.

  16. Global warming, energy efficiency and the role of the built environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiBona, Donna K

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explore the relationships between the Buildings Sector, energy efficiency and global warming. Through a qualitative analysis the author illustrates the connection between these three areas and shows ...

  17. Energy and environmental policy and electric utilities' choice under uncertain global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Masaki

    1992-01-01

    The paper reviews and discusses uncertainty about global warming science, impact on society. It also discusses what assumptions have been made and how appropriate the assumptions in scenarios have been for estimating global ...

  18. Polymer material selection and testing of resistive wire arrangement for a transparent infant warming blanket

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Madeline

    2013-01-01

    The ThermoCloud was designed as a portable, scalable, transparent electrical blanket to warm and insulate infants, while permitting hassle-free medical transportation and maximum visualization of a patient's thorax and ...

  19. Intensification of precipitation extremes with warming in a cloud resolving model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, Caroline

    A cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the effect of warming on high percentiles of precipitation (precipitation extremes) in the idealized setting of radiative-convective equilibrium. While this idealized setting ...

  20. Optimized Phosphors for Warm White LED Light Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, Anant; Brewster, Megan; Garcia, Florencio; Hill, M. Christine; Lyons, Robert; Murphy, James; Stecher, Tom; Stoklosa, Stan; Weaver, Stan; Happek, Uwe; Aesram, Danny; Deshpande, Anirudha

    2012-07-30

    The objective of this program is to develop phosphor systems and LED light engines that have steady-state LED efficacies (using LEDs with a 60% wall-plug efficiency) of 105–120 lm/W with correlated color temperatures (CCT) ~3000 K, color rendering indices (CRI) >85, <0.003 distance from the blackbody curve (dbb), and <2% loss in phosphor efficiency under high temperature, high humidity conditions. In order to reach these goals, this involves the composition and processing optimization of phosphors previously developed by GE in combination with light engine package modification.

  1. Climate warming and environmental sex determination in tuatara: the Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    (figure 1). They currently live only on some small islands off New Zealand. Their populations are small- logical data (empirically determined). The model first predicts nest-temperature profiles by solving heat to higher altitudes, colonize cooler islands). Tuatara do not have this option, as they survive only on low

  2. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    ,i a Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14473 Potsdam, Germany; b Institute of Physics, Potsdam University, University Park, PA 16802; g University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4; h in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after

  3. Seasonal versus permanent thermocline warming by tropical cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Raffaele

    layer and lost to the atmosphere. Analysis of satellite sea surface temperature and sea surface height of TCs by simulating all storms during the year 1996 using a simple axisymmetric hurricane model coupled of the heat was transported out of the mixing region while the other half was lost back to the atmosphere

  4. Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    , 7, 1994; Rayner et al., JGR, 108, 2003. #12;#12;#12;CO2, CH4 and temperature records from Antarctic, ScienceExpress, 13 October 2005;data for 1880-1981 based on Rayner et al., JGR, 108, 2003, after 1981

  5. Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea Robin Robertson*, Martin Visbeck, Arnold L. Gordon, and E. Fahrbach1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Robin

    Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea Robin Robertson*, Martin Visbeck November 28, 2001 #12;Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea 2 Abstract Warming of the deep water in the Weddell Sea has important implications for Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation

  6. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  7. Natural gas and efficient technologies: A response to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-02-01

    It has become recognized by the international scientific community that global warming due to fossil fuel energy buildup of greenhouse CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is a real environmental problem. Worldwide agreement has also been reached to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. A leading approach to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions is to utilize hydrogen-rich fuels and improve the efficiency of conversion in the power generation, transportation and heating sectors of the economy. In this report, natural gas, having the highest hydrogen content of all the fossil fuels, can have an important impact in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper explores natural gas and improved conversion systems for supplying energy to all three sectors of the economy. The improved technologies include combined cycle for power generation, the Carnol system for methanol production for the transportation sector and fuel cells for both power generation and transportation use. The reduction in CO{sub 2} from current emissions range from 13% when natural gas is substituted for gasoline in the transportation sector to 45% when substituting methanol produced by the Carnol systems (hydrogen from thermal decomposition of methane reacting with CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants) used in the transportation sector. CO{sub 2} reductions exceeding 60% can be achieved by using natural gas in combined cycle for power generation and Carnol methanol in the transportation sector and would, thus, stabilize CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere predicted to avoid undue climate change effects. It is estimated that the total fossil fuel energy bill in the US can be reduced by over 40% from the current fuel bill. This also allows a doubling in the unit cost for natural gas if the current energy bill is maintained. Estimates of the total net incremental replacement capital cost for completing the new improved equipment is not more than that which will have to be spent to replace the existing equipment conducting business as usual.

  8. Role of the ocean mixed layer processes in the response of the North Pacific winter SST and MLD to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noh, Yign

    to global warming in CGCMs Bo Young Yim · Yign Noh · Sang-Wook Yeh Received: 8 October 2010 / Accepted: 7 of the CGCM data reveals that the increase of SST and the decrease of MLD in response to global warming tend of OHT and SHF under global warming, which may weaken the response to global warming in the CGCM

  9. Entropy evolution in warm inflation from a 5D vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesus Martin Romero; Mauricio Bellini

    2009-12-15

    Using some ideas of Modern Kaluza-Klein theory, we examine the evolution of entropy on a 4D Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) brane from a 5D vacuum state, which is defined on a 5D background Riemann-flat metric. We found that entropy production is sufficiently important during inflation: $S > 10^{90}$, for all the initial values of temperature $T_0 < T_{GU}$.

  10. Diagnosis of the summertime warm and dry bias over the U. S. Southern Great Plains in the GFDL climate model using a weather forecasting approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, S A; Jiang, X; Boyle, J; Malyshev, S; Xie, S

    2006-07-11

    Weather forecasts started from realistic initial conditions are used to diagnose the large warm and dry bias over the United States Southern Great Plains simulated by the GFDL climate model. The forecasts exhibit biases in surface air temperature and precipitation within 3 days which appear to be similar to the climate bias. With the model simulating realistic evaporation but underestimated precipitation, a deficit in soil moisture results which amplifies the initial temperature bias through feedbacks with the land surface. The underestimate of precipitation is associated with an inability of the model to simulate the eastward propagation of convection from the front-range of the Rocky Mountains and is insensitive to an increase of horizontal resolution from 2{sup o} to 0.5{sup o} latitude.

  11. The effects of temperature and soil moisture on the germination and emergence of three perennial warm season grasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohlenbusch, Paul Dietrich

    1966-01-01

    selected IY!' speci?!s ??ere can&! blues tel!?(nndto pogon barbinodis Lag ), Sideoats grams (Sosteloaa eurti eachwla m. 7 soar. ), aalu gceen syraaqaetop (mpteen~ @usta QH. B. K Q Ness) The test sLaterial used was collected feed contrasting climatic... HAP TER X X REVXEW OF I XTERATVRE A seed, to germinates s&ust have (1) an adequate supply of water, (2) a suitable tes&perature, and (3) an ada&(uate supply of oxygen (F)eyer and Pol)akoff-Nayber, 1963) ~ Xn order for a plant to grow fros& a seed...

  12. How Warm Was This Summer? Let's look at the surface temperatures in the summer of 2010, which justifiably received a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    was the 2nd warmest1 . 2010 was a bit cooler than 2009 mainly because a moderate El Nino in the equatorial

  13. Can Advances in Science and Technology Prevent Global Warming? A Critical Review of Limitations and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2006-07-03

    The most stringent emission scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would result in the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at concentrations of approximately 550 ppm which would produce a global temperature increase of at least 2 C by 2100. Given the large uncertainties regarding the potential risks associated with this degree of global warming, it would be more prudent to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at or below current levels which, in turn, would require a greater than 20-fold reduction (i.e., ?95%) in per capita carbon emissions in industrialized nations within the next 50 to 100 years. Using the Kaya equation as a conceptual framework, this paper examines whether CO2 mitigation approaches such as energy efficiency improvements, carbon sequestration, and the development of carbon-free energy sources would be sufficient to bring about the required reduction in per capita carbon emissions without creating unforeseen negative impacts elsewhere. In terms of energy efficiency, large improvements (?5-fold) are in principle possible given aggressive investments in R&D and if market imperfections such as corporate subsidies are removed. However, energy efficiency improvements per se will not result in a reduction in carbon emissions if, as predicted by the IPCC, the size of the global economy has expanded 12-26 fold by 2100. Terrestrial carbon sequestration via reforestation and improved agricultural soil management has many environmental advantages but has only limited CO2 mitigation potential because the global terrestrial carbon sink (ca. 200 Gt C) is small relative to the size of fossil fuel deposits (?4000 Gt C). By contrast, very large amounts of CO2 can potentially be removed from the atmosphere via sequestration in geologic formations and oceans, but carbon storage is not permanent and is likely to create many unpredictable environmental consequences. Renewable solar energy can in theory provide large amounts of carbon-free power. However, biomass and hydroelectric energy can only be marginally expanded and large-scale solar energy installations (i.e., wind, photovoltaics, and direct thermal) are likely to have significant negative environmental impacts. Expansion of nuclear energy is highly unlikely due to concerns over reactor safety, radioactive waste management, weapons proliferation, and cost. In view of the serious limitations and liabilities of many proposed CO2 mitigation approaches it appears that there remain only few no-regrets options such as drastic energy efficiency improvements, extensive terrestrial carbon sequestration, and cautious expansion of renewable energy generation. These promising CO2 mitigation technologies have the potential to bring about the required 20-fold reduction in per capita carbon emission only if population and economic growth are halted without delay. Thus, addressing the problem of global warming requires not only technological research and development but also a reexamination of core values that mistakenly equate material consumption and economic growth to happiness and well-being.

  14. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sokó?, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Wurz, P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ?7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ?19° from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He{sup +} ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the nature of the Warm Breeze, its discovery exposes a critical new feature of our heliospheric environment.

  15. Global warming accelerates drought-induced forest death

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nathan; Pockman, William

    2014-06-02

    Many southwestern forests in the United States will disappear or be heavily altered by 2050, according to a series of joint Los Alamos National Laboratory-University of New Mexico studies. Nathan McDowell, a Los Alamos plant physiologist, and William Pockman, a UNM biology professor, explain that their research, and more from scientists around the world, is forecasting that by 2100 most conifer forests should be heavily disturbed, if not gone, as air temperatures rise in combination with drought. "Everybody knows trees die when there's a drought, if there's bark beetles or fire, yet nobody in the world can predict it with much accuracy." McDowell said. "What's really changed is that the temperature is going up," thus the researchers are imposing artificial drought conditions on segments of wild forest in the Southwest and pushing forests to their limit to discover the exact processes of mortality and survival. The study is centered on drought experiments in woodlands at both Los Alamos and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico. Both sites are testing hypotheses about how forests die on mature, wild trees, rather than seedlings in a greenhouse, through the ecosystem-scale removal of 50 percent of yearly precipitation through large water-diversion trough systems.

  16. Global warming accelerates drought-induced forest death

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nathan; Pockman, William

    2013-07-09

    Many southwestern forests in the United States will disappear or be heavily altered by 2050, according to a series of joint Los Alamos National Laboratory-University of New Mexico studies. Nathan McDowell, a Los Alamos plant physiologist, and William Pockman, a UNM biology professor, explain that their research, and more from scientists around the world, is forecasting that by 2100 most conifer forests should be heavily disturbed, if not gone, as air temperatures rise in combination with drought. "Everybody knows trees die when there's a drought, if there's bark beetles or fire, yet nobody in the world can predict it with much accuracy." McDowell said. "What's really changed is that the temperature is going up," thus the researchers are imposing artificial drought conditions on segments of wild forest in the Southwest and pushing forests to their limit to discover the exact processes of mortality and survival. The study is centered on drought experiments in woodlands at both Los Alamos and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico. Both sites are testing hypotheses about how forests die on mature, wild trees, rather than seedlings in a greenhouse, through the ecosystem-scale removal of 50 percent of yearly precipitation through large water-diversion trough systems.

  17. A Study of the Effect of Warm-Up on Certain Physiological Parameters During Exercise and Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Herbert C. Jr.

    1968-01-01

    t a l stroking. Three subjects part ic ipated in sprint r ides on the bicycle ergometer a f ter preliminary exercise and without warming up. They concluded that none of the warming devices improved times in running hhO yards or improved performance... t a l stroking. Three subjects part ic ipated in sprint r ides on the bicycle ergometer a f ter preliminary exercise and without warming up. They concluded that none of the warming devices improved times in running hhO yards or improved performance...

  18. An Inconvenient Truth. The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gore, Al

    2006-06-15

    This book is published to tie in with a documentary film of the same name. Both the book and film were inspired by a series of multimedia presentations on global warming that the author created and delivers to groups around the world. With this book, Gore, brings together leading-edge research from top scientists around the world; photographs, charts, and other illustrations; and personal anecdotes and observations to document the fast pace and wide scope of global warming. He presents, with alarming clarity and conclusiveness, and with humor, too, that the fact of global warming is not in question and that its consequences for the world we live in will be disastrous if left unchecked.

  19. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  20. Finite Temperature Schrödinger Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Yan Wang

    2011-06-11

    We know Schr\\"{o}dinger equation describes the dynamics of quantum systems, which don't include temperature. In this paper, we propose finite temperature Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, which can describe the quantum systems in an arbitrary temperature. When the temperature T=0, it become Shr\\"{o}dinger equation.

  1. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  2. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  3. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  4. Global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uria, L.A.B.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the direct and indirect global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil. In order to do that, it quantifies emissions of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} in terms of CO{sub 2}-equivalent units for time spans of 20, 100 and 500 years. It shows that the consideration of CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} emissions in addition to CO{sub 2} provides an important contribution for better understanding the total warming impact of transportation fuels in Brazil.

  5. Ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency using nanofiber-guided light in a warm atomic vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, D E; Pittman, T B

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofiber suspended in a warm rubidium vapor. The signal and control fields are both guided along the nanofiber, which enables strong nonlinear interactions with the surrounding atoms at relatively low powers. Transit-time broadening is found to be a significant EIT decoherence mechanism in this tightly-confined waveguiding geometry. Nonetheless, we observe significant EIT and controlled polarization rotation using control-field powers of only a few microWatts in this relatively robust warm-atom nanofiber system.

  6. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 JANUARY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1353 Enhanced warming over the global subtropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    surface ocean warming rate over the path of these currents is two to three times faster than the globalLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 JANUARY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1353 Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents Lixin Wu1 *, Wenju Cai2 , Liping Zhang1 , Hisashi Nakamura3

  7. Tropical Cyclone Changes in the Western North Pacific in a Global Warming Scenario MARKUS STOWASSER, YUQING WANG, AND KEVIN HAMILTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Tropical Cyclone Changes in the Western North Pacific in a Global Warming Scenario MARKUS STOWASSER The influence of global warming on the climatology of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific basin Model version 2 (CCSM2) coupled global climate model. The regional model is first tested in 10 yr

  8. global warming itself. Moreover, the mere prospect of geo-engineering is a profound indictment of decades of failed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winickoff, David

    global warming itself. Moreover, the mere prospect of geo- engineering is a profound indictment as solar radiation manage- ment (SRM), would aim to reduce global warming by spray- ing aerosols of geoengineering research acknowledge the many risks involved. The physical risks include possible shifts in global

  9. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Eddy-mediated transport of warm Circumpolar Deep Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Andrew

    Circumpolar Deep Water across the Antarctic Shelf Break Andrew L. Stewart,1 and Andrew F. Thompson2- tom Water (AABW), and constrains shoreward transport of warm Circumpolar Deep Water toward marine the transport of relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) onto the continental shelf supplies the heat

  10. Ocean Response to Wind Variations, Warm Water Volume, and Simple Models of ENSO in the Low-Frequency Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Response to Wind Variations, Warm Water Volume, and Simple Models of ENSO in the Low the smallness of the ratio «k 5 Tk/T to expand solutions of the ocean shallow-water equations into power series- izontal redistribution of warm surface water along the equator: during an El Nin~o, weakened zonal winds

  11. October 1986 R. H. Johnson 721 Lower-Tropospheric Warming and Drying in Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard H.

    October 1986 R. H. Johnson 721 Lower-Tropospheric Warming and Drying in Tropical Mesoscale components of tropical mesoscale convective systems. It is found that while the apparent heat source Q1 of mesoscale downdrafts within the mesoscale convective systems. The warming and drying at low levels

  12. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  13. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-05-15

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

  14. A large ozone-circulation feedback and its implications for global warming assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowack, Peer J.; Abraham, N. Luke; Maycock, Amanda C.; Braesicke, Peter; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Joshi, Manoj M.; Osprey, Annette; Pyle, John A.

    2014-12-01

    -climate model, we find an increase in global mean surface warming of around 1°C (~20%) after 75 years when ozone is prescribed at pre-industrial levels compared with when it is allowed to evolve self-consistently in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing...

  15. Case Closed: The Debate about Global Warming is Over 1 Number 3 June 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politics at the Water's Edge: Lessons from the Dubai Seaports Imbroglio" (June 2006) This brief of the National Climatic Data Center, said there exists "a great range of uncertainty" regarding whether the world researchers that an artificially warming world is a real phenomenon posing real danger. The American

  16. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly

  17. Forecasting changes in population genetic structure of alpine plants in response to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François, Olivier

    Forecasting changes in population genetic structure of alpine plants in response to global warming the European Alps, we applied this approach to 20 alpine plant species considering a global increase populations potentially adapted to warmer environments and other populations. While a global trend of movement

  18. Climate warming will reduce growth and survival of Scots pine except in the far north

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    LETTER Climate warming will reduce growth and survival of Scots pine except in the far north P. B in North America. Growth and survival were analysed in response to climatic transfer distance populations at each site, and across sites for regional groups of populations, were related to climate

  19. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE EXOPLANET WASP-5b WITH WARM SPITZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baskin, Nathaniel J.

    We present secondary eclipse photometry of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 ?m bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera as part of the extended warm mission. By estimating the ...

  20. Impact of climate change on stratospheric sudden warmings as simulated by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of climate change on stratospheric sudden warmings as simulated by the Canadian middle atmosphere model Article Published Version McLandress, C. and Shepherd, T. G. (2009) Impact of climate change at the University of Reading Reading's research outputs online #12;Impact of Climate Change on Stratospheric Sudden