National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for unscheduled downtime due

  1. Unscheduled Downtime | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedof Rochester |Argonne National

  2. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug [Sentech, Inc.; Goggin, Mr. Michael [Sentech, Inc.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  3. Building Damage, Death and Downtime Risk Attenuation in Earthquakes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yinghui

    2012-07-16

    Whether it is for pre-event prevention and preparedness or for post-event response and recovery of a catastrophic earthquake, estimates of damage, death and downtime (3d) losses are needed by engineers, owners, and policy makers. In this research, a...

  4. Rapid Loss Modeling of Death and Downtime Caused By Earthquake Induced Damage to Structures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghorawat, Sandeep

    2012-07-16

    , a similar quantitative risk assessment technique is used to examine the indirect loss associated with death and downtime. The four-step approach is subdivided into four distinct tasks: (a) Hazard analysis, (b) Structural analysis, (c) Loss analysis...

  5. Environmental determinants of unscheduled residential outages in the electrical power distribution of Phoenix, Arizona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental determinants of unscheduled residential outages in the electrical power distribution: Distribution Electricity Interruption Outage Reliability a b s t r a c t The sustainability of power requires knowledge of unscheduled outage sources, including environ- mental and social factors. Despite

  6. A Simple Way to Estimate the Cost of Downtime David A. Patterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    techniques to reduce the consequences of operator error. Improving dependability and lowering cost if products that use them are more expensive and the subsequent benefits cannot be quantified by lower cost1 A Simple Way to Estimate the Cost of Downtime David A. Patterson Computer Science Division

  7. Emergency and School Closing Notification Procedures In the case of an emergency and/or unscheduled school closing, the College of Law will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, Will

    Emergency and School Closing Notification Procedures In the case of an emergency and/or unscheduled; · Updates on the Stetson Law emergency blog (www.stetsonlawemergency.com), the official Stetson Law Facebook calling the College's main phone number, so that the main number will remain open for emergency calls

  8. Risk analysis of the LHC underground area fire risk due to faulty electrical equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, A

    2007-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, is currently building the latest generation of particle accelerators, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The machine is housed in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference and is situated approximately 100 metres beneath the surface astride the Franco-Swiss border. Electrically induced fires in the LHC are a major concern, since an incident could present a threat to CERN personnel as well as the public. Moreover, the loss of equipment would result in significant costs and downtime. However, the amount of electrical equipment in the underground area required for operation, supervision and control of the machine is essential. Thus the present thesis is assessing the risk of fire due to faulty electrical equipment in both a qualitative as well as quantitative way. The recommendations following the qualitative analysis suggest the introduction of fire protection zones for the areas with the highest risk of fire due to a combination of p...

  9. 2014 ALCC Proposals Due

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALCC Proposals Due February 3, 2014 2014 DOE ALCC Proposals Due February 3 December 23, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) DOE's 2014 call for its ASCR Leadership Computing...

  10. Digital Twins of physical assets prevents unplanned downtime...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industries, to drive innovation, performance and outcomes regardless of business and geography. This value is captured by faster growth at higher margins; it makes the totality of...

  11. Digital Twins of physical assets prevents unplanned downtime | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HAB PacketDiesel prices continue toDiesel

  12. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  13. 2014 NERSC allocation requests due September 22

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    requests due September 22 2014 NERSC allocation requests due September 22 August 13, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) NERSC's allocation submission system is now open for...

  14. 2015 NERSC allocation requests due September 22

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 NERSC allocation requests due September 22 2015 NERSC allocation requests due September 22 August 13, 2014 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) The NERSC allocation submission...

  15. 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals - Due

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INCITE Call for Proposals 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals - Due June 28 April 30, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) The 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals is now open. Open to...

  16. MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    pore-water pressures , subsidence. DISCLAIMER NeiIher ( h ehere," do not MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE T GEOTHERMAL FLUIDSecond Syhposium on Land Subsidence 1976 a t Anaheim, I n t

  17. Visualization Contest Applications due August 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    due August 3 June 22, 2012 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) In support of the IEEE Symposium on Large-Scale Data Analysis and Visualization (LDAV) 2012's visualization...

  18. Seismic attenuation due to patchy saturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masson, Y. J; Pride, S. R

    2011-01-01

    attenuation peak is observed at lower frequencies due to oilor when oil is invading water, a single attenuation peak isusing oil as fluid 1 and water as fluid 2. The two peaks in

  19. INVESTIGATION Distortions in Genealogies due to Purifying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Michael

    INVESTIGATION Distortions in Genealogies due to Purifying Selection and Recombination Lauren E overall diversity and distorting the shapes of genealogies. Recombination attenuates these effects; however, purifying selection can significantly distort genealogies even for substantial recombination

  20. 2004 FOCI Cruise Schedule Modified: 1/13/2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Hardy FOCI BS Moorings FOCI 3MF04 May 3- May 15 Ketchikan Shipyard Emerg. Shipyard May 15- May 21 due to extended ship yard period. 2 Shortened by three days due to unscheduled shipyard period. 3 to unscheduled shipyard period. (lost 8 days total) 4 MF04-05 Leg2 added after emergency shipyard period

  1. Is Hubble's Expansion due to Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. Gupta; Anirudh Pradhan

    2010-10-19

    {\\it The universe is expanding} is known (through Galaxy observations) since 1929 through Hubble's discovery ($V = H D$). Recently in 1999, it is found (through Supernovae observations) that the universe is not simply expanding but is accelerating too. We, however, hardly know only $4\\%$ of the universe. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite observational data suggest $73\\%$ content of the universe in the form of dark-energy, $23\\%$ in the form of non-baryonic dark-matter and the rest $4\\%$ in the form of the usual baryonic matter. The acceleration of the universe is ascribed to this dark-energy with bizarre properties (repulsive-gravity). The question is that whether Hubble's expansion is just due to the shock of big-bang & inflation or it is due to the repulsive-gravity of dark-energy? Now, it is believed to be due to dark-energy, say, by re-introducing the once-discarded cosmological-constant $\\Lambda$. In the present paper, it is shown that `the formula for acceleration due to dark-energy' is (almost) exactly of same-form as `the acceleration formula from the Hubble's law'. Hence, it is concluded that: yes, `indeed it is the dark-energy responsible for the Hubble's expansion too, in-addition to the current on-going acceleration of the universe'.

  2. APPARENT PULSE DIFFUSION DUE TO DISORDERED MICROSTRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solna, Knut

    APPARENT PULSE DIFFUSION DUE TO DISORDERED MICROSTRUCTURE A. Nachbin \\Lambda and K. Sølna y \\Lambda, and it is important to describe when and how fine scale heterogeneities interact with a traveling seismic pulse. We are interested in pulse shaped waves that interact with the rapidly varying features (i.e. microstruture

  3. Renewable Energy Loan Applications Due Today!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you haven't submitted your Part I application for Department of Energy Loan Guarantee Program’s Renewables Solicitation yet, today is your last day! Round 8, Part I applications for DOE's Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy and Advanced Transmission and Distribution Technologies Solicitation (2009) are due today by midnight EDT.

  4. Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress. The evidence suggests that air pollution aerosols that are incorporated in orographic clouds slow down cloud

  5. Quasar Image Shifts due to Gravitational Microlensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    1998-02-23

    Gravitational microlensing of quasars by stars in external galaxies can introduce fluctuations in the centroid of the ``point-like'' macro--images. The induced shifts are extremely small, on micro--arcsecond scales, below the limits of current optical observations. However, such shifts will become measurable with the proposed ``Space Interferometry'' mission, due to fly in 2005. The degree of the centroid shifts and their application as probes of both quasar structure and the stellar mass function in the lensing galaxy are discussed.

  6. Preventive maintenance system for the photomultiplier detector blocks of pet scanners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Alejandro V. (Center Moriches, NY); Warner, Donald (Shirley, NY)

    1995-01-24

    A system including a method and apparatus for preventive maintenance of PET scanner photomultiplier detector blocks is disclosed. The quantitive comparisons used in the method of the present invention to provide an indication in the form of a display or printout advising the user that the photomultiplier block is stable, intermittently unstable, or drifting unstable, and also advising of the expected date of failure of a photomultiplier block in the PET scanner. The system alerts the user to replace the defective photomultiplier block prior to catastrophic failure in a scheduled preventative maintenance program, thus eliminating expensive and unscheduled downtime of the PET scanner due to photomultiplier failure. The apparatus for carrying out the method of the present invention preferably resides in the host computer controlling a PET scanner. It includes a memory adapted for storing a record of a number of iterative adjustments that are necessary to calibrate the gain of a photomultiplier detector block i at a time t.sub.0, a time t.sub.1 and a time T, where T>t.sub.1 >t.sub.0, which is designated as Histo(i,j(t)). The apparatus also includes a processor configured by a software program or a combination of programmed RAM and ROM devices to perform a number of calculations and operations on these values, and also includes a counter for analyzing each photomultiplier detector block i=1 through I of a PET scanner.

  7. Preventive maintenance system for the photomultiplier detector blocks of PET scanners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, A.V.; Warner, D.

    1995-01-24

    A system including a method and apparatus for preventive maintenance of PET scanner photomultiplier detector blocks is disclosed. The qualitative comparisons used in the method of the present invention to provide an indication in the form of a display or printout advising the user that the photomultiplier block is stable, intermittently unstable, or drifting unstable, and also advising of the expected date of failure of a photomultiplier block in the PET scanner. The system alerts the user to replace the defective photomultiplier block prior to catastrophic failure in a scheduled preventative maintenance program, thus eliminating expensive and unscheduled downtime of the PET scanner due to photomultiplier failure. The apparatus for carrying out the method of the present invention preferably resides in the host computer controlling a PET scanner. It includes a memory adapted for storing a record of a number of iterative adjustments that are necessary to calibrate the gain of a photomultiplier detector block i at a time t[sub 0], a time t[sub 1] and a time T, where T>t[sub 1]>t[sub 0], which is designated as Histo(i,j(t)). The apparatus also includes a processor configured by a software program or a combination of programmed RAM and ROM devices to perform a number of calculations and operations on these values, and also includes a counter for analyzing each photomultiplier detector block i=1 through I of a PET scanner. 40 figures.

  8. Extreme events due to localisation of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colm Mulhern; Stephan Bialonski; Holger Kantz

    2015-01-09

    We study a one-dimensional chain of harmonically coupled units in an asymmetric anharmonic soft potential. Due to nonlinear localisation of energy, this system exhibits extreme events in the sense that individual elements of the chain show very large excitations. A detailed statistical analysis of extremes in this system reveals some unexpected properties, e.g., a pronounced pattern in the inter event interval statistics. We relate these statistical properties to underlying system dynamics, and notice that often when extreme events occur the system dynamics adopts (at least locally) an oscillatory behaviour, resulting in, for example, a quick succession of such events. The model therefore might serve as a paradigmatic model for the study of the interplay of nonlinearity, energy transport, and extreme events.

  9. Kuiper Belt evolution due to dynamical friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Del Popolo; E. Spedicato; M. Gambera

    1999-05-04

    In this paper we study the role of dynamical friction on the evolution of a population of large objects ($m>10^{22}$ g) at heliocentric distances $>70$ AU in the Kuiper Belt. We show that the already flat distribution of these objects must flatten further due to non-spherically symmetric distribution of matter in the Kuiper Belt. Moreover the dynamical drag, produced by dynamical friction, causes objects of masses $\\geq 10^{24} g$ to lose angular momentum and to fall through more central regions in a timescale $\\approx 10^9 yr$. This mechanism is able to transport inwards objects of the size of Pluto, supposing it was created beyond 50 AU, according to a Stern & Colwell's (1997b) suggestion.

  10. Performance Evaluation / Downtime Analysis of an Floating Liquefied Natural Gas Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yong Suk

    2015-07-31

    ................................................................................................................. 112 APPENDIX 3 ................................................................................................................. 125 viii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. LNG value chain (Conventional vs. FLNG), revised from McDonald, L.... (IBC Energy), 2013, 7th Annual FLNG Conference, Seoul, Korea. ................... 1 Figure 2. Schematic process flow of FLNGs (Background image source: Pek, B. and Velder, H.v.d., 2013, LNG 17, Houston, U...

  11. Radio wave emissions due to gravitational radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattias Marklund; Gert Brodin; Peter Dunsby

    2000-02-29

    We consider the interaction of a weak gravitational wave with electromagnetic fields in a thin plasma on a Minkowski background spacetime using the 1+3 orthonormal frame formalism. Because gravitational and electromagnetic waves satisfy the same dispersion relation, electromagnetic waves can be effectively generated as a result of this interaction. In the case of the interaction with a static magnetic field, the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves depends on the size of the excitation region in which the magnetic field is contained. It is argued that due to the presence of a plasma this process can also lead to the generation of higher harmonics of the original mode. Estimates are given for this effect in the case of a binary pulsar and a cold electron plasma. It is found that the emmited radiation will lie in the radio frequency band. We also speculate on the possible relevance of this process on situations in cosmology, in particular whether this could be used to constrain primordial magnetic fields.

  12. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations...

  13. SC11 Education Program Applications due July 31

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SC11 Education Program Applications due July 31 SC11 Education Program Applications due July 31 June 9, 2011 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) Applications for the Education...

  14. Study finds radioactivity around Los Alamos largely due to natural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactivity largely due to natural sources Study finds radioactivity around Los Alamos largely due to natural sources The study was subsequently peer reviewed externally by...

  15. EAC Meeting Cancelled Due to Weather | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EAC Meeting Cancelled Due to Weather EAC Meeting Cancelled Due to Weather March 5, 2013 - 3:06pm Addthis This week's Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC) meeting has been cancelled...

  16. Simulation of paraffin damage due to natural cooling in reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddibhotla, Sriram

    1993-01-01

    in the reservoir. Suitable modifications were made to model the paraffin precipitation due to natural cooling. The mechanisms which were modeled include (1) reduction in paraffin solubility due to evolution of dissolved gas and due to temperature changes, (2... independently, after which they were incorporated into a reservoir simulator. Then cases were run to simulate field conditions. Natural cooling is the temperature drop due to the gas leaving solution. The simulation results indicate that natural cooling...

  17. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring - An Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.; Yang, W.

    2013-07-01

    High operation and maintenance costs still hamper the development of the wind industry despite its quick growth worldwide. To reduce unscheduled downtime and avoid catastrophic failures of wind turbines and their components have been and will be crucial to further raise the competitiveness of wind power. Condition monitoring is one of the key tools for achieving such a goal. To enhance the research and development of advanced condition monitoring techniques dedicated to wind turbines, we present an overview of wind turbine condition monitoring, discuss current practices, point out existing challenges, and suggest possible solutions.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are processed and recycled legally under a regularly audited New Mexico hazardous waste management permit, Pollution Prevention (P2) was prompted to perform a due diligence audit...

  19. Electrochemical Surface Potential due to Classical Point Charge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Potential due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical Surface Potential...

  20. Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling shear failure and...

  1. PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES Fabien FouiHen, INERIS, Parc initiating event of the fire ball observed. In concrete terms, when a fixed roof storage tank is surrounded

  2. Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum transfer from Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of the ion...

  3. Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    potentially lead to the exposure to members of the public. The potential amount of contamination deposited on the ground surface, due to plant intrusion into buried waste, is a...

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the heating, ventilating, and...

  5. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR...

  6. Resistance to Thyroid Hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-07-30

    )](1). Intracellularly, deiodinase enzymes (DIOs) mediate hormone metabolism, with a high-affinity type 2 enzyme (DIO2) mediating T4 to T3 conversion in the central nervous system (CNS) including pituitary and hypothalamus, type I deiodinase (DIO1) generating... and kidney, while TR?2 expression is limited principally to the hypothalamus, pituitary, inner ear, and retina (4). Resistance to Thyroid Hormone beta (RTH?), a dominantly-inherited disorder due to THRB mutations, is readily recognized due to a...

  7. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part II Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due

  8. Failure Forewarning in NPP Equipment NERI2000-109 Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hively, LM

    2004-03-26

    The objective of this project is forewarning of machine failures in critical equipment at next-generation nuclear power plants (NPP). Test data were provided by two collaborating institutions: Duke Engineering and Services (first project year), and the Pennsylvania State University (Applied Research Laboratory) during the second and third project years. New nonlinear methods were developed and applied successfully to extract forewarning trends from process-indicative, time-serial data for timely, condition-based maintenance. Anticipation of failures in critical equipment at next-generation NPP will improve the scheduling of maintenance activities to minimize safety concerns, unscheduled non-productive downtime, and collateral damage due to unexpected failures. This approach provides significant economic benefit, and is expected to improve public acceptance of nuclear power. The approach is a multi-tiered, model-independent, and data-driven analysis that uses ORNL's novel nonlinear method to extract forewarning of machine failures from appropriate data. The first tier of the analysis provides a robust choice for the process-indicative data. The second tier rejects data of inadequate quality. The third tier removes signal artifacts that would otherwise confound the analysis, while retaining the relevant nonlinear dynamics. The fourth tier converts the artifact-filtered time-serial data into a geometric representation, that is then transformed to a discrete distribution function (DF). This method allows for noisy, finite-length datasets. The fifth tier obtains dissimilarity measures (DM) between the nominal-state DF and subsequent test-state DFs. Forewarning of a machine failure is indicated by several successive occurrences of the DM above a threshold, or by a statistically significant trend in the DM. This paradigm yields robust nonlinear signatures of degradation and its progression, allowing earlier and more accurate detection of the machine failure.

  9. Eddy heat fluxes at Drake Passage due to mesoscale motions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas Recabal, Ricardo Luis

    1982-01-01

    EDDY HEAT FLUKES AT DRAKE PASSAGE DUE TO MESOSCALE MOTIONS A Thesis by RICARDO LUIS ROJAS RECABAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography EDDY HEAT FLUXES AT DRAKE PASSAGE DUE TO MESOSCALE NOTIONS A Thesis by RICARDO LUIS ROJAS RECABAL Approved as to style and content by: was )W-~ Member em er May 1982 ABSTRACT Eddy Heat Fluxes at Drake Passage...

  10. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date

  11. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due DateAdv.

  12. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part II Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due DateAdv.II

  13. Nonvolatile memory disturbs due to gate and junction leakage currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    leakage currents induced by stress due to LOCOS and trap- assisted tunneling (TAT). * Corresponding author Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Solid State Electronics Research, Arizona State) from traps within the gate oxides. Such low gate leakage currents can lead to sufficient charge

  14. been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations."

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latham, Peter

    been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations." Not only is climate difficult to climate change, and house prices consequently fall, some of this loss can straightforwardly how some external driver of climate change, such as past green- house-gas emissions, may have

  15. Heliospheric MeV energization due to resonant interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Heliospheric MeV energization due to resonant interaction Ilan Roth1 Space Sciences Laboratory energetic heavy ions during active solar periods are of major importance with respect to the proper. Such processes may violate one or more invariants while preserving the other(s). Solar MeV ions are frequently

  16. Cluster Report or Survey Description Date due to IEA Responsible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Cluster Report or Survey Description Date due to IEA Responsible person(s) Comments Reports IEA will activate and distribute survey in August 2011 Summer Activity Report Faculty activity report for summer, 2012 December 20, 2012 Academic Department Heads By October 8, 2012, data is provided by IEA

  17. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AIR POLLUTION DYNAMICS DUE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    spots. ­ Global weather patterns effected. ­ CO2 and other pollutant emissions contributing to globalNUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AIR POLLUTION DYNAMICS DUE TO POINT SOURCE EMISSIONS FROM AN INDUSTRIAL, and ultimately effects the global climate balance. · About 60% of emissions from point sources · Major pollutants

  18. Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels B. Qin and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Twinning induced plasticity steels are austenitic alloys in which mechanical twinning is a prominent deformation, Twinning, Twinning induced plasticity, Automobiles Introduction Mechanical twinning is a plastic

  19. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhongfei "Mark"

    Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature of gas cylinders hazards of a ruptured cylinder. There are almost 200 different types of materials in gas cylinders, there are several general procedures to follow for safe storage and handling of a compressed gas cylinder: II

  20. Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty Steinar M. Elgsaeter Olav.ntnu.no) Abstract: The information content in measurements of offshore oil and gas production is often low, and when in the context of offshore oil and gas fields, can be considered the total output of production wells, a mass

  1. Cosmological electromagnetic fields due to gravitational wave perturbations Mattias Marklund*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunsby, Peter

    show that this coupling leads to an initial pulse of electromagnetic waves whose width and amplitude to produce a pulse of gravitationally induced electromagnetic waves. In particular, because of the differentCosmological electromagnetic fields due to gravitational wave perturbations Mattias Marklund

  2. Sawlog prices declined due to a depressed lum-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawlog prices declined due to a depressed lum- ber market and drying weather after the wet summer. Continuing shortage of residual chips for pulpwood mills kept pulpwood prices strong in East Texas this period. Hardwood pulpwood prices in Northeast Texas de- clined though. Average stumpage price for pine

  3. Availability Impact on GPS Aviation due to Strong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Availability Impact on GPS Aviation due to Strong Ionospheric Scintillation JIWON SEO TODD WALTER availability during a severe scintillation period observed using data from the previous solar maximum are considered. Availability results for both vertical and horizontal navigation during the severe scintillation

  4. Lamb shift due to surface plasmon polariton modes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Kamli, Ali; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2008-01-01

    The Lamb shift of a hydrogen atom due to the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes is calculated and we observe both band edge and surface enhancement. The atom sits inside a thin metal slab which is sandwiched by two semi-infinite dielectrics...

  5. Atomic displacements due to spinspin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benzi, Michele

    Atomic displacements due to spin­spin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons Ernesto-induced atomic displacements in conjugated alt- ernant hydrocarbons. It appears to be responsible alternant hydrocarbons (CAHs) have played a fun- damental role in the development of theoretical chemistry

  6. Researcharticle Distortions in Genealogies Due to Purifying Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Michael

    Researcharticle Distortions in Genealogies Due to Purifying Selection Lauren E. Nicolaisen1, leading to a reduced effective population size. However, it also distorts genealogies relative to neutral of genealogies in a population under strong purifying selection as equivalent to a purely neutral population

  7. Fusion rate enhancement due to energy spread of colliding nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fiorentini; C. Rolfs; F. L. Villante; B. Ricci

    2002-10-24

    Experimental results for sub-barrier nuclear fusion reactions show cross section enhancements with respect to bare nuclei which are generally larger than those expected according to electron screening calculations. We point out that energy spread of target or projectile nuclei is a mechanism which generally provides fusion enhancement. We present a general formula for calculating the enhancement factor and we provide quantitative estimate for effects due to thermal motion, vibrations inside atomic, molecular or crystal system, and due to finite beam energy width. All these effects are marginal at the energies which are presently measurable, however they have to be considered in future experiments at still lower energies. This study allows to exclude several effects as possible explanation of the observed anomalous fusion enhancements, which remain a mistery.

  8. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermosa, N

    2015-01-01

    I present theoretical calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a monolayer graphene on a dielectric media when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Specifically, I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, $45^0$, $\\sigma^+$). The Goos-H\\"anchen shifts I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment. I will discuss other possible experimental routes to determine beamshifts in graphene.

  9. Level schedule implementation in unstable manufacturing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López de Haro, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    American Axle & Manufacturing Inc. (AAM), headquartered in Detroit (MI) is one of the major Tier 1 suppliers in the automotive industry. The main challenge in AAM plant 2 is production rate unstability due to downtime, ...

  10. October 12, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bug. Were down for a day recently due to a security problem and there was also a power outage at OSF. Upcoming downtimes: Nothing in October. New hardware: End of fiscal year...

  11. Investigating the Effects of Corrosion on the Fatigue Life of Welded Steel Attachments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soape, Jack

    2012-07-16

    The railroad industry plays a pivotal role in commerce and greatly impacts America's economy. With this in mind, they cannot afford downtime or service interruptions due to bridge or member replacement. Corrosion of bridges ...

  12. Spectral Softening due to Winds in Accretion Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    1998-12-06

    Accretion flows may produce profuse winds when they have positive specific energy. Winds deplete matter from the inner region of the disk and makes the inner region thinner, optically. Since there are fewer electrons in this region, it becomes easier to Comptonize this part by the soft photons which are intercepted from the Keplerian disk farther out. We present a self-consistent picture of winds from an accretion disk and show how the spectra of the disk is softened due to the outflowing wind.

  13. Optical loss due to diffraction by concentrator Fresnel lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornung, Thorsten Nitz, Peter

    2014-09-26

    Fresnel lenses are widely used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems as a primary optical element. They focus sunlight on small solar cells or on the entrance apertures of secondary optical elements. A Fresnel lens consists of several prism rings and diffraction by these prism rings is unavoidable. Some of the light that would reach a designated target area according to geometric optics will miss it due to diffraction. This diffraction loss may be of relevant magnitude for CPV applications. The results of published analytical calculations are evaluated, discussed, and compared to computer simulations and measurements.

  14. ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge proposals due February 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposals due February 3 ASCR Leadership

  15. Variability of GRB Afterglows Due to Interstellar Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaohu Wang; Abraham Loeb

    1999-10-26

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows are commonly interpreted as synchrotron emission from a relativistic blast wave produced by a point explosion in an ambient medium, plausibly the interstellar medium of galaxies. We calculate the amplitude of flux fluctuations in the lightcurve of afterglows due to inhomogeneities in the surrounding medium. Such inhomogeneities are an inevitable consequence of interstellar turbulence, but could also be generated by variability and anisotropy in a precursor wind from the GRB progenitor. Detection of their properties could provide important clues about the environments of GRB sources. We apply our calculations to GRB990510, where an rms scatter of 2% was observed for the optical flux fluctuations on the 0.1--2 hour timescale during the first day of the afterglow, consistent with it being entirely due to photometric noise (Stanek et al. 1999). The resulting upper limits on the density fluctuations on scales of 20-200 AU around the source of GRB990510, are lower than the inferred fluctuation amplitude on similar scales in the Galactic interstellar medium. Hourly monitoring of future optical afterglows might therefore reveal fractional flux fluctuations at the level of a few percent.

  16. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  17. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  18. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  19. Backreaction effects due to matter coupled higher derivative gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lata Kh Joshi; P. Ramadevi

    2014-11-28

    AdS-hydrodynamics has proven to be a useful tool for obtaining transport coefficients observed in the collective flow of strongly coupled fluids like quark gluon plasma (QGP). Particularly, the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density ${\\eta/ s}$ obtained from elliptic flow measurements can be matched with the computation done in the dual gravity theory. The experimentally observed temperature dependence of ${\\eta/ s}$ requires the study of scalar matter coupled AdS gravity including higher derivative curvature corrections. We obtain the backreaction to the metric for such a matter coupled AdS gravity in $D$-dimensional spacetime due to the higher derivative curvature corrections. Then, we present the backreaction corrections to shear-viscosity $\\eta$ and entropy density $s$.

  20. Detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyangwuh520@sina.com; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Xuebao; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Xiaobo [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-08-15

    In order to get detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona such as the repetition rate of burst-pulse trains, the peak value ratio of the primary pulse to the secondary pulse, the number of pulses per burst, and the interval of the secondary pulses, a systematic study was carried out in a coaxial conductor-cylinder electrode system with the conductor electrode being set with a discharge point. Empirical formulae for the number of pulses per burst and the interval of the secondary pulses are first presented. A theoretical model based on the motion of the space-charge clouds is proposed. Analysis with the model gives explanations to the experimental results and reveals some new insights into the physical mechanism of positive intermittent corona.

  1. Intrinsic chiral magnetic effect in Dirac semimetals due to dislocations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernodub, M N

    2015-01-01

    The dislocation in Dirac semimetal carries an emergent magnetic flux parallel to the dislocation axis. We show that due to the emergent magnetic field the dislocation accommodates a single fermion massless mode of the corresponding low-energy one-particle Hamiltonian. The mode is propagating along the dislocation with its spin directed parallel to the dislocation axis. In agreement with the chiral anomaly observed in Dirac semimetals, an external electric field results in the spectral flow of the one-particle Hamiltonian, in pumping of the fermionic quasiparticles out from vacuum, and in creating a nonzero axial (chiral) charge in the vicinity of the dislocation. In the presence of the chirality imbalance, the intrinsic magnetic field of the dislocation generates an electric current along the dislocation axis. We point out that this effect - which is an "intrinsic" analogue of the chiral magnetic effect - may experimentally reveal itself through transport phenomena in Dirac semimetals via the enhanced conduct...

  2. Crystallographic changes in lead zirconate titanate due to neutron irradiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henriques, Alexandra; Graham, Joseph T.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Brown, Donald W.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-11-17

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are useful as the active element in non-destructive monitoring devices for high-radiation areas. Here, crystallographic structural refinement (i.e., the Rietveld method) is used to quantify the type and extent of structural changes in PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3 after exposure to a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 1.7 × 1015 neutrons/cm2. The results show a measurable decrease in the occupancy of Pb and O due to irradiation, with O vacancies in the tetragonal phase being created preferentially on one of the two O sites. The results demonstrate a method by which the effects of radiation on crystallographic structure maymore »be investigated.« less

  3. Massloss of galaxies due to a UV-background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Okamoto; Liang Gao; Tom Theuns

    2008-07-25

    We perform cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to determine to what extent galaxies lose their gas due to photoheating from an ionizing background. We find that the characteristic mass at which haloes on average have lost half of their baryons is Mc ~ 6.5 x 10^9 Msun/h at z = 0, which corresponds to a circular velocity of 25 km/s. This is significantly lower than the filtering mass obtained by the linear theory, which is often used in semianalytical models of galaxy formation. We demonstrate it is the gas temperature at the virial radius which determines whether a halo can accrete gas. A simple model that follows the merger history of the dark matter progenitors, and where gas accretion is not allowed when this temperature is higher than the virial temperature of the halo, reproduces the results from the simulation remarkably well. This model can be applied to any reionization history, and is easy to incorporate in semianalytical models.

  4. Crystallographic changes in lead zirconate titanate due to neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriques, Alexandra; Graham, Joseph T.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Brown, Donald W.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-11-17

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are useful as the active element in non-destructive monitoring devices for high-radiation areas. Here, crystallographic structural refinement (i.e., the Rietveld method) is used to quantify the type and extent of structural changes in PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3 after exposure to a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 1.7 × 1015 neutrons/cm2. The results show a measurable decrease in the occupancy of Pb and O due to irradiation, with O vacancies in the tetragonal phase being created preferentially on one of the two O sites. The results demonstrate a method by which the effects of radiation on crystallographic structure may be investigated.

  5. Site assessment guidelines provide road map in due diligence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Buyers, sellers and lenders of commercial and industrial real estate since the 1980s have faced potential liability under CERCLA for property contamination. The law stipulates that buyers must exercise due diligence'', conducting all appropriate inquiry'' to determine past ownership and uses of a property, and whether contamination exists. Buyers of polluted property can avoid liability only by showing that contamination occurred before the property was transferred to them, and that they had no knowledge or reason to know'' about the contamination at the time of purchase. Owners or sellers of contaminated property, as well as buyers aware of the contamination at time of purchase, may be designated potentially responsible parties (PRPs) under CERCLA and held liable for site cleanup. Lenders that participate in managing a contaminated property also may be designated PRPs. EPA in 1992 provided a liability exemption for lenders with limited or no management responsibilities for a contaminated property.

  6. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  7. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-08-07

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  8. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raj Saha

    2015-02-21

    During the last ice age several quasi-periodic abrupt warming events took place. Known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature anomalies. Paleoclimate data shows that the fluctuations often occurred right after massive glacial meltwater releases in the North Atlantic and in bursts of three or four with progressively decreasing strengths. In this study a simple dynamical model of an overturning circulation and sea ice is developed with the goal of understanding the fundamental mechanisms that could have caused the DO events. Interaction between sea ice and the overturning circulation in the model produces self-sustained oscillations. Analysis and numerical experiments reveal that the insulating effect of sea ice causes the ocean to periodically vent out accumulated heat in the deep ocean into the atmosphere. Subjecting the model to idealized freshwater forcing mimicking Heinrich events causes modulation of the natural periodicity and produces burst patterns very similar to what is observed in temperature proxy data. Numerical experiments with the model also suggests that the characteristic period of 1,500 years is due to the geometry, or the effective heat capacity, of the ocean that comes under sea ice cover.

  9. Cancellation of RF Coupler-Induced Emittance Due to Astigmatism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowell, David H

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that the electron beam quality required for applications such as FELs and ultra-fast electron diffraction can be degraded by the asymmetric fields introduced by the RF couplers of superconducting linacs. This effect is especially troublesome in the injector where the low energy beam from the gun is captured into the first high gradient accelerator section. Unfortunately modifying the established cavity design is expensive and time consuming, especially considering that only one or two sections are needed for an injector. Instead, it is important to analyze the coupler fields to understand their characteristics and help find less costly solutions for their cancellation and mitigation. This paper finds the RF coupler-induced emittance for short bunches is mostly due to the transverse spatial sloping or tilt of the field, rather than the field's time-dependence. It is shown that the distorting effects of the coupler can be canceled with a static (DC) quadrupole lens rotated about the z-axis.

  10. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore »immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.« less

  11. Comment on "Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    due to wind and solar power. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power” Andrew Mills, ? , †due to wind and solar power. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)

  12. Cash Flow Impacts of Industrial Steam Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    2003-01-01

    . Corporate leaders can maintain ROI by avoiding asset additions, but eventually the downtime imposed by failing assets begins to defeat this strategy. Plant optimization achieved through applied energy efficiency can only support the manager's adherence... gets the resources to upgrade steam assets and maintenance. But in addition, product managers enjoy lower costs per unit due to reduced waste of direct materials, as well as avoided downtime. Sales and marketing staff enjoy a bit more negotiating...

  13. Measurement of Hydrocarbon Fluxes due to Natural Seepage in the Northern Santa Barbara Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washburn, Libe; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    of Energy 001 "MEASUREMENT OF HYDROCARBON FLUXES DUE TOauthors directly. Measurement of Hydrocarbon Fluxes due toflux measurements been obtained in the region of hydrocarbon

  14. Deactivation Mechanism of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanism of CuZeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive Hydrothermal Aging Deactivation Mechanism of CuZeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive Hydrothermal Aging Better control for...

  15. PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO...

  16. Government Benefits and the Rule of Law: Toward a Standards-Based Theory of Due Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Richard E.; Shapiro, Sidney A.

    2006-01-01

    Under the Supreme Court's current due process jurisprudence, due process applies only when government actors deprive a person of a protected interest in life, liberty, or property, and government benefits are property only when has an entitlement...

  17. Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content Fact 588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content The fuel economy of a vehicle is...

  18. Due Cut 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the cultural connections made between race and color in works of fiction from the Victorian and Edwardian era, particularly how authors who are also artists invent fantastically colored ...

  19. Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting Kent D Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting," in Proceedings of the 64th SFSA macrosegregation in and below risers due to feeding flow in steel castings. The model uses feeding flow velocities

  20. Black Bear Prep plant replaces high-frequency screens with fine wire sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, C.J.; Nottingham, J.

    2007-12-15

    At the Black Bear prep plant (near Wharncliffe, WV, USA) the clean coal from the spirals traditionally reported to high-frequency screens, which removed high-ash clay fines. Screens have inherent inefficiencies that allow clean coal to report to the screen underflow. The goal of this project was to capture the maximum amount of spiral clean coal while still removing the high-ash clay material found in the spiral product. The reduction of the circulating load and plant downtime for unscheduled maintenance were projected as additional benefits. After the plant upgrade, the maintenance related to the high frequency screens was eliminated and an additional 2.27 tons per hour (tph) of fine coal was recovered, which resulted in a payback period of less than one year. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal Prep 2007 in April 2007, Lexington, KY, USA. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Seismic bridge response modification due to degradation of viscous dampers performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graziotti, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of Isolated Bridges: Parametric Analysis of theidentification procedure for bridge structures with energyUCSD. Cendron. (2008). Bridge response modification due to

  2. Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors Paul Withers1, Michael in the ionospheric response to these aspects of space weather. #12;

  3. Semester Project { Part 1 { CSE244 { Fall 2000 Due Dates: Thurdsay, October 5 and 12, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demurjian, Steven A.

    Semester Project { Part 1 { CSE244 { Fall 2000 Due Dates: Thurdsay, October 5 and 12, 2000 September 25, 2000 The project for the Fall 2000 Semester will focus on the design and implementation is divided into two major tasks. #15; Due: Thursday, October 5, 2000 at Start of Class Design a CFG

  4. Ground vibration due to a high-speed moving harmonic rectangular load on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    Ground vibration due to a high-speed moving harmonic rectangular load on a poroviscoelastic half'Avignon, Facult´e des Sciences, 33 rue Louis Pasteur, F-84000 Avignon, France RUNNING TITLE: Vibrations induced) #12;Abstract The transmission of vibrations in the ground, due to a high-speed moving vertical har

  5. COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS David Dearmont and Resources Portland State University P O Box 751 Portland OR 97207-0751 October, 1997 Draft of paper in Water Resources Research, 34(4), 849-854, 1998. #12;2 CHEMICAL COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER

  6. Crustal subsidence due to the Hlsln reservoir: predicting the elastic Earth response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Crustal subsidence due to the Hálslón reservoir: predicting the elastic Earth response Ronni. Later, a viscoelastic response due to stress relaxation will result in further subsidence. We present to the actual subsidence after filling of the reservoir will e.g. allow a determination of the effective Young

  7. Heliospheric ion energization due to emerging and S. D. Bale1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Heliospheric ion energization due to emerging CME shocks I. Roth1 and S. D. Bale1 Received 16 and low turbulence levels, poses a dilemma regarding the energization mechanism. When the magnetic ramp nonadiabatic characteristics. Subset of ions is energized while surfing along the shock due to the combined

  8. NOAA Technical Memorandum OAR PMEL-121 ATLAS Module Temperature Bias Due to Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Memorandum OAR PMEL-121 ATLAS Module Temperature Bias Due to Solar Heating P.N. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Temperature time series from a 1 m Seacat, NX Modules at 1 m and 10 m, and downwelling solar values for a given day. . 6 #12;iv Contents #12;ATLAS Module Temperature Bias Due to Solar Heating P.N. A

  9. Come si sceglie l'algoritmo di allineamento? le due proteine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morante, Silvia

    Come si sceglie l'algoritmo di allineamento? Domande: le due proteine hanno domini simili locale quale algoritmo di allineamento è opportuno utilizzare quale matrice di somiglianza è opportuno;Descrizione di un generico algoritmo di allineamento Siano date due sequenze, S1 e S2 , formate

  10. Cesium-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils due to the Fukushima nuclear accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Cesium-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils due to the Fukushima nuclear accident contamination due to the emission from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) showed up after a massive and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). This event led to emissions

  11. Experimental Study on Impact Load on a Dam Due to Debris Flow1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental Study on Impact Load on a Dam Due to Debris Flow1 lwao Miyoshi2 ABSTRACT When a dam such destruction, it is important to perform basic research about the impact load on a dam due to debris flow. Thus on the dam. The experiment was performed with glass beads of 5mm in diameter as bulk solid, in an open

  12. Parametric spatial solitary waves due to type II second-harmonic generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parametric spatial solitary waves due to type II second-harmonic generation Alexander V. Buryak either 1 or 2 is generated). A particular case of this three-wave interaction, formally described analyze (1 1)- and (2 1)-dimensional self-guided beams (spatial solitons) due to three-wave para- metric

  13. Climate change impacts on mountain glaciers and permafrost Due to their proximity to melting conditions under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raup, Bruce H.

    Editorial Climate change impacts on mountain glaciers and permafrost Due to their proximity sensitive to climate changes. In fact, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) re- cognizes glaciers as the best terrestrial indicator of climate change, due both to their sensitivity to climatic

  14. The dissipated power in atomic force microscopy due to interactions with a capillary fluid layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, Mark

    The dissipated power in atomic force microscopy due to interactions with a capillary fluid layer N July 2008; published online 23 September 2008 We study the power dissipated by the tip interactions of the model are entirely conservative and the dissipated power is due to the hysteretic nature

  15. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were developed under this project. As an outgrowth of this program, Eaton developed a patented energy-optimizing drive control technology that is complementary to a traditional variable frequency drives (VFD) to enable significant energy savings for motors with variable torque applications, such as fans, pumps, and compressors. This technology provides an estimated energy saving of 2%-10% depending on the loading condition, in addition to the savings obtained from a traditional VFD. The combination of a VFD with the enhanced energy-optimizing controls will provide significant energy savings (10% to 70% depending on the load and duty cycle) for motors that are presently connected with across the line starters. It will also provide a more favorable return on investment (ROI), thus encouraging industries to adopt VFDs for more motors within their facilities. The patented technology is based on nonintrusive algorithms that estimate the instantaneous operating efficiency and motor speed and provide active energy-optimizing control of a motor, using only existing voltage and current sensors. This technology is currently being commercialized by Eaton’s Industrial Controls Division in their next generation motor control products. Due to the common nonintrusive and inferential nature of various algorithms, this same product can also include motor and equipment condition monitoring features, providing the facility owner additional information to improve process uptime and the associated energy savings. Calculations estimated potential energy savings of 261,397GWh/Yr ($15.7B/yr), through retrofitting energy-optimizing VFDs into existing facilities, and incorporating the solution into building equipment sold by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and installed by mechanical and electrical contractors. Utilizing MCSA and MPSA for predictive maintenance (PM) of motors and connected equipment reduces process downtime cost and the cost of wasted energy associated with shutting down and restarting the processes. Estimated savings vary depending on the industry segment and equi

  16. Page 1 of 5 Policy Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute for Aviation Research (NIAR) at Wichita State University (WSU) are covered in this document restoration. If the tunnel is not operating due to scheduled or unscheduled maintenance, the Client will not be charged to the Client. Maintenance and Repairs The Beech Wind Tunnel reserves the right to adjust

  17. Critical-current reduction in thin superconducting wires due to current crowding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berggren, Karl K.

    We demonstrate experimentally that the critical current in superconducting NbTiN wires is dependent on their geometrical shape, due to current-crowding effects. Geometric patterns such as 90? corners and sudden expansions ...

  18. Physics 112 Problem Set #3 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY JANUARY 27, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #3 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY JANUARY 27, 2000 MIDTERM ALERT: The first midterm exam will be given in class on Tuesday February 1, 2000. This exam will cover material from

  19. Physics 112 Problem Set #6 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY FEBRUARY 17, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #6 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY FEBRUARY 17, 2000 SECOND MIDTERM ALERT: The second midterm exam will be given in class on Tuesday February 22, 2000 from 10--11:30 am in 283 Kerr

  20. Physics 112 Problem Set #6 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY FEBRUARY 17, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #6 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY FEBRUARY 17, 2000 SECOND MIDTERM ALERT: The second midterm exam will be given in class on Tuesday February 22, 2000 from 10­11:30 am in 283 Kerr Hall

  1. Strategies for mitigating adverse environmental impacts due to structural building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturvedi, Swati, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis assesses the problem of adverse environmental impacts due to the use of Portland cement and structural steel in the construction industry. The thesis outlines three technology and policy strategies to mitigate ...

  2. Estimation of economic impact of freight distribution due to highway closure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Shiyin

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to provide a theoretical framework and methodology to estimate and analyze the economic impact of freight disruption due to highway closure. The costs in this study will be classified into ...

  3. Study on Groundwater Quality Parameter Variation Due to Temperature Change in Calibration Solution and Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    1. Title Study on Groundwater Quality Parameter Variation Due to Temperature Change in Calibration of Florida, Gainesville, FL 4. Abstract Measurement of groundwater quality parameters is essential shown that there is some variation in measured groundwater quality parameters when

  4. Variations in astrocyte and fibroblast response due to biomaterial particulates in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VandeVord, Pamela

    Variations in astrocyte and fibroblast response due to biomaterial particulates in vitro Roche C of the biomaterials tested promoted proliferation in fibroblasts implying that biomaterial par- ticles: 14­24, 2008 Key words: reactive astrocyte; fibroblast; proliferation; cy- totoxicity; biomaterial

  5. Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonators. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators. In this paper, the effect of...

  6. StrongantimicrobialactivityofLactobacillusrhamnosus GG against Salmonella typhimurium is due to accumulation of lactic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    StrongantimicrobialactivityofLactobacillusrhamnosus GG against Salmonella typhimurium is due Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; probiotics; Salmonella typhimurium; lactic acid; antimicrobial compound; organic had been reported to exert antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. However

  7. Development of a research methodology to study lumber waste due to design causes in residential construction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vyas, Ashok Madhusudan

    1999-01-01

    Residential Construction faces problems regarding inefficiencies of material usage. Builders pay twice for the lumber that is wasted. Once when it is purchased and once when it is disposed. Part of the lumber waste is generated due to the design...

  8. Characterization of unsteady loading due to impeller-diffuser interaction in centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lusardi, Christopher (Christopher Dean)

    2012-01-01

    Time dependent simulations are used to characterize the unsteady impeller blade loading due to imipeller-diffuser interaction in centrifugal compressor stages. The capability of simulations are assessed by comparing results ...

  9. Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors P. Withers (1), M observed two aspects of space weather at Mars. Following solar flares of both moderate to strong magnitude

  10. The assessment of mixing/solid suspension in a slab tank due to vibratory agitation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Christopher Joseph

    1988-01-01

    THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Approved as to style and content by: Gar B. Tatterson...

  11. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  12. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroyuki Tashiro; Toyokazu Sekiguchi; Joseph Silk

    2013-10-15

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a "21 cm forest" against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift ($z \\gtrsim 10$), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, $G \\mu Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with $G \\mu \\approx 7.5 \\times 10^{-8}$ for the single frequency band case and $4.0 \\times 10^{-8}$ for the multi-frequency band case.

  13. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ''21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (z?>10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, G? < 1.5 × 10{sup ?7}. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with G? ? 7.5 × 10{sup ?8} for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10{sup ?8} for the multi-frequency band case.

  14. Critical-Current Reduction in Thin Superconducting Wires Due to Current Crowding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hortensius, H.L.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Berggren, K.K.; Clem, John

    2012-05-03

    We demonstrate experimentally that the critical current in superconducting NbTiN wires is dependent on their geometrical shape, due to current-crowding effects. Geometric patterns such as 90{degrees} corners and sudden expansions of wire width are shown to result in the reduction of critical currents. The results are relevant for single-photon detectors as well as parametric amplifiers.

  15. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly

  16. Revision of the global carbon budget due to changing air-sea oxygen fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    -derived relationship between changes in atmospheric O2/N2 due to oceanic outgassing and heat fluxes to estimate ocean O2 outgassing. The inferred terrestrial carbon sink for the 1990s is reduced by a factor of two: global carbon budget, changes in ocean heat content, oceanic oxygen outgassing, ocean and land sinks

  17. Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murty, Katta G.

    Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects temperatures have increased much more than can be explained by changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases traffic round the clock and around the globe which is contributing to higher concentrations of greenhouse

  18. Modification of graphene properties due to electron-beam irradiation D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modification of graphene properties due to electron-beam irradiation D. Teweldebrhan and A. A of changes in the single and bilayer graphene crystal lattice induced by the low and medium energy electron-beam and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy and focused ion beam processing. © 2009

  19. N2 DISSOCIATION IN THE MESOSPHERE DUE TO SECONDARY ELECTRONS DURING A SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulich, Thomas

    N2 DISSOCIATION IN THE MESOSPHERE DUE TO SECONDARY ELECTRONS DURING A SOLAR PROTON EVENT, ionization processes produce secondary electrons that, if possessing 9.76 eV or more energy, dissociate N2 to secondary electrons dur- ing a solar proton event. Further, we have studied the effect on atomic nitrogen

  20. Physics 112 Problem Set #9 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY MARCH 16, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #9 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY MARCH 16, 2000 FINAL EXAM ALERT: The final exam will be given on Friday March 17, 2000 from 7:30­10:30 pm in 283 Kerr Hall. This will be a open

  1. Physics 112 Problem Set #9 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY MARCH 16, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #9 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY MARCH 16, 2000 FINAL EXAM ALERT: The final exam will be given on Friday March 17, 2000 from 7:30--10:30 pm in 283 Kerr Hall. This will be a open

  2. Suppression of 2 phase-slip due to hidden zero modes in one dimensional topological superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Suppression of 2 phase-slip due to hidden zero modes in one dimensional topological superconductors-dimensional topological superconducting wires. These wires have been proposed as building blocks for topologically in decoherence. Phase slips in topological superconductors are peculiar for the reason that they occur

  3. CS680: Value Iteration for Mountain Cars Due Feb. 21 (SURGE March 6)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    CS680: Value Iteration for Mountain Cars Due Feb. 21 (SURGE March 6) Introduction In this assignment, you will implement a simulated control system that learns to drive a simulated car out and back of the valley until the car gains enough momentum to get out. You will apply asynchronous value

  4. Escape patterns, magnetic footprints, and homoclinic tangles due to ergodic magnetic limiters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    of the most important problems in a plasma­wall interaction in tokamaks is the control of plasma contamina of the plasma temperature in the tokamak edge region and a reduction of the plasma­wall interactions, opening- tion due to localized heat and particle loadings on the inner tokamak wall.1 It is believed

  5. Investigation of Potential Fuel Savings Due to Continuous-Descent Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dengfeng

    Investigation of Potential Fuel Savings Due to Continuous-Descent Approach Li Jin, Yi Cao a considerable number of researchers have been devoted to the estimation of potential fuel savings of the continuous-descent approach, few have attempted to explain the fuel savings observed in field tests from

  6. Understanding subsidence in the Mississippi Delta region due to sediment, ice, and ocean loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    Understanding subsidence in the Mississippi Delta region due to sediment, ice, and ocean loading The processes responsible for land surface subsidence in the Mississippi Delta (MD) have been vigorously debated. Numerous studies have postulated a dominant role for isostatic subsidence associated with sediment loading

  7. NMR relaxation in spin ice due to diffusing emergent monopoles I Christopher L. Henley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, Christopher L.

    out, or the reverse, which were shown to behave as (emergent) magnetic monopole [3]. The low, spin dynamics in ideal spin ice is due mainly to dilute, thermally excited magnetic monopole exponent in that exponential and the formulas for the T1 (longitudinal) and T2 (dephasing) relaxations

  8. Observation of tearing mode deceleration and locking due to eddy currents induced in a conducting shell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Observation of tearing mode deceleration and locking due to eddy currents induced in a conducting eddy currents induced by the rotating mode in the conducting shell surrounding the plasma. According to the amplitude of the mode.4­7 According to this theory, eddy currents induced in the conducting shell

  9. A simple numerical model of the apparent loss of eddy current conductivity due to surface roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    A simple numerical model of the apparent loss of eddy current conductivity due to surface roughness of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation, the path of the eddy current must follow a more tortuous route in the material, which produces a reduction

  10. Doctoral Defense "Frost Deterioration in Concrete Due to Deicer Salt Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Frost Deterioration in Concrete Due to Deicer Salt Exposure: Mechanism-freeze climate zone. During winter a deicer-salt application is needed to melt snow on highways. Freezing in the presence of a deicer salt solution is considered a severe concrete exposure condition. Prolonged exposure

  11. Apparent Slip Due to the Motion of Suspended Particles in Flows of Electrolyte Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauga, Eric

    Apparent Slip Due to the Motion of Suspended Particles in Flows of Electrolyte Solutions Eric Lauga of electrolyte solutions in small channels or capillaries in which tracer particles are used to probe velocity near a stationary solid surface.1 Although it has been a crucial ingredient of our understanding

  12. Characterization and removal of errors due to local magnetic anomalies in directional drilling Nathan Hancock*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization and removal of errors due to local magnetic anomalies in directional drilling of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines Summary Directional drilling has evolved over the last few decades utilizes a technique known as magnetic Measurement While Drilling (MWD). Vector measurements of geomagnetic

  13. Cluster Report Description Date due to IEA Responsible person(s) Comments Annual Faculty Assignments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Cluster Report Description Date due to IEA Responsible person(s) Comments Annual Faculty Heads By October 12, 2015, data is provided by IEA for report completion. Fall Activity Report Faculty is provided by IEA for report completion. Spring Activity Report Faculty activity report for Spring, 2016 June

  14. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss Shfaqat A. Khan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss Shfaqat A. Khan,1 John Wahr,2 caused an elastic uplift of $35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic digital elevation models, contributes about $16 mm of the observed uplift, with an additional $5 mm from

  15. PROBLEM SET 3 Due 2:40pm Wednesday 30 July

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    figure below), so you would say that at standard atmospheric pressure, water boils at 373 K. Use yourPROBLEM SET 3 Due 2:40pm Wednesday 30 July Astro/EPS C12 -- Mike Wong Write your name at the top studies to discover that this comet is made entirely of water ice. What is the mass of the comet

  16. High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Glycol Prevents Lethal Sepsis Due to Intestinal Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ka Yee C.

    High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Glycol Prevents Lethal Sepsis Due to Intestinal Pseudomonas of this study were to test the ability of a high-molecular- weight polyethylene glycol compound, polyethylene: The ability of polyethylene glycol 15­20 to protect the intestinal epi- thelium against the opportunistic

  17. GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANT (GRA) TERM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION DUE: LAST DAY OF EACH TERM OF APPOINTMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANT (GRA) TERM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION DUE: LAST DAY OF EACH TERM No N/A If yes: By Grad School By Department When: Were the expectations made known to the GRA? Yes those functions that apply to the GRA. Otherwise select N/A.) RESEARCH FUNCTIONS PERFORMANCE LEVEL

  18. Math 702 Problem Set #7 Due Mon., April 26, 2004 1. Let Y P1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harbater, David

    Math 702 Problem Set #7 Due Mon., April 26, 2004 1. Let Y P1 C be a G-Galois branched cover, with branch locus P1, . . ., Pr, where Pj is at x = j. Let P be a base point on the positive imaginary axis. Choose a homotopy basis 1, . . ., r of counterclockwise loops at P, where j winds once around Pj

  19. Sinking cities in Indonesia: ALOS PALSAR detects rapid subsidence due to groundwater and gas extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amelung, Falk

    Sinking cities in Indonesia: ALOS PALSAR detects rapid subsidence due to groundwater and gas and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, USA b Institute of Technology, Bandung (ITB), Indonesia c Korea online xxxx Keywords: Subsidence Interferometric synthetic aperture radar SBAS time-series Indonesia We

  20. Math 331 -Fall 2008 Project 3 -Fractals Due Dec 17th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Scott

    Math 331 - Fall 2008 Project 3 - Fractals Due Dec 17th For this project, you should submit a paper clearly how you construct such a set and compute the similarity dimension. Plot the first 4 approximating must be entirely individual and that any form of sharing the paper or the Maple file will be penalized

  1. Simulation of coherent control of hydroxyl formed due to HCl adsorption on MgO(001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markmann, Andreas

    Simulation of coherent control of hydroxyl formed due to HCl adsorption on MgO(001) Andreas-excitation scheme is proposed to excite the stretching vibration of the hydroxyl ion formed at the surface of Mg the yield of hydroxyl molecules in a vibrationally highly excited state. The main frequencies and chirp

  2. Formulating an Optimization Problem for Minimization of Losses due to Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Como, Giacomo

    Formulating an Optimization Problem for Minimization of Losses due to Utilities Anna Lindholm.lindholm@control.lth.se). Abstract: Utilities, such as steam and cooling water, are often shared between several production areas at industrial sites, and the effects of disturbances in utilities could thus be hard to predict. In addition

  3. SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Fall 2015 Problem Set 5 (Due 22 Oct 2015)*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    ? (2 pts) 6) A) Let us assume that a microbial community has glucose available as an energy sourceSES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Fall 2015 Problem Set 5 (Due 22 Oct 2015)* 1) Plot are transport processes so important in studying microbial biogeochemistry? (2 pts) 5) A) From the electron

  4. SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Problem Set 1 (Due 17 Sept 15)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Fall 2015 Problem Set 1 (Due 17 Sept 15) Answers to the questions the following energy and carbon sources: Carbon Source Energy Source a) CO2 Light b) C6H12O6 C6H12O6 2 CO2 + 2 one way a rumen microbial system can be destabilized, and explain what happens. #12;

  5. SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Problem Set 1 (Due 11 Sept 14)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Fall 2014 Problem Set 1 (Due 11 Sept 14) Answers to the questions the following energy and carbon sources: Carbon Source Energy Source a) CO2 Light b) C6H12O6 C6H12O6 2 CO2 + 2 one way a rumen microbial system can be destabilized, and explain what happens. #12;

  6. Theoretical evaluation on burn injury of human respiratory tract due to inhalation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    at tissue temperature (kPa) mQ Metabolic rate of tissue (W/m3 ) R Ideal gas constant (J/molK) Re Reynolds1 Theoretical evaluation on burn injury of human respiratory tract due to inhalation of hot gas to predict the thermal impact of inhaled hot air during the early stage of fires. Influences of individual

  7. News & Blogs U.S. Lightning Strikes May Increase 50% Due to Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, David M.

    News & Blogs U.S. Lightning Strikes May Increase 50% Due to Global Warming By: Dr. Jeff Masters (/blog/JeffMasters/show.html) , 4:04 PM GMT on November 14, 2014 A warmer world will have much more, (http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html?entrynum=2320) the Whitewater- Baldy Complex

  8. PREDICTION OF SURFACE SETTLEMENT DUE TO THE DISPLACEMENT OF SOFT ZONES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W

    2008-03-03

    In areas composed of coastal plain sediments, soft zones subjected to partial overburden may be present in the subsurface. During or after a seismic event, these soft zones may be compressed. The resulting displacement due to the deformation of the soft zones will propagate to the ground surface and cause the surface to settle. This paper presents a method to predict the settlement at the surface due to the propagation of the displacement from the soft zones. This method is performed by discretizing the soft zones into multiple clusters of finite sub-areas or subspaces. Settlement profile at the ground surface due to the displacement of each sub-area or subspace is computed assuming the shape is a normal distribution function. Settlement due to the displacement of the soft zones can then be approximated by adding the settlements computed for all the sub-areas or subspaces. This method provides a simple and useful tool for the prediction of the settlement profile and the results are consistent with those obtained from the finite difference analysis.

  9. Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) have attracted much attention over the past several years due to their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) have attracted much attention over the past several years due- hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate). Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared from microcrystilline cellulose (MCC) using) threads with the addition of cellulose nanowhiskers. PHBV-CNW fibers were prepared by wet spinning

  10. Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tise, Bertice L. (Albuquerque, NM); Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-01-04

    In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

  11. 4180 Design Project Status Report -Due every Friday Team Name/Project:___Autonomous Robotic Arm_____

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamblen, James

    4180 Design Project Status Report - Due every Friday Team Name/Project:___Autonomous Robotic Arm a continuous live video) Mbed (Arm): Successfully tested arm response to serial commands. (Objects were picked). Configuration: It was decided that the camera would be attached to the base of the mechanical arm. Remaining

  12. Mechanisms of triple-shape polymeric composites due to dual thermal transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Mechanisms of triple-shape polymeric composites due to dual thermal transitions Qi Ge,a Xiaofan Luo in response to environmental stimuli such as heat, electricity, irradiation, moisture, or magnetic field in experiments. The stress and stored energy analysis during the shape memory cycle provides insight

  13. Effective normal stress alteration due to pore pressure changes induced by dynamic slip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effective normal stress alteration due to pore pressure changes induced by dynamic slip propagation and permeabilities causes a change in pore pressure there. Because slip causes compression on one side of the fault wall and extension on the other, the pore pressure on the fault increases substantially when

  14. Change in surface energy balance in Alaska due to fire and spring warming, based on upscaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Change in surface energy balance in Alaska due to fire and spring warming, based on upscaling eddy in northern high latitudes has changed the energy balance between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere larger than the change in the energy forcing associated with CO2 balance for the Alaska region. Spring

  15. Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst, it is reported that "supergrowth" rate decreases with reaction time and finally the growth terminates [2]. Our group recently reproduced "supergrowth" [3] and observed similar "supergrowth" termination within a few

  16. Ladder Inspections Due to recent information, lessons learned, and accident reports from across the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigg, Chris

    Ladder Inspections Due to recent information, lessons learned, and accident reports from across details: 29 CFR 1910 "General Industry" at 1910.25 Portable Wood Ladders; 1910.26 Portable Metal Ladders Portable Ladder Inspection Checklist #12;Date of Inspection: Name of Inspector: Ladder Identification: Type

  17. Winter Eddy Genesis in the Eastern South China Sea due to Orographic Wind Jets GUIHUA WANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, .Dake

    Winter Eddy Genesis in the Eastern South China Sea due to Orographic Wind Jets GUIHUA WANG State, China (Manuscript received 22 June 2007, in final form 10 August 2007) ABSTRACT Generation of mesoscale with a reduced-gravity model. It is found that the orographic wind jets associated with the northeast winter

  18. Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage voltage drops on the power grid that can affect circuit timing. We propose a statistical analysis supply voltage to circuit devices is referred to as the power grid. The consequences of power grid

  19. Prediction of shear strength and vertical movement due to moisture diffusion through expansive soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Xiaoyan

    2006-10-30

    be increased due to the presence of shrinkage cracks on soil drying or desiccation. This dissertation follows the style and format of the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2 For the case of foundation walls in basements...) Plasticity Index Shrinkage Limit Very High > 30 > 28 > 35 15 In geotechnical engineering practice, the problems associated...

  20. Temporal-spatial modeling of electron density enhancement due to successive lightning strokes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    (FDTD) model that describes the effect of lightning electromagnetic pulses (EMP) on the ionosphere. Each The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from lightning has been shown to modify conductivity and electron density in the lower successive EMP pulse interacts with a modified background ionosphere due to the previous pulses, resulting

  1. Stability of vertical films of molten glass due to evaporation F. Pigeonneau,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to the high temperature, decreases due to the thermal insulator property of glass foam [38]. Consequently a carbon dioxide release. The low solubility of CO2 leads to a creation of large quantity of bubbles a stabilizing effect when temperature is larger than 1250 C. A model to describe the change of surface tension

  2. Cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere due to doubling of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere due to doubling of CO2 R. A. Akmaev1 , V. I 1998 Abstract. A new parameterization of infrared radiative transfer in the 15-lm CO2 band has been to calcu- lations of heating rates above approximately 15 km for arbitrary vertical pro®les of the CO2

  3. KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG B. M. F. Lau1 , D. Nikezic1,2 and K to inhaled radon progeny in the human lung. The present work uses the microdosimetric approach and determines/alleviate this discrepancy, including those based on different lung morpho- metry models(4) , different ethnic groups(5

  4. Biomaterials 26 (2005) 75877595 Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Biomaterials 26 (2005) 7587­7595 Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation Christie M conducted to probe the mechanisms governing the ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/biomaterials 0142-9612/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005

  5. Field monitoring and modeling of pavement response and service life consumption due to overweight truck traffic 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Jeong-Ho

    2004-11-15

    performance with respect to both rutting and fatigue cracking. Charts to evaluate the service life of the existing pavement subjected to OTTs are established in terms of the unit service life consumed due to the rutting and fatigue cracking with the various...

  6. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow S. R. Pride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow S. R. Pride Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10À2 seismic enough attenuation to explain the field data. INDEX TERMS: 0935 Exploration Geophysics: Seismic methods

  7. Transport of Energetic Ions due to Microturbulence, Sawteeth, and Alfven Eigenmodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhihong

    Transport of Energetic Ions due to Microturbulence, Sawteeth, and Alfv´en Eigenmodes D. C. Pace1 , R. B. White6 , J. H. Yu8 , W. Zhang1 and Y. B. Zhu1 1 University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA 2 General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 3 Max

  8. Instabilities due a vortex at a density interface: gravitational and centrifugal effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixit, Harish

    Instabilities due a vortex at a density interface: gravitational and centrifugal effects Harish N showed recently that the flow is subject to centrifugal Rayleigh-Taylor and spiral Kelvin for example [5]). In the absence of gravity, centrifugal forces are predominant, and we showed recently [4

  9. Renewable Energy Papers and Presentations Paper due Wednesday 16 October 2013 at 12:00 midnight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    Renewable Energy Papers and Presentations Paper due Wednesday 16 October 2013 at 12:00 midnight with specific focus on an aspect related to renewable energy. The topic should not be too broad. The length;Hybrid solar wind (83) Off grid systems (58) Smart grid storage (28) #12;

  10. Acceleration, due to occupational exposure, of time to onset of a disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, Catherine

    of specific diseases. A pecuniary compensation, to be paid by the state or the company, is then due not be the proper choice here. Several other models, though, can be used in order to solve our problem. One factors that could also induce lung cancer, like family history of cancer and tobacco consump- tion

  11. Project due (before) Wednesday, April 13 (5 pm) Two to three pages of write-up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Nancy

    Project Project due (before) Wednesday, April 13 (5 pm) Two to three pages of write often as informative other methods of unsupervised learning include projection methods "classification measure Dii = p j=1 |xij - xi j| manhattan Dii = p j=1 |xij - xi j| |xij + xi j| Canberra STA 450/4000 S

  12. Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on carbon balance, bioenergy production, and agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on carbon balance, bioenergy production that biofuel crops have much higher net pri- mary production (NPP) than soybean and wheat crops. When food). Global biofuel production has increased dramatically in the last decade, especially in United States

  13. Evidence of enhanced precipitation due to irrigation over the Great Plains of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Evidence of enhanced precipitation due to irrigation over the Great Plains of the United States of the local hydrological cycle has enhanced the regional precipitation. We examined station and gridded precipitation observations for the warm season months over and downwind of the Ogallala over the 20th century

  14. Universality of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AlGendy, Mohammad; Morsink, Sharon M.

    2014-08-20

    On the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star, the effective centrifugal force decreases the effective acceleration due to gravity (as measured in the rotating frame) at the equator while increasing the acceleration at the poles due to the centrifugal flattening of the star into an oblate spheroid. We compute the effective gravitational acceleration for relativistic rapidly rotating neutron stars and show that for a star with mass M, equatorial radius R{sub e} , and angular velocity ?, the deviations of the effective acceleration due to gravity from the nonrotating case take on a universal form that depends only on the compactness ratio M/R{sub e} , the dimensionless square of the angular velocity ?{sup 2}R{sub e}{sup 3}/GM, and the latitude on the star's surface. This dependence is universal, in that it has very little dependence on the neutron star's equation of state. The effective gravity is expanded in the slow-rotation limit to show the dependence on the effective centrifugal force, oblate shape of the star, and the quadrupole moment of the gravitational field. In addition, an empirical fit and simple formula for the effective gravity is found. We find that the increase in the acceleration due to gravity at the poles is of the same order of magnitude as the decrease in the effective acceleration due to gravity at the equator for all realistic value of mass, radius, and spin. For neutron stars that spin with frequencies near 600 Hz, the difference between the effective gravity at the poles and the equator is about 20%.

  15. Calculating energy storage due to topological changes in emerging active region NOAA AR 11112

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarr, L A

    2012-01-01

    The Minimum Current Corona (MCC) model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore develop...

  16. Exciton matter sustained by colossal dispersive interactions due to enhanced polarizability: Possible clue to ball lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgiev, M; Georgiev, Mladen; Singh, Jai

    2005-01-01

    Recently Gilman has pointed out that the material state of a ball lightning is both highly cohesive and flexible. He makes a specific proposal for a cohesive state arising from (colossal) Van-der-Waals attraction between highly polarizable Rydberg atoms produced under a linear lightning. We accept his general suggestions but propose that the colossal Van-der-Waals coupling may also arise from the enhanced polarizability of surrogate molecular clusters, due to the polaron gap narrowing effect. We consider a few illuminating cases and present calculations for the ammonia molecule. Although being unable to identify the exact nature of the surrogate molecules at least for the time-being, we suggest a general scenario of photoexcited vibronic excitons forming a supersaturated surrogate gas phase in which a ball arises as a result of condensation. The orange color of the luminous ball is due to radiative exciton deexcitation and suggests that there may be a unique surrogate material for ball lightning.

  17. The effective inertial acceleration due to oscillations of the gravitational potential: footprints in the solar system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Khokhlov

    2003-12-02

    The conjecture is considered that every body induces the wave field which imposes oscillations on the gravitational potential of a body. The function for oscillations is chosen to prevent the gravitational collapse of the matter at the nucleus energy density. Oscillations of the gravitational potential of a body produce effective inertial outward acceleration for a particle orbiting around the body. Footprints of the effective inertial acceleration due to oscillations of the gravitational potentials of the Sun and Earth are investigated. The conjecture allows to explain the anomalous shift of the perihelion of Mercury and Icarus, the anomalous shift of the perigee of LAGEOS II, the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10, 11, the anomalous increase in the lunar semi-major axis. The advance of the Keplerian orbit for Earth, Jupiter, Neptune, Uranus caused by the effective inertial acceleration due to oscillations of the gravitational potential of the Sun is in agreement with the observational bounds from the planetary ephemeris.

  18. The Generation of Edge Toroidal Momentum due to Ion Orbit Losses and its Effect on the Scrape-Off Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Generation of Edge Toroidal Momentum due to Ion Orbit Losses and its Effect on the Scrape-Off Layer

  19. Generation of galactic disc warps due to intergalactic accretion flows onto the disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lopez-Corredoira; J. Betancort-Rijo; J. E. Beckman

    2002-02-07

    A new method is developed to calculate the amplitude of the galactic warps generated by a torque due to external forces. This takes into account that the warp is produced as a reorientation of the different rings which constitute the disc in order to compensate the differential precession generated by the external force, yielding a uniform asymptotic precession for all rings. Application of this method to gravitational tidal forces in the Milky Way due to the Magellanic Clouds leads to a very low amplitude of the warp. If the force were due to an extragalactic magnetic field, its intensity would have to be very high, to generate the observed warps. An alternative hypothesis is explored: the accretion of the intergalactic medium over the disk. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shape warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ~100 km/s and baryon density \\~10^{-25} kg/m^3 is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. First, because this order of accretion rate is inferred from other processes observed in the Galaxy, notably its chemical evolution. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ~1 solar-mass/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of this chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Second, because the required density of the intergalactic medium is within the range of values compatible with observation. By this mechanism, we can explain the warp phenomenon in terms of intergalactic accretion flows onto the disk of the galaxy.

  20. Pathological changes in the goat associated with acute gastro-intestinal death due to radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Richard Michael

    1964-01-01

    ~4. 6 and increased activity of endothelial cells. An epithelioid transformation of the lymphoid follicles has been reported foLLowing 10& 32 comolete lymphocytic depletion. The lymphocyte count. in the peripheral blood of mammals drops soon after...' 29z 39 in globulins. "Sludging" of blood has been reported 9 in the irradiated hamster when the A/0 ratio falls to 1. 0 or below, Knteric loss of plasma proteins due to gastrointestinal disease can reach sez'ious proportions when the loss...

  1. Stresses due to environmental conditioning of cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglass, David Alan

    1979-01-01

    seconds, we discard the process of heat conduction and consider spatially uniform temperature profiles throughout the conditioning process. On the other hand, we account for the predominant effect of temperature on moisture diffusivity in solving... for the mositure diffusion which, due to its ex- tremely slol! progress, is described by a transient and non-uniform process throughout the conditioning stage. Moisture and temperature have a double-pronged effect on the response of composites. On one hand both...

  2. Quark confinement due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru; Kato, Seikou [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Fukui National College of Technology, Sabae 916-8507 (Japan)

    2012-10-23

    We present recent results on quark confinement: in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, confinement of fundamental quarks is obtained due to the dual Meissner effect originated from non-Abelian magnetic monopoles defined in a gauge-invariant way, which is distinct from the well-known Abelian projection scenario. This is achieved by using a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator and a new reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory.

  3. Friction due to inhomogeneous driving of coupled spins in a quantum heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Thomas; Ramandeep S. Johal

    2013-10-01

    We consider two spin-1/2 particles with isotropic Heisenberg interaction, as the working substance of a quantum heat engine. We observe a frictional effect on the adiabatic branches of the heat cycle, which arises due to an inhomogeneous driving at a finite rate of the external magnetic field. The frictional effect is characterized by entropy production in the system and reduction in the work extracted. Corresponding to a sudden and a very slow driving, we find expressions for the lower and upper bounds of work that can be extracted on the adiabatic branches. These bounds are also confirmed with numerical simulations of the corresponding Liouville-von Neumann equation.

  4. Photoluminescence due to inelastic exciton-exciton scattering in ZnMgO-alloy thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia, C. H.; Chen, J. N.; Hu, Y. M. [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-26

    We studied the photoluminescence of ZnMgO thin film, grown by the radiofrequency sputtering method, as a function of excitation intensity and temperature. As the excitation intensity increases, a nonlinear emission band caused by the radiative recombination of the inelastic exciton-exciton scattering was detected at low temperature. We found that the inelastic exciton-exciton scattering process can only persist up to T {approx} 260 K. The nonlinear emission band observed at room temperature is due to the radiative recombination of the electron-hole plasma.

  5. Time delay and magnification centroid due to gravitational lensing by black holes and naked singularities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. S. Virbhadra; C. R. Keeton

    2007-10-11

    We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for the Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due the Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, the strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the magnitude of magnifications of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.

  6. Time delay and magnification centroid due to gravitational lensing by black holes and naked singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virbhadra, K. S.; Keeton, C. R.

    2008-06-15

    We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due to Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has a negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the total magnification of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.

  7. Millimeter-wave polarization of protoplanetary disks due to dust scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Momose, Munetake; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Fukagawa, Misato; Shibai, Hiroshi; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Murakawa, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to constrain the grain size in protoplanetary disks with polarization observations at millimeter wavelengths. If dust grains are grown to the size comparable to the wavelengths, the dust grains are expected to have a large scattering opacity and thus the continuum emission is expected to be polarized due to self-scattering. We perform 3D radiative transfer calculations to estimate the polarization degree for the protoplanetary disks having radial Gaussian-like dust surface density distributions, which have been recently discovered. The maximum grain size is set to be $100 {\\rm~\\mu m}$ and the observing wavelength to be 870 ${\\rm \\mu m}$. We find that the polarization degree is as high as 2.5% with a subarcsec spatial resolution, which is likely to be detected with near-future ALMA observations. The emission is polarized due to scattering of anisotropic continuum emission. The map of the polarization degree shows a double peaked distribution and the polarization vectors are in the radia...

  8. Neutrino pair emission due to scattering of electrons off fluxoids in superfluid neutron star cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Kaminker; D. G. Yakovlev; P. Haensel

    1997-02-18

    We study the emission of neutrinos, resulting from the scattering of electrons off magnetic flux tubes (fluxoids) in the neutron star cores with superfluid (superconducting) protons. In the absence of proton superfluidity (T> T_{cp}), this process transforms into the well known electron synchrotron emission of neutrino pairs in a locally uniform magnetic field B, with the neutrino energy loss rate Q proportional to B^2 T^5. For temperatures T not much below T_{cp}, the synchrotron regime (Q \\propto T^5) persists and the emissivity Q can be amplified by several orders of magnitude due to the appearance of the fluxoids and associated enhancement of the field within them. For lower T, the synchrotron regime transforms into the bremsstrahlung regime (Q \\propto T^6) similar to the ordinary neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung of electrons which scatter off atomic nuclei. We calculate Q numerically and represent our results through a suitable analytic fit. In addition, we estimate the emissivities of two other neutrino-production mechanisms which are usually neglected -- neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung processes due to electron-proton and electron-electron collisions. We show that the electron-fluxoid and electron-electron scattering can provide the main neutrino production mechanisms in the neutron star cores with highly superfluid protons and neutrons at T scattering is significant if the initial, locally uniform magnetic field B > 10^{13} G.

  9. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitran, Sorin

    2013-07-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  10. Wakefield and RF Kicks Due to Coupler Asymmetry in TESLA-Type Accelerating Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; /SLAC; Dohlus, M.; Zagorodnov, I.; /DESY; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab; Gjonaj, E.; Weiland, T.; /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch.

    2008-07-07

    In a future linear collider, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), trains of high current, low emittance bunches will be accelerated in a linac before colliding at the interaction point. Asymmetries in the accelerating cavities of the linac will generate fields that will kick the beam transversely and degrade the beam emittance and thus the collider performance. In the main linac of the ILC, which is filled with TESLA-type superconducting cavities, it is the fundamental (FM) and higher mode (HM) couplers that are asymmetric and thus the source of such kicks. The kicks are of two types: one, due to (the asymmetry in) the fundamental RF fields and the other, due to transverse wakefields that are generated by the beam even when it is on axis. In this report we calculate the strength of these kicks and estimate their effect on the ILC beam. The TESLA cavity comprises nine cells, one HM coupler in the upstream end, and one (identical, though rotated) HM coupler and one FM coupler in the downstream end (for their shapes and location see Figs. 1, 2) [1]. The cavity is 1.1 m long, the iris radius 35 mm, and the coupler beam pipe radius 39 mm. Note that the couplers reach closer to the axis than the irises, down to a distance of 30 mm.

  11. CALCULATING ENERGY STORAGE DUE TO TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGION NOAA AR 11112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana

    2012-04-10

    The minimum current corona model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore developed an automated tracking algorithm to generate a consistent connectivity matrix as the photospheric source regions evolve over time. We have applied this method to NOAA Active Region 11112, which underwent a GOES M2.9 class flare around 19:00 on 2010 October 16th, and calculated a lower bound on the free magnetic energy buildup of {approx}8.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg over 3 days.

  12. Hilbert Transform-Based Bearing Failure Detection in DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    on turbine downtime has become more acute for offshore wind farms. With the development these wind farms due farms in more remote location (offshore). A well-known method for assessing impeding problems is to use, and a continuous expansion of the wind turbine industry, the profitability of wind farms is increasingly affected

  13. Transient Eddy Current Response Due to a Subsurface Crack in a Conductive Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fangwei Fu

    2006-08-09

    Eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is usually carried out by exciting a time harmonic field using an inductive probe. However, a viable alternative is to use transient eddy current NDE in which a current pulse in a driver coil produces a transient .eld in a conductor that decays at a rate dependent on the conductivity and the permeability of the material and the coil configuration. By using transient eddy current, it is possible to estimate the properties of the conductive medium and to locate and size potential .aws from the measured probe response. The fundamental study described in this dissertation seeks to establish a theoretical understanding of the transient eddy current NDE. Compared with the Fourier transform method, the derived analytical formulations are more convenient when the transient eddy current response within a narrow time range is evaluated. The theoretical analysis provides a valuable tool to study the effect of layer thickness, location of defect, crack opening as well as the optimization of probe design. Analytical expressions have been developed to evaluate the transient response due to eddy currents in a conductive plate based on two asymptotic series. One series converges rapidly for a short time regime and the other for a long time regime and both of them agree with the results calculated by fast Fourier transform over all the times considered. The idea of asymptotic expansion is further applied to determine the induced electromotive force (EMF) in a pick-up coil due to eddy currents in a cylindrical rod. Starting from frequency domain representation, a quasi-static time domain dyadic Green's function for an electric source in a conductive plate has been derived. The resulting expression has three parts; a free space term, multiple image terms and partial reflection terms. The dyadic Green's function serves as the kernel of an electric field integral equation which defines the interaction of an ideal crack with the transient eddy currents in a conductive plate. The crack response is found using the reciprocity theorem. Good agreement is observed between the predictions of the magnetic field due to the crack and experimental measurements.

  14. Electron Scattering in InSb Quantum Wells due to Micro-twin Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructure University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2011-12-26

    The transport electron scattering due to micro-twin (MT) defects in InSb quantum wells (QWs) has been investigated at room temperature (RT). A linear-regression-based scattering analysis showed that Matthiessen's rule is applicable to the RT electron mobility in 20-nm-thick InSb QWs that contain MTs (whose density is 5.6x10{sup 2}-1.2x10{sup 4} /cm) and threading dislocations (8.7x10{sup 8}-3.2x10{sup 9} /cm{sup 2}) as dominant structural defects. For such an InSb QW whose local electron mobility in its non-MT regions is 2.8x10{sup 4}-4.5x10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/(Vs), the MT-originated energy barrier against the electron transport is deduced to be 0.081-0.093 eV at RT.

  15. Does the mass of a black hole decrease due to the accretion of phantom energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Faraoni, Valerio; Shen Yougen

    2008-07-15

    According to Babichev et al., the accretion of a phantom test fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole will induce the mass of the black hole to decrease, however the backreaction was ignored in their calculation. Using new exact solutions describing black holes in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we find that the physical black hole mass may instead increase due to the accretion of phantom energy. If this is the case, and the future universe is dominated by phantom dark energy, the black hole apparent horizon and the cosmic apparent horizon will eventually coincide and, after that, the black hole singularity will become naked in finite comoving time before the big rip occurs, violating the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  16. CPT and lepton number violation in neutrino sector: Modified mass matrix and oscillation due to gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monika Sinha; Banibrata Mukhopadhyay

    2007-11-21

    We study the consequences of CPT and lepton number violation in neutrino sector. For CPT violation we take gravity with which neutrino and antineutrino couple differently. Gravity mixes neutrino and antineutrino in an unequal ratio to give two mass eigenstates. Lepton number violation interaction together with CPT violation gives rise to neutrino-antineutrino oscillation. Subsequently, we study the neutrino flavor mixing and oscillation under the influence of gravity. It is found that gravity changes flavor oscillation significantly which influences the relative abundance of different flavors in present universe. We show that the neutrinoless double beta decay rate is modified due to presence of gravity- the origin of CPT violation, as the mass of the flavor state is modified.

  17. Optimal Size for Maximal Energy Efficiency in Information Processing of Biological Systems Due to Bistability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Long-Fei; Yue, Yuan; Yu, Lian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency is closely related to the evolution of biological systems and is important to their information processing. In this paper, we calculated the excitation probability of a simple model of a bistable biological unit in response to pulsatile inputs, and its spontaneous excitation rate due to noise perturbation. Then we analytically calculated the mutual information, energy cost, and energy efficiency of an array of these bistable units. We found that the optimal number of units could maximize this array's energy efficiency in encoding pulse inputs, which depends on the fixed energy cost. We conclude that demand for energy efficiency in biological systems may strongly influence the size of these systems under the pressure of natural selection.

  18. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-?SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth ?{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120??C baked cavity shows a much larger ?>100?nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  19. Orbital decay of hot Jupiters due to nonlinear tidal dissipation within solar-type hosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Essick, Reed

    2015-01-01

    We study the orbital evolution of hot Jupiters due to the excitation and damping of tidally driven $g$-modes within solar-type host stars. Linearly resonant $g$-modes (the dynamical tide) are driven to such large amplitudes in the stellar core that they excite a sea of other $g$-modes through weakly nonlinear interactions. By solving the dynamics of large networks of nonlinearly coupled modes, we show that the nonlinear dissipation rate of the dynamical tide is several orders of magnitude larger than the linear dissipation rate. As a result, we find that the orbits of planets with mass $M_p > 0.5M_J$ and period $P M_J$ and $Psolar-type hosts and could generate detectable transit-timing variations in the near future.

  20. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  1. Neutrino-Pair Emission due to Electron-Phonon Scattering in a Neutron Star Crust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. G. Yakovlev; A. D. Kaminker

    1996-04-19

    Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung radiation is considered due to electron--phonon scattering of degenerate, relativistic electrons in a lattice of spherical atomic nuclei in a neutron star crust. The neutrino energy generation rate is calculated taking into account exact spectrum of phonons, the Debye--Waller factor, and the nuclear form--factor in the density range from $10^7$~g~cm$^{-3}$ to $10^{14}$~g~cm$^{-3}$ at arbitrary nuclear composition for body-centered-cubic and face-centered-cubic Coulomb crystals. The results are fitted by a unified analytic expression. A comparison is given of the neutrino bremsstrahlung energy losses in a neutron star crust composed of ground state and accreted matter, in the solid and liquid phases.

  2. Heating rate and spin flip lifetime due to near field noise in layered superconducting atom chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachele Fermani; Tobias Mueller; Bo Zhang; Michael J. Lim; Rainer Dumke

    2009-12-11

    We theoretically investigate the heating rate and spin flip lifetimes due to near field noise for atoms trapped close to layered superconducting structures. In particular, we compare the case of a gold layer deposited above a superconductor with the case of a bare superconductor. We study a niobium-based and a YBCO-based chip. For both niobium and YBCO chips at a temperature of 4.2 K, we find that the deposition of the gold layer can have a significant impact on the heating rate and spin flip lifetime, as a result of the increase of the near field noise. At a chip temperature of 77 K, this effect is less pronounced for the YBCO chip.

  3. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  4. Estimating SI violation in CMB due to non-circular beam and complex scan in minutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pant, Nidhi; Rotti, Aditya; Mitra, Sanjit; Souradeep, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Mild, unavoidable deviations from circular-symmetry of instrumental beams along with scan strategy can give rise to measurable Statistical Isotropy (SI) violation in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. If not accounted properly, this spurious signal can complicate the extraction of other SI violation signals (if any) in the data. However, estimation of this effect through exact numerical simulation is computationally intensive and time consuming. A generalized analytical formalism not only provides a quick way of estimating this signal, but also gives a detailed understanding connecting the leading beam anisotropy components to a measurable BipoSH characterisation of SI violation. In this paper, we provide an approximate generic analytical method for estimating the SI violation generated due to a non-circular (NC) beam and arbitrary scan strategy, in terms of the Bipolar Spherical Harmonic (BipoSH) spectra. Our analytical method can predict almost all the features introduced by a NC beam in a compl...

  5. Failure of man-made cavities in salt and surface subsidence due to sulfur mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, G.K.; Lee, C.A.; McClain, W.C.; Senseny, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An engineering data base relevant to subsidence due to sulfur mining and to structural failure of cavities in salt is established, evaluated and documented. Nineteen failure events are discussed. Based on these documented failure events, capabilities of and inputs to a mathematical model of cavity failure are determined. Two failure events are adequately documented for use in model verification studies. A conclusion of this study that is pertinent to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is that cavity failures in dome salt are fairly rare, but that as the number of large cavities (especially those having large roof spans) increases, failures will probably be more common unless stability and failure mechanisms of cavities are better understood.

  6. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romanenko, A; Barkov, F; Suter, A; Salman, Z; Prokscha, T

    2013-01-01

    We investigate "hot" regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-$\\mu$SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth $\\lambda_\\mathrm{L} = 23 \\pm 2$ nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120$^\\circ$C baked cavity shows a much larger $\\lambda > 100$ nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  7. A unified numerical model of collisional depolarization and broadening rates due to hydrogen atom collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derouich, M; Barklem, P S

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of solar polarization spectra accounting for partial or complete frequency redistribution requires data on various collisional processes. Data for depolarization and polarization transfer are needed but often missing, while data for collisional broadening are usually more readily available. Recent work by Sahal-Br\\'echot and Bommier concluded that despite underlying similarities in the physics of collisional broadening and depolarization processes, relationships between them are not possible to derive purely analytically. We aim to derive accurate numerical relationships between the collisional broadening rates and the collisional depolarization and polarization transfer rates due to hydrogen atom collisions. Such relationships would enable accurate and efficient estimation of collisional data for solar applications. Using earlier results for broadening and depolarization processes based on general (i.e. not specific to a given atom), semi-classical calculations employing interaction potentials...

  8. Black Hole Corrections due to Minimal Length and Modified Dispersion Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel Nasser Tawfik; Abdel Magied Diab

    2015-02-19

    The generalized uncertainty principles (GUP) and modified dispersion relations (MDR) are much like two faces for one coin in research for the phenomenology of quantum gravity which apparently plays an important role in estimating the possible modifications of the black hole thermodynamics and the Friedmann equations. We first reproduce the horizon area for different types of black holes and investigate the quantum corrections to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (entropy-area law). Based on this, we study further thermodynamical quantities and accordingly the modified Friedmann equation in four-dimensional de Sitter-Schwarzschild, Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom and Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes. In doing this we applied various quantum gravity approaches. The MDR parameter relative to the GUP one is computed and the properties of the black holes are predicted. This should play an important role in estimating response of quantum gravity to the various metric-types of black holes. We found a considerable change in the thermodynamics quantities. We find that the modified entropy of de-Sitter-Schwarzshild and Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom black holes starts to exist at a finite standard entropy. The Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black hole shows a different entropic property. The modified specific heat due to GUP and MDR approaches vanishes at large standard specific heat, while the corrections due to GUP result in different behaviors. The specific heat of modified de-Sitter-Schwarzshild and Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom black holes seems to increase, especially at large standard specific heat. In the early case, the black hole cannot exchange heat with the surrounding space. Accordingly, we would predict black hole remnants which may be considered as candidates for dark matter.

  9. Advanced fault diagnosis techniques and their role in preventing cascading blackouts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Nan

    2007-04-25

    /or transmission facilities may also happen before the blackouts. ? Contingency conditions: Before the blackouts, the system may be additionally weakened by unscheduled outages, such as several transmission line, transformer and generator outages due to the faults... outages is proposed. The scheme tries to precisely locate the faulted area and avoid unnecessary trip due to the hidden failure or overload. Adaptive protection schemes are introduced to coordinate the relay operations and settings with the prevailing...

  10. Fatigue failure in thin-film polysilicon is due to subcriticalcracking within the oxide layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsem, D.H.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Stach, E.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2005-01-11

    It has been established that microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) created from polycrystalline silicon thin-films are subject to cyclic fatigue. Prior work by the authors has suggested that although bulk silicon is not susceptible to fatigue failure in ambient air, fatigue in micron-scale silicon is a result of a ''reaction-layer'' process, whereby high stresses induce a thickening of the post-release oxide at stress concentrations such as notches, which subsequently undergoes moisture-assisted cracking. However, there exists some controversy regarding the post-release oxide thickness of the samples used in the prior study. In this Letter, we present data from devices from a more recent fabrication run that confirm our prior observations. Additionally, new data from tests in high vacuum show that these devices do not fatigue when oxidation and moisture are suppressed. Each of these observations lends credence to the '''reaction-layer'' mechanism. Recent advances in the design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have increased the demand for more reliable microscale structures. Although silicon is an effective and widely used structural material at the microscale, it is very brittle. Consequently, reliability is a limiting factor for commercial and defense applications. Since the surface to volume ratio of these structural films is very large, classical models for failure modes in bulk materials cannot always be applied. For example, whereas bulk silicon is immune to cyclic fatigue failure thin micron-scale structural films of silicon appear to be highly susceptible. It is clear that at these size scales, surface effects may become dominant in controlling mechanical properties. The main reliability issues for MEMS are stiction, fatigue and wear. Fatigue is important in cases where devices are subjected to a large number of loading cycles with amplitudes below their (single-cycle) fracture stress, which may arise due to vibrations intentionally induced in the structure (i.e. a resonator) or those which arise from the service environment. While the reliability of MEMS has received extensive attention, the physical mechanisms responsible for these failure modes have yet to be conclusively determined. This is particularly true for fatigue, where the mechanisms have been subject to intense debate. Recently we have proposed that the fatigue of micron-scale polysilicon is associated with stress-induced surface oxide thickening and moisture-assisted subcritical cracking in the amorphous SiO{sub 2} oxide layer (''reaction-layer'' fatigue). The mechanism of oxide thickening is as yet unknown, but is likely related to some form of stress-assisted diffusion. Allameh et al. suggest a complementary mechanism involving stress-assisted oxide thickening, caused by dissolution of the surface oxide which forms deep grooves that are sites for crack initiation. Kahn et al. have criticized these mechanisms and proposed that, instead, fatigue is caused by subcritical cracking due to contacting surface asperities in the compressive part of the cycle. To the authors' knowledge, there is no direct experimental observation of such asperity contact. Also, their model cannot explain why micron-scale silicon, and not bulk silicon, is susceptible to fatigue. Moreover, Kahn et al. do not acknowledge the role of stress-induced oxide thickening, which has been observed directly using TEM and indirectly using atomic-force microscope measurements by several investigators, and have questioned whether the materials utilized by Muhlstein et al. and Allameh et al. were representative due to the relatively thick oxide scales. Accordingly, the goal of the present research is to seek a definitive understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for fatigue in polysilicon structural thin-films. Our approach is to combine on-chip testing methods with electron microscopy by fatiguing thin-film samples and observing them, in an unthinned condition, using high-voltage transmission electron microscopy (HVTEM). Two principal results are found from this work: (1

  11. Radiative forcing due to enhancements in tropospheric ozone and carbonaceous aerosols caused by Asian fires during spring 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiative forcing due to enhancements in tropospheric ozone and carbonaceous aerosols caused of fires that occurred in three regions of Asia, namely Thailand, Kazakhstan, and Siberia, during spring Dobson units (DU) near the Thailand region, and by lesser amounts in the other regions due to the fires

  12. Vibration of Wires in Liquid Argon Due to Fluid Flow Kirk T McDonald (kirkmcd@princeton.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Vibration of Wires in Liquid Argon Due to Fluid Flow Kirk T McDonald (kirkmcd. But in these regions, the Reynolds number of the flow is 56/23 = 2.4, in which case the flow is laminar, not turbulent, and there is no excitation of wire vibration. So, I conclude that wire vibration due to fluid flow is negligible (unless

  13. THz generation from InN films due to destructive interference between optical rectification and photocurrent surge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    THz generation from InN films due to destructive interference between optical rectification.1088/0268-1242/25/1/015004 THz generation from InN films due to destructive interference between optical rectification investigated the characteristics of THz generation including the dependence of the output power

  14. Materials Science and Engineering A299 (2001) 141151 Microstructural changes due to heat-treatment of annealing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Qiuming

    2001-01-01

    Materials Science and Engineering A299 (2001) 141­151 Microstructural changes due to heat-treatment of creep resistance by furnace and microwave annealing, we have investigated the effect of heat-treatment-ray diffraction was performed on the as-sintered and heat-treated samples to study the phase changes due

  15. Abstract--As information networks grow larger in size due to automation or organizational integration, it is important to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautam, Natarajan

    on networked systems in many domains due to automation or organizational integration. The growth in complexity element and component technology utilizes the components so that developers can build systems needed1 Abstract--As information networks grow larger in size due to automation or organizational

  16. Power losses in PV arrays due to variations in the I-V characteristics of PV modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Power losses in PV arrays due to variations in the I-V characteristics of PV modules Wolfgang Damm-V characteristics of the 36 individual modules of a PV generator at the University of Oldenburg were measured the basis for the calculations of the mismatch losses due to series and parallel connection of PV modules

  17. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centers, P.W.

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Far-IR Detection Limits I: Sky Confusion Due to Galactic Cirrus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woong-Seob Jeong; Hyung Mok Lee; Soojong Pak; Takao Nakagawa; Suk Minn Kwon; Chris P. Pearson; Glenn J. White

    2004-11-16

    Fluctuations in the brightness of the background radiation can lead to confusion with real point sources. Such background emission confusion will be important for infrared observations with relatively large beam sizes since the amount of fluctuation tends to increase with angular scale. In order to quantitively assess the effect of the background emission on the detection of point sources for current and future far-infrared observations by space-borne missions such as Spitzer, ASTRO-F, Herschel and SPICA, we have extended the Galactic emission map to higher angular resolution than the currently available data. Using this high resolution map, we estimate the sky confusion noise due to the emission from interstellar dust clouds or cirrus, based on fluctuation analysis and detailed photometry over realistically simulated images. We find that the confusion noise derived by simple fluctuation analysis agrees well with the result from realistic simulations. Although the sky confusion noise becomes dominant in long wavelength bands (> 100 um) with 60 - 90cm aperture missions, it is expected to be two order of magnitude smaller for the next generation space missions with larger aperture sizes such as Herschel and SPICA.

  19. Discrimination of gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering in AGATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ataç; A. Ka?ka?; S. Akkoyun; M. ?enyi?it; T. Hüyük; S. O. Kara; J. Nyberg

    2009-06-10

    Possibilities of discriminating neutrons and gamma rays in the AGATA gamma-ray tracking spectrometer have been investigated with the aim of reducing the background due to inelastic scattering of neutrons in the high-purity germanium crystals. This background may become a serious problem especially in experiments with neutron-rich radioactive ion beams. Simulations using the Geant4 toolkit and a tracking program based on the forward tracking algorithm were carried out by emitting neutrons and gamma rays from the center of AGATA. Three different methods were developed and tested in order to find 'fingerprints' of the neutron interaction points in the detectors. In a simulation with simultaneous emission of six neutrons with energies in the range 1-5 MeV and ten gamma rays with energies between 150 and 1450 keV, the peak-to-background ratio at a gamma-ray energy of 1.0 MeV was improved by a factor of 2.4 after neutron rejection with a reduction of the photopeak efficiency at 1.0 MeV of only a factor of 1.25.

  20. Request for assistance in preventing vision disturbances and acute physical distress due to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    Methods were sought to reduce exposure to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) among foundry owners, operators, and workers and manufacturers of polyamides, due to possible vision disturbances and acute physical distress which may result. An investigation was made at an aluminum-casting foundry where blurring, fogging, and halo visual disturbances had been reported among workers exposed to DMEA, along with headaches, nausea, stomach pain, and increased heart rate. Medical and environmental studies were made. Exposure concentrations causing effects were measured at equal to or greater than 6 mg/cu m, or 2 parts per million (ppm), 8 hour time-weighted average. Exposures as high as 29 mg/cu m, (9.7 ppm) for 15 minutes also may have caused adverse effects. There was no current permissible exposure limit for DMEA. Leakage around pressure-tight seals in corebox machine gaskets may have accounted for some excessive exposure. It was recommended that more-frequent maintenance of these gaskets be undertaken along with other engineering controls. Work practices should be adjusted so as to reduce the pressure that delivers DMEA to coreboxes and to avoid excess gaseous DMEA in the corebox machine. Protective gloves should be worn. Evacuation plans should be developed in the event of a spill, leak, or other serious accident that may cause high concentrations of DMEA in the workplace.

  1. Galactic disc warps due to intergalactic accretion flows onto the disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Corredoira, M; Beckman, J E

    2007-01-01

    The accretion of the intergalactic medium onto the gaseous disc is used to explain the generation of galactic warps. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small for most incident inflow angles and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shaped warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ~100 km/s and baryon density ~10^{-25} kg/m^3, which is within the possible values for the intergalactic medium, is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ~1 M_sun/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Sanchez-Salcedo (2006) suggests that this mechanism is not plausible because it would produce a dependence of the scaleheight of the disc with the Galactocentric azim...

  2. Galactic disc warps due to intergalactic accretion flows onto the disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lopez-Corredoira; J. Betancort-Rijo; J. E. Beckman

    2007-06-11

    The accretion of the intergalactic medium onto the gaseous disc is used to explain the generation of galactic warps. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small for most incident inflow angles and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shaped warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ~100 km/s and baryon density ~10^{-25} kg/m^3, which is within the possible values for the intergalactic medium, is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ~1 M_sun/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Sanchez-Salcedo (2006) suggests that this mechanism is not plausible because it would produce a dependence of the scaleheight of the disc with the Galactocentric azimuth in the outer disc, but rather than being an objection this is another argument in favour of the mechanism because this dependence is actually observed in our Galaxy.

  3. HGSYSTEMUF6. Model for Simulating Dispersion due to Atmospheric Release of UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, G; Chang, J.C.; Zhang, J.X.; Bloom, S.G.; Goode, W.D. Jr; Lombardi, D.A.; Yambert, M.W.

    1998-08-01

    HGSYSTEMUF6 is a suite of models designed for use in estimating consequences associated with accidental, atmospheric release of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) and its reaction products, namely Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), and other non-reactive contaminants which are either negatively, neutrally, or positively buoyant. It is based on HGSYSTEM Version 3.0 of Shell Research LTD., and contains specific algorithms for the treatment of UF6 chemistry and thermodynamics. HGSYSTEMUF6 contains algorithms for the treatment of dense gases, dry and wet deposition, effects due to the presence of buildings (canyon and wake), plume lift-off, and the effects of complex terrain. The models components of the suite include (1) AEROPLUME/RK, used to model near-field dispersion from pressurized two-phase jet releases of UF6 and its reaction products, (2) HEGADAS/UF6 for simulating dense, ground based release of UF6, (3) PGPLUME for simulation of passive, neutrally buoyant plumes (4) UF6Mixer for modeling warm, potentially reactive, ground-level releases of UF6 from buildings, and (5) WAKE, used to model elevated and ground-level releases into building wake cavities of non-reactive plumes that are either neutrally or positively buoyant.

  4. Physical property changes in hydrate-bearingsediment due to depressurization and subsequent repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, Timothy; Waite, W.F.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2008-06-01

    Physical property measurements of sediment cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed at least briefly to non-in situ conditions during recovery. To examine effects of a brief excursion from the gas-hydrate stability field, as can occur when pressure cores are transferred to pressurized storage vessels, we measured physical properties on laboratory-formed sand packs containing methane hydrate and methane pore gas. After depressurizing samples to atmospheric pressure, we repressurized them into the methane-hydrate stability field and remeasured their physical properties. Thermal conductivity, shear strength, acoustic compressional and shear wave amplitudes and speeds are compared between the original and depressurized/repressurized samples. X-ray computed tomography (CT) images track how the gas-hydrate distribution changes in the hydrate-cemented sands due to the depressurization/repressurization process. Because depressurization-induced property changes can be substantial and are not easily predicted, particularly in water-saturated, hydrate-bearing sediment, maintaining pressure and temperature conditions throughout the core recovery and measurement process is critical for using laboratory measurements to estimate in situ properties.

  5. Bose-glass phases of ultracold atoms due to cavity backaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hessam Habibian; André Winter; Simone Paganelli; Heiko Rieger; Giovanna Morigi

    2012-11-16

    We determine the quantum ground-state properties of ultracold bosonic atoms interacting with the mode of a high-finesse resonator. The atoms are confined by an external optical lattice, whose period is incommensurate with the cavity mode wave length, and are driven by a transverse laser, which is resonant with the cavity mode. While for pointlike atoms photon scattering into the cavity is suppressed, for sufficiently strong lasers quantum fluctuations can support the build-up of an intracavity field, which in turn amplifies quantum fluctuations. The dynamics is described by a Bose-Hubbard model where the coefficients due to the cavity field depend on the atomic density at all lattice sites. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field calculations show that for large parameter regions cavity backaction forces the atoms into clusters with a checkerboard density distribution. Here, the ground state lacks superfluidity and possesses finite compressibility, typical of a Bose-glass. This system constitutes a novel setting where quantum fluctuations give rise to effects usually associated with disorder.

  6. Runaway greenhouse effect on exomoons due to irradiation from hot, young giant planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, René

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has detected transits of objects as small as the Earth's Moon, and moons as small as 0.2 Earth masses can be detected in the Kepler data by transit timing and transit duration variations of their host planets. Such massive moons around giant planets in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) could serve as habitats for extraterrestrial life. We here assess the danger of exomoons to be in a runaway greenhouse (RG) state due to extensive heating from the planet. We apply pre-computed evolution tracks for giant planets to calculate the incident planetary radiation on the moon as a function of time. The total energy budget of stellar flux, illumination from the planet, and tidal heating in the satellite is compared to the critical flux for the moon to experience an RG effect. Irradiation from a 13-Jupiter-mass planet onto an Earth-sized moon at a distance of ten Jupiter radii can drive an RG state on the moon for about 200 Myr. If stellar illumination equivalent to that received by Earth from t...

  7. Star Formation Suppression Due to Jet Feedback in Radio Galaxies with Shocked Warm Molecular Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanz, Lauranne; Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N

    2015-01-01

    We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and IR colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ~3-6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H2 emission, suggesting that whi...

  8. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-10

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  9. Mechanical Deformation of a Lithium-Metal Anode Due to a Very Stiff Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-05-21

    This work builds on the two-dimensional model presented by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 159, A1615 (2012)1, which captures the movement of lithium metal at the negative electrode during cycling in a Li-metal/LiCoO2 cell. In this paper, the separator is modeled as a dendrite-inhibiting polymer separator with an elastic modulus of 16 GPa. The separator resists the movement of lithium through the generation of stresses in the cell. These stresses affect the negative electrode through two mechanisms altering the thermodynamics of the negative electrode and deforming the negative electrode mechanically. From this analysis, we find that the dendrite-inhibiting separator causes plastic and elastic deformation of the lithium at the negative electrode which flattens the electrode considerably when compared to the liquid-electrolyte case. This flattening of the negative electrode causes only very slight differences in the local state of charge in the positive electrode. When comparing the magnitude of the effects flattening the negative electrode, we find that the plastic deformation plays a much larger role than either the pressure-modified reaction kinetics or elastic deformation. This is due to the low yield strength of the lithium metal, which limits the stresses such that they have only a small effect on the reaction kinetics. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  12. Variations of 14-C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14-C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14-C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14-C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14-C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14-C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects...

  13. Underground Infrastructure Impacts Due to a Surface Burst Nuclear Device in an Urban Canyon Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bos, Randall J.; Dey, Thomas N.; Runnels, Scott R.

    2012-07-03

    Investigation of the effects of a nuclear device exploded in a urban environment such as the Chicago studied for this particular report have shown the importance on the effects from the urban canyons so typical of today's urban environment as compared to nuclear test event effects observed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Pacific Testing Area on which many of the typical legacy empirical codes are based on. This report first looks at the some of the data from nuclear testing that can give an indication of the damage levels that might be experienced due to a nuclear event. While it is well known that a above ground blast, even a ground burst, very poorly transmits energy into the ground ( < 1%) and the experimental results discussed here are for fully coupled detonations, these results do indicate a useful measure of the damage that might be expected. The second part of the report looks at effects of layering of different materials that typically would make up the near ground below surface environment that a shock would propagate through. As these simulations support and is widely known in the community, the effects of different material compositions in these layers modify the shock behavior and especially modify the energy dispersal and coupling into the basement structures. The third part of the report looks at the modification of the underground shock effects from a surface burst 1 KT device due to the presence of basements under the Chicago buildings. Without direct knowledge of the basement structure, a simulated footprint of a uniform 20m depth was assumed underneath each of the NGI defined buildings in the above ground environment. In the above ground case, the underground basement structures channel the energy along the line of site streets keeping the shock levels from falling off as rapidly as has been observed in unobstructed detonations. These simulations indicate a falloff of factors of 2 per scaled length as compared to 10 for the unobstructed case. Again, as in the above ground case, the basements create significant shielding causing the shock profile to become more square and reducing the potential for damage diagonal to the line of sight streets. The results for a 1KT device is that the heavily damaged zone (complete destruction) will extend out to 50m from the detonation ({approx}100m for 10KT). The heavily to moderately damaged zone will extend out to 100m ({approx}200m for 10KT). Since the destruction will depend on geometric angle from the detonation and also the variability of response for various critical infrastructure, for planning purposes the area out to 100m from the detonation should be assumed to be non-operational. Specifically for subway tunnels, while not operational, they could be human passable for human egress in the moderately damaged area. The results of the simulations presented in this report indicate only the general underground infrastructure impact. Simulations done with the actual basement geometry would be an important improvement. Equally as important or even more so, knowing the actual underground material configurations and material composition would be critical information to refine the calculations. Coupling of the shock data into structural codes would help inform the emergency planning and first response communities on the impact to underground structures and the state of buildings after the detonation.

  14. SU-E-T-41: Analysis of GI Dose Variability Due to Intrafraction Setup Variance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J; Wolfgang, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Proton SBRT (stereotactic body radiation therapy) can be an effective modality for treatment of gastrointestinal tumors, but limited in practice due to sensitivity with respect to variation in the RPL (radiological path length). Small, intrafractional shifts in patient anatomy can lead to significant changes in the dose distribution. This study describes a tool designed to visualize uncertainties in radiological depth in patient CT's and aid in treatment plan design. Methods: This project utilizes the Shadie toolkit, a GPU-based framework that allows for real-time interactive calculations for volume visualization. Current SBRT simulation practice consists of a serial CT acquisition for the assessment of inter- and intra-fractional motion utilizing patient specific immobilization systems. Shadie was used to visualize potential uncertainties, including RPL variance and changes in gastric content. Input for this procedure consisted of two patient CT sets, contours of the desired organ, and a pre-calculated dose. In this study, we performed rigid registrations between sets of 4DCT's obtained from a patient with varying setup conditions. Custom visualizations are written by the user in Shadie, permitting one to create color-coded displays derived from a calculation along each ray. Results: Serial CT data acquired on subsequent days was analyzed for variation in RPB and gastric content. Specific shaders were created to visualize clinically relevant features, including RPL (radiological path length) integrated up to organs of interest. Using pre-calculated dose distributions and utilizing segmentation masks as additional input allowed us to further refine the display output from Shadie and create tools suitable for clinical usage. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method to visualize potential uncertainty for intrafractional proton radiotherapy. We believe this software could prove a useful tool to guide those looking to design treatment plans least insensitive to motion for patients undergoing proton SBRT in the GI tract.

  15. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  16. Permeability decline due to flow of dilute suspensions through porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Lab R& D Center, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    Suspension flow in porous media is encountered in many industrial applications. In the oil industry, suspended solids present in injected waters cart cause significant damage around the wellbore or deep in the formation. Depending on tire physical properties of tire solid particles, the porous medium, and operating conditions, solids can form external or internal filter cake, or just flow through the media without causing any damage. External filter cake formation causes a fast and sharp drop in permeability or injectivity of the formation. Reversing the flow direction can recover some of the damaged permeability. Internal filter cake formation cases a gradual or steady drop in permeability. Reversing the flow direction will not recover tire damaged permeability. Increasing solids concentration or particle size will cause more damage to formation. Injection of low-salinity water into sandstone reservoirs can trigger fines migration and clay swelling. Both factors can damage the formation. Injection of water that is incompatible with the formation brine may cause precipitation of insoluble sulfates that cart plug the formation. Stimulation (or acidizing) the formation cart also produce solid particles that can damage the formation. Corrosion by-products (e.g., iron sulfide) cart block the flow paths and reduce the permeability of the formation. Many experimental and modeling studies to predict formation damage due to flow of suspensions in porous media are discussed in this chapter. Solids can be present in injected waters or be generated in the formation. More research is needed to predict flow of suspensions in porous media when solid particles invade and are generated in tire formation simultaneously. 71 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Escape fraction of ionizing photons during reionization: Effects due to supernova feedback and runaway ob stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    The fraction of hydrogen ionizing photons escaping from galaxies into the intergalactic medium is a critical ingredient in the theory of reionization. We use two zoomed-in, high-resolution (4 pc), cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulations with adaptive mesh refinement to investigate the impact of two physical mechanisms (supernova, SN, feedback, and runaway OB stars) on the escape fraction (f {sub esc}) at the epoch of reionization (z ? 7). We implement a new, physically motivated SN feedback model that can approximate the Sedov solutions at all (from the free expansion to snowplow) stages. We find that there is a significant time delay of about ten million years between the peak of star formation and that of escape fraction, due to the time required for the build-up and subsequent destruction of the star-forming cloud by SN feedback. Consequently, the photon number-weighted mean escape fraction for dwarf galaxies in halos of mass 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10.5} M {sub ?} is found to be ?f{sub esc}??11%, although instantaneous values of f {sub esc} > 20% are common when star formation is strongly modulated by the SN explosions. We find that the inclusion of runaway OB stars increases the mean escape fraction by 22% to ?f{sub esc}??14%. As SNe resulting from runaway OB stars tend to occur in less dense environments, the feedback effect is enhanced and star formation is further suppressed in halos with M{sub vir}?10{sup 9} M{sub ?} in the simulation with runaway OB stars compared with the model without them. While both our models produce enough ionizing photons to maintain a fully ionized universe at z ? 7 as observed, a still higher amount of ionizing photons at z ? 9 appears necessary to accommodate the high observed electron optical depth inferred from cosmic microwave background observations.

  18. An Information-Theoretic Measure of Uncertainty due to Quantum and Thermal Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arlen Anderson; Jonathan J. Halliwell

    1993-04-28

    We study an information-theoretic measure of uncertainty for quantum systems. It is the Shannon information $I$ of the phase space probability distribution $\\la z | \\rho | z \\ra $, where $|z \\ra $ are coherent states, and $\\rho$ is the density matrix. The uncertainty principle is expressed in this measure as $I \\ge 1$. For a harmonic oscillator in a thermal state, $I$ coincides with von Neumann entropy, $- \\Tr(\\rho \\ln \\rho)$, in the high-temperature regime, but unlike entropy, it is non-zero at zero temperature. It therefore supplies a non-trivial measure of uncertainty due to both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We study $I$ as a function of time for a class of non-equilibrium quantum systems consisting of a distinguished system coupled to a heat bath. We derive an evolution equation for $I$. For the harmonic oscillator, in the Fokker-Planck regime, we show that $I$ increases monotonically. For more general Hamiltonians, $I$ settles down to monotonic increase in the long run, but may suffer an initial decrease for certain initial states that undergo ``reassembly'' (the opposite of quantum spreading). Our main result is to prove, for linear systems, that $I$ at each moment of time has a lower bound $I_t^{min}$, over all possible initial states. This bound is a generalization of the uncertainty principle to include thermal fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems, and represents the least amount of uncertainty the system must suffer after evolution in the presence of an environment for time $t$.

  19. SPECTRUM-DRIVEN PLANETARY DEGLACIATION DUE TO INCREASES IN STELLAR LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shields, Aomawa L.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Joshi, Manoj M.; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2014-04-10

    Distant planets in globally ice-covered, ''snowball'', states may depend on increases in their host stars' luminosity to become hospitable for surface life. Using a general circulation model, we simulated the equilibrium climate response of a planet to a range of instellations from an F-, G-, or M-dwarf star. The range of instellation that permits both complete ice cover and at least partially ice-free climate states is a measure of the climate hysteresis that a planet can exhibit. An ice-covered planet with high climate hysteresis would show a higher resistance to the initial loss of surface ice coverage with increases in instellation, and abrupt, extreme ice loss once deglaciation begins. Our simulations indicate that the climate hysteresis depends sensitively on the host star spectral energy distribution. Under fixed CO{sub 2} conditions, a planet orbiting an M-dwarf star exhibits a smaller climate hysteresis, requiring smaller instellation to initiate deglaciation than planets orbiting hotter, brighter stars. This is due to the higher absorption of near-infrared radiation by ice on the surfaces and greenhouse gases and clouds in the atmosphere of an M-dwarf planet. Increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} further lower the climate hysteresis, as M-dwarf snowball planets exhibit a larger radiative response than G-dwarf snowball planets for the same increase in CO{sub 2}. For a smaller hysteresis, planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone will thaw earlier in their evolutionary history, and will experience a less abrupt transition out of global ice cover.

  20. Planet Migration and Disk Destruction due to Magneto-Centrifugal Stellar Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. V. E. Lovelace; M. M. Romanova; A. W. Barnard

    2008-06-25

    This paper investigates the influence of magneto-centrifugally driven or simply magnetic winds of rapidly-rotating, strongly-magnetized T Tauri stars in causing the inward or outward migration of close-in giant planets. The azimuthal ram pressure of the magnetized wind acting on the planet tends to increase the planet's angular momentum and cause outward migration if the star's rotation period $P_*$ is less than the planet's orbital period $P_p$. In the opposite case, $P_* > P_p$, the planet migrates inward. Thus, planets orbiting at distances larger (smaller) than $0.06 {\\rm AU}(P_*/5{\\rm d})^{2/3}$ tend to be pushed outward (inward), where $P_*$ is the rotation period of the star assumed to have the mass of the sun. The magnetic winds are likely to occur in T Tauri stars where the thermal speed of the gas close to the star is small, where the star's magnetic field is strong, and where the star rotates rapidly. The time-scale for appreciable radial motion of the planet is estimated as $\\sim 2 - 20$ Myr. A sufficiently massive close-in planet may cause tidal locking and once this happens the radial migration due to the magnetic wind ceases. The magnetic winds are expected to be important for planet migration for the case of a multipolar magnetic field rather than a dipole field where the wind is directed away from the equatorial plane and where a magnetospheric cavity forms. The influence of the magnetic wind in eroding and eventually destroying the accretion disk is analyzed. A momentum integral is derived for the turbulent wind/disk boundary layer and this is used to estimate the disk erosion time-scale as $\\sim 1-10^2$ Myr, with the lower value favored.

  1. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Deepak

    2009-05-15

    Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design...

  2. Abstract--The power requirements of automotive alternators are increasing significantly due to the introduction of new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Abstract-- The power requirements of automotive alternators are increasing significantly due. INTRODUCTION The output power and power density requirements of automotive alternators are increasing research into the design of automotive generators, ranging from improvements to conventional Lundell

  3. INITIAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT POWER TIME LAG DUE TO HETEROGENEITY WITHIN THE TREAT FUEL MATRIX.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Wachs; A.X. Zabriskie, W.R. Marcum

    2014-06-01

    The topic Nuclear Safety encompasses a broad spectrum of focal areas within the nuclear industry; one specific aspect centers on the performance and integrity of nuclear fuel during a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). This specific accident has proven to be fundamentally difficult to theoretically characterize due to the numerous empirically driven characteristics that quantify the fuel and reactor performance. The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility was designed and operated to better understand fuel behavior under extreme (i.e. accident) conditions; it was shutdown in 1994. Recently, efforts have been underway to commission the TREAT facility to continue testing of advanced accident tolerant fuels (i.e. recently developed fuel concepts). To aid in the restart effort, new simulation tools are being used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuels during facility’s transient events. This study focuses specifically on the characterizing modeled effects of fuel particles within the fuel matrix of the TREAT. The objective of this study was to (1) identify the impact of modeled heterogeneity within the fuel matrix during a transient event, and (2) demonstrate acceptable modeling processes for the purpose of TREAT safety analyses, specific to fuel matrix and particle size. Hypothetically, a fuel that is dominantly heterogeneous will demonstrate a clearly different temporal heating response to that of a modeled homogeneous fuel. This time difference is a result of the uniqueness of the thermal diffusivity within the fuel particle and fuel matrix. Using MOOSE/BISON to simulate the temperature time-lag effect of fuel particle diameter during a transient event, a comparison of the average graphite moderator temperature surrounding a spherical particle of fuel was made for both types of fuel simulations. This comparison showed that at a given time and with a specific fuel particle diameter, the fuel particle (heterogeneous) simulation and the homogeneous simulation were related by a multiplier relative to the average moderator temperature. As time increases the multiplier is comparable to the factor found in a previous analytical study from literature. The implementation of this multiplier and the method of analysis may be employed to remove assumptions and increase fidelity for future research on the effect of fuel particles during transient events.

  4. Water quality improvements in the Upper North Bosque River watershed due to phosphorous export through turfgrass sod 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, George Russell

    2005-02-17

    -1 WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS IN THE UPPER NORTH BOSQUE RIVER WATERSHED DUE TO PHOSPHOROUS EXPORT THROUGH TURFGRASS SOD A Thesis by GEORGE R. STEWART Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Biological and Agricultural Engineering WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS IN THE UPPER NORTH BOSQUE RIVER WATERSHED DUE...

  5. RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIVIDUAL DOSES DUE TO MEDICAL EXPOSURES FOR MEMBERS OF THE TECHA RIVER COHORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shagina, N. B.; Golikov, V.; Degteva, M. O.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To describe a methodology for reconstruction of doses due to medical exposures for members of the Techa River Cohort (TRC) who received diagnostic radiation at the clinic of the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM) in 1952–2005. To calculate doses of medical exposure for the TRC members and compare with the doses that resulted from radioactive contamination of the Techa River. Material and Methods: Reconstruction of individual medical doses is based on data on x-ray diagnostic procedures available for each person examined at the URCRM clinics and values of absorbed dose in 12 organs per typical x-ray procedure calculated with the use of a mathematical phantom. Personal data on x-ray diagnostic examinations have been complied in the computerized “Registry of x-ray diagnostic procedures.” Sources of information are archival registry books from the URCRM x-ray room (available since 1956) and records on x-ray diagnostic procedures in patient-case histories (since 1952). The absorbed doses for 12 organs of interest have been evaluated per unit typical x-ray procedure with account taken of the x-ray examination parameters characteristic for the diagnostic machines used at the URCRM clinics. These parameters have been evaluated from published data on technical characteristics of the x-ray diagnostic machines used at the URCRM clinics in 1952–1988 and taken from the x-ray room for machines used at the URCRM in 1989–2005. Absorbed doses in the 12 organs per unit typical x-ray procedure have been calculated with use of a special computer code, EDEREX, developed at the Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev. Individual accumulated doses of medical exposure have been calculated with a computer code, MEDS (Medical Exposure Dosimetry System), specifically developed at the URCRM. Results: At present, the “Registry of x-ray diagnostic procedures” contains information on individual x-ray examinations for over 9,500 persons including 6,415 TRC members. Statistical analysis of the Registry data showed that the more frequent types of examinations were fluoroscopy and radiography of the chest and fluoroscopy of the stomach and the esophagus. Average absorbed doses accumulated by year 2005 calculated for the 12 organs varied from 4 mGy for testes to 40 mGy for bone surfaces. Maximum individual medical doses could reach 500–650 mGy and in some cases exceeded doses from exposure at the Techa River. Conclusions: For the first time the doses of medical exposure were calculated and analyzed for members of the Techa River Cohort who received diagnostic radiation at the URCRM clinics. These results are being used in radiation-risk analysis to adjust for this source of confounding exposure in the TRC.

  6. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could resultmore »from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely conduits for brine and CO2 leaks. Leakage uncertainty was based on hypothetical injection of CO2 for 50 years at a rate of 5 million tons per year into a depleted oil/gas reservoir with high permeability and, one or more wells provided leakage pathways from the storage reservoir to the overlying aquifer. This scenario corresponds to a storage site with historical oil/gas production and some poorly completed legacy wells that went undetected through site evaluation, operations, and post-closure. For the aquifer systems and leakage scenarios studied here, CO2 and brine leakage are likely to drive pH below and increase total dissolved solids (TDS) above the “no-impact thresholds;” and the subsequent plumes, although small, are likely to persist for long periods of time in the absence of remediation. In these scenarios, however, risk to human health may not be significant for two reasons. First, our simulated plume volumes are much smaller than the average inter-well spacing for these representative aquifers, so the impacted groundwater would be unlikely to be pumped for drinking water. Second, even within the impacted plume volumes little water exceeds the primary maximum contamination levels.« less

  7. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Christopher F.; Bacon, Diana H.

    2014-10-01

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely conduits for brine and CO2 leaks. Leakage uncertainty was based on hypothetical injection of CO2 for 50 years at a rate of 5 million tons per year into a depleted oil/gas reservoir with high permeability and, one or more wells provided leakage pathways from the storage reservoir to the overlying aquifer. This scenario corresponds to a storage site with historical oil/gas production and some poorly completed legacy wells that went undetected through site evaluation, operations, and post-closure. For the aquifer systems and leakage scenarios studied here, CO2 and brine leakage are likely to drive pH below and increase total dissolved solids (TDS) above the “no-impact thresholds;” and the subsequent plumes, although small, are likely to persist for long periods of time in the absence of remediation. In these scenarios, however, risk to human health may not be significant for two reasons. First, our simulated plume volumes are much smaller than the average inter-well spacing for these representative aquifers, so the impacted groundwater would be unlikely to be pumped for drinking water. Second, even within the impacted plume volumes little water exceeds the primary maximum contamination levels.

  8. Human Resource Management http://www.lsuhsc.edu/no/administration/hrm/Forms.aspx[12/11/2008 11:12:01 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Application Supervisor's Instructions - Drug Testing and Fitness for Duty Unscheduled Absence Form Voluntary

  9. Comment on"Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Milligan, Michael; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-03-18

    Katzenstein and Apt investigate the important question of pollution emission reduction benefits from variable generation resources such as wind and solar. Their methodology, which couples an individual variable generator to a dedicated gas plant to produce a flat block of power is, however, inappropriate. For CO{sub 2}, the authors conclude that variable generators 'achieve {approx} 80% of the emission reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions.' They find even lower NO{sub x} emission reduction benefits with steam-injected gas turbines and a 2-4 times net increase in NO{sub x} emissions for systems with dry NO{sub x} control unless the ratio of energy from natural gas to variable plants is greater than 2:1. A more appropriate methodology, however, would find a significantly lower degradation of the emissions benefit than suggested by Katzenstein and Apt. As has been known for many years, models of large power system operations must take into account variable demand and the unit commitment and economic dispatch functions that are practiced every day by system operators. It is also well-known that every change in wind or solar power output does not need to be countered by an equal and opposite change in a dispatchable resource. The authors recognize that several of their assumptions to the contrary are incorrect and that their estimates therefore provide at best an upper bound to the emissions degradation caused by fluctuating output. Yet they still present the strong conclusion: 'Carbon dioxide emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers. We have shown that the conventional method used to calculate emissions is inaccurate, particularly for NO{sub x} emissions.' The inherently problematic methodology used by the authors makes such strong conclusions suspect. Specifically, assuming that each variable plant requires a dedicated natural gas backup plant to create a flat block of power ignores the benefits of diversity. In real power systems, operators are required to balance only the net variations of all loads and all generators, not the output of individual loads or generators; doing otherwise would ensure an enormous amount of unnecessary investment and operating costs. As a result, detailed studies that aggregate the variability of all loads and generators to the system level find that the amount of operating reserves required to reliably integrate variable resources into the grid are on the order of 10% of the nameplate capacity of the variable generators, even when upto25%of gross demand is being met by variable generation. The authors implicit assumption that incremental operating reserves must be 100% of the nameplate capacity of the variable generation, and be available at all times to directly counter that variability, excludes the option of decommitting conventional units when the load net of variable generation is low. In real power systems, generation response to wind variation can typically be met by a combination of committed units, each operating at a relatively efficient point of their fuel curves. In the Supporting Information, we conceptually demonstrate that the CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} efficiency penalty found by the authors can be significantly reduced by considering the unit commitment decision with just five plants. Real systems often have tens to hundreds of plants that can be committed and decommitted over various time frames. Ignoring the flexibility of the unit commitment decision therefore leads to unsupportable results. Anumber of analyses of the fuel savings and CO{sub 2} emission benefits of variable generation have considered realistic operating reserve requirements and unit commitment decisions in models that include the reduction in part load efficiency of conventional plants. The efficiency penalty due to the variability of wind in four studies considered by Gross et al. is negligible to 7%, for up to a 20% wind penetration level. In short, for moderate wind penetration levels, 'there is no evidence available to

  10. Multi-GeV neutrinos due to neutro anti-neutron oscillation in Gamma-Ray Burst Fireballs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarira Sahu

    2007-02-27

    The long and short gamma-ray bursts are believed to be produced due to collapse of massive stars and merger of compact binaries respectively. All these objects are rich in neutron and the jet outflow from these objects must have a neutron component in it. By postulating the neutron anti-neutron oscillation in the gamma-ray burst fireball, we show that, 19-38 GeV neutrinos and anti-neutrinos can be produced due to annihilation of anti-neutrons with the background neutrons. These neutrinos and anti-neutrinos will be produced before the 5-10 GeV neutrinos due to dynamical decoupling of neutrons from the rest of the fireball. Observation of these neutrinos will shed more light on the nature of the GRB progenitors and also be a unique signature of physics beyond the standard model. A possible way of detecting these neutrinos in future is also discussed.

  11. Hydrodynamic forces due to waves and a current induced on a pipeline placed in an open trench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jaeyoung

    1991-01-01

    HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES DUE TO WAVES AND A CURRENT INDUCED ON A PIPELINE PLACED IN AN OPEN TRENCH A Thesis by JAEYOUNG LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES DUE TO WAVES AND A CURRENT INDUCED ON A PIPELINE PLACED IN AN OPEN TRENCH A Thesis by JAEYOUNG LEE Approved as to style and content by: John B...

  12. Onset of Wave Drag due to Generation of Capillary-Gravity Waves by a Moving Object as a Critical Phenomenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodor Burghelea; Victor Steinberg

    2001-04-21

    The onset of the {\\em wave resistance}, via generation of capillary gravity waves, of a small object moving with velocity $V$, is investigated experimentally. Due to the existence of a minimum phase velocity $V_c$ for surface waves, the problem is similar to the generation of rotons in superfluid helium near their minimum. In both cases waves or rotons are produced at $V>V_c$ due to {\\em Cherenkov radiation}. We find that the transition to the wave drag state is continuous: in the vicinity of the bifurcation the wave resistance force is proportional to $\\sqrt{V-V_c}$ for various fluids.

  13. Effect of the magnetic lenses on the electron current due to near wall conductivity in a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zhiwen; Liu Xiangyang; Wang Ningfei [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yu Daren [Harbin Plasma Propulsion Lab, Mail Box 458, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The effect of magnetic lens on the electron current due to near wall conductivity (NWC) in a Hall thruster is studied. A Monte Carlo model is employed to simulate the effect of the large magnetic field incidence angle on the electron current. The simulation results show that the electron current due to NWC decreases in the case of large incidence. The simulation qualitatively agrees with the related experimental result. And the simulation also demonstrates that choosing the curvature angle of the magnetic field is also a key factor to design a Hall thruster with high operation performance.

  14. Deep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 30173039 Biogeochemical impacts due to mesoscale eddy activity in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGillicuddy Jr., Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Deep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 3017­3039 Biogeochemical impacts due to mesoscale eddy activity of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA d of an eddy. Primary production nearly as high as the spring bloom maximum was observed in two mode-water

  15. On the force and torque on systems of rigid bodies: A remark on an integral formula due to Howe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabak, Esteban G.

    On the force and torque on systems of rigid bodies: A remark on an integral formula due to Howe 2007 M. S. Howe J. Fluid Mech. 206, 131 1989 presented integral formulas for the force and torque induced by free vorticity, and viscous skin friction. Here a simple extension of Howe's formulas is done

  16. Eddy-current probe impedance due to a volumetric flaw J. R. Bowler and S. A. Jenkins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowler, John R.

    Eddy-current probe impedance due to a volumetric flaw J. R. Bowler and S. A. Jenkins University 25 January 1991) Eddy current induced in a metal by a coil carrying an alternating current may, or inclusions. In eddy-current nondestructive evaluation, defectsare commonly sensedby a change of the coil

  17. Cluster Report or Survey Description Date due to IEA Responsible person(s) Comments Summer Activity Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Cluster Report or Survey Description Date due to IEA Responsible person(s) Comments Summer Activity, data is provided by IEA for report completion. Fall Activity Report Activity reports for Fall, 2013 April 4, 2014 Academic Department Heads By January 17, 2014, data is provided by IEA for report

  18. Wind-Driven Currents The first, and simplest, theory of steady wind-driven flow is due to Ekman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griesel, Alexa

    Wind-Driven Currents The first, and simplest, theory of steady wind-driven flow is due to Ekman gradients are negligible. The goal of this project is to isolate the wind-driven flow using the FASINEX moored measurements of velocity and wind stress. 1. Writing u Uei t = , and assuming a parameterization

  19. Abstract--Job monitoring in Grid systems presents an important challenge due to Grid environments are volatile,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbalan, Julita

    1 Abstract--Job monitoring in Grid systems presents an important challenge due to Grid environments show all the features that user can use in the portal to personalize his/her monitoring environment are volatile, heterogeneous, not reliable and are managed by different middlewares and monitoring tools. We

  20. Decoherence of a superconducting qubit due to bias noise John M. Martinis, S. Nam, J. Aumentado, and K. M. Lang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinis, John M.

    Decoherence of a superconducting qubit due to bias noise John M. Martinis, S. Nam, J. Aumentado that could implement a quantum computer scalable to large size. Superconducting circuits are favorable systems qubits , the inher- ently low dissipation of superconductors make possible long coherence times

  1. Evidence for photoacclimation by the diatom Chaetoceros muelleri due to fluctuating light Oregon State University REU 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    of marine microalgae is important due to their significant contributions to the global environment.Introduction #12;Prier 2 Microalgae are commonly defined as aquatic photoautotrophic microbes a key role in the productivity of the microalgae, but in this experiment we are focused

  2. A Temperature Dependent Correction to the Model for Microwave Excess Emissivity of the Ocean due to Surface Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    A Temperature Dependent Correction to the Model for Microwave Excess Emissivity of the Ocean due, temperature, and microwave emissivity reveal a clear dependence of the slope of the emissivity versus windspeed on the temperature. Water at higher tempertures has a greater increase in emissivity per unit wind

  3. Efforts Report Tutorial Effort Reports for the 3rd cycle of 2008 are due this Thursday, 8/21.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Efforts Report Tutorial Effort Reports for the 3rd cycle of 2008 are due this Thursday, 8 security questions. Once you are logged on to the main ARES web site click on *"Effort* *Reporting"* from the menu and select *"Faculty/Employee Access"*. This should bring you to your effort report. Review

  4. (BBA) is competent for investigations on incidents of poisoning honey bees due to the use of pesti-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (BBA) is competent for investigations on incidents of poisoning honey bees due to the use of pesti in the case of honey-bee poisoning by pesticides' [Amtl Pfl Best (Berlin-Dahlem), NF 36/5, 179-182]. An overview of the poisoning incidents shows a clear decline in the last years. The most impor- tant

  5. Problems #7, Math 311, Dr. M. Bohner. Mar 19, 2003. Due Apr 2, 1 pm. 138. Let A =

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohner, Martin

    Problems #7, Math 311, Dr. M. Bohner. Mar 19, 2003. Due Apr 2, 1 pm. 138. Let A = a b b c . Show by f(x, y, z) = (x2 +2y2 )e-(x2+y2) +zez . 147. In order to produce a box we have two materials

  6. Multivariate Analysis and Applications Today, due to advances in computers, massive amounts of data are collected. These

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehlau, David

    Multivariate Analysis and Applications Today, due to advances in computers, massive amounts of data to the large number of variables and the interrelated nature among these variables. Multivariate statistical of basic Multivariate Analysis such as multivariate mean and variance analysis, T-Hotelling, Multinormal

  7. Bayesian models for elevated disease risk due to exposure to uranium mine and mill waste on the Navajo Nation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huerta, Gabriel

    ForReview Only Bayesian models for elevated disease risk due to exposure to uranium mine and mill of Pharmacy, Community Environmental Health Program Keywords: abandoned uranium mines, conditionally specified to ex- posure to uranium mine and mill waste on the Navajo Nation Glenn A. Stark University of New

  8. Coulomb stress changes in the South Iceland Seismic Zone due to two large earthquakes in June 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Rikke

    Coulomb stress changes in the South Iceland Seismic Zone due to two large earthquakes in June 2000 Iceland Seismic Zone experienced the largest earthquakes for 88 years in June 2000, with a MS = 6.6 event of the next large earthquake in South Iceland. INDEX TERMS: 1242 Geodesy and Gravity: Seismic deformations

  9. Uncertainty in the future distribution of tropospheric ozone over West Africa due to variability in anthropogenic emissions estimates between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    over the next few decades due to rising population and more energy intensive lifestyles. Here we activities such as transport, energy production, bio-fuel use, industrial processes and biomass burning (BB Organic Compounds (VOCs) have recently been measured in the lower troposphere (LT) near Lagos, Nigeria (6

  10. Homework on the instability of a cloud layer due to entrainment of its basis or its top

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legras, Bernard

    Homework on the instability of a cloud layer due to entrainment of its basis or its top Bernard. A parcel of clear air is entrained across the cloud basis and is mixed with the cloudy air located above. 2. A parcel of cloudy air is entrained across the cloud top and is mixed with clear air located above. 3

  11. Universal Cone Angle of ac Electrosprays Due to Net Charge Entrainment Nishant Chetwani, Siddharth Maheshwari, and Hsueh-Chia Chang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    Universal Cone Angle of ac Electrosprays Due to Net Charge Entrainment Nishant Chetwani, Siddharth that ac entrainment of low-mobility anions, generated by field-assisted ion dissociation, sustains a net by an entrained net free (space) charge and hence is independent of the exter- nal field. We confirm the above

  12. Instant HR March 2, 2015 TOPIC: Timekeeping for Changes in VCU's Work Schedule Due to Inclement Weather on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Weather on Thursday, Feb. 26, 2015 To Timekeepers: The following is information to help you process timekeeping for changes in VCU's operating status due to inclement weather. VCU closed all day Thursday, Feb Weather Leave (ILA) for hours worked during the authorized closing. Exempt non-designated employees

  13. Instant HR February 16, 2015 TOPIC: Timekeeping for Changes in VCU's Work Schedule Due to Inclement Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    to Inclement Weather To Timekeepers: The following is information to help you process timekeeping for the change in VCU's operating status due to inclement weather. Please continue to check the VCU Alert web the authorized closing but do not accrue Inclement Weather Leave (ILA) for hours worked during the authorized

  14. Instant HR March 6, 2015 TOPIC: Timekeeping for Changes in VCU's Work Schedule Due to Recent Inclement Weather on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Inclement Weather on Thursday, Mar. 5, and Friday, Mar. 6, 2015 To Timekeepers: The following is information to help you process timekeeping for changes in VCU's operating status due to inclement weather. VCU during the authorized closing but do not accrue Inclement Weather Leave (ILA) for hours worked during

  15. SURFACE MOTION DUE TO SURFACE ENERGY REDUCTION Jean E. Taylor, Math Dept, Rutgers Univ., Piscataway NJ 08855

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jean

    of l* *east surface energy for a given volume is not a round ball but something else, like a hexagonal SURFACE MOTION DUE TO SURFACE ENERGY REDUCTION Jean E. Taylor, Math) and a unifying framework for different motio* *n laws and different surface free energy functions. It also

  16. Wind Bias from Sub-optimal Estimation Due to Geophysical Modeling Error Paul E. Johnson and David G . Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Wind Bias from Sub-optimal Estimation Due to Geophysical Modeling Error -Wind I Paul E. Johnson (which relates the wind to the normalized radar cross section, NRCS, of the ocean surface) is uncertainty in the NRCS for given wind conditions. When the estimated variability is in- cluded in the maximum likelihood

  17. Changes in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) retrievals due to the orbit boost estimated from rain gauge data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMoss, Jeremy

    2009-06-02

    to 403 km in August 2001. The change in orbit altitude produced small changes in a wide range of observing parameters, including field-of-view size and viewing angles. Due to natural climatic variability, it is not possible to evaluate possible changes...

  18. Texas A&MUniversity Detailed Assessment Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem tracking system (Keystone). Annual downtime is calculated from the Keystone problem tracking system. Annual downtime is calculated from Keystone entries for the period September 1, 2013 through

  19. The Electrochemical Surface Potential Due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcel D. Baer; Abraham C. Stern; Yan Levin; Douglas J. Tobias; Christopher J. Mundy

    2013-07-05

    We demonstrate that the driving forces for ion adsorption to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and a term that is of the form of a negative electrochemical surface potential. We carefully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory. Our research suggests that the electrochemical surface potential due to point charge models provides anions with a significant driving force to the air-water interface. This is contrary to the results of ab initio simulations that indicate that the average electrostatic surface potential should favor the desorption of anions at the air-water interface. The results have profound implications for the studies of ionic distributions in the vicinity of hydrophobic surfaces and proteins.

  20. Evaluation of flow redistribution due to flow blockage in rod bundles using COBRA code simulation. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prelewicz, D.A.; Caruso, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    During a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, fuel rod cladding may reach temperatures approaching 2200/sup 0/F. At these temperatures, swelling and rupture of the cladding may occur. The resulting flow blockage will affect steam flow and heat transfer in the bundle during the period of reflooding. The COBRA-IV-I subchannel computer code was used to simulate flow redistribution due to sleeve blockages in the FLECHT-SEASET 21-rod bundle and plate blockages in the JAERI Slab Core Test Facility. Sensitivity studies were conducted to determine the effects of spacer grid and blockage interaction, sleeve shape effects, sleeve length effects, blockage magnitude and distribution, thermally induced mixing and bundle average velocity on flow redistribution. Pressure drop due to sleeve blockages was also calculated for several blockage configurations.

  1. Self-consistent computation of gamma-ray spectra due to proton-proton interactions in black hole systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bhattacharyya; N. Bhatt; R. Misra

    2006-06-07

    In the inner regions of an accretion disk around a black hole, relativistic protons can interact with ambient matter to produce electrons, positrons and $\\gamma$-rays. The resultant steady state electron and positron particle distributions are self-consistently computed taking into account Coulomb and Compton cooling, $e^-e^+$ pair production (due to $\\gamma-\\gamma$ annihilation) and pair annihilation. While earlier works used the diffusion approximation to obtain the particle distributions, here we solve a more general integro-differential equation that correctly takes into account the large change in particle energy that occur when the leptons Compton scatter off hard X-rays. Thus this formalism can also be applied to the hard state of black hole systems, where the dominant ambient photons are hard X-rays. The corresponding photon energy spectrum is calculated and compared with broadband data of black hole binaries in different spectral states. The results indicate that the $\\gamma$-ray spectra ($E > 0.8$ MeV) of both the soft and hard spectral states and the entire hard X-ray/$\\gamma$-ray spectrum of the ultra-soft state, could be due to $p-p$ interactions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that there always exists in these systems a $\\gamma$-ray spectral component due to $p-p$ interactions which can contribute between 0.5 to 10% of the total bolometric luminosty. The model predicts that {\\it GLAST} would be able to detect black hole binaries and provide evidence for the presence of non-thermal protons which in turn would give insight into the energy dissipation process and jet formation in these systems.

  2. Energy Reductions Due to Cosolvent Addition to Near Critical CO2 Extraction of Organic Chemicals from Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingsley, G.; Moses, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    DUE TO COSOLVENT ADDITION TO NEAR CRITICAL CO EXTRACTION OF 2 . ORGANIC CHEMICALS FROM WATER GEORGE KINGSLEY, JOHN M. MOSES, CRITICAL FLUID SYSTEMS, INC. CA}lliRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS Near-critical carbon dioxide was used in conjunction... the organic is solvated into the solvent, it must be separated fran that solvent. Once again we are faced with an energy intensive distillation. It is here that the use of con:iensed gases, also known as critical fluids, can make liquid-liquid extraction...

  3. Enhanced excitonic photoconductivity due to built-in internal electric field in TlGaSe{sub 2} layered semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu. Suleymanov, Rauf A.; ?ale, Yasin; Balaban, Ertan

    2014-12-07

    The strong enhancement, by several orders of magnitude, of the excitonic peak within the photoconductivity spectrum of TlGaSe{sub 2} semiconductor was observed. The samples were polarized in external dc electric field, which was applied prior to the measurements. Due to the accumulation of charges near the surface, an internal electric field was formed. Electron-hole pairs that were created after the absorption of light are fallen in and then separated by the built-in electric field, which prevents radiative recombination process.

  4. Asymmetric spin-wave dispersion due to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in an ultrathin Pt/CoFeB film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Kai; Zhang, Vanessa Li; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Kuok, Meng Hau; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-02-02

    Employing Brillouin spectroscopy, strong interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions have been observed in an ultrathin Pt/CoFeB film. Our micromagnetic simulations show that spin-wave nonreciprocity due to asymmetric surface pinning is insignificant for the 0.8?nm-thick CoFeB film studied. The observed high asymmetry of the monotonic spin wave dispersion relation is thus ascribed to strong Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions present at the Pt/CoFeB interface. Our findings should further enhance the significance of CoFeB as an important material for magnonic and spintronic applications.

  5. Resonance broadening due to particle scattering and mode-coupling in the quasi-linear relaxation of electron beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bian, Nicolas H; Ratcliffe, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Of particular interest for radio and hard X-ray diagnostics of accelerated electrons during solar flares is the understanding of the basic non-linear mechanisms regulating the relaxation of electron beams propagating in turbulent plasmas. In this work, it is shown that in addition to scattering of beam electrons, scattering of the beam-generated Langmuir waves via for instance mode-coupling, can also result in broadening of the wave-particle resonance. We obtain a resonance-broadened version of weak-turbulence theory with mode-coupling to ion-sound modes. Resonance broadening is presented here as a unified framework which can quantitatively account for the reduction and possible suppression of the beam instability due to background scattering of the beam electrons themselves or due to scattering of the beam-generated Langmuir waves in fluctuating plasmas. Resonance broadening being essentially equivalent to smoothing of the electron phase-space distribution, it is used to construct an intuitive physical pictu...

  6. Simulations of fast ion wall loads in ASDEX Upgrade in the presence of magnetic perturbations due to ELM mitigation coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asunta, Otto; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Koskela, Tuomas; Sipilä, Seppo; Snicker, Antti; Garcia-Muñoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) ELM mitigation coils on fast ion wall loads was studied with the fast particle following Monte Carlo code ASCOT. Neutral beam injected (NBI) particles were simulated in two AUG discharges both in the presence and in the absence of the magnetic field perturbation induced by the eight newly installed in-vessel coils. In one of the discharges (#26476) beams were applied individually, making it a useful basis for investigating the effect of the coils on different beams. However, no ELM mitigation was observed in #26476, probably due to the low plasma density. Therefore, another discharge (#26895) demonstrating clear ELM mitigation was also studied. The magnetic perturbation due to the in-vessel coils has a significant effect on the fast particle confinement, but only when total magnetic field, $B_{tot}$, is low. When $B_{tot}$ was high, the perturbation did not increase the losses, but merely resulted in redistribution of the wall power loads. Hence, it seems to be possible to ac...

  7. Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in JET Optimized Shear Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in JET Optimized Shear Plasmas

  8. Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in JET Optimized Shear Plasmas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in JET Optimized Shear Plasmas.

  9. A Key to Improved Ion Core Confinement in the JET Tokamak: Ion Stiffness Mitigation due to Combined Plasma Rotation and Low Magnetic Shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Key to Improved Ion Core Confinement in the JET Tokamak: Ion Stiffness Mitigation due to Combined Plasma Rotation and Low Magnetic Shear

  10. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  11. Ignition of Deflagration and Detonation Ahead of the Flame due to Radiative Preheating of Suspended Micro Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

    2014-01-01

    We study a flame propagating in the gaseous combustible mixture with suspended inert solid micro particles. The gaseous mixture is assumed to be transparent for thermal radiation emitted by the hot combustion products, while particles absorb and reemit the radiation. Thermal radiation heats the particles, which in turn transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of thermal heat transfer. Different scenarios are possible depending on the spatial distribution of the particles, their size and the number density. In the case of uniform spatial distribution the radiation absorption ahead of the flame causes a modest increase of the combustion wave velocity. On the contrary, in the case of non-uniform distribution of the particles, such that the particles number density increases far ahead of the flame, the preheating caused by the thermal radiation may trigger additional source of ignition. Far enough ahead of the flame, where number density of particles is higher, the temperature due to...

  12. The importance of level statistics for the decoherence of a central spin due to a spin environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Håkon Brox; Joakim Bergli; Yuri M. Galperin

    2012-02-03

    We study the decoherence of a central spin-1/2 due to a closed environment composed of spin-1/2 particles. It is known that a frustrated spin environment, such as a spin glass, is much more efficient for decoherence of the central spin than a similar size environment without frustration. We construct a Hamiltonian where the degree of frustration is parametrized by a single parameter $\\kappa$. By use of this model we find that the environment can be classified by two distinct regimes with respect to the strength of level repulsion. These regimes behave qualitatively different with respect to decoherence of the central spin and might explain the strong enhancement of decoherence observed for frustrated environments.

  13. Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

  14. Momentum transport in the vicinity of q{sub min} in reverse shear tokamaks due to ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rameswar; Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex ; Singh, R; WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 ; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.; Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093; Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0424

    2014-01-15

    We present an analytic study of momentum transport of tokamak plasmas in the vicinity of minimum safety factor (q) position in reversed magnetic shear configuration. Slab ion temperature gradient modes with an equilibrium flow profile are considered in this study. Quasi-linear calculations of momentum flux clearly show the novel effects of q-curvature on the generation of intrinsic rotation and mean poloidal flow without invoking reflectional symmetry breaking of parallel wavenumber (k{sub ?}). This q-curvature effect originates from the inherent asymmetry in k{sub ?} populations with respect to a rational surface due to the quadratic proportionality of k{sub ?} when q-curvature is taken into account. Discussions are made of possible implications of q-curvature induced plasma flows on internal transport barrier formation in reversed shear tokamaks.

  15. Experimental evidence of the increased transport due to the wall bounded magnetic drift in low temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaboriau, F., E-mail: gaboriau@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Baude, R. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’énergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Hagelaar, G. J. M. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’énergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)

    2014-05-26

    This paper presents experimental results on plasma transport across the magnetic field (B) in magnetized low-temperature plasma sources. Due to the presence of chamber walls, this transport can be complex even in a non-turbulent regime. In particular, in configurations without cylindrical symmetry, the magnetic drifts tend to be bounded by the chamber walls, thereby inducing plasma asymmetry and reducing magnetic confinement. In this work, we measure electron and ion current densities at metal chamber walls bounding a rectangular magnetic filter and demonstrate that these current densities are asymmetrically nonuniform. We also provide an experimental confirmation of model predictions of increased cross-field electron transport in such filter configuration, scaling as 1/B rather than the classical 1/B{sup 2} scaling.

  16. Pacer: Taking the Guesswork Out of Live Migrations in Hybrid Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallach, Dan

    for CAPEX and OPEX savings, application adaptivity, disaster survivability, zero-downtime mainte- nance

  17. Enhanced magneto-optical effect due to interface alloy formation in CoPt (1 1 1) ultrathin lms upon thermal annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Minn-Tsong

    Enhanced magneto-optical effect due to interface alloy formation in Co±Pt (1 1 1) ultrathin ®lms±Pt (1 1 1) ®lms. With help of low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy, such as multilayers and alloy thin ®lms, have attracted intensive interest due to their application in data storage

  18. Measurements and modelling of fast-ion redistribution due to MHD instabilities in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, O M; Cecconello, M; Wodniak, I; McClements, K G; Keeling, D L; Challis, C D; Turnyanskiy, M; Meakins, A J; Conway, N J; Crowley, B J; Akers, R J

    2014-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive investigation into the effects of various MHD modes on the NBI-generated fast-ion population in MAST plasmas are reported. Fast-ion redistribution due to low-frequency (20-50 kHz) chirping energetic particle modes known as fishbones, as well as the long-lived internal kink mode, is observed with the Fast-Ion Deuterium Alpha (FIDA) spectrometer and radially-scanning collimated neutron camera. In addition, strongly-driven chirping toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are observed to cause fast-ion redistribution, as are sawteeth and large edge-localised modes. In each case, the modes affect fast ions in a region of real space governed by the eigenmode structure and principal toroidal mode number. Modelling using the global transport analysis code TRANSP, with ad hoc anomalous diffusion introduced, reproduces the coarsest features of the affected fast-ion distribution in the presence of energetic-particle-driven modes, but the spectrally and spatially resolved FIDA measurements su...

  19. PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asano, Katsuaki; Inoue, Susumu; Meszaros, Peter E-mail: inoue@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.j

    2010-12-20

    A fraction of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit distinct spectral features in their prompt emission below few tens of keV that exceed simple extrapolations of the low-energy power-law portion of the Band spectral model. This is also true for the prompt optical emission observed in several bursts. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we model such low-energy spectral excess components as hadronic cascade emission initiated by photomeson interactions of ultra-high-energy protons accelerated within GRB outflows. Synchrotron radiation from the cascading, secondary electron-positron pairs can naturally reproduce the observed soft spectra in the X-ray band, and in some cases the optical spectra as well. These components can be directly related to the higher energy radiation at GeV energies due to the hadronic cascades. Depending on the spectral shape, the total energy in protons is required to be comparable to or appreciably larger than the observed total photon energy. In particular, we apply our model to the excess X-ray and GeV emission of GRB 090902B, and the bright optical emission of the 'naked-eye' GRB 080319B. Besides the hard GeV components detected by Fermi, such X-ray or optical spectral excesses are further potential signatures of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray production in GRBs.

  20. Shock formation processes due to interactions of two plasmas in a magnetic field and modified two-stream instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toida, Mieko; Uragami, Tatsunori [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    The study of interactions of exploding and surrounding plasmas in an external magnetic field [K. Yamauchi and Y. Ohsawa, Phys. Plasmas 14, 053110 (2007)] is verified with two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic particle simulations, for a case in which the initial velocity of the exploding plasma is perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The 2D simulations show essentially the same shock-formation processes as those in the previous one-dimensional simulation, including penetration of exploding ions into surrounding plasma, formation of a strong magnetic-field pulse due to deceleration of the exploding ions, ion reflection by the pulse, and subsequent splitting of the pulse into two magnetosonic pulses which then develop into forward and reverse shock waves. Furthermore, the 2D structure of electromagnetic fields in the region, where the exploding and surrounding ions overlap, is investigated with particular attention to the linear and nonlinear evolution of modified two-stream instabilities in the magnetic field that is being gradually compressed. The effects of these instabilities on ion reflection and on 2D magnetic fluctuations in the two generated pulses are also discussed.

  1. Estimating Finite Source Effects in Microlensing Events due to Free-Floating Planets with the Euclid Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamolli, Lindita; De Paolis, Francesco; Nucita, Achille A

    2015-01-01

    In recent years free-loating planets (FFPs) have drawn a great interest among astrophysicists. Gravitational microlensing is a unique and exclusive method for their investigation which may allow obtaining precious information about their mass and spatial distribution. The planned Euclid space-based observatory will be able to detect a substantial number of microlensing events caused by FFPs towards the Galactic bulge. Making use of a synthetic population algorithm, we investigate the possibility of detecting finite source effects in simulated microlensing events due to FFPs. We find a significant efficiency for finite source effect detection that turns out to be between 20% and 40% for a FFP power law mass function index in the range [0.9, 1.6]. For many of such events it will also be possible to measure the angular Einstein radius and therefore constrain the lens physical parameters. These kinds of observations will also offer a unique possibility to investigate the photosphere and atmosphere of Galactic bul...

  2. The uncertainties due to quark energy loss on determining nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. G. Duan; N. Liu; G. L. Li

    2008-11-05

    By means of two different parametrizations of quark energy loss and the nuclear parton distributions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order phenomenological analysis is performed on the nuclear Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei for E772 experimental data. It is shown that there is the quark energy loss effect in nuclear Drell-Yan process apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering. The uncertainties due to quark energy loss effect is quantified on determining nuclear sea quark distribution by using nuclear Drell-Yan data. It is found that the quark energy loss effect on nuclear Drell-Yan cross section ratios make greater with the increase of quark momentum fraction in the target nuclei. The uncertainties from quark energy loss become bigger as the nucleus A come to be heavier. The Drell-Yan data on proton incident middle and heavy nuclei versus deuterium would result in an overestimate for nuclear modifications on sea quark distribution functions with neglecting the quark energy loss. Our results are hoped to provide good directional information on the magnitude and form of nuclear modifications on sea quark distribution functions by means of the nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data.

  3. MODELING THE ANOMALY OF SURFACE NUMBER DENSITIES OF GALAXIES ON THE GALACTIC EXTINCTION MAP DUE TO THEIR FIR EMISSION CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro; Kayo, Issha; Nishimichi, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    The most widely used Galactic extinction map is constructed assuming that the observed far-infrared (FIR) fluxes come entirely from Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al., we consider how FIR emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies as a function of the r-band extinction, A {sub r,} {sub SFD}. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with A {sub r,} {sub SFD} for A {sub r,} {sub SFD} < 0.1, as first discovered by Yahata et al. for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytical model to compute the surface density of galaxies, taking into account the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of 100 ?m and r-band luminosities of each galaxy, y ? (?L){sub 100} {sub ?m}/(?L) {sub r}. Then we search for the mean and rms values of y that fit the observed anomaly, using the analytical model. The required values to reproduce the anomaly are roughly consistent with those measured from the stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies. Due to the limitation of our statistical modeling, we are not yet able to remove the FIR contamination of galaxies from the extinction map. Nevertheless, the agreement with the model prediction suggests that the FIR emission of galaxies is mainly responsible for the observed anomaly. Whereas the corresponding systematic error in the Galactic extinction map is 0.1-1 mmag, it is directly correlated with galaxy clustering and thus needs to be carefully examined in precision cosmology.

  4. Relationship between the gamma-ray burst pulse width and energy due to the Doppler effect of fireballs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. -P. Qin; Y. -M. Dong; R. -J. Lu; B. -B. Zhang; L. -W. Jia

    2005-07-01

    We study in details how the pulse width of gamma-ray bursts is related with energy under the assumption that the sources concerned are in the stage of fireballs. Due to the Doppler effect of fireballs, there exists a power law relationship between the two quantities within a limited range of frequency. The power law range and the power law index depend strongly on the observed peak energy $E_p$ as well as the rest frame radiation form, and the upper and lower limits of the power law range can be determined by $E_p$. It is found that, within the same power law range, the ratio of the $FWHM$ of the rising portion to that of the decaying phase of the pulses is also related with energy in the form of power laws. A platform-power-law-platform feature could be observed in the two relationships. In the case of an obvious softening of the rest frame spectrum, the two power law relationships also exist, but the feature would evolve to a peaked one. Predictions on the relationships in the energy range covering both the BATSE and Swift bands for a typical hard burst and a typical soft one are made. A sample of FRED (fast rise and exponential decay) pulse bursts shows that 27 out of the 28 sources belong to either the platform-power-law-platform feature class or the peaked feature group, suggesting that the effect concerned is indeed important for most of the sources of the sample. Among these bursts, many might undergo an obvious softening evolution of the rest frame spectrum.

  5. The Miscoding Potential of 5-Hydroxycytosine Arises Due to Template Instability in the Replicative Polymerase Active Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahn, Karl E.; Averill, April; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie (Vermont)

    2012-07-18

    5-Hydroxycytosine (5-OHC) is a stable oxidation product of cytosine associated with an increased frequency of C {yields} T transition mutations. When this lesion escapes recognition by the base excision repair pathway and persists to serve as a templating base during DNA synthesis, replicative DNA polymerases often misincorporate dAMP at the primer terminus, which can lead to fixation of mutations and subsequent disease. To characterize the dynamics of DNA synthesis opposite 5-OHC, we initiated a comparison of unmodified dCMP to 5-OHC, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), and 5-methylcytosine (5-MEC) in which these bases act as templates in the active site of RB69 gp43, a high-fidelity DNA polymerase sharing homology with human replicative DNA polymerases. This study presents the first crystal structure of any DNA polymerase binding this physiologically important premutagenic DNA lesion, showing that while dGMP is stabilized by 5-OHC through normal Watson-Crick base pairing, incorporation of dAMP leads to unstacking and instability in the template. Furthermore, the electronegativity of the C5 substituent appears to be important in the miscoding potential of these cytosine-like templates. While dAMP is incorporated opposite 5-OHC {approx}5 times more efficiently than opposite unmodified dCMP, an elevated level of incorporation is also observed opposite 5-FC but not 5-MEC. Taken together, these data imply that the nonuniform templating by 5-OHC is due to weakened stacking capabilities, which allows dAMP incorporation to proceed in a manner similar to that observed opposite abasic sites.

  6. Investigation of the benefits of carbonate cementation due to addition of low percentage of hydrated lime in the base courses of pavements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhuiyan, Jasim Uddin

    1994-01-01

    Texas, limestone and caliche soil, were tested extensively to examine the effect of carbonate cementation due to the addition of small percentages of lime. Testing included mineralogical analysis of the two materials, strength analysis in terms of texas...

  7. Changes in Delta-Plutonium Due to Aging as Observed by Continuous in-situ X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Cheng K.; Wall, Mark A.; Chung, Brandon W. [MSTD-CMS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The aging in plutonium is predominantly caused by its internal self irradiation. The self-irradiation in Pu-239 is by the decay process of transmuting the Pu atom into uranium atom and emitting an {alpha}-particle. Most of the lattice damage comes from the uranium recoil resulting in Frenkel type defects consisting of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, helium in growth and defect clusters and possibly even though it is not yet observed, the generation of voids. As part of the stockpile stewardship, it is important to understand the changes in the structure and microstructures and their correlations to the physical properties. Changes in the physical properties has direct relationship to the quality of the structure, in terms of formation of defects and defect clustering, accumulation of voids, grain boundaries, phase changes and etc. which can adversely affects the stability of the material. These changes are very difficult to monitor because of the high activity of the sample, high atomic number making x-ray and synchrotron probe into the bulk very difficult (neutron probe is not feasible) and the long life time which normally requires decades to measure. In this paper we describe the development of an in-situ in-house transmission X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental technique used to monitor the structural changes in these materials. This technique calls for a very thin sample of less that 2 {mu}m and to accelerate the aging process due to self-irradiation, spiked alloy of 7.5 weight percent of Pu-238 is used. This is equivalent to roughly 17 times the normal rate of aging. Current results suggest that over a period of 2.8 equivalent years, an increase of 0.5% in unit cell parameter is observed. The increase appears to be an abrupt jump at about 1.1 equivalent years, brought about by the collapsing of the atoms from the interstitials to the lattice sites. Further data analysis is on the way. (authors)

  8. TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CAP CONCRETE STRESS AND STRAIN DUE TO SHRINKAGE, CREEP, AND EXPANSION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H.; Restivo, M.

    2011-08-01

    In-situ decommissioning of Reactors P- and R- at the Savannah River Site will require filling the reactor vessels with a special concrete based on materials such as magnesium phosphate, calcium aluminate or silica fume. Then the reactor vessels will be overlain with an 8 ft. thick layer of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) steel reinforced concrete, called the 'Cap Concrete'. The integrity of this protective layer must be assured to last for a sufficiently long period of time to avoid ingress of water into the reactor vessel and possible movement of radioactive contamination into the environment. During drying of this Cap Concrete however, shrinkage strains are set up in the concrete as a result of diffusion and evaporation of water from the top surface. This shrinkage varies with depth in the poured slab due to a non-uniform moisture distribution. This differential shrinkage results in restraint of the upper layers with larger shrinkage by lower layers with lesser displacements. Tensile stresses can develop at the surface from the strain gradients in the bulk slab, which can lead to surface cracking. Further, a mechanism called creep occurs during the curing period or early age produces strains under the action of restraining forces. To investigate the potential for surface cracking, an experimental and analytical program was started under TTQAP SRNL-RP-2009-01184. Slab sections made of Cap Concrete mixture were instrumented with embedded strain gages and relative humidity sensors and tested under controlled environmental conditions of 23 C and relative humidities (RH) of 40% and 80% over a period of 50 days. Calculation methods were also developed for predictions of stress development in the full-scale concrete placement over the reactor vessels. These methods were evaluated by simulating conditions for the test specimens and the calculation results compared to the experimental data. A closely similar test with strain gages was performed by Kim and Lee for a concrete mixture that did not employ humidity sensors and the admixtures used in this program. Yuan and Wan tried to predict the shrinkage strains and stresses in the Kim and Lee experiment, but did not include a creep analysis. Grasley and Lange conducted full restraint load tests on a concrete prism instrumented with humidity sensors over a 7 day curing period. The hypothetical case of full-scale placement of the Cap Concrete was also analyzed using the developed analytical methods. The calculation performed in this report is for scoping purposes only.

  9. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guest, Geoffrey Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily ? 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of ? 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of resource and carbon storage options considered indicates that more accurate accounting will require case-specific factors derived following the methodological guidelines provided in this and recent manuscripts. -- Highlights: • Climate impacts of stored biogenic carbon (bio-C) are consistently quantified. • Temporary storage of bio-C does not always equate to a climate cooling impact. • 1 unit of bio-C stored over a time horizon does not always equate to ? 1 unit CO{sub 2}eq. • Discrepancies of climate change impact quantification in literature are clarified.

  10. Characterization and detection of incipient underground cable failures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturbedi, Ritesh

    2002-01-01

    For distribution systems, failure of an underground cable results in an unscheduled outage. An unscheduled outage costs a utility manpower and materials, and affects their reliability index. Thus, the need for an on-line, ...

  11. May 20, 2004 CRUISE REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this cruise to provide time for an unscheduled shipyard repair following MF04-05. Our original cruise

  12. Suppression of electric and magnetic fluctuations and improvement of confinement due to current profile modification by biased electrode in Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Debjyoti; Pal, Rabindranath [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Improvement of plasma confinement is achieved in normal q{sub a} discharges of SINP-tokamak by introducing a biased electrode inside the last closed flux surface. All the important features of high confinement mode are observed biasing the electrode negatively with respect to the vacuum vessel. Arrays of electric and magnetic probes introduced in the edge plasma region reveal suppression of electric and magnetic fluctuations over distinct frequency ranges as well as modification of the toroidal current profile due to biasing. Further analysis identifies the electrostatic fluctuations to be due to drift mode and the magnetic fluctuations may be of slow compressional Alfven waves. Both get suppressed due to current profile modification during biasing, hence leading to the improvement of plasma confinement.

  13. Co-current rotation of the bulk ions due to the ion orbit loss at the edge of a tokamak plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Chengkang; Ou, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Flux-surface-averaged momentum loss and parallel rotation of the bulk ions at the edge of a tokamak plasma due to the ion orbit loss are calculated by computing the minimum loss energy of both the trapped and the passing thermal ions. The flux-surface-averaged parallel rotation of the bulk ions is in the co-current direction. The peak of the co-current rotation speed locates inside the last closed flux surface due to the orbit loss of the co-current thermal ions at the very edge of a tokamak plasma. The peaking position moves inward when the ion temperature increases.

  14. Using Outage History to Exclude High-Risk Satellites from GBAS Corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Using Outage History to Exclude High-Risk Satellites from GBAS Corrections Sam Pullen and Per Enge this assumption. A study of unscheduled GPS satellite outages from 1999 to present shows that, as expected, older experienced unscheduled outages are more likely to suffer additional unscheduled outages. Combining these two

  15. Is superior visual search in autism due to memory in search? Todd S. Horowitz and Jeremy M. Wolfe Christine E. Connolly and Robert M. Joseph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Is superior visual search in autism due to memory in search? Todd S. Horowitz and Jeremy M. Wolfe PI: RMJ), which is part of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excel- lence in Autism). Acknowledgements Children with autism had faster RTs... ... and there is no evidence for memory for rejected

  16. Extending the Domain of Comparative Genomics The comparative approach to Genomics is a major success at present and due to the continued

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Extending the Domain of Comparative Genomics The comparative approach to Genomics is a major success at present and due to the continued accumulation of genomes, the demand for such methods will only from non-genes. But the comparative approach will eventually dominate as the number fo genomes become

  17. ESRP 285: Class Paper at End of Class Each student will write a paper on a climate topic of personal interest. The papers are due at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    1 ESRP 285: Class Paper at End of Class Each student will write a paper on a climate topic of personal interest. The papers are due at the final class meeting on December 6, 2011. The paper can deal with topics from either part of the class: Part 1: The Science of Climate Change Part 2: Energy Policy

  18. A Highly Salt-Dependent Enthalpy Change for Escherichia coli SSB Protein-Nucleic Acid Binding Due to Ion-Protein Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohman, Timothy M.

    A Highly Salt-Dependent Enthalpy Change for Escherichia coli SSB Protein-Nucleic Acid Binding Due ReceiVed February 5, 1996X ABSTRACT: We have examined the linkage between salt concentration association constant, Kobs, decreases with increasing salt concentration at all temperatures examined

  19. Designing a 3-D optical multilayer due to merging the concepts of stacked and planar-integrated free-space optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Designing a 3-D optical multilayer due to merging the concepts of stacked and planar-integrated free-space optics M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns Optical interconnects aim to overcome the communication dimension [1]. For the optical implementation of 3-D setups suitable microoptics approaches are re- quired

  20. Figure 1. An artist's impression of the Australian SKA pathfinder telescope, due to be completed in 2012. Shown are a few of the 36 12-metre dishes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, Ray

    to the enormous sensitivity of the Square Kilometre Array, which is still a decade away, but due to its of galaxies. Keywords: astronomy; data; radio-astronomy I. INTRODUCTION The Square Kilometre Array (SKA in 2012. Shown are a few of the 36 12-metre dishes, each equipped with a 100-pixel Phased Array Feed

  1. Abstract-Private investment in generation plants in Ecuador has been null over the last 10 years due to several political

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    and small hydro.1 The presentation will discuss the hydro developments and future prospects. Index Terms due to several political and economical factors. The only important hydro plant over that period and the Ministry of Electricity are the only ones initiating the construction of new hydro plants of significant

  2. Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities 2010 Annual Report Due to shrinking budgets, the Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities (HRCC) focus team convened via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities 2010 Annual Report Due to shrinking budgets, the Hazard. Hazard Mitigation & Adaptation Planning Sea Grant engages stakeholders and educates them on preparing for natural hazards and planning for adaptation to projected impacts from climate change. By improving

  3. New Model to Predict Formation Damage due to Sulfur Deposition in Sour M.A. Mahmoud and A.A. Al-Majed, KFUPM, all SPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    SPE 149535 New Model to Predict Formation Damage due to Sulfur Deposition in Sour Gas Wells M of SPE copyright. Abstract Elemental sulfur (S8) is often present in considerable amounts in sour gas to deposit in the formation. Sulfur deposition can cause severe loss in the pore space available for gas

  4. Math 472: Computer Assignment 2 --due Monday, Oct.24, 2005 1. In the 1968 Olympic games in Mexico City, Bob Beamon established a world record with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasshauer, Greg

    Math 472: Computer Assignment 2 -- due Monday, Oct.24, 2005 1. In the 1968 Olympic games in Mexico people suggested that the lower air resistance at Mexico City's 7400 ft. altitude was a contributing of the magnitude of the velocity. There is no wind. The equations describing the jumper's motion are x (t) = v

  5. Compiling the dynamical core on NCARs bluefire This is possible due to the work of Seok-Woo Son. Ive following what he did to get the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    Compiling the dynamical core on NCARs bluefire This is possible due to the work of Seok-Woo Son. (An exception may be the udunits-1.12.4 directories, which you will need to copy as well to compile, and then switch the reference in your mkmf.template.ibm to where you put the files. 3) To get it to compile you

  6. Abstract--Current building designs are not energy-efficient enough due to many reasons. One of them is the centralized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Abstract--Current building designs are not energy-efficient enough due to many reasons. One Building, Energy Efficiency, Energy Policy, Distributed Policy Control, Smart Energy I. INTRODUCTION the energy efficiency in the buildings besides finding new clean-energy sources. Most of the buildings

  7. Loss of top soil due to any of these situations has both short and long-term effects. The top soil is the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Loss of top soil due to any of these situations has both short and long-term effects. The top soil practices that can be implemented by a landlord to protect and conserve assets. Soil erosion is not the only the possible impact of rented land on soil conservation. Concerns regarding conservation practices are not new

  8. Midterm exam 1. Derive the formula (to first order) for an energy shift of the ground state of hydrogen due to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safronova, Marianna

    Midterm exam 1. Derive the formula (to first order) for an energy shift of the ground state of hydrogen due to gravitational interaction between proton and electron. Determine the value of the relative shift (calculate the ratio of the resulting correction and the ground state energy). NOTE: You

  9. Notes on shoreline erosion due to boat wakes and wind waves Tim Gourlay, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Western Australia. It was found that annual transmitted boat wave energy was much smaller than annual transmitted wind wave energy, due to the short duration of boat wakes and limited number of passing boats and Technology, Curtin University CMST research report 2011-16 November 2011 Abstract These notes concern

  10. Verification of maximum radial power peaking factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setyawan, Daddy, E-mail: d.setyawan@bapeten.go.id [Center for Assessment of Regulatory System and Technology for Nuclear Installations and Materials, Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia); Rohman, Budi [Licensing Directorate for Nuclear Installations and Materials, Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Verification of Maximum Radial Power Peaking Factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS Reactor. Radial Power Peaking Factor in RSG-GAS Reactor is a very important parameter for the safety of RSG-GAS reactor during operation. Data of radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of Fission Product Molybdenum with Low Enriched Uranium (FPM-LEU) was reported by PRSG to BAPETEN through the Safety Analysis Report RSG-GAS for FPM-LEU target irradiation. In order to support the evaluation of the Safety Analysis Report incorporated in the submission, the assessment unit of BAPETEN is carrying out independent assessment in order to verify safety related parameters in the SAR including neutronic aspect. The work includes verification to the maximum radial power peaking factor change due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target in RSG-GAS Reactor by computational method using MCNP5and ORIGEN2. From the results of calculations, the new maximum value of the radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target is 1.27. The results of calculations in this study showed a smaller value than 1.4 the limit allowed in the SAR.

  11. Solar energy is abundant and is a largely untapped resource in today's world due to the high cost of materials and high processing costs. While

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar energy is abundant and is a largely untapped resource in today's world due to the high cost of materials and high processing costs. While mesoporous perovskite solar cells (PSCs), have rapidly emerged Optimization of Planar Solar Cells Christopher McDonald1, Eric Talbert2, Rizia Bardhan2 1Department of Physics

  12. Math 226 Machine Problem 3: Due Wed., Jan. 28, 2015 1) Write a function "jacobi" to carry out the Jacobi method for solving a linear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumaker, Larry

    the Jacobi method for solving a linear system Ax = b. a) The input should be n, A, and b. The output shouldMath 226 Machine Problem 3: Due Wed., Jan. 28, 2015 1) Write a function "jacobi" to carry out) for each step. 2) Write a similar function "gausseidel" to carry out the Gauss-Seidel method. 3) Write

  13. Advanced composites are being widely used in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness, strength and energy absorption capabilities. However, the assurance of structural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is placed on modeling the nonlinearity and failure of both polymer matrix and ceramic matrix compositesAdvanced composites are being widely used in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness issue because a damage event will compromise the integrity of composite structures and lead to ultimate

  14. Evacuated tube solar thermal collector arrays have a wide range of applications. While most of these applications are limited in performance due to relatively low maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evacuated tube solar thermal collector arrays have a wide range of applications. While most of these applications are limited in performance due to relatively low maximum operating temperatures, these collectors can still be useful in low grade thermal systems. An array of fifteen Apricus AP-30 evacuated tube

  15. HW 3 due April 1 Project due April 15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Nancy

    cohort study of self-rated health". highlights; full article Badley et al., The Millbank Quarterly illness and premature deaths, costing the health system $20-billion a year" "The solution, according the current recommendation of 600 to 800 international units daily to 6,000 to 9,000 IUs a day" "the claims

  16. Two-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of well damage due to reservoir compaction, well-to-well interactions, and localization on weak layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilbert, L.B. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fredrich, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bruno, M.S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Arcadia, CA (United States); Deitrick, G.L.; Rouffignac, E.P. de [Shell Exploration and Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this paper the authors present the results of a coupled nonlinear finite element geomechanics model for reservoir compaction and well-to-well interactions for the high-porosity, low strength diatomite reservoirs of the Belridge field near Bakersfield, California. They show that well damage and failures can occur under the action of two distinct mechanisms: shear deformations induced by pore compaction, and subsidence, and shear deformations due to well-to-well interactions during production or water injection. They show such casting damage or failure can be localized to weak layers that slide or slip under shear due to subsidence. The magnitude of shear displacements and surface subsidence agree with field observations.

  17. SU-E-T-645: Dose Enhancement to Cell Nucleus Due to Hard Collisions of Protons with Electrons in Gold Nanospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, J; Krishnan, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the theoretical dose enhancement to a cell nucleus due to increased fluence of secondary electrons when gold nanospheres are present in the cytoplasm during proton therapy. Methods: We modeled the irradiation of prostate cancer cells using protons of variable energies when 10,000 gold nanoparticles, each with radius of 10 nm, were randomly distributed in the cytoplasm. Using simple analytical equations, we calculated the increased mean dose to the cell nucleus due to secondary electrons produced by hard collisions of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 MeV protons with orbital electrons in gold. We only counted electrons with kinetic energy higher than 1 keV. In addition to calculating the increase in the mean dose to the cell nucleus, we also calculated the increase in local dose in the “shadow,” i.e., the umbra, of individual gold nanospheres due to forward scattered electrons. Results: For proton energies of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 MeV, we calculated increases to the mean nuclear dose of 0.15, 0.09, 0.05, and 0.04%, respectively. When we considered local dose increases in the shadows of individual gold spheres, we calculated local dose increases of 5.5, 3.2, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We found negligible, less than 0.2%, increases in the mean dose to the cell nucleus due to electrons produced by hard collisions of protons with electrons in gold nanospheres. However, we observed increases up to 5.5% in the local dose in the shadow of gold nanospheres. Considering the shadow radius of 10 nm, these local dose enhancements may have implications for slightly increased probability of clustered DNA damage when gold nanoparticles are close to the nuclear membrane.

  18. 600-T Magnetic Fields due to Cold Electron Flow in a simple Cu-Coil irradiated by High Power Laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Baojun; Yuan, Dawei; Li, Yanfei; Li, Fang; Liao, Guoqian; Zhao, Jiarui; Zhong, Jiayong; Xue, Feibiao; Wei, Huigang; Zhang, Kai; Han, Bo; Pei, Xiaoxing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Weimin; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A new simple mechanism due to cold electron flow to produce strong magnetic field is proposed. A 600-T strong magnetic field is generated in the free space at the laser intensity of 5.7x10^15 Wcm^-2. Theoretical analysis indicates that the magnetic field strength is proportional to laser intensity. Such a strong magnetic field offers a new experimental test bed to study laser-plasma physics, in particular, fast-ignition laser fusion research and laboratory astrophysics.

  19. AdS/CFT Problem Set 1, Due 9-25 1. What is a Duality? Consider these two apparently different quantum mechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    AdS/CFT Problem Set 1, Due 9-25 1. What is a Duality? Consider these two apparently different, and how it applies in a QFT context. 3. Flat Space Limit of AdS Isometries. In global coordinates, show that if we expand the AdS metric to leading order in near = 0, we just have the flat space metric. In what

  20. Development of equations to determine the increase in pavement condition due to treatment and the rate of decrease in condition after treatment for a local agency pavement network. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Maithilee Mukund.

    2010-07-14

    OF EQUATIONS TO DETERMINE THE INCREASE IN PAVEMENT CONDITION DUE TO TREATMENT AND THE RATE OF DECREASE IN CONDITION AFTER TREATMENT FOR A LOCAL AGENCY PAVEMENT NETWORK A Thesis by MAITHILEE MUKUND DESHMUKH Submitted to the Office of Graduate... TO TREATMENT AND THE RATE OF DECREASE IN CONDITION AFTER TREATMENT FOR A LOCAL AGENCY PAVEMENT NETWORK A Thesis by MAITHILEE MUKUND DESHMUKH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  1. Cancer Due to Prolonged Inflammation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01

    Werb J. Inflammation and cancer. Nature. 2002 December 19;J.T. , Szabo E. , et al. Cancer and inflammation: PromiseInflammation, a Key Event in Cancer Development. Molecular

  2. CP Violation due to Compactification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. S. Lim; Nobuhito Maru; Kenji Nishiwaki

    2010-03-28

    We address the challenging issue of how CP violation is realized in higher dimensional gauge theories without higher dimensional elementary scalar fields. In such theories interactions are basically governed by a gauge principle and therefore to get CP violating phases is a non-trivial task. It is demonstrated that CP violation is achieved as the result of compactification of extra dimensions, which is incompatible with the 4-dimensional CP transformation. As a simple example we adopt a 6-dimensional U(1) model compactified on a 2-dimensional orbifold $T^{2}/Z_{4}$. We argue that the 4-dimensional CP transformation is related to the complex structure of the extra space and show how the $Z_{4}$ orbifolding leads to CP violation. We confirm by explicit calculation of the interaction vertices that CP violating phases remain even after the re-phasing of relevant fields. For completeness, we derive a re-phasing invariant CP violating quantity, following a similar argument in the Kobayashi-Maskawa model which led to the Jarlskog parameter. As an example of a CP violating observable we briefly comment on the electric dipole moment of the electron.

  3. NISE Requests Due Feb. 24

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact: Janet Lambert4NIEHS REPORTNISACNISACNISE Requests

  4. Case report of a near medical event in stereotactic radiotherapy due to improper units of measure from a treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladstone, D. J.; Li, S.; Jarvis, L. A.; Hartford, A. C.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The authors hereby notify the Radiation Oncology community of a potentially lethal error due to improper implementation of linear units of measure in a treatment planning system. The authors report an incident in which a patient was nearly mistreated during a stereotactic radiotherapy procedure due to inappropriate reporting of stereotactic coordinates by the radiation therapy treatment planning system in units of centimeter rather than in millimeter. The authors suggest a method to detect such errors during treatment planning so they are caught and corrected prior to the patient positioning for treatment on the treatment machine. Methods: Using pretreatment imaging, the authors found that stereotactic coordinates are reported with improper linear units by a treatment planning system. The authors have implemented a redundant, independent method of stereotactic coordinate calculation. Results: Implementation of a double check of stereotactic coordinates via redundant, independent calculation is simple and accurate. Use of this technique will avoid any future error in stereotactic treatment coordinates due to improper linear units, transcription, or other similar errors. Conclusions: The authors recommend an independent double check of stereotactic treatment coordinates during the treatment planning process in order to avoid potential mistreatment of patients.

  5. Instability due to a two recirculation pump trip in a BWR using RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1993-06-01

    An investigation was made of the potential for thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in a BWR due to a two recirculation pump trip event using the RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics. It is concluded that a high-power (100%) and low-flow (75%) initial condition would most likely lead to in-phase density wave oscillations after the tripping of both recirculation pumps, and that RAMONA-4B is capable of predicting such thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in BWR and in SBWR.

  6. Electrical current suppression in Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires caused by reduction in PdO due to hydrogen exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Byung Hoon; Oh, Soon-Young; Yu, Han Young; Yun, Yong Ju; Kim, Yark Yeon; Hong, Won G.; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Jeong Yong; Kim, Hae Jin

    2010-04-19

    Pd nanoparticle-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires (Pd-VONs) were synthesized. Electrical current suppression was observed when the Pd-VON was exposed to hydrogen gas, which cannot be explained by the work function changes mentioned in previous report such as Pd-doped carbon nanotubes and SnO{sub 2} nanowires. Using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we found that the reduction in PdO due to hydrogen exposure plays an important role in the current suppression of the Pd-VON.

  7. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rovny, Sergey I.; Mokrov, Y.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Beregich, D. A.; Teplyakov, I. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  8. Dependence of loss rate of electrons due to elastic gas scattering on the shape of the vacuum chamber in an electron storage ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Pradeep; Ghodke, A D; Singh, Pitamber

    2014-01-01

    The beam lifetime in an electron storage ring is also limited by the loss rate of the stored electrons due to the elastic coulomb scattering of electrons with the nuclei of residual gas atoms. The contribution to the beam lifetime due to this elastic scattering depends upon the shape factor which is governed by the shape of the vacuum chamber. In this paper, analytical expressions for the shape factor for a rectangular and an elliptical vacuum chamber as a function of longitudinal position along the circumference in a storage ring are derived using an approach in which the position of electrons at the focusing quadrupole is transformed to the location of defocusing quadrupole and vice versa to define the parts of the vacuum chamber, where the loss of electrons takes place at the location of quadrupoles. The expressions available in the literature are for the average shape factors. The expression of shape factor for a rectangular chamber derived in this paper are similar to the expression for average shape fac...

  9. 2014 PDSF User Meering Minutes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    found here. November 4 Attending Jeff, Mike Outages Downtime 1020 NERSC CA and NEWT outage Upcoming Downtime 1111 8:00 am to 6:00 pm maintenance Other Issues PDSF old home...

  10. June 8, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the interactives. Upcoming downtimes: in JuneJuly will have multiple days center-wide outage. We will also need to upgrade gpfs, etc., after the downtime. New hardware: Jay talked...

  11. May 24

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a NERSC network downtime so we will take a PDSF downtime to do the home filesystem migration. It will be from 8am to 2pm and we will turn off io resource before it starts. A...

  12. Dotiki saves money and time with power tool and belt fasteners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bargo, K.

    2009-11-15

    The use of a Hilti power tool to improve belt splice installations to minimise downtime is described. 3 photos.

  13. Zangerl, C., Eberhardt, E., Loew, S., Evans, K., Coupled hydromechanical modelling of surface subsidence in crystalline rock masses due to tunnel drainage. ISRM 2003Technology roadmap for rock mechanics, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhardt, Erik

    subsidence in crystalline rock masses due to tunnel drainage. ISRM 2003­Technology roadmap for rock mechanics subsidence in crystalline rock masses due to tunnel drainage C. Zangerl, E. Eberhardt, S. Loew, K.F. Evans are rarely observed and in the past, geotechnical engineers would not expect substantial subsidence to occur

  14. Presentation 2.8: Program for the conversion of Russian municipal boilers with 20MW maximum capacity to biofuel due to funds from the emissions reduction units sell, under the Kyoto Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conversion to wood chips Due to funds from the emissions reduction units sell, under the Kyoto ProtocolPresentation 2.8: Program for the conversion of Russian municipal boilers with 20MW maximum capacity to biofuel due to funds from the emissions reduction units sell, under the Kyoto Protocol Andrey

  15. Energy Loss of Solar $p$ Modes due to the excitation of Magnetic Sausage Tube Waves: Importance of Coupling the Upper Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gascoyne, Andrew; Hindman, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    We consider damping and absorption of solar $p$ modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of $p$ modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by $p$ modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux-tube. The deficit of $p$-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, $\\Gamma$ and absorption coefficient, $\\alpha$. The variation of $\\Gamma$ and $\\alpha$ as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modelled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere (Bogdan et al. (1996), Hindman & Jain 2008, Gascoyne et al. (2011)). Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the $p$ modes is very sensitiv...

  16. Direct observation of the effective bending moduli of a fluid membrane: Free-energy cost due to the reference-plane deformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshihiro Nishiyama

    2003-07-10

    Effective bending moduli of a fluid membrane are investigated by means of the transfer-matrix method developed in our preceding paper. This method allows us to survey various statistical measures for the partition sum. The role of the statistical measures is arousing much attention, since Pinnow and Helfrich claimed that under a suitable statistical measure, that is, the local mean curvature, the fluid membranes are stiffened, rather than softened, by thermal undulations. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to observe the effective bending moduli directly: We subjected a fluid membrane to a curved reference plane, and from the free-energy cost due to the reference-plane deformations, we read off the effective bending moduli. Accepting the mean-curvature measure, we found that the effective bending rigidity gains even in the case of very flexible membrane (small bare rigidity); it has been rather controversial that for such non-perturbative regime, the analytical prediction does apply. We also incorporate the Gaussian-curvature modulus, and calculated its effective rigidity. Thereby, we found that the effective Gaussian-curvature modulus stays almost scale-invariant. All these features are contrasted with the results under the normal-displacement measure.

  17. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bocci, Valerio; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede in some application cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution [1]. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network.

  18. A celestial gamma-ray foreground due to the albedo of small solar system bodies and a remote probe of the interstellar cosmic ray spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.; Digel, Seth W.; Michelson, Peter F.; Ormes, Jonathan F.

    2007-12-17

    We calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo flux from cosmic-ray (CR) interactions with the solid rock and ice in Main Belt asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) using the Moon as a template. We show that the {gamma}-ray albedo for the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt strongly depends on the small-body mass spectrum of each system and may be detectable by the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The orbits of the Main Belt asteroids and KBOs are distributed near the ecliptic, which passes through the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes. If detected, the {gamma}-ray emission by the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt has to be taken into account when analyzing weak {gamma}-ray sources close to the ecliptic, especially near the Galactic center and for signals at high Galactic latitudes, such as the extragalactic {gamma}-ray emission. Additionally, it can be used to probe the spectrum of CR nuclei at close-to-interstellar conditions, and the mass spectrum of small bodies in the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt. The asteroid albedo spectrum also exhibits a 511 keV line due to secondary positrons annihilating in the rock. This may be an important and previously unrecognized celestial foreground for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the Galactic 511 keV line emission including the direction of the Galactic center.

  19. Evaluation of Radiation Doses Due to Consumption of Contaminated Food Items and Calculation of Food Class-Specific Derived Intervention Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinzelman, K M; Mansfield, W G

    2010-04-27

    This document evaluates the expected radiation dose due to the consumption of several specific food classes (dairy, meat, produce, etc.) contaminated with specific radionuclides, and relates concentration levels in food to the detection abilities of typical aboratory analysis/measurement methods. The attached charts present the limiting organ dose as a function of the radionuclide concentration in a particular food class, and allow the user to compare these concentrations and doses to typical analytical detection apabilities. The expected radiation dose depends on several factors: the age of the individual; the radionuclide present in the food; the concentration of the radionuclide in the food; and the amount of food consumed. Food consumption rates for individuals of various ges were taken from the 1998 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) document, Accidental Radioactive Contamination of HUman Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. In that document, the FDA defines the erived Intervention Level (DIL), which is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in food that if consumed could result in an individual receiving a radiation dose exceeding the Protection Action Guide (PAG) thresholds for intervention. This document also resents odified, food class specific DIL, which is calculated using a somewhat modified version of the FDA's procedure. This document begins with an overview of the FDA's DIL calculation, followed by a description of the food class specific DIL calculations, and finally charts of the radiation dose per radioactivity concentration for several food class/radionuclide combinations.

  20. Creation of Li-7 and Destruction of He-3, Be-9, B-10, and B-11 in Low Mass Red Giants, Due to Deep Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. -Juliana Sackmann; Arnold I. Boothroyd

    1998-06-16

    It has been demonstrated that Li-7 can be created in low mass red giant stars, via the Cameron-Fowler mechanism, due to extra deep mixing and the associated "cool bottom processing" (CBP). Under certain conditions, this Li-7 creation can take the place of the Li-7 destruction normally expected. Note that such extra mixing on the red giant branch (RGB) has previously been invoked to explain the observed C-13 enhancements. This new Li-7 production can account for the recent discovery of surprisingly high lithium abundances in some low mass red giants (a few of which are super-rich lithium stars, with abundances higher than that in the interstellar medium). The amount of Li-7 produced can exceed log epsilon(Li-7) = 4, but depends critically on the details of the extra mixing mechanism (mixing speeds, geometry, episodicity). If the deep circulation is a relatively long-lived, continuous process, lithium-rich RGB stars should be completely devoid of beryllium and boron. CBP also leads to He-3 destruction in low mass stars; in contrast to Li-7 creation, the extent of He-3 depletion is largely independent of the details of the extra mixing mechanism. The overall contribution from solar-metallicity stars (1 - 40 Msun) is expected to be net destruction of He-3, with overall He-3 survival fraction g_3 = 0.9 +/- 0.2 (weighted average) --- in contrast to standard dredge-up, which would predict stars are net producers of He-3 (g_3:dr = 2.4 +/- 0.5). Pop II stars experience even more severe He-3 depletion, with 0.3 < g_3 < 0.7. Destruction of He-3 in low mass stars is consistent with the requirements of galactic chemical evolution models; it would also result in some relaxation of the upper bound on the primordial (D + He-3)/H abundance.

  1. AME 514 -Applications of Combustion -Spring 2013 Homework #2 Due Friday 3/15/13, 4:30 pm in the drop box in OHE 430N (Xerox room). If you're off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AME 514 - Applications of Combustion - Spring 2013 ­ Homework #2 Due Friday 3/15/13, 4:30 pm at Intermediate Temperatures with Various Hydrocarbon-Air Mixtures," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 147

  2. Changes in delta-Plutonium due to self-irradiation aging observed by Continuous in-situ X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, C K; Chung, B W; Wall, M A

    2007-01-05

    The aging in plutonium is predominantly caused by its internal self-irradiation. The self-irradiation in Pu-239 is by the decay process of transmuting the Pu atom into uranium atom and emitting an {alpha}-particle. Most of the lattice damage comes from the uranium recoil resulting in Frenkel-type defects consisting of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, helium in-growth and defect clusters and possibly even though it is not yet observed, the generation of voids. As part of the stockpile stewardship, it is important to understand the changes in the structure and microstructures and their correlations to the physical properties. Changes in the physical properties have a direct relationship to the quality of the structure, in terms of formation of defects and defect clustering, accumulation of voids, grain boundaries, phase changes and etc. which can adversely affect the stability of the material. These changes are very difficult to monitor because of the high activity of the sample, high atomic number making x-ray and synchrotron probe into the bulk very difficult (neutron probe is not feasible) and the long life time which normally requires decades to measure. In this paper we describe the development of an in-situ in-house transmission x-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental technique used to monitor the structural changes in these materials. This technique calls for a very thin sample of less that 2 mm and to accelerate the aging process due to self-irradiation, spiked alloy of 7.5 weight percent of Pu-238 is used. This is equivalent to roughly 17 times the normal rate of aging. Current results suggest that over a period of 2.8 equivalent years, an increase of 0.5% in unit cell parameter is observed. The increase appears to be an abrupt jump at about 1.1 equivalent years, brought about by the collapsing of the atoms from the interstitials to the lattice sites. Further data analysis is on the way.

  3. Microsoft Word - Connecting Variable Generating Resources to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and down simultaneously, frequently resulting in large, unscheduled swings in wind generation. This causes BPA to increase or back off generation in like amounts in real time to...

  4. Airline Crew Scheduling under Uncertainty Andrew J. Schaefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleywegt, Anton

    , 2000. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reported a 58% increase in delays from 1995 to 1999, brief unscheduled maintenance incidents, an

  5. Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    such as coal, oil and natural gas are burned for trans- portation, heating, or the production of electricity! Climate Change And Global Glacier Decline Global Warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world that global warming is occurring1 . It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man

  6. APS / DPP November 15-19, 2004 Savannah, Georgia Slow formation of high beta plasmas, such as FRCs, is difficult due to the need to build up plasma pressure rapidly enough to balance the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    to charge with negative flux. Fire outer coil at same time as initiate plasma to keep FRC off walls. tf = 0APS / DPP November 15-19, 2004 Savannah, Georgia Slow formation of high beta plasmas, such as FRCs, is difficult due to the need to build up plasma pressure rapidly enough to balance the dominant poloidal field

  7. Due to depletion of oil resources, increasing fuel prices and environmental issues associated with burning of fossil fuels, extensive research has been performed in biofuel production and dramatic progress has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Due to depletion of oil resources, increasing fuel prices and environmental issues associated with burning of fossil fuels, extensive research has been performed in biofuel production and dramatic progress has been made. But still problems exist in economically production of biofuels. One major problem

  8. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 456, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 63-78 STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 456, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 63-78 STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO TSUNAMI CAUSED BY DECEMBER 26, 2004 SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE B.K. Maheshwari, M.L. Sharma and J.P. Narayan Department of Earthquake Engineering Indian Institute of Technology

  9. There has been much interest in photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy in recent years due to its potential for low-cost, sustainable and renewable production of fuels. Despite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to its potential for low-cost, sustainable and renewable production of fuels. Despite the huge potentialThere has been much interest in photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy in recent years due characteristics such as the bandgap, flatband potential, band structure, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical

  10. Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality E. Plum,1,* J. Zhou,2,3 J. Dong,3,4 V. A. Fedotov,1 T. Koschny,3,5 C. M. Soukoulis,3,5 and N. I. Zheludev1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    of Electronic Structure and Laser--FORTH, and Department of Materials Science and Technology, University 2009 Recently it has been predicted that materials with exceptionally strong optical activity may also rotational symmetry, circular polarization conversion due to anisotropy in our three-dimensional 3D - chiral

  11. Energy-efficient data center design and management has been a problem of increasing importance in the last decade due to its potential to save billions of dollars in energy costs. Conventional design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy-efficient data center design and management has been a problem of increasing importance in the last decade due to its potential to save billions of dollars in energy costs. Conventional design and analysis methods include: 1) physical modeling to analyze the physical aspects of data centers

  12. Hydrophobic silica aerogel has been used for oil removal and organic separation due to its desirable properties. This dissertation is dedicated to systematically studying the sorption mechanisms of hydrophobic silica aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    oil, oil from real oily wastewater, and toluene at low concentrations in both PB and IFB modes of the Nanogel granules was calculated from the plateau pressure drop of the IFB. The oil/toluene removalHydrophobic silica aerogel has been used for oil removal and organic separation due to its

  13. AME 514 -Applications of Combustion -Spring 2015 Homework #2 Due Monday 3/23/15, 4:30 pm in the drop box in OHE 430N (Xerox room). If you're off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Simulations of propane catalytic combustion on Pt." Chemical Engineering Science 63, pp. 1098 ­ 1116AME 514 - Applications of Combustion - Spring 2015 ­ Homework #2 Due Monday 3/23/15, 4:30 pm., Proc. Comb. Inst. 26:1747-1754 (1996). (Excellent paper on catalytic combustion modeling.) Kaisare, N

  14. CuInSe2 and its alloys are the leading choice for absorber layers in high-efficiency thin film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption coefficient and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    in CuInSe2. Epitaxial CuInSe2 thin films were deposited on GaAs bicrystal substrates using a hybrid film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption coefficient and excellent thermal stability epilayers to the GaAs bicrystal substrate. This allows isolation and optical characterization of individual

  15. Problems #9, Math 5737/Econ 5337. Oct 14, 2015. Due Oct 28, 1 pm. 51. Find the stock price on the exercise date for a European put with strike price $36

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohner, Martin

    Problems #9, Math 5737/Econ 5337. Oct 14, 2015. Due Oct 28, 1 pm. 51. Find the stock price on the exercise date for a European put with strike price $36 and exercise date in three months to produce gain (or loss) for a holder of a European call with strike price $90 to be exercised in six months

  16. Project 4: Predicting Price (50 pts; due Monday 4/26 at the beginning of class) You have attained new status at Umbridge and Associates; the company no longer wants you to focus on single

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolverton, Steve

    Project 4: Predicting Price (50 pts; due Monday 4/26 at the beginning of class) You have attained is a logical starting point for developing a model of factors that can be used to predict price. 1) Using your, and/or age of home, relate best to sale price. Is multicollinearlity a potential problem? 2) Build

  17. The world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a solar energy application because of the near coincidence of peak cooling loadsThe world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use

  18. Comparisons among the five ground-motion models developed using RESORCE for the1 prediction of response spectral accelerations due to earthquakes in Europe and the Middle East2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Comparisons among the five ground-motion models developed using RESORCE for the1 prediction of response spectral accelerations due to earthquakes in Europe and the Middle East2 John Douglas1 , Sinan, characteristics of the models and predicted9 peak ground and response spectral accelerations. Comparisons are also

  19. Polymer-gold composite particles are a tremendous research interest. Due to their unique structures, these particles demonstrate superior properties for optical, catalytic and electrical applications. Moreover, the incorporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer-gold composite particles are a tremendous research interest. Due to their unique structures, the incorporation of "smart" polymers enables the composite particles to synergistically respond to environmental, a novel Pickering emulsion polymerization route is employed to synthesize core-shell polymer

  20. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 alloys are the leading choice for absorber layers in high-efficiency thin film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption coefficient and excellent thermal stability]/[In+Ga]SubstrateCrystalSample *Negligible amount of Ga diffused into back of film from substrate; not detectable by EDX Device structure GaAs(In,Ga)SePhotoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy of Cu(In,Ga)Se22 Thin FilmsThin Films Damon Hebert, Julio Soares, Marie Mayer, Angus

  1. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  2. MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Applications o f Geothermal Energy and t h e i r Place i n tcompaction, computers, geothermal energy, pore-waterf o r developing geothermal energy i n the United States (

  3. SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    the potential use of geothermal energy for power generation47. Boldizsar, T. , 1970, "Geothermal energy production fromCoast Geopressure Geothermal Energy Conference, M.H. Dorfman

  4. Photometry dueing Manhigh III balloon flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boileau, A R; Duntley, Seibert Q

    1959-01-01

    San Diego 52, California PHOTOMETRY DURING MANHIGH I I IInstitution of Oceanography PHOTOMETRY DURING MANHIGH I I Ii b i l i t y Laboratory photometry room using a calibrated

  5. Russian naval bases due commercial development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-27

    Tecnogrid Group, New York, has signed a joint venture with the Russian Navy for commercial development of a wide range of sea dn land based assets owned by the former Soviet Navy. This paper reports that among other things, the venture aims for projects that will allow greater volumes of oil exports by revamping several naval bases. Tecnogrid's partner in the joint venture is AO Navicon, A Russian stock holding company that is the commercial arm of the Navy. Navicon has the sole right to commercially develop and deploy the Navy's assets. The Navy can no longer depend on the state for support, and Adm. Ig. Malhonin. With that in mind, the Navy is looking to become the leading force in moving toward a free market economy. Mahonin is Russia's second ranking naval official.

  6. SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    model to compute land subsidence, 11 Bull. Intl. Assn.geothermal production and subsidence history of the Wairakei5. Geertsma, J. , 1973, Land subsidence above compacting oil

  7. SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California,monitoring at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California,~~W. and Faust, C. R. , 1979, Geothermal resource simulation:

  8. SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    of Geothermal Resources, Pisa, v. 2, p. 99-109. Browne,of Geothermal Resources, Pisa, v. 2, p. 287-294. Sageev,Use of Geothermal Resources, Pisa, 1970, v. 2, p. 564-570.

  9. On radiation due to homogeneously accelerating sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalinov, D

    2015-01-01

    The core of this work is an old and broadly discussed problem of the electromagnetic radiation in the case of the hyperbolic motion. We prove that the radiation is non-zero in the lab (Minkowski) frame. Further, we attempt to understand this subject better by using co-moving non-inertial frames of reference, investigating other types of uniformly accelerated motion and, finally, using scalar waves instead of point-like particles as sources of radiation.

  10. SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    is a vapor dominated geothermal system and is the largestin liquid-dominated geothermal systems, 11 Proceedings,histories relating to geothermal systems from around the

  11. MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    t al. , "Modeling Geothermal Systems," A t t i dei Convegnio f L i q u i d Geothermal Systems," Open-File Report 75-i q u i d Dominated Geothermal Systems," Proceedings o f t h

  12. On welfare losses due to imperfect competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritz, Robert A.

    2012-07-23

    e¢ cient service than others, and di¤erent quality grades exist for numerous ?commodity?products such as aluminium, cement, crude oil, and steel. 6 so all rents accrue to shareholders. This paper follows the applied literature in assuming... feature prominently in the semiconductor, automotive, and computer industries, as well as in competition between stock exchanges.3 Moreover, there is substantial evidence that executive compensation is positively tied to ?rm size (in addition to pro...

  13. Problem Set 1 Due September 30, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David

    should be sure that the width of your filter is at least six sigma, to fully capture the Gaussian as input an image and a value for sigma that will be used to smooth the image. You may use the function. For example, if sigma is 1, you might use a filter that has a length of 7 (the first odd number after 6

  14. Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    1998-06-10

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.

  15. Resonant transitions due to changing boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Anzà; A. Messina; B. Militello

    2015-01-10

    The problem of a particle confined in a box with moving walls is studied, focusing on the case of small perturbations which do not alter the shape of the boundary (\\lq pantography\\rq). The presence of resonant transitions involving the natural transition frequencies of the system and the Fourier transform of the velocity of the walls of the box is brought to the light. The special case of a pantographic change of a circular box is analyzed in dept, also bringing to light the fact that the movement of the boundary cannot affect the angular momentum of the particle.

  16. PublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 year due to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    , entrepreneurs and computer modelling experts together to collect and analyze wave energy data off the West Coast--includingthosewho are relatively healthy--and technological developmentssuchastheincreasingcosts of pharmaceuticals. The paper, "An

  17. SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    concrete and rocks, in Pore Pressure and Suction in Soils,"maintained constant and pore pressure discussed Rock TypeI.. Q.. w· . I. - Pore Pressure Mil' a Normal ~IP Mil' a

  18. Chemical Reaction due to Stronger Ramachandran Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Das Arulsamy

    2013-12-26

    The origin of a chemical reaction between two reactant atoms is associated to the activation energy, with the assumption that, high-energy collisions between these atoms, are the ones that overcome the activation energy. Here, we (i) show that a stronger attractive van der Waals (vdW) and electron-ion Coulomb interactions between two polarized atoms are responsible to initiate a chemical reaction, either before or after the collision. We derive this stronger vdW attraction formula exactly using the quasi one-dimensional Drude model within the ionization energy theory and the energy-level spacing renormalization group method. Along the way, we (ii) expose the precise physical mechanism responsible for the existence of a stronger vdW interaction for both long and short distances, and also show how to technically avoid the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion between polarized electrons from these two reactant atoms. Finally, we properly and correctly associate the existence of this stronger attraction to Ramachandran's 'normal limits' (distance shorter than what is allowed by the standard vdW bond) between chemically nonbonded atoms.

  19. Characterizing orbit uncertainty due to atmospheric uncertainty 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, Matthew Paul

    2000-01-01

    In orbit prediction, there exists a need for accurate estimates of the accuracy of a prediction, i.e. the covariance. An accurate covariance is required for any number of purposes but, in particular, for probability of ...

  20. HW 3 (due on Sept. 19)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How does the interchange in the secant method pseudocode affect the error analysis? Write out the details for a modified error analysis. COMPUTER 1. Write a ...

  1. Problem Set #1 Due September 11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralphs, Ted

    algorithm to sum n values on a hypercube. The algorithm can be described in words and/or with pseudo-code and determining its location if there is one. The algorithm can be described in words and/or given as pseudo-code

  2. Problem Set #2 Due September 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralphs, Ted

    that if the weights are bounded by a constant u, then the problem can be solved in polynomial time. Give pseudo-code

  3. Errors in Quantitative Image Analysis due to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    ; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of various software (SW different SW tools to measure compartment-specific region-of-interest intensity. RESULTS: Images generated for by the majority of tested quantitative image analysis SW tools. Incorrect image scaling leads to intensity

  4. Applications for ACTS Workshop Due June 24

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D SFederal FacilityApplicant IApplicationSC14 are

  5. 2012 NERSC allocation requests due September 23

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONe β+-DecayUpgradeDepartment of Energy2

  6. 2013 Allocation Request Submissions Due September 28

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril 30, 2013 9:30 am - 2:00 pmNovember3

  7. 2013 INCITE Proposals due June 27

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril 30, 2013 9:30 am - 2:003

  8. 2014 DOE ALCC Proposals Due February 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril 30, 2013 9:30 am3 TheYao, NUGDue4ALCC

  9. 2014 NERSC allocation requests due September 22

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril 30, 2013 9:30

  10. 2015 NERSC allocation requests due September 22

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril 30, 2013Program952015 Hour of CodeLUG EC5

  11. Visualization Contest Applications due August 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A CountyFeet) CooleyVisitor Information Contents

  12. Fourth Friday Cancelled due to Thanksgiving Holidays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming Upgrades to the ARMD. Westphal, B.Fourth

  13. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated controls strategies that are 'hardened' and pre-programmed into facility's software and hardware; More affordable because automation can help reduce labor costs associated with manual DR strategies initiated by facility staff and can be used for long-term.

  14. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  15. Iron production maintenance effectiveness system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augstman, J.J. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

  16. Using Outage History to Exclude High-Risk Satellites from GBAS Corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Using Outage History to Exclude High-Risk Satellites from GBAS Corrections SAM PULLEN and PER ENGE constellation are not expected to violate this assumption. A study of unscheduled GPS satellite outages from. In addition, satellites that have recently experienced unscheduled outages are more likely to suffer

  17. The development and implementation of a production information collection and reporting system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Haitao, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Production information, which includes production counts and line downtime information, is of great importance for automobile assembly plants to diagnose equipment problems and improve line utilization. Outdated information ...

  18. March 30, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization has been fairly light. STAR needs more data. Outages: Discussed the outage last Wednesday. Upcoming downtimes: Next Tues memory consumables will be turned on....

  19. 2009 PDSF Meeting Minutes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was also discussed as a possibility in the future. Upcoming downtimes: System-wide outage has been rescheduled for... December 8 PDSF Users Meeting 12809 Attending: Eric and...

  20. January 5, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    up and lost it (despite announcements). Outages: None. Upcoming downtimes: System-wide outage has been rescheduled for 11110. STAR and ATLAS work scheduled were discussed. The...

  1. June 5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    repeating problems, Iwona and Larry are working on this. Upcoming Downtimes Full day outage on June 10 for network reconfiguration. Grid Issues ATLAS DDM Delete file issue, Iwona...

  2. May 25, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outages: None. Upcoming downtimes: in JuneJuly will have multiple days center-wide outage. New hardware: Still planning another procurement for this fiscal year. Last edited:...

  3. 2013 PDSF User Meering Minutes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of various PDSF interactive nodes Upcoming Downtimes January: Possible project outage December 16: Eliza 3, 8, 9 will no longer be accessible Other Issues New Mendel rack...

  4. December 22, 2009

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was also discussed as a possibility in the future. Upcoming downtimes: System-wide outage has been rescheduled for 11110. STAR and ATLAS work scheduled were discussed. The...

  5. QUANTIFYING PHOTOVOLTAIC FIRE DANGER REDUCTION WITH ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUANTIFYING PHOTOVOLTAIC FIRE DANGER REDUCTION WITH ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS Kenneth M, shock hazards, and cause system downtime in photovoltaic (PV) systems. The 2011 National Electrical Code

  6. NETL Researcher Honored with 2013 Federal Laboratory Consortium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce shutdowns and downtime, and reduce the risk and cost of equipment damage. The 3D virtual energy plant simulator is available to third parties for internal training...

  7. NETL Researcher Honored with 2013 Federal Laboratory Award Morgantown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce shutdowns and downtime, and reduce the risk and cost of equipment damage. The 3D virtual energy plant simulator is available to third parties for internal training...

  8. March 2, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has been heaviest in 6 months, loaded to capacity at times (1000 jobs) Outages: A few problems with some individual batch nodes but otherwise nothing. Upcoming downtimes: None....

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - Sandia CREW 2013 Wind Plant Reliability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downtime event Some events automatically reset, others need intervention Event & SCADA Data Source: Data represents 327,000 turbine-days Key metrics all slightly...

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - Sandia CREW 2012 Wind Plant Reliability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downtime event Some events automatically reset, others need intervention Event & SCADA Data Source: Data represents 180,000 turbine-days Key metrics all improved,...

  11. blog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    announcements-and-meetingspdsf-selected-announcementspdsf-downtime-6-1-11 New NERSC NX server http:www.nersc.govuserscomputational-systemspdsfannouncements-and-meetings...

  12. Going with the flow: Life cycle costing for industrial pumping systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tutterow, Vestal; Hovstadius, Gunnar; McKane, Aimee

    2002-01-01

    Costs Energy Costs Pump Maintenance Costs Other Maintenanceand Identify pumps with high maintenance costs. Since thePump Downtime Operating Energy Maintenance Figure 1. Example life cycle costs

  13. K. L. Kehler

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Refurbish IWTS, FRS, CLS to minimize operational downtime Baseline includes refurbishment. STP-007: Competing K Basin Priorities Integrated, detailed working schedules...

  14. March 27

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Daya Bay running quite a bit. Outages: 2 interactive reboots for SL6 upgrade and hardware upgrade. Upcoming Downtimes: None scheduled. Procurements: Iwona talked to Lynn; RFP...

  15. Probabilistic analysis and operational data in response to NUREG-0737, Item II. K. 3. 2 for Westinghouse NSSS plants. [Modifications to reduce LOCA due to stuck-open power-operated relief valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, D.C.; Gottshall, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    This report describes various modifications to Westinghouse plants since TMI and, using probabilistic analysis via event trees, estimates the effect of the post-TMI changes, including an automatic (PORV) (power operated relief valve) isolation concept identified in NUREG-0731 item II.K.3.1. The requested safety valve operational data is included as an appendix. A significant reduction in the frequency of a small break LOCA, due to a stuck open PORV has already been achieved by the modifications made subsequent to TMI. Domestic Westinghouse operating plant data (based on 181 reactor years of operation) has been collected and evaluated. An auto block valve closure system has been evaluated. The analysis is generally applicable to all Westinghouse plants which have incorporated the post-TMI hardware and procedural changes relative to stuck-open PORVs.

  16. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated ?-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-? and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ? NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ? Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a CSAA diet. ? Fibrosis is sustained, possibly due to continuing hypoxia and oxidative stress.

  17. DUE DILIGENCE CHECKLIST Page 1 of 2 What is the standard of due diligence?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    .g. Lockout, WHMIS) r Inspection reports and records of corrective actions taken to solve problems r Incident, lockout, bloodborne pathogens, confined space, falls from elevation, chemical hazards, repetitive strain

  18. Calibrating cosmological radiative transfer simulations with Lyman alpha forest data: Evidence for large spatial UV background fluctuations at z ~ 5.6 - 5.8 due to rare bright sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chardin, Jonathan; Aubert, Dominique; Puchwein, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    We calibrate here cosmological radiative transfer simulation with ATON/RAMSES with a range of measurements of the Lyman alpha opacity from QSO absorption spectra. We find the Lyman alpha opacity to be very sensitive to the exact timing of hydrogen reionisation. Models reproducing the measured evolution of the mean photoionisation rate and average mean free path reach overlap at z ~ 7 and predict an accelerated evolution of the Lyman alpha opacity at z > 6 consistent with the rapidly evolving luminosity function of Lyman alpha emitters in this redshift range. Similar to "optically thin" simulations our full radiative transfer simulations fail, however, to reproduce the high-opacity tail of the Lyman alpha opacity PDF at z > 5. We argue that this is due to spatial UV fluctuations in the post-overlap phase of reionisation on substantially larger scales than predicted by our source model, where the ionising emissivity is dominated by large numbers of sub-L* galaxies. We further argue that this suggests a signific...

  19. Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory-Department of Physics-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Pinese, Jose P. P. [Department of Geosciences-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2008-08-07

    The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

  20. Computation of the free energy due to electron density fluctuation of a solute in solution: A QM/MM method with perturbation approach combined with a theory of solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuoka, Daiki; Takahashi, Hideaki Morita, Akihiro

    2014-04-07

    We developed a perturbation approach to compute solvation free energy ?? within the framework of QM (quantum mechanical)/MM (molecular mechanical) method combined with a theory of energy representation (QM/MM-ER). The energy shift ? of the whole system due to the electronic polarization of the solute is evaluated using the second-order perturbation theory (PT2), where the electric field formed by surrounding solvent molecules is treated as the perturbation to the electronic Hamiltonian of the isolated solute. The point of our approach is that the energy shift ?, thus obtained, is to be adopted for a novel energy coordinate of the distribution functions which serve as fundamental variables in the free energy functional developed in our previous work. The most time-consuming part in the QM/MM-ER simulation can be, thus, avoided without serious loss of accuracy. For our benchmark set of molecules, it is demonstrated that the PT2 approach coupled with QM/MM-ER gives hydration free energies in excellent agreements with those given by the conventional method utilizing the Kohn-Sham SCF procedure except for a few molecules in the benchmark set. A variant of the approach is also proposed to deal with such difficulties associated with the problematic systems. The present approach is also advantageous to parallel implementations. We examined the parallel efficiency of our PT2 code on multi-core processors and found that the speedup increases almost linearly with respect to the number of cores. Thus, it was demonstrated that QM/MM-ER coupled with PT2 deserves practical applications to systems of interest.

  1. Advanced Testing Techniques to Measure the PWSCC Resistance of Alloy 690 and its Weld Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.Andreson

    2004-10-01

    Wrought Alloy 600 and its weld metals (Alloy 182 and Alloy 82) were originally used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) due to the material's inherent resistance to general corrosion in a number of aggressive environments and because of a coefficient of thermal expansion that is very close to that of low alloy and carbon steel. Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. The occurrence of PWSCC has been responsible for significant downtime and replacement power costs. As part of an ongoing, comprehensive program involving utilities, reactor vendors and engineering/research organizations, this report will help to ensure that corrosion degradation of nickel-base alloys does not limit service life and that full benefit can be obtained from improved designs for both replacement components and new reactors.

  2. Long Duration Testing of Type C Thermocouples at 1500 °C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; J. E. Daw; S. C. Wilkins

    2008-04-01

    Experience with Type C thermocouples operating for long periods in the 1400 to 1600 °C temperature range indicate that significant decalibration occurs, often leading to expensive downtime and material waste. As part of an effort to understand the mechanisms causing drift in these thermocouples, the Idaho National Laboratory conducted a long duration test at 1500 °C containing eight Type C thermocouples. As report in this document, results from this long duration test were adversely affected due to oxygen ingress. Nevertheless, results provide key insights about the impact of precipitate formation on thermoelectric response. Post-test examinations indicate that thermocouple signal was not adversely impacted by the precipitates detected after 1,000 hours of heating at 1,500 °C and suggest that the signal would not have been adversely impacted by these precipitates for longer durations (if oxygen ingress had not occurred in this test).

  3. Failure Scenarios and Mitigations and for the BaBar Superconducting Solenoid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, EunJoo; Candia, A.; Craddock, W.W.; Racine, M.; Weisend, J.G., II; /SLAC

    2005-12-13

    The cryogenic department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is responsible for the operation, troubleshooting, and upgrade of the 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid detector for the BABAR B-factory experiment. Events that disable the detector are rare but significantly impact the availability of the detector for physics research. As a result, a number of systems and procedures have been developed over time to minimize the downtime of the detector, for example improved control systems, improved and automatic backup systems, and spares for all major components. Together they can prevent or mitigate many of the failures experienced by the utilities, mechanical systems, controls and instrumentation. In this paper we describe various failure scenarios, their effect on the detector, and the modifications made to mitigate the effects of the failure. As a result of these modifications the reliability of the detector has increased significantly with only 3 shutdowns of the detector due to cryogenics systems over the last 2 years.

  4. Heading Off Correlated Failures through Independence-as-a-Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Heading Off Correlated Failures through Independence-as-a-Service Ennan Zhai1 Ruichuan Chen2, David Losses Data Center Outages Generate Big Losses Downtime in a data center can cost an average of $505 Operational Trends Report #12;Service Outage Losses Data Center Outages Generate Big Losses Downtime in a data

  5. Texas A&MUniversity Detailed Assessment Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the environment of the Teague and Wehner Data Centers are documented through our Keystone problem tracking system. Annual downtime is calculated from Keystone problem tracking system. Annual downtime is calculated from Keystone entries for the period September 1, 2010 through August 31, 2011. Source of Evidence: Professional

  6. Texas A&MUniversity Detailed Assessment Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the environment of the Teague and Wehner Data Centers are documented through our Keystone problem tracking system. Annual downtime is calculated from Keystone problem tracking system. Annual downtime is calculated from Keystone entries for the period September 1, 2011 through August 31, 2012. Source of Evidence: Professional

  7. Texas A&MUniversity Detailed Assessment Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the environment of the Teague and Wehner Data Centers are documented through our problem tracking system (Keystone). Annual downtime is calculated from the Keystone problem tracking system. Annual downtime is calculated from Keystone entries for the period September 1, 2012 through August 31, 2013. Source of Evidence

  8. Implementation of an airline recovery model in an event-based simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabbani, Fábio Faizi Rahnemay, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Airlines maximize the use of their resources by minimizing the time between consecutive flight legs in their aircraft and crew schedules. As a result, bad weather or unscheduled aircraft maintenance events can have a ...

  9. Belt Vision Inspection System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mining operations rely on conveyor belts to move mined material from the working face of the mine to a processing plant. When a conveyor belt breaks or stops for unscheduled maintenance, production...

  10. 24/11/2010 10:22AGU: Radiation belt electron precipitation due to geomagnetic storms: Significance to middle atmosphere ozone chemistry Page 1 of 2http://europa.agu.org/?view=article&uri=/journals/ja/ja1011/2010JA015599/2010JA015599.xml

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulich, Thomas

    24/11/2010 10:22AGU: Radiation belt electron precipitation due to geomagnetic storms: Significance: Energetic particles: precipitating Radio Science: Radio wave propagation Abstract Radiation belt electron from the radiation belts into the atmosphere, both during the storm itself and also through

  11. Measuring Oscillatory Velocity Fields Due to Swimming Algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P

    2010-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.

  12. Stresses in adhesive joints due to moisture sorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jen, Ming-Hwa Robert

    1980-01-01

    =XMEW?Z/ f (1. 0+XMEW)? (1 ~ 0-2. 0?XMEW) } G=Z/ (2. 0? (1 . 0+ XMZW) ) I LZDAE= IMEViE?E 7/ ( (1. 0?X MENE)? (1. 0-2 ~ 0? XMl EWE) ) G E=E E/'(2. 0? ( 1. 0+ XMEWE) ) COFA=3. O*XLE DAB+ 2 0?GZ F 1= (XLEDAE+2. 0?GE) /CQFA F2=XLEDA E/COFA F3=GE...) +XCR) DO 503 I=1 ~ 7 DO 503 J=1 ~ 7 ZPIIQ {I, J)=0 DO 503 K=1, 7 503 ZPIIO(Ig J) =ZPIIO(I~J)+ZRB(IgK)+ZQEXP(K ~ J) C THE PARTICULAR SOLUTION DO 504 I=1, 7 Z RTL (I ~ 1) =0. DO 504 L=1 ~ 7 504 ZRTL (I, 1) =ZRTL fI, 1) +ZPIIQ (I, L...

  13. Research Paper Timeline Timeline and Due Dates for Writing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    for sources Creative Spend time in the Library and in databases to collect information via notecards and background info Scholarly and non-scholarly sources Primary and secondary sources Citations styles or the Writing Lab in the CSL to get information on how to write in that style. Narrow your topic Critical

  14. AREAS OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEO-FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, G. Paul

    2011-01-01

    MEXICO BASIN MAJOR REGIONAL FAULT ZONES I N NEOGENE DEPOSITS, NORTHERN (modified from Murray, 1961) v-4 shale;

  15. Systemic contact dermatitis due to amethocaine following digital rectal examination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro Gutiérrez, Dolores; Gómez de la Fuente, Enrique; Pampín Franco, Ana; Ascanio Armada, Lucía; López Estebaranz, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    with a urological lubricant containing amethocaine. Caseexam with a urological lubricant had been performed on ourin the urological lubricant. Figure 1. Erythematous and

  16. AREAS OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEO-FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, G. Paul

    2011-01-01

    F i r s t Geopressured Geothermal Energy Conference: Austin,Groh, E.A. , 1966, Geothermal Energy P o t e n t i a l i nV.E. , Jr. , 1972, Geothermal energy i n Washington: &

  17. Scour around a circular pile due to oscillatory wave motion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Donald Raymond

    1970-01-01

    in a large circular cylinder. Under steady state conditions the fall velocity is called the terminal velocity and the drag on the particle is equal to the submerged weight. Therefore for a sphere ~4/3 d ~s? (22) 20 where V = fall velocity... ANAT. YSIS OF SAND NO. 1 STEVF A&VA& YSIS OF SAND NO. 2 ELEVE ANALYSIS OF SAND NO. 3 C AS A FUViCTION OF REYNOLDS N!Jii(BER. D II', CJP ENT HO'!TON OCCURR1NG DN THF. '' Fi! E BG(JNI!ARY F()R VARIOUS VAL!!!'!S OF PUP LAT IVE l!AVE "!E IGHT I...

  18. CSci 4554 Assignment 8 Due Friday, April 4 in class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machkasova, Elena

    in the middle but differ in the beginning. Consider the four modes of block cipher operations (CBC, CFB, OFB

  19. Costs of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Withdrawal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, J. P.; Jones, L. L.; Griffin, W. L.; Lacewell, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    In recent years the area around Houston and Baytown, Texas, has been affected to an increasing degree by land subsidence. Sinking of the land surface has reached critical proportions in many areas, and subsidence of as much as eight feet has...

  20. AREAS OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEO-FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, G. Paul

    2011-01-01

    v-2 Geology of Subsidence Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HISTORY AND SUBSIDENCE . . . . . . . . . . VI-48 History ofGas Develop Changes in R History of G SUBSIDENCE Subsidence

  1. Extreme bendability of DNA double helix due to bending asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossein Salari; B. Eslami-Mossallam; M. S. Naderi; M. R. Ejtehadi

    2015-05-23

    Experimental data of the DNA cyclization (J-factor) at short length scales, as a way to study the elastic behavior of tightly bent DNA, exceed the theoretical expectation based on the wormlike chain (WLC) model by several orders of magnitude. Here, we propose that asymmetric bending rigidity of the double helix in the groove direction can be responsible for extreme bendability of DNA at short length scales and it also facilitates DNA loop formation at these lengths. To account for the bending asymmetry, we consider the asymmetric elastic rod (AER) model which has been introduced and parametrized in an earlier study (B. Eslami-Mossallam and M. Ejtehadi, Phys. Rev. E 80, 011919 (2009)). Exploiting a coarse grained representation of DNA molecule at base pair (bp) level, and using the Monte Carlo simulation method in combination with the umbrella sampling technique, we calculate the loop formation probability of DNA in the AER model. We show that, for DNA molecule has a larger J-factor compared to the WLC model which is in excellent agreement with recent experimental data.

  2. NEWSLETTER October 2009 Predicted Northern-Hemisphere temperature rise due

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Paul

    ; glaciology; waste; energy; the built environment. · Prize money totals £500; · A certificate will also merged with web editor, and as Communication Editors, we have high standards to live up to! Environmental

  3. Cosmic Electromagnetic Fields due to Perturbations in the Gravitational Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop Mongwane; Peter K. S. Dunsby; Bob Osano

    2012-10-21

    We use non-linear gauge-invariant perturbation theory to study the interaction of an inflation produced seed magnetic field with density and gravitational wave perturbations in an almost Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime. We compare the effects of this coupling under the assumptions of poor conductivity, infinite conductivity and the case where the electric field is sourced via the coupling of velocity perturbations to the seed field in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime, thus generalizing, improving on and correcting previous results. We solve our equations for long wavelength limits and numerically integrate the resulting equations to generate power spectra for the electromagnetic field variables, showing where the modes cross the horizon. We find that the rotation of the electric field dominates the power spectrum on small scales, in agreement with previous arguments.

  4. Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    increasing attention upon renewable energy as a global solution to both energy and environmental challenges. Renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar power, or hydroelectric dams are increasingly implemented their potential environmental effects. When MHK devices extract energy from a system, volumetric flows and tidal

  5. Pounding and impact of base isolated buildings due to earthquakes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Vivek Kumar

    2005-08-29

    provided between the buildings. This leads to the problem of pounding of these closely placed buildings when responding to earthquake ground motion. The recent advent of base isolation systems and their use as an efficient earthquake force resisting...

  6. Problems Of The Week Due March 26th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    . At what price, in cents, should he sell each peach in order to maximize his daily income from peaches? Why

  7. IE316 Advanced Operations Research Techniques Due December 5, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralphs, Ted

    is manufactured by refining raw oils and blending them together. The raw oils come in two categories. vegetable oils VEG1 VEG2 non-vegetable oils OIL1 OIL2 OIL3 Each oil may be purchased for immediate delivery market (in $/ton) are: VEG1 VEG2 OIL1 OIL2 OIL3 January 110 120 130 110 115 February 130 130 110 90 115

  8. EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Miura, Hitoshi [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-02-20

    We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

  9. Directives Due for Review Before 9/30/2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Policy","HS","applicationvnd.ms-excel" 2,"DOE G 120.1-5","Guidelines for Performance Measurement","CF","applicationvnd.ms-excel" 3,"DOE M 135.1-1A","Department of Energy...

  10. Primordial features due to a step in the inflaton potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Sriramkumar, L. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Aich, Moumita; Souradeep, Tarun [IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Jain, Rajeev Kumar, E-mail: dhiraj@hri.res.in, E-mail: moumita@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch, E-mail: sriram@hri.res.in, E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211, Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2010-10-01

    Certain oscillatory features in the primordial scalar power spectrum are known to provide a better fit to the outliers in the cosmic microwave background data near the multipole moments of l = 22 and 40. These features are usually generated by introducing a step in the popular, quadratic potential describing the canonical scalar field. Such a model will be ruled out, if the tensors remain undetected at a level corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of, say, r ? 0.1. In this work, in addition to the popular quadratic potential, we investigate the effects of the step in a small field model and a tachyon model. With possible applications to future datasets (such as PLANCK) in mind, we evaluate the tensor power spectrum exactly, and include its contribution in our analysis. We compare the models with the WMAP (five as well as seven-year), the QUaD and the ACBAR data. As expected, a step at a particular location and of a suitable magnitude and width is found to improve the fit to the outliers (near l = 22 and 40) in all these cases. We point out that, if the tensors prove to be small (say, r?<0.01), the quadratic potential and the tachyon model will cease to be viable, and more attention will need to be paid to examples such as the small field models.

  11. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Raj

    2015-01-01

    During the last ice age several quasi-periodic abrupt warming events took place. Known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature anomalies. Paleoclimate data shows that the fluctuations often occurred right after massive glacial meltwater releases in the North Atlantic and in bursts of three or four with progressively decreasing strengths. In this study a simple dynamical model of an overturning circulation and sea ice is developed with the goal of understanding the fundamental mechanisms that could have caused the DO events. Interaction between sea ice and the overturning circulation in the model produces self-sustained oscillations. Analysis and numerical experiments reveal that the insulating effect of sea ice causes the ocean to periodically vent out accumulated heat in the deep ocean into the atmosphere. Subjecting the model to idealized freshwater forcing mimicking Heinrich events causes modulation of the natural p...

  12. ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) proposals due February...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems. Responding to natural and man-made disasters or incidents; e.g., hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, pandemics. Broadening the community of researchers capable...

  13. ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge Requests for Time Due February...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy systems. Responding to natural and man-made disasters or incidents; e.g. hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, pandemics. Broadening the community of researchers capable...

  14. Estimating the expected latency to failure due to manufacturing defects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorsey, David Michael

    2004-09-30

    Manufacturers of digital circuits test their products to find defective parts so they are not sold to customers. Despite extensive testing, some of their products that are defective pass the testing process. To combat ...

  15. AREAS OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEO-FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, G. Paul

    2011-01-01

    June 1960, a 12,500 kw generating plant went on line usinga second 12,500 kw generating plant. In 1961, explorationof a 27,500 kw generating plant, completed in 1967. A second

  16. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    injection of CO2 for 50 years at a rate of 5 million tons per year into a depleted oilgas reservoir with high permeability and, one or more wells provided leakage pathways...

  17. Damage in porous media due to salt crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn; Julie Desarnaud; François Bertrand; Xavier Chateau; Daniel Bonn

    2010-07-13

    We investigate the origins of salt damage in sandstones for the two most common salts: sodium chloride and sulfate. The results show that the observed difference in damage between the two salts is directly related to the kinetics of crystallization and the interfacial properties of the salt solutions and crystals with respect to the stone. We show that, for sodium sulfate, the existence of hydrated and anhydrous crystals and specifically their dissolution and crystallization kinetics are responsible for the damage. Using magnetic resonance imaging and optical microscopy we show that when water imbibes sodium sulfate contaminated sandstones, followed by drying at room temperature, large damage occurs in regions where pores are fully filled with salts. After partial dissolution, anhydrous sodium sulfate salt present in these regions gives rise to a very rapid growth of the hydrated phase of sulfate in the form of clusters that form on or close to the remaining anhydrous microcrystals. The rapid growth of these clusters generates stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone leading to the damage. Sodium chloride only forms anhydrous crystals that consequently do not cause damage in the experiments.

  18. Damage due to salt crystallization in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh Bonn; Francois Bertrand; Daniel Bonn

    2009-06-13

    We investigate salt crystallization in porous media that can lead to their disintegration. For sodium sulfate we show for the first time experimentally that when anhydrous crystals are wetted with water, there is very rapid growth of the hydrated form of sulfate in clusters that nucleate on anhydrous salt micro crystals. The molar volume of the hydrated crystals being four times bigger, the growth of these clusters can generate stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone and lead therefore to damage.

  19. NERSC Initiative for Scientific Exploration proposals due May...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 2014 January 2014 December 2013 November 2013 October 2013 September 2013 August 2013 July 2013 June 2013 May 2013 April 2013 March 2013 February 2013 January 2013 December...

  20. AREAS OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEO-FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, G. Paul

    2011-01-01

    the generally aseismic Snake River Plain. This information,seismically more akin t o the Snake River Plain than t o thesquare miles i n the Snake River Plain (see Figure 1). The