National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for unrestricted non-coincident peak

  1. System for monitoring non-coincident, nonstationary process signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    2005-01-04

    An improved system for monitoring non-coincident, non-stationary, process signals. The mean, variance, and length of a reference signal is defined by an automated system, followed by the identification of the leading and falling edges of a monitored signal and the length of the monitored signal. The monitored signal is compared to the reference signal, and the monitored signal is resampled in accordance with the reference signal. The reference signal is then correlated with the resampled monitored signal such that the reference signal and the resampled monitored signal are coincident in time with each other. The resampled monitored signal is then compared to the reference signal to determine whether the resampled monitored signal is within a set of predesignated operating conditions.

  2. Qualitative breakdown of the unrestricted Hartree-Fock energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mori-Snchez, Paula; Cohen, Aron J.

    2014-10-28

    The stretching of closed-shell molecules is a qualitative problem for restricted Hartree-Fock that is usually circumvented by the use of unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF). UHF is well known to break the spin symmetry at the Coulson-Fischer point, leading to a discontinuous derivative in the potential energy surface and incorrect spin density. However, this is generally not considered as a major drawback. In this work, we present a set of two electron molecules which magnify the problem of symmetry breaking and lead to drastically incorrect potential energy surfaces with UHF. These molecules also fail with unrestricted density-functional calculations where a functional such as B3LYP gives both symmetry breaking and an unphysically low energy due to the delocalization error. The implications for density functional theory are also discussed.

  3. Desert Peak EGS Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Desert Peak EGS Project presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  4. Prices dip, activity increases in unrestricted uranium market. [Uranium market overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    April's activity in the restricted uranium market fluctuated in the same range as that observed in March. At the same time, NUKEM detects a weakening of prices in the unrestricted market to $7.45-$7.65. Unrestricted buyers seem to have detected lower prices as well; much of the new demand noted this month emerged in the unrestricted segment of the market. With this issue, NUKEM inaugurates a new market statistic. To better follow developments in the conversion market, we will report a spot price range for conversion services. This price measure will be derived in a manner analogous to NUKEM's other spot market price ranges. We will continue to publish the current NUKEM price range for new contracts for a few months. If you wish to retain the old conversion contract price range in future editions, please contact our US office. Four deals for near term delivery occurred in the uranium market in April, resulting in spot market transaction volume of 2.5 million lbs U3O8 equivalent. In the first week, a US non-utility purchased a small quantity of enriched uranium product from an intermediary in a spot transaction representing about 75,000 lbs U3O8. The second week saw the stealthy purchase of Portland General Electric's inventory of natural and enriched uranium. The buyer of PGE's 1.1 million lbs U3O8 equivalent has achieved an unusual degree of anonymity. Also during the second week, a US utility bought a small quantity of enriched uranium containing less than 25,000 lbs natural U3O8 equivalent.

  5. Bandwidth Historical Peak Days

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bandwidth Historical Peak Days Bandwidth Historical Peak Days These plots show yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer

  6. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  7. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  8. monthly_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak

  9. PEAK READING VOLTMETER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, A.L.

    1958-07-29

    An improvement in peak reading voltmeters is described, which provides for storing an electrical charge representative of the magnitude of a transient voltage pulse and thereafter measuring the stored charge, drawing oniy negligible energy from the storage element. The incoming voltage is rectified and stored in a condenser. The voltage of the capacitor is applied across a piezoelectric crystal between two parallel plates. Amy change in the voltage of the capacitor is reflected in a change in the dielectric constant of the crystal and the capacitance between a second pair of plates affixed to the crystal is altered. The latter capacitor forms part of the frequency determlning circuit of an oscillator and means is provided for indicating the frequency deviation which is a measure of the peak voltage applied to the voltmeter.

  10. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  11. monthly_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2008 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak

  12. Aggregate Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfers Historical Yearly Peak Aggregate Transfers Historical Yearly Peak These plots show the yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate

  13. Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfers Historical Yearly Peak Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak These plots show the yearly peak days from 2000 to present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage

  14. Transfer Activity Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Historical Yearly Peak Transfer Activity Historical Yearly Peak The plots below show the yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for the current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In

  15. monthly_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    O Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2005 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MR NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW)

  16. Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily...

  17. summer_peak_2004.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2009 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC...

  18. summer_peak_2003.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2008 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC...

  19. Desert Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Geothermal Area (Redirected from Desert Peak Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Desert Peak Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2...

  20. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  1. Stochastic acceleration in peaked spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zasenko, V.; Zagorodny, A.; Weiland, J.

    2005-06-15

    Diffusion in velocity space of test particles undergoing external random electric fields with spectra varying from low intensive and broad to high intensive and narrow (peaked) is considered. It is shown that to achieve consistency between simulation and prediction of the microscopic model, which is reduced to Fokker-Planck-type equation, it is necessary, in the case of peaked spectrum, to account for temporal variation of diffusion coefficient occurring in the early stage. An analytical approximation for the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with a time and velocity dependent diffusion coefficients is proposed.

  2. winter_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ) Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2008 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP (U.S. NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097

  3. winter_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097 30,800 36,551 32,461 21,113 40,545 86,648 38,949 35,815 94,252 1991/1992 485,761

  4. winter_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005/2006 626,365 42,657 33,748 46,828 151,600 164,638 31,260 48,141 107,493 Contiguous U.S. Projected FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.)

  5. METHOD OF PEAK CURRENT MEASUREMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, G.E.

    1959-01-20

    The measurement and recording of peak electrical currents are described, and a method for utilizing the magnetic field of the current to erase a portion of an alternating constant frequency and amplitude signal from a magnetic mediums such as a magnetic tapes is presented. A portion of the flux from the current carrying conductor is concentrated into a magnetic path of defined area on the tape. After the current has been recorded, the tape is played back. The amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape immediately adjacent the defined flux area and the amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape within the area are compared with the amplitude of the signal from an unerased portion of the tape to determine the percentage of signal erasure, and thereby obtain the peak value of currents flowing in the conductor.

  6. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Reduce the high level of risk during the early stages of geothermal project development by conducting a multi-faceted and innovative exploration and drilling program at Silver Peak. Determine the combination of techniques that are most useful and cost-effective in identifying the geothermal resource through a detailed, post-project evaluation of the exploration and drilling program.

  7. Texas Nuclear Profile - Comanche Peak

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Comanche Peak" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,"1,209","9,677",91.4,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  8. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Previous Articles Previous Articles Estimates of Peak Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States, 2009 Update (Released, 8312009) Estimates of Peak Underground...

  9. Peak Treatment Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Treatment Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peak Treatment Systems Place: Golden, CO Website: www.peaktreatmentsystems.com References: Peak Treatment Systems1 Information...

  10. peak_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Megawatts) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FRCC 27,266 28,818 30,601 32,823 32,904 34,524 35,444 35,375 38,730 37,493 37,194 39,062 40,696 40,475 42,383 46,396 45,751 46,676 44,836 NPCC 44,116 46,594 43,658 46,706 47,581 47,705 45,094 49,269 49,566 52,855

  11. Unrestricted density functional theory based on the fragment molecular orbital method for the ground and excited state calculations of large systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakata, Hiroya; RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 ; Fedorov, Dmitri G.; Yokojima, Satoshi; Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1423-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 ; Kitaura, Kazuo; Sakurai, Minoru; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2014-04-14

    We extended the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method interfaced with density functional theory (DFT) into spin unrestricted formalism (UDFT) and developed energy gradients for the ground state and single point excited state energies based on time-dependent DFT. The accuracy of FMO is evaluated in comparison to the full calculations without fragmentation. Electronic excitations in solvated organic radicals and in the blue copper protein, plastocyanin (PDB code: 1BXV), are reported. The contributions of solvent molecules to the electronic excitations are analyzed in terms of the fragment polarization and quantum effects such as interfragment charge transfer.

  12. SnowPeak Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SnowPeak Energy Place: Reno, Nevada Zip: 89502 Product: Nevada-based concentrator PV module maker. References: SnowPeak Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  13. Thermohydraulics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor primary loop during early phases of unrestricted core-heatup accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroeger, P.G.; Colman, J.; Hsu, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    In High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) siting considerations, the Unrestricted Core Heatup Accidents (UCHA) are considered as accidents of highest consequence, corresponding to core meltdown accidents in light water reactors. Initiation of such accidents can be, for instance, due to station blackout, resulting in scram and loss of all main loop forced circulation, with none of the core auxiliary cooling system loops being started. The result is a slow but continuing core heatup, extending over days. During the initial phases of such UCHA scenarios, the primary loop remains pressurized, with the system pressure slowly increasing until the relief valve setpoint is reached. The major objectives of the work described here were to determine times to depressurization as well as approximate loop component temperatures up to depressurization.

  14. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  15. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Capacity Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity Released: September 3, 2010 for data as of April 2010 Next Release: August 2011 References Methodology Definitions...

  16. Monthly Generation System Peak (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Monthly Generation System Peak (GSP) This site is no longer maintained. Page last...

  17. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  18. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    not necessarily coincide. As such, the noncoincident peak for any region is at least as big as any monthly volume in the historical record. Data from Form EIA-191M, "Monthly...

  19. LNG production for peak shaving operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, B.C.

    1999-07-01

    LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

  20. Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) Operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) begins its inaugural deployment November 2010 in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment, or STORMVEX. For six months, the comprehensive suite of AMF2 instruments will obtain measurements of cloud and aerosol properties at various sites

  1. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  2. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  3. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak ...

  4. Peak to Peak Charter Wins Colorado Science Bowl - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peak to Peak Charter Wins Colorado Science Bowl Lafayette School Heads to Washington D.C. to Challenge for National Title February 13, 2010 Students from Peak to Peak Charter School won the Colorado High School Science Bowl today. They will go on to the 20th National Science Bowl in Washington D.C. on April 29 - May 4, where they will compete for the national title against more than 450 students from 68 high schools. The U.S. Department of Energy began the Science Bowl tradition in 1991 as a way

  5. summer_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c . Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 546,331 79,258 27,266 42,613 40,740 24,994 44,116 94,677 52,541 42,737 97,389 1991 551,418 81,224 28,818 45,937 41,598 25,498 46,594 95,968 51,885 41,870 92,026 1992 548,707

  6. winter_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d . Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097 30,800 36,551 32,461 21,113 40,545 86,648 38,949 35,815 94,252 1991/1992 485,761 71,181 31,153 37,983 33,420 21,432 41,866 88,422 38,759 35,448 86,097

  7. Waddington, NY Natural Gas Exports to Canada

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    WINTER Table 5j . Winter (FRCC) Historical and Projected Demand and Capacity, Calendar Year 2007 Region FRCC Subregion Country U WINTER Actual Line# DESCRIPTION 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 1 Unrestricted Non-coincident Peak Demand (Starting Point) = 2+1a+1b-1c-1d 41,701 49,601 50,463 51,606 1a New Conservation (Energy Efficiency) - - - 1b Estimated Diversity - - - - 1c Additions for non-member load (load served by non-registered LSE's in a region) - - - - 1d Stand-by Load Under

  8. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    f. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak ...

  9. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak ...

  10. Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Twin...

  11. Magnetotellurics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Magnetotellurics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  12. Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  13. Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  14. Ground Magnetics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  15. Core Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  16. Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And...

  17. Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  18. Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward ...

  19. Development Wells At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  20. Emcore/SunPeak Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Power Plant Facility EmcoreSunPeak Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Photovoltaic Developer SunPeak Solar Location Albuquerque, New Mexico Coordinates 35.0844909,...

  1. Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  2. monthly_peak_byarea_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, 1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected (Megawatts) FRCC Year January February March April May June July August September October November December 1996 39,860 41,896 32,781 28,609 32,059 33,886 35,444 34,341 34,797 30,037 29,033 34,191 1997 37,127 28,144 27,998 28,458 33,859 34,125 35,356 35,375 33,620 31,798 27,669 31,189 1998 27,122 28,116 29,032 28,008 32,879 37,153 36,576 38,730 34,650

  3. monthly_peak_bymonth_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, 1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected (Megawatts) January NERC Regional Assesment Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011E 2012E FRCC 39,860 37,127 27,122 38,581 37,521 40,258 39,675 45,033 35,545 41,247 34,464 38,352 41,705 44,945 53,093 46,839 47,613 NPCC 41,680 41,208 40,009 44,199 45,227 43,553 42,039 45,987 66,215 47,041 43,661 45,002 46,803

  4. Sample distribution in peak mode isotachophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, Shimon; Schwartz, Ortal; Bercovici, Moran

    2014-01-15

    We present an analytical study of peak mode isotachophoresis (ITP), and provide closed form solutions for sample distribution and electric field, as well as for leading-, trailing-, and counter-ion concentration profiles. Importantly, the solution we present is valid not only for the case of fully ionized species, but also for systems of weak electrolytes which better represent real buffer systems and for multivalent analytes such as proteins and DNA. The model reveals two major scales which govern the electric field and buffer distributions, and an additional length scale governing analyte distribution. Using well-controlled experiments, and numerical simulations, we verify and validate the model and highlight its key merits as well as its limitations. We demonstrate the use of the model for determining the peak concentration of focused sample based on known buffer and analyte properties, and show it differs significantly from commonly used approximations based on the interface width alone. We further apply our model for studying reactions between multiple species having different effective mobilities yet co-focused at a single ITP interface. We find a closed form expression for an effective-on rate which depends on reactants distributions, and derive the conditions for optimizing such reactions. Interestingly, the model reveals that maximum reaction rate is not necessarily obtained when the concentration profiles of the reacting species perfectly overlap. In addition to the exact solutions, we derive throughout several closed form engineering approximations which are based on elementary functions and are simple to implement, yet maintain the interplay between the important scales. Both the exact and approximate solutions provide insight into sample focusing and can be used to design and optimize ITP-based assays.

  5. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident ...

  6. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell, 2004) Exploration Activity...

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN PEAK ENERGY AND PEAK LUMINOSITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Chen, D. Y. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Huang, Y. F., E-mail: sci.zbzhang@gzu.edu.cn, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-08-10

    A correlation between the peak luminosity and the peak energy has been found by Yonetoku et al. as L{sub p} {proportional_to}E{sup 2.0}{sub p,i} for 11 pre-Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this study, for a greatly expanded sample of 148 long GRBs in the Swift era, we find that the correlation still exists, but most likely with a slightly different power-law index, i.e., L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i}. In addition, we have collected 17 short GRBs with necessary data. We find that the correlation of L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i} also exists for this sample of short events. It is argued that the radiation mechanism of both long and short GRBs should be similar, i.e., of quasi-thermal origin caused by the photosphere, with the dissipation occurring very near the central engine. Some key parameters of the process are constrained. Our results suggest that the radiation processes of both long and short bursts may be dominated by thermal emission, rather than by the single synchrotron radiation. This might put strong physical constraints on the theoretical models.

  8. Track B - Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy B - Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes Track B - Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes Presentations from Track B, Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's 2012 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting are provided below as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. These presentations for this track covered the following topics: Ventilation Strategies in High Performance Homes; Combustion Safety in Tight Houses;

  9. Desert Peak II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Desert Peak II Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Churchill, Nevada Coordinates 39.753854931241, -118.95378112793 Loading map......

  10. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 ...

  11. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 " ,"(Megawatts and 2009 ...

  12. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,..."Texas Power ...

  13. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 ...

  14. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,..."Texas Power ...

  15. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 ...

  16. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 ...

  17. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 ...

  18. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base ...

  19. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 " ,"(Megawatts and 2009 ...

  20. Multispectral Imaging At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Multispectral Imaging At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  1. Jiminy Peak Ski Resort Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Developments Energy Purchaser Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort Location Hancock MA Coordinates 42.5554, -73.2898 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservi...

  2. Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal...

  3. Two density peaks in low magnetic field helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Ouyang, J. T. E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com; Liu, Z. W.; Chen, Q. E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we report two density peaks in argon helicon plasma under an axial magnetic field from 0 G to 250 G with Boswell-type antenna driven by radio frequency (RF) power of 13.56 MHz. The first peak locates at 40–55 G and the second one at 110–165 G, as the RF power is sustainably increased from 100 W to 250 W at Ar pressure of 0.35 Pa. The absorbed power of two peaks shows a linear relationship with the magnetic field. End views of the discharge taken by intensified charge coupled device reveal that, when the first peak appeared, the discharge luminance moves to the edge of the tube as the magnetic field increases. For the second peak, the strong discharge area is centered at the two antenna legs after the magnetic field reaches a threshold value. Comparing with the simulation, we suggest that the efficient power absorption of two peaks at which the efficient power absorption mainly appears in the near-antenna region is due to the mode conversion in bounded non-uniform helicon plasma. The two low-field peaks are caused, to some extent, by the excitation of Trivelpiece-Gould wave through non-resonance conversion.

  4. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,..."Texas Power Grid","Western ...

  5. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,..."Texas Power Grid","Western ...

  6. Silver Peak, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Silver Peak is a city in Esmeralda County, Nevada. References USGS GNIS Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  7. Peak Doctor v 1.0.0 Labview Version

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-05-29

    PeakDoctor software works interactively with its user to analyze raw gamma-ray spectroscopic data. The goal of the software is to produce a list of energies and areas of all of the peaks in the spectrum, as accurately as possible. It starts by performing an energy calibration, creating a function that describes how energy can be related to channel number. Next, the software determines which channels in the raw histogram are in the Compton continuum andmore » which channels are parts of a peak. Then the software fits the Compton continuum with cubic polynomials. The last step is to fit all of the peaks with Gaussian functions, thus producing the list.« less

  8. SunPeak Solar LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SunPeak Solar LLC Place: Palm Desert, California Zip: 92260 Product: US project developer and asset manager, focussing on PV projects in the south-west....

  9. February most likely month for flu season to peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February most likely month for flu season to peak February most likely month for flu season to peak The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather, presidential elections, and sporting events. December 20, 2015 The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather,

  10. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  11. Wavelet Approach for Operational Gamma Spectral Peak Detection - Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    2012-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identifications typically involves locating spectral peaks and matching the spectral peaks with known nuclides in the knowledge base or database. Wavelet analysis, due to its ability for fitting localized features, offers the potential for automatic detection of spectral peaks. Past studies of wavelet technologies for gamma spectra analysis essentially focused on direct fitting of raw gamma spectra. Although most of those studies demonstrated the potentials of peak detection using wavelets, they often failed to produce new benefits to operational adaptations for radiological surveys. This work presents a different approach with the operational objective being to detect only the nuclides that do not exist in the environment (anomalous nuclides). With this operational objective, the raw-count spectrum collected by a detector is first converted to a count-rate spectrum and is then followed by background subtraction prior to wavelet analysis. The experimental results suggest that this preprocess is independent of detector type and background radiation, and is capable of improving the peak detection rates using wavelets. This process broadens the doors for a practical adaptation of wavelet technologies for gamma spectral surveying devices.

  12. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a deep-circulation (amagmatic) meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or core, of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  13. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a “deep-circulation (amagmatic)” meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or “core,” of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  14. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a deep-circulation (amagmatic) meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or core, of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  15. TESTING THE E {sub peak}-E {sub iso} RELATION FOR GRBs DETECTED BY SWIFT AND SUZAKU-WAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krimm, H. A.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Sugita, S.; Ohno, M.; Sato, G.; Hara, R.; Ohmori, N.; Tanaka, H.; Yamauchi, M.; Norris, J. P.; Onda, K.; Tashiro, M.

    2009-10-20

    One of the most prominent, yet controversial associations derived from the ensemble of prompt-phase observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the apparent correlation in the source frame between the peak energy (E {sub peak}) of the nuF(nu) spectrum and the isotropic radiated energy, E {sub iso}. Since most GRBs have E {sub peak} above the energy range (15-150 keV) of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift, determining accurate E {sub peak} values for large numbers of Swift bursts has been difficult. However, by combining data from Swift/BAT and the Suzaku Wide-band All-Sky Monitor (WAM), which covers the energy range from 50 to 5000 keV, for bursts which are simultaneously detected, one can accurately fit E {sub peak} and E {sub iso} and test the relationship between them for the Swift sample. Between the launch of Suzaku in 2005 July and the end of 2009 April, there were 48 GRBs that triggered both Swift/BAT and WAM, and an additional 48 bursts that triggered Swift and were detected by WAM, but did not trigger. A BAT-WAM team has cross-calibrated the two instruments using GRBs, and we are now able to perform joint fits on these bursts to determine their spectral parameters. For those bursts with spectroscopic redshifts, we can also calculate the isotropic energy. Here, we present the results of joint Swift/BAT-Suzaku/WAM spectral fits for 91 of the bursts detected by the two instruments. We show that the distribution of spectral fit parameters is consistent with distributions from earlier missions and confirm that Swift bursts are consistent with earlier reported relationships between E {sub peak} and isotropic energy. We show through time-resolved spectroscopy that individual burst pulses are also consistent with this relationship.

  16. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, Delis

    2012-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes

  17. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assmann, W. Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K.; Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V.; Moser, M.; Dollinger, G.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within 30 ?m and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 ?m. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound imaging

  18. Saving Power at Peak Hours (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-04-28

    California needs new, responsive, demand-side energy technologies to ensure that periods of tight electricity supply on the grid don't turn into power outages. Led by Berkeley Lab's Mary Ann Piette, the California Energy Commission (through its Public Interest Energy Research Program) has established a Demand Response Research Center that addresses two motivations for adopting demand responsiveness: reducing average electricity prices and preventing future electricity crises. The research seeks to understand factors that influence "what works" in Demand Response. Piette's team is investigating the two types of demand response, load response and price response, that may influence and reduce the use of peak electric power through automated controls, peak pricing, advanced communications, and other strategies.

  19. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant challenges from severe weather, hot summers, and about 2% annual load growth. To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques from

  20. Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Report | Department of Energy East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review egs_008_zemach.pdf (182.67 KB) More Documents & Publications Feasibility of EGS Development at Bradys Hot Springs, Nevada Concept Testing and Development at the Raft River Geothermal Field, Idaho Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System

  1. EA-2023: Crossman Peak Communications Facility; Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of a proposed new microwave communication facility to be located adjacent to a privately-owned one near Crossman Peak, east of Lake Havasu City in Mohave County, Arizona. The proposal would consist of a microwave communication facility, an access road, and an approximately 8-mile electrical service distribution line across private land and land administered by the Bureau of Land Management.

  2. Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office August 11, 2015 Presenter: Michael Penev of NREL DOE Host: Pete Devlin 2 Question and Answer * Please type your question into the question box hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov 3 Acknowledgments Fuel Cell Technologies Office, DOE EERE For providing funding for this project and for supporting sustainable hydrogen technology development through analysis, demonstration,

  3. Deconvolution of mixed gamma emitters using peak parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadd, Milan S; Garcia, Francisco; Magadalena, Vigil M

    2011-01-14

    When evaluating samples containing mixtures of nuclides using gamma spectroscopy the situation sometimes arises where the nuclides present have photon emissions that cannot be resolved by the detector. An example of this is mixtures of {sup 241}Am and plutonium that have L x-ray emissions with slightly different energies which cannot be resolved using a high-purity germanium detector. It is possible to deconvolute the americium L x-rays from those plutonium based on the {sup 241}Am 59.54 keV photon. However, this requires accurate knowledge of the relative emission yields. Also, it often results in high uncertainties in the plutonium activity estimate due to the americium yields being approximately an order of magnitude greater than those for plutonium. In this work, an alternative method of determining the relative fraction of plutonium in mixtures of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239}Pu based on L x-ray peak location and shape parameters is investigated. The sensitivity and accuracy of the peak parameter method is compared to that for conventional peak decovolution.

  4. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

  5. REGULATION OF THE SPECTRAL PEAK IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2013-02-20

    Observations indicate that the peak of a gamma-ray burst spectrum forms in the opaque region of an ultrarelativistic jet. Recent radiative transfer calculations support this picture and show that the spectral peak is inherited from initially thermal radiation, which is changed by heating into a broad photon distribution with a high-energy tail. We discuss the processes that regulate the observed position of the spectral peak E {sub pk}. The opaque jet has three radial zones: (1) the Planck zone r < R {sub P} where a blackbody spectrum is enforced; this zone ends where the Thomson optical depth decreases to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5}, (2) the Wien zone R {sub P} < r < R {sub W} with a Kompaneets parameter y >> 1 where radiation has a Bose-Einstein spectrum, and (3) the Comptonization zone r > R {sub W} where the radiation spectrum develops a high-energy tail. Besides the initial jet temperature, an important factor regulating E {sub pk} is internal dissipation (of bulk motions and magnetic energy) at large distances from the central engine. Dissipation in the Planck zone reduces E {sub pk}, and dissipation in the Wien zone can increase E {sub pk}. In jets with subdominant magnetic fields, the predicted E {sub pk} varies around 1 MeV up to a maximum value of about 10 MeV. If the jet carries an energetically important magnetic field, E {sub pk} can be additionally increased by dissipation of magnetic energy. This increase is suggested by observations, which show E {sub pk} up to about 20 MeV. We also consider magnetically dominated jets; then a simple model of magnetic dissipation gives E {sub pk} Almost-Equal-To 30 {Gamma}{sub W} keV where {Gamma}{sub W} is the jet Lorentz factor at the Wien radius R {sub W}.

  6. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  7. Gasoline prices peak, expected to fall through end of 2016

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices peak, expected to fall through end of 2016 It's all downhill for U.S. drivers at least far as the outlook for gasoline prices is concerned. Gasoline prices are expected to gradually fall through the end of this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the retail price for regular-grade gasoline averaged $2.37 per gallon in June. That's down 43 cents from the same month last year. The average monthly pump price is expected to drop to $2.01

  8. Gamma Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gamma Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  9. Neutron Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Neutron Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Slim Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  11. Core Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  12. 2-M Probe At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  13. InSAR At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States by developing basic measurements and interpretations that will assist reservoir management and expansion at Bradys, Desert Peak and the Desert Peak EGS study...

  14. Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area...

  15. Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  16. Flow Test At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area...

  17. ,"Table 3A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation ... February Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

  18. ,"Table 3B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation ... 3B.2. NPCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

  19. XRD acquisition parameters for detection of weak peaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seabaugh, P.W.; Sullenger, D.B.; Hudgens, C.R.; Nichols, M.C.; Boehme, D.R.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM )

    1989-01-01

    The use of high intensity x-ray sources provides opportunities as well as special problems in the detection of minor XRD peaks. Scattering contributions from slits along with other factors can become important and may interfere with the analysis. This further complexity can best be resolved by using nonconventional data collection and analysis strategies. To study these factors, an experimental design plan was formulated and implemented which was used to determine operating parameters for a high intensity x-ray diffraction unit. Major issues studied included the extraction of a weak signal from a noisy background, the reduction of background noise, the volume of data to be collected, the time allocated for background characterization, the control sample, and the impact of the quality'' of the sample. 4 figs.

  20. New runners to boost peak output at Niagara Falls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reason, J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrofitted Francis turbines will improve the value of power generated from Niagara Falls by increasing the peak output of the hydroturbine units at the Robert Moses hydroelectric plant. The computer-designed runners are expected to add 330 MW to the peak capacity of the 28-yr-old plant and significantly increase the efficiency at high flow rates. Next year, the first new runner will be retrofit to the highly instrumented Unit 4. If the retrofit unit meets it increased-performance expectations, the other 12 units will be upgraded between 1993 and 1998. The work is part of an overall expansion of the Niagara Power Project designed to made better use of the power value of Niagara river water, within the constraints of a treaty with Canada and the scenic value of the falls. These constraints, together with varying flows and heads, introduced enormous complexities into the selection and design of the new runners. The alterations being made to Unit 4, in addition to replacing the turbine runner, include modifying the draft tube-liners, increasing the wicket-gate stroke, replacing the turbine discharge ring (to accommodate longer blades), making various electrical modifications to the generator, and replacing the transformer. But the key to the retrofit is the computer-designed runner. Charles Grose, senior project manager, New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY, emphasizes that such computer design techniques were not available a few years ago; neither were the computer-controlled machining techniques necessary to manufacture the new runners. Other aspects of the upgrading that were analyzed include runner stability, resonance, shaft torsional stress, and runaway speed.

  1. Peak Ground Velocities for Seismic Events at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coppersmith; R. Quittmeyer

    2005-02-16

    This report describes a scientific analysis to bound credible horizontal peak ground velocities (PGV) for the repository waste emplacement level at Yucca Mountain. Results are presented as a probability distribution for horizontal PGV to represent uncertainties in the analysis. The analysis also combines the bound to horizontal PGV with results of ground motion site-response modeling (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027]) to develop a composite hazard curve for horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level. This result provides input to an abstraction of seismic consequences (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169183]). The seismic consequence abstraction, in turn, defines the input data and computational algorithms for the seismic scenario class of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Planning for the analysis is documented in Technical Work Plan TWP-MGR-GS-000001 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171850]). The bound on horizontal PGV at the repository waste emplacement level developed in this analysis complements ground motions developed on the basis of PSHA results. In the PSHA, ground motion experts characterized the epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability in their ground motion interpretations. To characterize the aleatory variability they used unbounded lognormal distributions. As a consequence of these characterizations, as seismic hazard calculations are extended to lower and lower annual frequencies of being exceeded, the ground motion level increases without bound, eventually reaching levels that are not credible (Corradini 2003 [DIRS 171191]). To provide credible seismic inputs for TSPA, in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 63.102(j) [DIRS 156605], this complementary analysis is carried out to determine reasonable bounding values of horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level for annual frequencies of exceedance as low as 10{sup -8}. For each realization of the TSPA seismic scenario, the results of this analysis provide a constraint on the values sampled from the

  2. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal

  3. Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Gunnink, R.; Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G.

    1998-12-01

    Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be

  4. Back-Up/ Peak Shaving Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staudt, Rhonda L.

    2008-05-28

    This Final Report covers the work executed by Plug Power from 8/11/03 10/31/07 statement of work for Topic 2: advancing the state of the art of fuel cell technology with the development of a new generation of commercially viable, stationary, Back-up/Peak-Shaving fuel cell systems, the GenCore II. The Program cost was $7.2 M with the Department of Energy share being $3.6M and Plug Powers share being $3.6 M. The Program started in August of 2003 and was scheduled to end in January of 2006. The actual program end date was October of 2007. A no cost extension was grated. The Department of Energy barriers addressed as part of this program are: Technical Barriers for Distributed Generation Systems: o Durability o Power Electronics o Start up time Technical Barriers for Fuel Cell Components: o Stack Material and Manufacturing Cost o Durability o Thermal and water management Background The next generation GenCore backup fuel cell system to be designed, developed and tested by Plug Power under the program is the first, mass-manufacturable design implementation of Plug Powers GenCore architected platform targeted for battery and small generator replacement applications in the telecommunications, broadband and UPS markets. The next generation GenCore will be a standalone, H2 in-DC-out system. In designing the next generation GenCore specifically for the telecommunications market, Plug Power is teaming with BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc., a leading industry end user. The final next generation GenCore system is expected to represent a market-entry, mass-manufacturable and economically viable design. The technology will incorporate: A cost-reduced, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack tailored to hydrogen fuel use An advanced electrical energy storage system A modular, scalable power conditioning system tailored to market requirements A scaled-down, cost-reduced balance of plant (BOP) Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS), UL and CE

  5. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency

  6. Production of Hydrogen at the Forecourt Using Off-Peak Electricity: June 2005 (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levene, J. I.

    2007-02-01

    This milestone report provides information about the production of hydrogen at the forecourt using off-peak electricity as well as the Hydrogen Off-Peak Electricity (HOPE) model.

  7. HOPE Release 3 Pitch Angle Sneak Peak (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: HOPE Release 3 Pitch Angle Sneak Peak Citation Details In-Document Search Title: HOPE Release 3 Pitch Angle Sneak Peak This report describes how the HOPE ...

  8. Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  9. Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Kandasamy, Anand

    2003-01-01

    A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

  10. Webinar August 11: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications DOE Announces Webinars on Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind Siting Considerations, and More...

  11. 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  12. Water Sampling At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  13. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentimpact-smart-grid-technologies-peak-l Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  14. RESCHEDULED: Webinar on Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications".

  15. Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  17. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  18. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Behavior-Based Programs | Department of Energy The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs This report focuses on one example of the value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether BB efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings. This is important because there is increasing interest in using BB programs as a stand-alone peak

  19. Peak picking and the assessment of separation performance in two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiochon, Georges A; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for 2DHPLC that automated the process of peak recognition, measuring their retention times, and then subsequently plotting the information in a two-dimensional retention plane. Following the recognition of peaks, the software then performed a series of statistical assessments of the separation performance, measuring for example, correlation between dimensions, peak capacity and the percentage of usage of the separation space. Peak recognition was achieved by interpreting the first and second derivatives of each respective one-dimensional chromatogram to determine the 1D retention times of each solute and then compiling these retention times for each respective fraction 'cut'. Due to the nature of comprehensive 2DHPLC adjacent cut fractions may contain peaks common to more than one cut fraction. The algorithm determined which components were common in adjacent cuts and subsequently calculated the peak maximum profile by interpolating the space between adjacent peaks. This algorithm was applied to the analysis of a two-dimensional separation of an apple flesh extract separated in a first dimension comprising a cyano stationary phase and an aqueous/THF mobile phase as the first dimension and a second dimension comprising C18-Hydro with an aqueous/MeOH mobile phase. A total of 187 peaks were detected.

  20. Method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Yelton, William G; Kerr, Dayle R; Bouchier, Francis A

    2012-10-23

    A method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks can be used to optimize the operation of an analytical system. With a two-dimensional Peclet analysis, the quality and signal fidelity of peaks in a two-dimensional experimental space can be analyzed and scored. This method is particularly useful in determining optimum operational parameters for an analytical system which requires the automated analysis of large numbers of analyte data peaks. For example, the method can be used to optimize analytical systems including an ion mobility spectrometer that uses a temperature stepped desorption technique for the detection of explosive mixtures.

  1. Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with the coupled THM code FEHM | Department of Energy Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. kelkar_peer2013.pdf (496.77 KB) More

  2. Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for 258Fm (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm We discuss the origin of the narrowness of the single peak at mass-symmetric division in the fragment mass-yield curve for spontaneous fission of {sup 258}Fm. For this purpose, we employ the macroscopic-microscopic model and calculate

  3. NOISY WEAK-LENSING CONVERGENCE PEAK STATISTICS NEAR CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Zuhui; Shan Huanyuan; Liu Jiayi

    2010-08-20

    Taking into account noise from intrinsic ellipticities of source galaxies, in this paper, we study the peak statistics in weak-lensing convergence maps around clusters of galaxies and beyond. We emphasize how the noise peak statistics is affected by the density distribution of nearby clusters, and also how cluster-peak signals are changed by the existence of noise. These are the important aspects to be thoroughly understood in weak-lensing analyses for individual clusters as well as in cosmological applications of weak-lensing cluster statistics. We adopt Gaussian smoothing with the smoothing scale {theta} {sub G} = 0.5arcmin in our analyses. It is found that the noise peak distribution near a cluster of galaxies sensitively depends on the density profile of the cluster. For a cored isothermal cluster with the core radius R{sub c} , the inner region with R {<=} R{sub c} appears noisy containing on average {approx}2.4 peaks with {nu} {>=} 5 for R{sub c} = 1.7arcmin and the true peak height of the cluster {nu} = 5.6, where {nu} denotes the convergence signal-to-noise ratio. For a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) cluster of the same mass and the same central {nu}, the average number of peaks with {nu} {>=} 5 within R {<=} R{sub c} is {approx}1.6. Thus a high peak corresponding to the main cluster can be identified more cleanly in the NFW case. In the outer region with R{sub c} < R {<=} 5R{sub c} , the number of high noise peaks is considerably enhanced in comparison with that of the pure noise case without the nearby cluster. For {nu} {>=} 4, depending on the treatment of the mass-sheet degeneracy in weak-lensing analyses, the enhancement factor f is in the range of {approx}5 to {approx}55 for both clusters as their outer density profiles are similar. The properties of the main-cluster-peak identified in convergence maps are also significantly affected by the presence of noise. Scatters as well as a systematic shift for the peak height are present. The height distribution is

  4. Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-03-06

    An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  6. How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the past 12 months designated in the database (LADWP does this) Home > Groups > Utility Rate Submitted by Marcroper on 11...

  7. Desert Peak to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A., (ed) Nevada geothermal areas: Desert Peak, Humboldt House, Beoware: Guidebook for field trip Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  8. Webinar: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy" on Tuesday, August 11, from 12 to 1 p.m. EDT.

  9. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Wang, Qiao

    2014-03-20

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ? ? 3 is ?11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ?7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg{sup 2}, the bias in (? {sub m}, ?{sub 8}) is already intolerably large and close to 3?. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter fitting.

  10. Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkelsen, D. R. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Ma, Y.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.

    2015-06-15

    Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.

  11. Inelastic neutron scattering study on boson peaks of imidazolium-based ionic liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kofu, Maiko; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; Ehlers, Georg; Yamamuro, Osamu; Moriya, Yosuke

    2015-07-26

    Low energy excitations of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated by means of neutron spectroscopy. In the spectra of inelastic scattering, a broad excitation peak referred to as a “boson peak” appeared at 1–3 meV in all of the ILs measured. The intensity of the boson peak was enhanced at the Q positions corresponding to the diffraction peaks, reflecting the in-phase vibrational nature of the boson peak. Furthermore the boson peak energy (EBP) was insensitive to the length of the alkyl-chain but changed depending on the radius of the anion. From the correlation among EBP, the anion radius, andmore » the glass transition temperature Tg, we conclude that both EBP and Tg in ILs are predominantly governed by the inter-ionic Coulomb interaction which is less influenced by the alkyl-chain length. Furthermore, we also found that the EBP is proportional to the inverse square root of the molecular weight as observed in molecular glasses.« less

  12. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modeling of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.

  13. EVIDENCE FOR POLAR X-RAY JETS AS SOURCES OF MICROSTREAM PEAKS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    2012-05-01

    It is proposed that the interplanetary manifestations of X-ray jets observed in solar polar coronal holes during periods of low solar activity are the peaks of the so-called microstreams observed in the fast polar solar wind. These microstreams exhibit velocity fluctuations of {+-}35 km s{sup -1}, higher kinetic temperatures, slightly higher proton fluxes, and slightly higher abundances of the low-first-ionization-potential element iron relative to oxygen ions than the average polar wind. Those properties can all be explained if the fast microstreams result from the magnetic reconnection of bright-point loops, which leads to X-ray jets which, in turn, result in solar polar plumes. Because most of the microstream peaks are bounded by discontinuities of solar origin, jets are favored over plumes for the majority of the microstream peaks.

  14. A DOUBLE-PEAKED OUTBURST OF A 0535+26 OBSERVED WITH INTEGRAL, RXTE, AND SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caballero, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.; Suchy, S.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Kretschmar, P.; Fuerst, F.; Rothschild, R.; Finger, M. H.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Makishima, K.; Enoto, T.; Iwakiri, W.; and others

    2013-02-20

    The Be/X-ray binary A 0535+26 showed a normal (type I) outburst in 2009 August. It is the fourth in a series of normal outbursts associated with the periastron, but is unusual because it presented a double-peaked light curve. The two peaks reached a flux of {approx}450 mCrab in the 15-50 keV range. We present results of the timing and spectral analysis of INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Suzaku observations of the outburst. The energy-dependent pulse profiles and their evolution during the outburst are studied. No significant differences with respect to other normal outbursts are observed. The centroid energy of the fundamental cyclotron line shows no significant variation during the outburst. A spectral hardening with increasing luminosity is observed. We conclude that the source is accreting in the sub-critical regime. We discuss possible explanations for the double-peaked outburst.

  15. Electron-Beam Switches For A High Peak Power Sled-II Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay, L.

    2015-12-02

    Omega-P demonstrated triggered electron-beam switches on the L=2 m dual-delay-line X-band pulse compressor at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In those experiments, with input pulses of up to 9 MW from the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon, output pulses having peak powers of 140-165 MW and durations of 16-20 ns were produced, with record peak power gains M of 18-20. Switch designs are described based on the successful results that should be suitable for use with the existing SLAC SLED-II delay line system, to demonstrate C=9, M=7, and n>>78%, yielding 173ns compressed pulses with peak powers up to 350MW with input of a single 50-MW.

  16. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modelingmore » of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.« less

  18. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  19. Development and Production of a 201 MHz, 5.0 MW Peak Power Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aymar, Galen; Eisen, Edward; Stockwell, Brad; Begum, rasheda; Lenci, Steve; Eisner, Rick; Cesca, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Communications & Power Industries LLC has designed and manufactured the VKP-8201A, a high peak power, high gain, VHF band klystron. The klystron operates at 201.25 MHz, with 5.0 MW peak output power, 34 kW average output power, and a gain of 36 dB. The klystron is designed to operate between 1.0 MW and 4.5 MW in the linear range of the transfer curve. The klystron utilizes a unique magnetic field which enables the use of a proven electron gun design with a larger electron beam requirement. Experimental and predicted performance data are compared.

  20. Solar photochemical production of HBr for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaton, H.

    1996-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a unique and innovative hydrogen production concept utilizing renewable (Solar) energy and incorporating energy storage. The concept is based on a solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy, and supplemental electrical power. The process consumes only water, sunlight and off-peak electricity, and produces only hydrogen, oxygen, and peaking electrical power. No pollutants are emitted, and fossil fuels are not consumed. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT) under the auspices of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. Microsoft Word - BUGS_The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource Final 4_19.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 15, 2010 DOE/NETL-2010/1406 Backup Generators (BUGS): The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource Backup Generators (BUGS): The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource v1.0 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

  2. Fact #864: March 16, 2015 Imports of Primary Energy have Declined Sharply Since the Peak Reached in 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Imports of Primary Energy have Declined Sharply Since the Peak Reached in 2007

  3. Webinar August 11: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy" on Tuesday, August 11, from 12 to 1 p.m. EDT. This webinar will explore the synergy between a facility's use of hydrogen fuel cell forklifts and its reduction of electric grid time of use energy charges.

  4. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  5. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    2013-11-16

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  6. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    kelkar, sharad

    2013-04-30

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  7. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    kelkar, sharad

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  8. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8m/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.

  9. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator thatmore » interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.« less

  10. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  11. Momentum-resolved photoemission of the Kondo peak in an ordered Ce-containing alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnier, M.; Purdie, D.; Breuer, K.; Hengsberger, M.; Baer, Y.

    1997-11-01

    A comparison of uv-photoemission spectra recorded from the surface alloys Pt(111)({radical}(3){times}{radical}(3))R30{degree}Ce and Pt(111)(2{times}2)La allows the contribution from the 4f electrons to be seen easily. The valence-band structure of these two surfaces is very similar, and the most obvious 4f contribution in high-resolution photoemission spectra of the Ce-containing alloy is the tail of the Kondo peak cut at E{sub F}. Within the limits of our measurement, no dispersion of this feature in the occupied regime is detected. The Kondo peak displays a marked intensity dependence on the emission angle, suggesting that hybridization is present in only a limited part of reciprocal space. The temperature dependence of this near-E{sub F} feature supports this interpretation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Dose ratio proton radiography using the proximal side of the Bragg peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P. J. Royle, G.; Gibson, A.; Lu, H.-M.; Prieels, D.; Bentefour, E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In recent years, there has been a movement toward single-detector proton radiography, due to its potential ease of implementation within the clinical environment. One such single-detector technique is the dose ratio method in which the dose maps from two pristine Bragg peaks are recorded beyond the patient. To date, this has only been investigated on the distal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, due to the sharp falloff. The authors investigate the limits and applicability of the dose ratio method on the proximal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, which has the potential to allow a much wider range of water-equivalent thicknesses (WET) to be imaged. Comparisons are made with the use of the distal side of the Bragg peak. Methods: Using the analytical approximation for the Bragg peak, the authors generated theoretical dose ratio curves for a range of energy pairs, and then determined how an uncertainty in the dose ratio would translate to a spread in the WET estimate. By defining this spread as the accuracy one could achieve in the WET estimate, the authors were able to generate lookup graphs of the range on the proximal side of the Bragg peak that one could reliably use. These were dependent on the energy pair, noise level in the dose ratio image and the required accuracy in the WET. Using these lookup graphs, the authors investigated the applicability of the technique for a range of patient treatment sites. The authors validated the theoretical approach with experimental measurements using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS), by imaging a small sapphire sphere in a high energy proton beam. Results: Provided the noise level in the dose ratio image was 1% or less, a larger spread of WETs could be imaged using the proximal side of the Bragg peak (max 5.31 cm) compared to the distal side (max 2.42 cm). In simulation, it was found that, for a pediatric brain, it is possible to use the technique to image a region with a

  13. Cost-effective retrofit technology for reducing peak power demand in small and medium commercial buildings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nutaro, James J.; Fugate, David L.; Kuruganti, Teja; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Starke, Michael R.

    2015-05-27

    We describe a cost-effective retrofit technology that uses collective control of multiple rooftop air conditioning units to reduce the peak power consumption of small and medium commercial buildings. The proposed control uses a model of the building and air conditioning units to select an operating schedule for the air conditioning units that maintains a temperature set point subject to a constraint on the number of units that may operate simultaneously. A prototype of this new control system was built and deployed in a large gymnasium to coordinate four rooftop air conditioning units. Based on data collected while operating this prototype,more » we estimate that the cost savings achieved by reducing peak power consumption is sufficient to repay the cost of the prototype within a year.« less

  14. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmore » function. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the

  15. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmorefunction. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count

  16. Cost-effective retrofit technology for reducing peak power demand in small and medium commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutaro, James J.; Fugate, David L.; Kuruganti, Teja; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Starke, Michael R.

    2015-05-27

    We describe a cost-effective retrofit technology that uses collective control of multiple rooftop air conditioning units to reduce the peak power consumption of small and medium commercial buildings. The proposed control uses a model of the building and air conditioning units to select an operating schedule for the air conditioning units that maintains a temperature set point subject to a constraint on the number of units that may operate simultaneously. A prototype of this new control system was built and deployed in a large gymnasium to coordinate four rooftop air conditioning units. Based on data collected while operating this prototype, we estimate that the cost savings achieved by reducing peak power consumption is sufficient to repay the cost of the prototype within a year.

  17. SUPERVISORY CONTROL FOR PEAK REDUCTION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS WHILE MAINTAINING COMFORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutaro, James J; Olama, Mohammed M; Kuruganti, Teja

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisory control strategy for limiting peak power demand by small and medium commercial buildings while still meeting the business needs of the occupants. This control strategy has two features that make it relevant to new and existing buildings. First, it is designed to operate with building equipment, such as air conditioning and refrigeration systems, as they are presently installed in most small and medium commercial buildings. Because of this, the supervisory control could be realized as a software-only retrofit to existing building management systems. Second, the proposed control acts as a supervisory management layer over existing control systems, rather than replacing them outright. The primary idea of this approach is that the controls for individual building equipment request energy resources for a control action and the supervisory control examines the requests and decides which control actions to allow while satisfying a limit on peak power demand.

  18. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  19. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  20. Plant data comparisons for Comanche Peak 1/2 main feedwater pump trip transient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatwright, W.J.; Choe, W.G; Hiltbrand, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    A RETRAN-02 MOD5 model of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station was developed by TU Electric for the purpose of performing core reload safety analyses. In order to qualify this model, comparisons against plant transient data from a partial loss of main feedwater flow were performed. These comparisons demonstrated that good representations of the plant response could be obtained with RETRAN-02 and the user-developed models of the primary-to-secondary heat transfer and plant control systems.

  1. Method for the Production of Ultrashort Peak Power Laser Pulses and System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Putting Into Practice This Method Inventors Gerard Mourou, Nathaniel J. Fisch, Vladimir M. Malkin, and Zeev Toroker | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method for the Production of Ultrashort Peak Power Laser Pulses and System For Putting Into Practice This Method Inventors Gerard Mourou, Nathaniel J. Fisch, Vladimir M. Malkin, and Zeev Toroker Laser-pulse intensities have grown remarkably in recent years, primarily through the method of chirped pulse amplification. Much higher powers are

  2. CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE THROUGH RISE TIMES AND PEAK LUMINOSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Maeda, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the diversity in the wind density, supernova ejecta energy, and ejecta mass in Type IIn supernovae based on their rise times and peak luminosities. We show that the wind density and supernova ejecta properties can be estimated independently if both the rise time and peak luminosity are observed. The peak luminosity is mostly determined by the supernova properties and the rise time can be used to estimate the wind density. We find that the ejecta energies of Type IIn supernovae need to vary by factors of 0.2-5 from the average if their ejecta masses are similar. The diversity in the observed rise times indicates that their wind densities vary by factors of 0.2-2 from the average. We show that Type IIn superluminous supernovae should have not only large wind density but also large ejecta energy and/or small ejecta mass to explain their large luminosities and the rise times at the same time. We also note that shock breakout does not necessarily occur in the wind even if it is optically thick, except for the case of superluminous supernovae, and we analyze the observational data both with and without assuming that the shock breakout occurs in the dense wind of Type IIn supernovae.

  3. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30percent using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

  4. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  5. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  6. Calculating survival curves in spread-peaks of heavy ion beams and comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, S.B.; Chu, W.T.; Llacer, J.; Renner, T.R.; Rodriguez, A.; Yang, T.C.H.

    1995-08-01

    In preparing for treating patients with high-energy ion beams, it is important first to determine the composition of the beam, that is, the relative mixes of the various primary and secondary particles and their LET spectra, and secondly to estimate the cell killing expected during a treatment schedule. This requires measurements of the beam composition at various depths through the spread-peak region, and a calculation of cell survival using a cell-killing model designed to accommodate the mixed LET nature of the beam in the spread-peak region. This talk presents results of an experiment in which a particle identification telescope, the BEPKLET, was used to measure the LET spectra of the primary and secondary particles at two positions in a 12-cm-spread-peak of a 585 MeV/amu neon ion beam at the Bevalac. Cell survival measurements were made at the same positions at which the LET-spectra were measured. The survival curves obtained were compared with calculations using the LPL (Lethal, Potentially Lethal) model of cell-killing. Results agree quite well at doses up to about 4 Gy. A quantity proportional to the RBE at 10% survival, when plotted against dose-averaged LET for a number of different beams and energies, appears to be a fairly good predictor of biological effect. This would not be expected if the difference in biological effect due to differences in track structure between various ions at the same LET played a significant role in modifying cell-killing in the range of LETs covered by this experiment.

  7. AVTA: EVSE Charging Protocol for On and Off-Peak Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is a description of development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off and on-peak demand economics at facilities, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. OG&E Uses Time-Based Rate Program to Reduce Peak Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 OG&E Uses Time-Based Rate Program to Reduce Peak Demand As part of its Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) project for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company (OG&E) has successfully tested over a two-year period a new time-based rate, which provided about 4,670 participating customers with pric es that varied daily in order to induce a change in their patterns of electricity consumption and a

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  10. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  11. Generalized Fokker-Planck Approximations of Particle Transport with Highly Forward-Peaked Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leakeas, Christopher L.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2001-03-15

    The Fokker-Planck equation is often used to approximate the description of particle transport processes with highly forward-peaked scattering. Pomraning has shown that if the physical scattering kernel is sufficiently dominated by small-angle scattering, then the Fokker-Planck equation is an asymptotic approximation to the linear Boltzmann equation. However, most physically-meaningful scattering kernels contain a sufficient amount of large-angle scattering that the asymptotic criterion is not met. Thus, in many physical problems, solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation are substantially in error. In this paper, Pomraning's asymptotic results are generalized and a new generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) theory that robustly incorporates large-angle scattering is developed. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the resulting GFP equations are much more accurate than the standard Fokker-Planck equation.

  12. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  13. In-situ single-grain peak profile measurements on Ti-7Al during tensile deformation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienert, U.; Brandes, M. C.; Bernier, J. V.; Weiss, J.; Shastri, S. D.; Mills, M. J.; Miller, M. P.; US Naval Research Lab.; LLNL; Mechanical Solutions, Inc.; Ohio State Univ.; Cornell Univ.

    2009-10-25

    High-energy three-dimensional X-ray diffraction with medium and high reciprocal space resolution was applied to study in situ tensile deformation of Ti-7Al specimens. Samples with planar and random dislocation microstructures were prepared and characterized by electron microscopy. Stress tensors of individual grains were obtained at several loads up to 2% deformation. The stress tensors were found to rotate, and resolved shear stresses were calculated. High-resolution reciprocal space maps of selected grains were recorded. Azimuthal and radial distributions were visualized and discussed in terms of idealized dislocation structures. Heterogeneous grain rotations were observed for the planar microstructure and found to be consistent with activation of the highest stressed basal slip system. Intra-granular strain gradients were detected in excess of the intrinsic radial dislocation peak broadening. The potential of combining the applied techniques with modeling to obtain multiple length-scale information during deformation of bulk specimens is discussed.

  14. Control system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive solar heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal control strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal control applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable control schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal control system.

  15. Table 9. U.S. photovoltaic module shipments by state/territory, 2014 (peak kilow

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    photovoltaic module shipments by state/territory, 2014 (peak kilowatts)" "State","Total","Percent of U.S. total" "Alabama",482,0 "Alaska",81,0 "Arizona",194476,0.033 "Arkansas",336,0 "California",3163120,0.53 "Colorado",47240,0.008 "Connecticut",50745,0.009 "Delaware",6600,0.001 "District of Columbia",751,0 "Florida",18593,0.003 "Georgia",47660,0.008

  16. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  17. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to

  18. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  19. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakar, Ehud; Piro, Anthony L.

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  20. A NEW DISCRIMINATOR FOR GAMMA-RAY BURST CLASSIFICATION: THE E{sub peak}-FLUENCE ENERGY RATIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Adam; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.

    2010-10-01

    Using the derived gamma-ray burst (GRB) E{sub peak} and fluences from the complete BATSE 5B Spectral Catalog, we study the ensemble characteristics of the E{sub peak}-fluence relation for GRBs. This relation appears to be a physically meaningful and insightful fundamental discriminator between long and short bursts. We discuss the results of the lower limit test of the E{sub peak}-E{sub iso} relations in the E{sub peak}-fluence plane for Burst And Transient Source Experiment bursts with no observed redshift. Our results confirm the presence of two GRB classes as well as heavily suggesting two different GRB progenitor types.

  1. Peaks, plateaus, numerical instabilities, and achievable accuracy in Galerkin and norm minimizing procedures for solving Ax=b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullum, J.

    1994-12-31

    Plots of the residual norms generated by Galerkin procedures for solving Ax = b often exhibit strings of irregular peaks. At seemingly erratic stages in the iterations, peaks appear in the residual norm plot, intervals of iterations over which the norms initially increase and then decrease. Plots of the residual norms generated by related norm minimizing procedures often exhibit long plateaus, sequences of iterations over which reductions in the size of the residual norm are unacceptably small. In an earlier paper the author discussed and derived relationships between such peaks and plateaus within corresponding Galerkin/Norm Minimizing pairs of such methods. In this paper, through a set of numerical experiments, the author examines connections between peaks, plateaus, numerical instabilities, and the achievable accuracy for such pairs of iterative methods. Three pairs of methods, GMRES/Arnoldi, QMR/BCG, and two bidiagonalization methods are studied.

  2. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  3. Pressure Effect on the Boson Peak in Deeply Cooled Confined Water: Evidence of a Liquid-Liquid Transition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Ito, Kanae; Podlesnyak, Andrey; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-12-03

    We studied the boson peak in deeply cooled water confined in nanopores in order to examine the liquid-liquid transition (LLT). Below ~180 K, the boson peaks at pressures P higher than ~3.5 kbar are evidently distinct from those at low pressures by higher mean frequencies and lower heights. Moreover, the higher-P boson peaks can be rescaled to a master curve while the lower-P boson peaks can be rescaled to a different one. Moreover, these phenomena agree with the existence of two liquid phases with different densities and local structures and the associated LLT in the measured (P, T) region. Additionally,more » the P dependence of the librational band also agrees with the above conclusion.« less

  4. Methods, systems and apparatus for approximation of peak summed fundamental and third harmonic voltages in a multi-phase machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M.; Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Kinoshita, Michael H.

    2012-07-31

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for quickly approximating a peak summed magnitude (A) of a phase voltage (Vph) waveform in a multi-phase system that implements third harmonic injection.

  5. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Koch, Andreas E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: akunder@aip.de

    2014-10-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,3.02) and (0,12). The (+5.25,3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ? 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ? 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the ?-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ? 0.5. In particular, the bulge [?/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M {sub ?} are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field stars. However, the

  6. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry

  7. Microsoft Word - Chemetall Foote_Kings Mountain and Silver Peak Final EA 9-15-10-1 _3_

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Final Environmental Assessment For Chemetall Foote Corporation Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative Kings Mountain, NC and Silver Peak, NV September 2010 Prepared for: Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory This page intentionally left blank. Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and DOE/EA-1715 Component Manufacturing Initiative Project Environmental Assessment Chemetall Foote Corporation, Kings Mountain, NC and Silver Peak, NV September 2010

  8. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  9. Flux harmonics in large SFR cores in relation with core characteristics such as power peaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimpault, G.; Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.; Sciora, P.; Tommasi, J.

    2013-07-01

    Designing future Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) requires enhancing their operational performance and reducing the probability to go into core disruption. As a consequence of these constraints, these novel reactors exhibit rather unusual features compared to past designs. The cores are much larger with rather flat shape. The consequences of that shape on the core characteristics deserve to be studied. The approach taken in this paper is to calculate the eigenvalue associated to the first harmonic and its associated flux. It is demonstrated that these values are linked to some core features, in particular, those sensitive to spatial effects such as power peaks induced by the movement of control rods. The uncertainty associated to these characteristics is being tentatively studied and guidelines for further studied are being identified. In the development strategy of these new SFR designs, a first demonstration plant of limited installed power (around 1500 MWth) will have to be built first. Identifying the possibility of going later to higher power plants (around 3600 MWth) without facing new challenges is an important criterion for designing such a plant. That strategy is being studied, in this paper, focusing on some rather frequent initiator such as the inadvertent control rod withdrawal for different core sizes with the help of the perturbation theory and the flux harmonics. (authors)

  10. Implications of 'peak oil' for atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate - article no. GB3012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharecha, P.A.; Hansen, J.E.

    2008-08-15

    Unconstrained CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of 'proven' and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration, and recent trends are toward lower estimates, we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO{sub 2} from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired power plants without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO{sub 2} limit. It is also important to 'stretch' conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era 'beyond fossil fuels'. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO{sub 2} beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  11. EIS No. 20100312 EIS Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, David J

    2010-08-01

    In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by other Federal agencies public. Historically, EPA has met this mandate by publishing weekly notices of availability of EPA comments, which includes a brief summary of EPA's comment letters, in the Federal Register. Since February 2008, EPA has been including its comment letters on EISs on its Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html. Including the entire EIS comment letters on the Web site satisfies the Section 309(a) requirement to make EPA's comments on EISs available to the public. Accordingly, on March 31, 2010, EPA discontinued the publication of the notice of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. EIS No. 20100312, Draft EIS, NRC, TX, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4, Application for Combined Licenses (COLs) for Construction Permits and Operating Licenses, (NUREG-1943), Hood and Somervell Counties, TX, Comment Period Ends: 10/26/2010.

  12. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  13. DES14X3taz: A type I superluminous supernova showing a luminous, rapidly cooling initial pre-peak bump

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, M.

    2016-02-03

    Here, we present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae. Spectra obtained using Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS show DES14X3taz is an SLSN-I at z = 0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000more » to 8000 K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical (56)Ni-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the entire light curve of DES14X3taz. Models involving the shock-cooling of extended circumstellar material at a distance of ≃400 R⊙ are preferred over the cooling of shock-heated surface layers of a stellar envelope. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation.« less

  14. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  15. VLBI IMAGING OF THE DOUBLE PEAKED EMISSION LINE SEYFERT KISSR 1494

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharb, P.; Das, M.; Subramanian, S.; Chitta, L. P.; Paragi, Z.

    2015-02-01

    We present here the results from dual-frequency phase-referenced Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations of the Seyfert galaxy KISSR 1494, which exhibits double peaked emission lines in its Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum. We detect a single radio component at 1.6 GHz, but not at 5 GHz, implying a spectral index steeper than –1.5 ± 0.5 (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup α}). The high brightness temperature of the radio component (∼1.4 × 10{sup 7} K) and the steep radio spectrum support a non-thermal synchrotron origin. A crude estimate of the black hole mass derived from the M {sub BH}-σ{sub *} relation is ∼1.4 ± 1.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}; it is accreting at an Eddington rate of ∼0.02. The radio data are consistent with either the radio emission coming from the parsec-scale base of a synchrotron wind originating in the magnetized corona above the accretion disk, or from the inner ionized edge of the accretion disk or torus. In the former case, the narrow line region (NLR) clouds may form a part of the broad outflow, while in the latter, the NLR clouds may form a part of an extended disk beyond the torus. The radio and NLR emission may also be decoupled so that the radio emission originates in an outflow while the NLR is in a disk and vice versa. While with the present data it is not possible to clearly distinguish between these scenarios, there appears to be greater circumstantial evidence supporting the coronal wind picture in KISSR 1494. From the kiloparsec-scale radio emission, the time-averaged kinetic power of this outflow is estimated to be Q ≈ 1.5 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}, which is typical of radio outflows in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. This supports the idea that radio ''jets'' and outflowing coronal winds are indistinguishable in Seyfert galaxies.

  16. Dynamics of N2 and N2O peaks during and after the regeneration of lean NOx trap

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mráček, David; Koci, Petr; Marek, Milos; Choi, Jae-Soon; Pihl, Josh A.; Partridge, Jr., William P.

    2014-12-04

    We study the dynamics and selectivity of N2 and N2O formation during and after the regeneration of a commercial NOx storage catalyst containing Pt, Pd, Rh, Ba on Ce/Zr, Mg/Al and Al oxides was studied with high-speed FTIR and SpaciMS analyzers. The lean/rich cycling experiments (60 s/5 s and 60 s/3 s) were performed in the temperature range 200–400°C, using H2, CO, and C3H6 individually for the reduction of adsorbed NOx. Isotopically labeled 15NO was employed in combination with Ar carrier gas in order to quantify the N2 product by mass spectrometry. N2 and N2O products were formed concurrently. Themore » primary peaks appeared immediately after the rich-phase inception, and tailed off with breakthrough of the reductant front (accompanied by NH3 product). Secondary N2 and N2O peaks appeared at the rich-to-lean transition as a result of reactions between surface-deposited reductants/intermediates (CO, HC, NH3, -NCO) and residual stored NOx. At 200–300 °C, up to 30% of N2 and 50% of N2O products originated from the secondary peaks. The N2O/N2 selectivity ratio as well as the magnitude of secondary peaks decreased with temperature and duration of the rich phase. Among the three reductants, propene generated secondary N2 peak up to the highest temperature. Lastly the primary N2 peak exhibited a broadened shoulder aligned with movement of reduction front from the zone where both NOx and oxygen were stored to the NOx-free zone where only oxygen storage capacity was saturated. N2 formed in the NOx-free zone originated from reaction of NH3 with stored oxygen, while N2O formation in this zone was very low.« less

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  18. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amey, David L.; Degner, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  19. Technical Basis for Peak Reactivity Burnup Credit for BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel in Storage and Transportation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, William BJ J; Ade, Brian J; Bowman, Stephen M; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Mertyurek, Ugur; Radulescu, Georgeta

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate application of burnup credit for boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase (1) investigates applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used in spent fuel pools (SFPs) to storage and transportation systems and (2) evaluates validation of both reactivity (keff) calculations and burnup credit nuclide concentrations within these methods. The second phase will focus on extending burnup credit beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents the first phase, including an analysis of lattice design parameters and depletion effects, as well as both validation components. Initial efforts related to extended burnup credit are discussed in a companion paper. Peak reactivity analyses have been used in criticality analyses for licensing of BWR fuel in SFPs over the last 20 years. These analyses typically combine credit for the gadolinium burnable absorber present in the fuel with a modest amount of burnup credit. Gadolinium burnable absorbers are used in BWR assemblies to control core reactivity. The burnable absorber significantly reduces assembly reactivity at beginning of life, potentially leading to significant increases in assembly reactivity for burnups less than 15–20 GWd/MTU. The reactivity of each fuel lattice is dependent on gadolinium loading. The number of gadolinium-bearing fuel pins lowers initial lattice reactivity, but it has a small impact on the burnup and reactivity of the peak. The gadolinium concentration in each pin has a small impact on initial lattice reactivity but a significant effect on the reactivity of the peak and the burnup at which the peak occurs. The importance of the lattice parameters and depletion conditions are primarily determined by their impact on the gadolinium depletion. Criticality code validation for BWR burnup

  20. Automated setup for magnetic hysteresis characterization based on a voltage controlled current source with 500 kHz full power bandwidth and 10 A peak-to-peak current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabrese, G.; Capineri, L.; Granato, M.; Frattini, G.

    2015-04-15

    This paper describes the design of a system for the characterization of magnetic hysteresis behavior in soft ferrite magnetic cores. The proposed setup can test magnetic materials exciting them with controlled arbitrary magnetic field waveforms, including the capability of providing a DC bias, in a frequency bandwidth up to 500 kHz, with voltages up to 32 V peak-to-peak, and currents up to 10 A peak-to-peak. In order to have an accurate control of the magnetic field waveform, the system is based on a voltage controlled current source. The electronic design is described focusing on closed loop feedback stabilization and passive components choice. The system has real-time hysteretic loop acquisition and visualization. The comparisons between measured hysteresis loops of sample magnetic materials and datasheet available ones are shown. Results showing frequency and thermal behavior of the hysteresis of a test sample prove the system capabilities. Moreover, the B-H loops obtained with a multiple waveforms excitation signal, including DC bias, are reported. The proposal is a low-cost and replicable solution for hysteresis characterization of magnetic materials used in power electronics.

  1. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  2. BLAZAR 3C 454.3 IN OUTBURST AND QUIESCENCE DURING 2005-2007: TWO VARIABLE SYNCHROTRON EMISSION PEAKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogle, Patrick M.; Wehrle, Ann E.; Balonek, Thomas; Gurwell, Mark A.

    2011-08-01

    We monitored the flaring blazar 3C 454.3 during 2005 June-July with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS: 15 epochs), Infrared Array Camera (IRAC: 12 epochs), and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS: 2 epochs). We also made Spitzer IRS, IRAC, and MIPS observations from 2006 December to 2007 January when the source was in a low state, the latter simultaneous with a single Chandra X-ray observation. In addition, we present optical and submillimeter (sub-mm) monitoring data. The 2005-2007 period saw three major outbursts. We present evidence that the radio-optical spectral energy distribution (SED) actually consists of two variable synchrotron peaks, the primary at IR and the secondary at sub-mm wavelengths. The lag between the optical and sub-mm outbursts may indicate that these two peaks arise from two distinct regions along the jet separated by a distance of 0.9-3 pc. The flux at 5-35 {mu}m varied by a factor of 40 and the IR peak varied in frequency from 4 x 10{sup 12} Hz to 4 x 10{sup 13} Hz between the highest and lowest states in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Variability was well correlated across the mid-IR band, with no measurable lag. Flares that doubled in flux occurred on a timescale of {approx}5 days, yielding a variability size of <0.05 pc. The IR SED peak moved to higher frequency as a flare brightened, then returned to lower frequency as it decayed. The fractional variability amplitude increased with frequency, which we attribute to decreasing synchrotron self-absorption optical depth. Mid-IR flares may signal the re-energization of a shock that runs into inhomogeneities along the pre-existing jet or in the external medium. The synchrotron peak frequencies during each major outburst may depend upon both the distance from the jet apex and the physical conditions in the shocks. Variation of the Doppler parameter along a curved or helical jet is another possibility. Frequency variability of the IR synchrotron peak may have important consequences for the

  3. WE-D-BRF-02: Acoustic Signal From the Bragg Peak for Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhardt, S; Assmann, W; Fink, A; Thirolf, P; Parodi, K; Kellnberger, S; Omar, M; Ntziachristos, V; Gaebisch, C; Moser, M; Dollinger, G; Sergiadis, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams. Aim of this work is to study the feasibility of determining the ion range with sub-mm accuracy by use of high frequency ultrasonic (US) transducers and to image the Bragg peak by tomography. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity, length and repetition rate. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based US detectors (3.5 MHz and 10 MHz central frequencies). For tomography a 64 channel US detector array was used and moved along the ion track by a remotely controlled motor stage. Results: A clear signal of the Bragg peak was visible for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Range measurements were reproducible within +/? 20 micrometer and agreed well with Geant4 simulations. The tomographic reconstruction does not only allow to measure the ion range but also the beam spot size at the Bragg peak position. Conclusion: Range verification by acoustic means is a promising new technique for treatment modalities where the tumor can be localized by US imaging. Further improvement of sensitivity is required to account for higher attenuation of the US signal in tissue, as well as lower energy density in the Bragg peak in realistic treatment cases due to higher particle energy and larger spot sizes. Nevertheless, the acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical US imaging with Bragg Peak imaging in the near future. The work was funded by the DFG cluster of excellence Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)

  4. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  5. Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Arcavi, Iair; Tal, David; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ben-Ami, Sagi; De Cia, Annalisa; Yaron, Ofer; Sullivan, Mark; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cao, Yi; Nugent, Peter E.; Bersier, David; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Quimby, Robert

    2014-06-20

    Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ∼10{sup 4} km s{sup –1}). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events.

  6. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

  7. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of titanomagnetites: Calibration of the intensity of Raman peaks as a sensitive indicator for their Ti content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinin, Pavel; Tatsumi-Petrochilos, Lisa; Bonal, Lydie; Acosta, Tayro; Hammer, Julia; Gilder, Stuart; Fuller, Mike

    2015-10-15

    A systematic study of the Raman spectra of the titanomagnetite solid-solution series (Fe{sub 3-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4}) for x = {approx}0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 has been conducted. The samples showed combinations of five previously predicted Raman peaks at {approx}190, 310, 460, 540, and 670 cm{sup -1} that correspond to vibrational modes with T{sub 2g}(1), E{sub g}, T{sub 2g}(3), T{sub 2g}(2), and A{sub 1g}, respectively. The calibration of Raman spectra for titanomagnetite with known values of Ti concentrations reveals a strong dependence of relative intensity for the T{sub 2g}(2) and T{sub 2g}(3) modes on Ti concentration. The most prominent feature is the appearance and increase in the relative intensity of a T{sub 2g}(3) peak above x = {approx}0.2. On the other hand, the Raman peak for the T{sub 2g}(2) mode gradually diminishes as Ti increases and nearly disappears at x = {approx}0.6. Combining the two relative intensities potentially provides a sensitive indicator of Ti content. The technique was applied to study titanomagnetite in grains from Hana Volcanics and melatroctolite from Rhode Island.

  9. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  10. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the

  11. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative

  12. Desert Peak EGS Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ethan Chabora GeothermEx, a Schlumberger Company Ezra Zemach Ormat Nevada Inc. ... Collaborations * Project Leader: Ormat Nevada, Inc. - Co-Management: GeothermEx, Inc. - ...

  13. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  14. FEMAXI-V benchmarking study on peak temperature and fission gas release prediction of PWR rod fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwardi; Dewayatna, W.; Briyatmoko, B.

    2012-06-06

    The present paper reports a study of FEMAXI-V code and related report on code benchmarking. Capabilities of the FEMAXI-V code to predict the thermal and fission gas release have been tested on MOX fuels in LWRs which has been done in SCK{center_dot}CEN and Belgonucleaire by using PRIMO MOX rod BD8 irradiation experiment after V Sobolev as reported O. J. Ott. Base irradiation in the BR3 reactor, the BD8 rod was transported to CEA-Saclay for irradiation in the OSIRIS reactor (ramp power excursion). The irradiation device used for the PRIMO ramps was the ISABELLE 1 loop, installed on a movable structure of the core periphery. The power variations were obtained by inwards/backwards movements of the loop in the core water. The preconditioning phase for rod BD8 occurred at a peak power level of 189 W/cm with a hold time of 27 hours. The subsequent power excursion rate amounted to 77 W/ (cm.min), reaching a terminal peak power level of 395 W/cm that lasted for 20 hours.

  15. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  16. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Diakov, Victor; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  17. Chapter 10, Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols Frank Stern, Navigant Consulting Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 10 - 1 Chapter 10 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................2 2 Purpose of Peak Demand and Time-differentiated Energy

  18. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and

  19. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Mills, Rebecca; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Stevick, Joseph; Kempton, James; Jelbert, Glenton; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; et al

    2015-07-21

    The study of multicomponent metallic liquids' relaxational behavior is still the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Here, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM601Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9) in the kinetic regime (Q: 1.5–4.0Å–1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of this metallic liquid's collective relaxation time around 950°C, beyond the material's melting point. Measurement of specific heat capacity also reveals a peak around the same temperature. Adams-Gibbs theory is used to rationalize the coincidence, which motivates more careful experimentalmore » and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.« less

  20. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Mills, Rebecca; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Stevick, Joseph; Kempton, James; Jelbert, Glenton; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-07-21

    The study of multicomponent metallic liquids' relaxational behavior is still the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Here, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM601Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9) in the kinetic regime (Q: 1.5–4.0Å–1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of this metallic liquid's collective relaxation time around 950°C, beyond the material's melting point. Measurement of specific heat capacity also reveals a peak around the same temperature. Adams-Gibbs theory is used to rationalize the coincidence, which motivates more careful experimental and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.

  1. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  2. An investigation of the accuracy and the characteristics of the Peak-Shaving Method applied to production cost calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, R.N.; Lee, T.H.; Hill, E.F.

    1989-08-01

    The Peak-Shaving Method (PSM) has been applied in many well-known commercial software packages for hydrothermal scheduling to minimize the system production cost. These packages are frequently applied by government agencies and utilities for rate hearings, energy import/export licensing, generation capacity expansion planning, and hourly production scheduling for a weekly system operation planning, etc. The accuracy and the characteristics of the PSM however have not yet been carefully investigated. This work presents an extensive study of the PSM. A wide range of load factors and hydro ratio systems have been tested and compared with the results of the rigorous Coordination-Equation Method (CEM). It has been found that the PSM always scheduled more water in the high load period than the CEM. The PSM, therefore, is more likely to swing the hydro plants and may thus avoid frequent on/off operation of thermal units.

  3. DO RADIO MAGNETARS PSR J1550-5418 AND J1622-4950 HAVE GIGAHERTZ-PEAKED SPECTRA?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kijak, J.; Tarczewski, L.; Lewandowski, W.; Melikidze, G.

    2013-07-20

    We study the radio spectra of two magnetars, PSR J1550-5418 and J1622-4950. We argue that they are good candidates for pulsars with gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS), as their observed flux density decreases at frequencies below 7 GHz. We suggest that this behavior is due to the influence of the pulsars' environments on radio waves. Both of the magnetars are associated with supernova remnants and thus are surrounded by hot, ionized gas, which can be responsible for the free-free absorption of radio waves. We conclude that the GPS feature of both magnetars and typical pulsars are formed by similar processes in the surrounding media rather than by different radio-emission mechanisms. Thus, the radio magnetars PSR J1550-5418 and J1622-4950 can be included in the class of GPS pulsars.

  4. Table 10.9 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts 1 ) Year By Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Electric Power 5 Other 6 Grid-Connected 2 Off-Grid 2 Centralized 7 Distributed 8 Domestic 9 Non-Domestic 10 Total Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 11<//td> 1989 1,439 6,057 [R] 3,993 785 551 [12] 1,251 [12] 2,620 8,954 12,825 1990 1,701 8,062 [R] 2,817 826 432 [12] 469 [12] 3,097 10,271 13,837 1991 3,624 5,715 [R] 3,947

  5. Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D. Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated carrier transport in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V{sup 2}) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V{sup 1/2}. Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages.

  6. Sample-morphology effects on x-ray photoelectron peak intensities. III. Simulated spectra of model core–shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Cedric J.; Chudzicki, Maksymilian; Werner, Wolfgang S. M.; Smekal, Werner

    2015-09-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology database for the simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis has been used to simulate Cu 2p photoelectron spectra for four types of spherical copper–gold nanoparticles (NPs). These simulations were made to extend the work of Tougaard [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 1415 (1996)] and of Powell et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31, 021402 (2013)] who performed similar simulations for four types of planar copper–gold films. The Cu 2p spectra for the NPs were compared and contrasted with analogous results for the planar films and the effects of elastic scattering were investigated. The new simulations were made for a monolayer of three types of Cu/Au core–shell NPs on a Si substrate: (1) an Au shell of variable thickness on a Cu core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm; (2) a Cu shell of variable thickness on an Au core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm; and (3) an Au shell of variable thickness on a 1 nm Cu shell on an Au core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm. For these three morphologies, the outer-shell thickness was varied until the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} peak intensity was the same (within 2%) as that found in our previous work with planar Cu/Au morphologies. The authors also performed similar simulations for a monolayer of spherical NPs consisting of a CuAu{sub x} alloy (also on a Si substrate) with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm. In the latter simulations, the relative Au concentration (x) was varied to give the same Cu 2p{sub 3/2} peak intensity (within 2%) as that found previously. For each morphology, the authors performed simulations with elastic scattering switched on and off. The authors found that elastic-scattering effects were generally strong for the Cu-core/Au-shell and weak for the Au-core/Cu-shell NPs; intermediate elastic-scattering effects were found for the Au-core/Cu-shell/Au-shell NPs. The shell thicknesses required to give

  7. Using Plasmon Peaks in Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy to Determine the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, James M.

    2013-05-09

    In this program, we developed new theoretical and experimental insights into understanding the relationships among fundamental universality and scaling phenomena, the solid-state physical and mechanical properties of materials, and the volume plasmon energy as measured by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Particular achievements in these areas are summarized as follows: (i) Using a previously proposed physical model based on the universal binding-energy relation (UBER), we established close phenomenological connections regarding the influence of the valence electrons in materials on the longitudinal plasma oscillations (plasmons) and various solid-state properties such as the optical constants (including absorption and dispersion), elastic constants, cohesive energy, etc. (ii) We found that carbon materials, e.g., diamond, graphite, diamond-like carbons, hydrogenated and amorphous carbon films, exhibit strong correlations in density vs. Ep (or maximum of the volume plasmon peak) and density vs. hardness, both from available experimental data and ab initio DFT calculations. This allowed us to derive a three-dimensional relationship between hardness and the plasmon energy, that can be used to determine experimentally both hardness and density of carbon materials based on measurements of the plasmon peak position. (iii) As major experimental accomplishments, we demonstrated the possibility of in-situ monitoring of changes in the physical properties of materials with conditions, e.g., temperature, and we also applied a new plasmon ratio-imaging technique to map multiple physical properties of materials, such as the elastic moduli, cohesive energy and bonding electron density, with a sub-nanometer lateral resolution. This presents new capability for understanding material behavior. (iv) Lastly, we demonstrated a new physical phenomenon - electron-beam trapping, or ?¢????electron tweezers?¢??? - of a solid metal nanoparticle inside a liquid metal

  8. Reference air kerma and kerma-area product as estimators of peak skin dose for fluoroscopically guided interventions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Little, Mark P.; Miller, Donald L.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). Methods: After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear regressions of (log-transformed) PSD vs RAK, PSD vs KAP, and PSD vs RAK and KAP. Results: Three clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK, seven clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs KAP, and six clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK and KAP. Prediction of PSD using both RAK and KAP is significantly better than prediction of PSD with either RAK or KAP alone. The regression of PSD vs RAK provided better predictions of PSD than the regression of PSD vs KAP. The partial-pooling (clustered) method yields smaller mean squared errors compared with the complete-pooling method.Conclusion: PSD distributions for interventional radiology procedures are log-normal. Estimates of PSD derived from RAK and KAP jointly are most accurate, followed closely by estimates derived from RAK alone. Estimates of PSD derived from KAP alone are the least accurate. Using a stochastic search approach, it is possible to cluster together certain dissimilar types of procedures to minimize the total error sum of squares.

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, P.

    1985-08-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

  10. Improvements to the RELAP5/MOD3 reflood model and uncertainty quantification of reflood peak clad temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Lee; Park, Chan Eok; Lee, Sang Yong

    1996-10-01

    Assessment of the original REAP/N4OD3.1 code against the FLECHT SEASET series of experiments has identified some weaknesses of the reflood model, such as the lack of a quenching temperature model, the shortcoming of the Chen transition boiling model, and the incorrect prediction of droplet size and interfacial heat transfer. Also, high temperature spikes during the reflood calculation resulted in high steam flow oscillation and liquid carryover. An effort had been made to improve the code with respect to the above weakness, and the necessary model for the wall heat transfer package and the numerical scheme had been modified. Some important FLECHT-SEASET experiments were assessed using the improved version and standard version. The result from the improved REAP/MOD3.1 shows the weaknesses of REAP/N4OD3.1 were much improved when compared to the standard MOD3.1 code. The prediction of void profile and cladding temperature agreed better with test data, especially for the gravity feed test. The scatter diagram of peak cladding temperatures (PCTs) is made from the comparison of all the calculated PCTs and the corresponding experimental values. The deviation between experimental and calculated PCTs were calculated for 2793 data points. The deviations are shown to be normally distributed, and used to quantify statistically the PCT uncertainty of the code. The upper limit of PCT uncertainty at 95% confidence level is evaluated to be about 99K.