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1

Time-Off Awards Scale  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

/1/2010 /1/2010 TIME OFF AWARD SCALE The following chart is recommended and should be used unless another time-off award scale has been adopted by the servicing human resources office. TIME OFF SCALE VALUE OF THE EMPLOYEE'S CONTRIBUTION HOURS TO BE AWARDED MODERATE - A contribution to a product, program or service to the public which is of sufficient value to merit formal recognition. Beneficial change or modification of operating principles or procedures. 1 - 10 Hours SUBSTANTIAL - An important contribution to the value of a product, activity, program or service to the public. Significant change or modification or operating principles or procedures. 11 - 20 Hours HIGH - A significant contribution to the value of a product, activity, program or service to

2

Mesh Generation for SHARP: Unprecedented Complexity | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mesh Generation for SHARP: Unprecedented Complexity Mesh Generation for SHARP: Unprecedented Complexity Mesh Generation for SHARP: Unprecedented Complexity January 29, 2013 - 1:36pm Addthis SHARP Supporting Elements During this quarter, the framework team was involved in two primary efforts, mesh generation and implementation of a MOAB-based coupled multi-physics simulation. For mesh generation, finishing touches were put on three major, high-complexity hexahedral meshes, and support was provided for their use in various simulations: MATiS-H, an OECD-NEA experiment for single-phase flow over a rod bundle and grid. [ANL] Nuscale, a hexahedral mesh of the core internals of the Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor, a 1/3-scale mockup of the Nuscale reactor. [ANL] XX09, a high-fidelity model of the XX09 test fuel assembly used in

3

Imaging at All Length and Time Scales  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thematic Workshop Summary: Imaging at All Length and Time Scales Thematic Workshop Summary: Imaging at All Length and Time Scales Organizers: K amel F ezzaa ( APS), M arc D e G raef ( Carnegie M ellon U niversity), N athan G uisinger ( CNM) The a bility t o u nderstand, m odify, a nd c ontrol s ystems i n a v ariety o f e nvironments a cross m ultiple t ime and l ength s cales i s c entral t o m any f undamental c ontemporary r esearch a nd e ngineering c hallenges. Success i n t hese e fforts h inges o n t he a bility t o i mage n ot o nly t he s tructure i n s ystems, b ut a lso t he electronic, m agnetic, o ptical a nd c hemical p roperties a nd b ehavior a ssociated w ith t his s tructure. T he APS, C NM a nd E MC p ossess a d iverse a nd c omplementary a rray o f i maging, m icroscopy a nd s pect--- roscopy p latforms t o p ush t his f rontier o f m ultiscale a nd t ime---resolved i nvestigation.

4

Carbon-14 Time Scale Extended: Comparison of Chronologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiocarbon time scale agrees with the Camp Century chronology and with the thorium-230...radiocarbon time scale agrees with the Camp Century chronology and with the thorium-230...interstades time scale agrees with the Camp Century chronology and with the of corals...

P. M. Grootes

1978-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

Observation time scale, free-energy landscapes, and molecular symmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observation time scale, free-energy landscapes, and molecular symmetry David J. Walesa,1 and Peter structures that interconvert on a given time scale are lumped together, the corresponding free-energy surface that are connected by free-energy barriers below a certain threshold. We illustrate this time dependence for some

Salamon, Peter

6

Multiple time scale based reduction scheme for nonlinear chemical dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A chemical reaction is often characterized by multiple time scales governing the kinetics of reactants, products and intermediates. We eliminate the fast relaxing intermediates in autocatalytic reaction by tra...

D. Das; D. S. Ray

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Multiple Time Scales in Diffraction Measurements of Diffusive Surface Relaxation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We grew SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) by pulsed laser deposition, using x-ray scattering to monitor the growth in real time. The time-resolved small-angle scattering exhibits a well-defined length scale associated with the spacing between unit-cell high surface features. This length scale imposes a discrete spectrum of Fourier components and rate constants upon the diffusion equation solution, evident in multiple exponential relaxation of the “anti-Bragg” diffracted intensity. An Arrhenius analysis of measured rate constants confirms that they originate from a single activation energy.

Aaron Fleet; Darren Dale; A. R. Woll; Y. Suzuki; J. D. Brock

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

8

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time ScalesAnalysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time ScalesAnalysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales

Coughlin, Katie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Communication: The length and time scales of water's glass transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled water, I derive the average length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of water's relaxation time is shown to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of water's glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying the change in temperature dependence is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and 10s of nanometers. Elucidating this protocol dependence on the properties of amorphous ice clarifies a number of previous experimental observations.

Limmer, David T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Large Scales - Long Times: Adding High Energy Resolution to SANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) variant MIEZE (Modulation of IntEnsity by Zero Effort), where all beam manipulations are performed before the sample position, offers the possibility to perform low background SANS measurements in strong magnetic fields and depolarising samples. However, MIEZE is sensitive to differences \\DeltaL in the length of neutron flight paths through the instrument and the sample. In this article, we discuss the major influence of \\DeltaL on contrast reduction of MIEZE measurements and its minimisation. Finally we present a design case for enhancing a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument at the planned European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden, using a combination of MIEZE and other TOF options, such as TISANE offering time windows from ns to minutes. The proposed instrument allows studying fluctuations in depolarizing samples, samples exposed to strong magnetic fields, and spin-incoherently scattering samples in a straightforward way up to time scales of \\mus at momentum ...

Brandl, G; Häußler, W; Mühlbauer, S; Böni, P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate theoretical models of electron correlation. Our understanding of these basic interactions can elucidate processes of importance in many fields, from the interpretation of cosmic spectra to x-ray lasing efforts using inner-shell ionization and hollow-ion formation. At the Ion-Photon Beamline at the ALS, researchers have detected in negative helium ions a resonant simultaneous double-Auger decay of unprecedented strength, evidence of a triply excited hollow-ion state that has eluded observation for 25 years.

12

A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate theoretical models of electron correlation. Our understanding of these basic interactions can elucidate processes of importance in many fields, from the interpretation of cosmic spectra to x-ray lasing efforts using inner-shell ionization and hollow-ion formation. At the Ion-Photon Beamline at the ALS, researchers have detected in negative helium ions a resonant simultaneous double-Auger decay of unprecedented strength, evidence of a triply excited hollow-ion state that has eluded observation for 25 years.

13

A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Hollow-Ion Resonance of A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate theoretical models of electron correlation. Our understanding of these basic interactions can elucidate processes of importance in many fields, from the interpretation of cosmic spectra to x-ray lasing efforts using inner-shell ionization and hollow-ion formation. At the Ion-Photon Beamline at the ALS, researchers have detected in negative helium ions a resonant simultaneous double-Auger decay of unprecedented strength, evidence of a triply excited hollow-ion state that has eluded observation for 25 years.

14

A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate theoretical models of electron correlation. Our understanding of these basic interactions can elucidate processes of importance in many fields, from the interpretation of cosmic spectra to x-ray lasing efforts using inner-shell ionization and hollow-ion formation. At the Ion-Photon Beamline at the ALS, researchers have detected in negative helium ions a resonant simultaneous double-Auger decay of unprecedented strength, evidence of a triply excited hollow-ion state that has eluded observation for 25 years.

15

An Open Question about Dependency of Life Time of Hardware Components and Dynamic Voltage Scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Open question about Dependency of Life Time of Hardware Components and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (A primary idea)

Jaberi, Nasrin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The Collagen Protein Viewed at Unprecedented Detail | Advanced Photon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assembling Nanoparticles the Easy DNA-Way Assembling Nanoparticles the Easy DNA-Way Better, cleaner fuel injectors for automobiles? Poxvirus Potency Uncovered in New Atomic Map Striking Nano Gold Oldest Known Magnet's Secrets Revealed Under High Pressures Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed The Collagen Protein Viewed at Unprecedented Detail FEBRUARY 26, 2008 Bookmark and Share A view of a rat tail tendon using second-harmonic generation microscopy. The collagen fibers show up in green and red. The structure and behavior of one of the most common proteins in our bodies has been resolved at a level of detail never before seen, thanks to new research performed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S.

17

Consensus of multi-agent systems on time scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......intercept for unmanned air vehicles. IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat...of time-varying discrete ecological networks. Automatica, 45...and cooperative control of vehicle formations. IEEE Trans. Automat...2007) Distributed multi-vehicle coordinated control via local......

Jun Shen; Jinde Cao

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Nested stochastic simulation algorithms for chemical kinetic systems with multiple time scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nested stochastic simulation algorithms for chemical kinetic systems with multiple time scales as Gillespie's algorithm. It is in the form of a nested SSA and uses an outer SSA to simulate the slow in the system, derive effective dynamics on the slow time scale, and provide error estimates for the nested SSA

Van Den Eijnden, Eric

19

Bi-Plasma Interactions on Femtosecond Time-Scales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast THz radiation has important applications in materials science studies, such as characterizing transport properties, studying the vibrational response of materials, and in recent years, controlling materials and elucidating their response in intense electromagnetic fields. THz fields can be generated in a lab setting using various plasma-based techniques. This study seeks to examine the interaction of two plasmas in order to better understand the fundamental physics associated with femtosecond filamentation processes and to achieve more efficient THz generation in a lab setting. The intensity of fluorescence in the region of overlap was measured as a function of polarization, power, and relative time delay of the two plasma-generating laser beams. Results of time dependent intensity studies indicate strikingly similar behaviors across polarizations and power levels; a sudden intensity spike was observed at time-zero, followed by a secondary maxima and subsequent decay to the initial plasma intensity. Dependence of the intensity on the power through either beam arm was also observed. Spectral studies of the enhanced emission were also carried out. Although this physical phenomenon is still not fully understood, future studies, including further spectral analysis of the fluorescence overlap, could yield new insight into the ultrafast processes occurring at the intersection of femtosecond filaments, and would provide a better understanding of the mechanisms for enhanced THz production.

Not Available

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

20

Equilibrium distributions of simple biochemical reaction systems for time-scale separation in stochastic reaction networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biochemical reaction systems for time-scale...for Biological Systems Analysis (ZBSA), University...Electrical and Computer Engineering, University...quasi-steady-state analysis: it is assumed...simple biochemical systems, such as enzymatic...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and their replacements on global warming. Nature Hansen J. ,gas emissions to global warming. Nature London Amendment toNature 315, 649-652, Global warming time scales WMO (World

Ko, Malcolm K.W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Molnar, Gyula; Prather, Michael J

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ? The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ? At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ? At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ? At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term.

Xu, Lilai, E-mail: llxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Peiqing, E-mail: peiqing15@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China); Cui, Shenghui, E-mail: shcui@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Chun, E-mail: xmhwlc@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Feasibility of measuring the Shapiro time delay over meter-scale distances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The time delay of light as it passes by a massive object, first calculated by Shapiro in 1964, is a hallmark of the curvature of space-time. To date, all measurements of the Shapiro time delay have been made over solar-system distance scales. We show that the new generation of kilometer-scale laser interferometers being constructed as gravitational wave detectors, in particular Advanced LIGO, will in principle be sensitive enough to measure variations in the Shapiro time delay produced by a suitably designed rotating object placed near the laser beam. We show that such an apparatus is feasible (though not easy) to construct, present an example design, and calculate the signal that would be detectable by Advanced LIGO. This offers the first opportunity to measure space-time curvature effects on a laboratory distance scale.

S. Ballmer; S. Márka; P. Shawhan

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

24

Divergence time of the two regional medaka populations in Japan as a new time scale for comparative genomics of vertebrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Japan as a new time scale for comparative genomics of vertebrates Davin H. E. Setiamarga...to gain insights into the comparative genomics and speciation of vertebrates, because...those of human-chimpanzee. Comparative genomics analysis has suggested that such large...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Dynamical robustness of biological networks with hierarchical distribution of time scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. Networks of regulating micro-RNA could be key players in canalising genetic developmental programmes [15Dynamical robustness of biological networks with hierarchical distribution of time scales A, the robustness of the relax- ation time using a chemical reaction description of genetic and signalling networks

Radulescu, Ovidiu

26

Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds Harrington, Jerry The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase stratus clouds are dominant in the Arctic during much of the year. These clouds typically have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Time scales for the complete glaciation of such clouds (the Bergeron process) are typically computed using the classical mass growth equations for crystals and liquid drops. However, mixed phase arctic stratus have significant infrared cooling and solar heating (during the warm season) rates that can affect the growth of water drops and ice crystals, and therefore the strength of the Bergeron process. To examine the influence of radiative heating and cooling on the Bergeron process, we incorporate a

27

Scaling self-timed systems powered by mechanical vibration energy harvesting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Passive energy harvesting from mechanical vibration has wide application in wearable devices and wireless sensors to complement or replace batteries. Energy harvesting efficiency can be increased by eliminating AC/DC conversion. A test chip demonstrating ... Keywords: AC power supply, DRAM, energy harvesting, energy-aware systems, integrated circuits, low-power design, power-on reset, scaling, self-timed

Justin Wenck; Jamie Collier; Jeff Siebert; Rajeevan Amirtharajah

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Large volume recycling of oceanic lithosphere over short time scales: geochemical constraints from the Caribbean Large  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large volume recycling of oceanic lithosphere over short time scales: geochemical constraints from with derivation from recycled oceanic crust, while the depleted lavas are derived from a highly residual source source mantle could have been 9 500 Ma before CLIP formation and interpreted to reflect the recycling

Graham, David W.

29

How Much Energy Is Transferred from the Winds to the Thermocline on ENSO Time Scales?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How Much Energy Is Transferred from the Winds to the Thermocline on ENSO Time Scales? JACLYN N the winds (via wind power) and changes in the storage of available potential energy in the tropical ocean~o is characterized by a decrease in wind power that leads to a decrease in available potential energy, and hence

30

Single-molecule binding experiments on long time scales Mark P. Elenko,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-molecule binding experiments on long time scales Mark P. Elenko,1 Jack W. Szostak,2; accepted 11 July 2010; published online 27 August 2010 We describe an approach for performing single-molecule than have been previously investigated by single-molecule techniques. Total internal reflection

Heller, Eric

31

Evaluation of scalar mixing and time scale models in PDF simulations of a turbulent premixed flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation results obtained with a transported scalar probability density function (PDF) method are presented for a piloted turbulent premixed flame. The accuracy of the PDF method depends on the scalar mixing model and the scalar time scale model. Three widely used scalar mixing models are evaluated: the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the modified Curl's coalescence/dispersion (CD) model and the Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) model. The three scalar mixing models are combined with a simple model for the scalar time scale which assumes a constant C{sub {phi}}=12 value. A comparison of the simulation results with available measurements shows that only the EMST model calculates accurately the mean and variance of the reaction progress variable. An evaluation of the structure of the PDF's of the reaction progress variable predicted by the three scalar mixing models confirms this conclusion: the IEM and CD models predict an unrealistic shape of the PDF. Simulations using various C{sub {phi}} values ranging from 2 to 50 combined with the three scalar mixing models have been performed. The observed deficiencies of the IEM and CD models persisted for all C{sub {phi}} values considered. The value C{sub {phi}}=12 combined with the EMST model was found to be an optimal choice. To avoid the ad hoc choice for C{sub {phi}}, more sophisticated models for the scalar time scale have been used in simulations using the EMST model. A new model for the scalar time scale which is based on a linear blending between a model for flamelet combustion and a model for distributed combustion is developed. The new model has proven to be very promising as a scalar time scale model which can be applied from flamelet to distributed combustion. (author)

Stoellinger, Michael; Heinz, Stefan [Department of Mathematics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency | U.S. DOE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) News & Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: sc.np@science.doe.gov More Information » October 2012 Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Thomas Jefferson Laboratory lends expertise in cryogenics developments. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of NASA NASA's Space Environment Simulation Lab Chamber A, which is used by the

33

Expectations for neutron-antineutron oscillation time from TeV scale baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A TeV scale extension of the standard model that incorporates the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses along with quark-lepton unification is presented. It is shown that this model leads to the {Delta}B= 2 baryon number violating process of neutron-antineutron (n-bar n) oscillation. The model has all the ingredients to generate the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe using the B-violating decay of a scalar field involved in the seesaw mechanism. The B-violating decay arises from the exchange of color sextet scalars which have TeV scale masses. Baryogenesis occurs below the sphaleron decoupling temperature and has been termed post-sphaleron baryogenesis. Here we show that the constraints of TeV scale baryogenesis, when combined with the neutrino oscillation data and restrictions from flavor changing neutral currents mediated by the colored scalars imply an upper limit on the n-bar n oscillation time of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} sec. regardless of the quark-lepton unification scale. If this scale is relatively low, in the (200 - 250) TeV range, {tau}{sub n-bar} {sub n} is predicted to be less than 10{sup 10} sec., which is accessible to the next generation of proposed experiments.

Babu, K. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Bhupal Dev, P. S. [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Fortes, Elaine C. F. S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica-Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Sao Paulo-SP, 01140-070 (Brazil); Mohapatra, Rabindra N. [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2013-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

34

Short time scale thermal mechanical shock wave propagation in high performance microelectronic packaging configuration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SHORT TIME SCALE THERMAL MECHANICAL SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION IN HIGH PERFORMANCE MICROELECTRONIC PACKAGING CONFIGURATION A Thesis by MAHAVIR NAGARAJ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... MICROELECTRONIC PACKAGING CONFIGURATION A Thesis by MAHAVIR NAGARAJ Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Chii...

Nagaraj, Mahavir

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Characterization of Microbial Fuel Cells at Microbially and Electrochemically Meaningful Time scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characterization of Microbial Fuel Cells at Microbially and Electrochemically Meaningful Time scales ... This direct link of MFC anode biofilm evolution with external resistance and electricity production offers several operational strategies for system optimization. ... Different approaches have been used to improve MFC performance, including reducing internal resistance,(1, 2) optimizing operations by sequential anode?cathode flow-through or electrolyte recirculation,(3-5) and improving biocatalyst attachment on the electrodes. ...

Zhiyong Ren; Hengjing Yan; Wei Wang; Matthew M. Mench; John M. Regan

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

36

Scaling Laws and Transient Times in 3He Induced Nuclear Fission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fission excitation functions of compound nuclei in a mass region where shell effects are expected to be very strong are shown to scale exactly according to the transition state prediction once these shell effects are accounted for. The fact that no deviations from the transition state method have been observed within the experimentally investigated excitation energy regime allows one to assign an upper limit for the transient time of 10 zs.

Th. Rubehn; K. X. Jing; L. G. Moretto; L. Phair; K. Tso; G. J. Wozniak

1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

37

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales Title Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4147E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Coughlin, Katie, and Joseph H. Eto Date Published 12/2010 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords renewable generation integration Abstract In this study we develop and apply new methods of data analysis for high resolution wind power and system load time series, to improve our understanding of how to characterize highly variable wind power output and the correlations between wind power and load. These methods are applied to wind and load data from the ERCOT region, and wind power output from the PJM and NYISO areas. We use a wavelet transform to apply mathematically well-defined operations of smoothing and differencing to the time series data. This approach produces a set of time series of the changes in wind power and load (or "deltas"), over a range of times scales from a few seconds to approximately one hour. A number of statistical measures of these time series are calculated. We present sample distributions, and devise a method for fitting the empirical distribution shape in the tails. We also evaluate the degree of serial correlation, and linear correlation between wind and load. Our examination of the data shows clearly that the deltas do not follow a Gaussian shape; the distribution is exponential near the center and appears to follow a power law for larger fluctuations. Gaussian distributions are frequently used in modeling studies. These are likely to over-estimate the probability of small to moderate deviations. This in turn may lead to an over-estimation of the additional reserve requirement (hence the cost) for high penetration of wind. The Gaussian assumption provides no meaningful information about the real likelihood of large fluctuations. The possibility of a power law distribution is interesting because it suggests that the distribution shape for of wind power fluctuations may become independent of system size for large enough systems.

38

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with different capacity. It is assumed that the owner substitutes own electricity load with electricity from the wind mill and sells excess electricity back to the grid on an hourly basis. The problem for the owner is to find the price levels at which it is optimal to invest, and in which capacity to invest. The results suggests it is optimal to wait for significantly higher prices than the net present value break-even. Optimal scale and timing depend on the expected price growth rate and the uncertainty in the future prices.

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

39

Scaling property and opinion model for interevent time of terrorism attack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The interevent time of terrorism attack events is investigated by empirical data and model analysis. Empirical evidence shows it follows a scale-free property. In order to understand the dynamic mechanism of such statistic feature, an opinion dynamic model with memory effect is proposed on a two-dimension lattice network. The model mainly highlights the role of individual social conformity and self-affirmation psychology. An attack event occurs when the order parameter of the system reaches a critical value. Ultimately, the model reproduces the same statistical property as the empirical data and gives a good understanding of terrorism attack.

Zhu, Jun-Fang; Wang, Bing-Hong

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Scaling laws, transient times and shell effects in helium induced nuclear fission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fission excitation functions of He-3 and He-4 induced compound nuclei are shown to scale exactly according to the Bohr-Wheeler transition state prediction once the shell effects are accounted for. The presented method furthermore allows one to model-independently extract values for the shell effects which are in good agreement to those obtained from liquid-drop model calculations. The fact that no deviations from the transition state method have been observed within the experimentally investigated excitation energy regime allows one to assign an upper limit for the transient time of 10 zs.

Th. Rubehn; K. X. Jing; L. G. Moretto; L. Phair; K. Tso; G. J. Wozniak

1996-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Wind speed forecasting at different time scales: a non parametric approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The prediction of wind speed is one of the most important aspects when dealing with renewable energy. In this paper we show a new nonparametric model, based on semi-Markov chains, to predict wind speed. Particularly we use an indexed semi-Markov model, that reproduces accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed, to forecast wind speed one step ahead for different time scales and for very long time horizon maintaining the goodness of prediction. In order to check the main features of the model we show, as indicator of goodness, the root mean square error between real data and predicted ones and we compare our forecasting results with those of a persistence model.

D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition of Ozone via Passive Reactive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition) homogeneous reactions with indoor pollutants. The #12;Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 latter

Siegel, Jeffrey

43

Application of multiple swirl burners in pilot-scale entrained bed gasifier for short residence time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The design concept of an entrained bed gasifier is presented. A 3 t/d-scale gasification system was constructed based on this concept. Syngas residence time in the gasifier was set to 2 s, relatively shorter than that of commercial gasifiers, to verify the possibility of complete gasification reaction within a short residence time. A series of gasification tests were conducted under high pressures and high temperatures. Performance data of the gasification experiment using multiple swirl burners showed that the carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency were higher than 98% and 72%, respectively. This high performance seemed to be attributable to the effects of rigorous mixing of oxygen and pulverized coal by the strong swirl flow and the relatively uniform oxygen concentration by the swirling plug flow. Syngas composition of the experimental result well agreed with that of the equilibrium state. This project demonstrated the feasibility of complete gasification reaction within a short residence time for low-rank coal of high reactivity.

Jin-Wook Lee; Yongseung Yun; Seok-Woo Chung; Suk-Hwan Kang; Jae-Hong Ryu; Gyoo-Tae Kim; Yong-Jeon Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Extending the length and time scales of Gram–Schmidt Lyapunov vector computations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lyapunov vectors have found growing interest recently due to their ability to characterize systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of orthogonal Gram–Schmidt vectors requires multiplication and QR decomposition of large matrices, which grow as N{sup 2} (with the particle count). This expense has limited such calculations to relatively small systems and short time scales. Here, we detail two implementations of an algorithm for computing Gram–Schmidt vectors. The first is a distributed-memory message-passing method using Scalapack. The second uses the newly-released MAGMA library for GPUs. We compare the performance of both codes for Lennard–Jones fluids from N=100 to 1300 between Intel Nahalem/Infiniband DDR and NVIDIA C2050 architectures. To our best knowledge, these are the largest systems for which the Gram–Schmidt Lyapunov vectors have been computed, and the first time their calculation has been GPU-accelerated. We conclude that Lyapunov vector calculations can be significantly extended in length and time by leveraging the power of GPU-accelerated linear algebra.

Costa, Anthony B., E-mail: acosta@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Green, Jason R., E-mail: jason.green@umb.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

47E 47E ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales Katie Coughlin and Joseph H. Eto Environmental Energy Technologies Division December 2010 The work described in this report was funded by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Office of Electric Reliability. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the

46

HD as a Probe for Detecting Mass Variation on a Cosmological Time Scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The strong electronic absorption systems of the B?u+1-X?g+1 Lyman and the C?u1-X?g+1 Werner bands can be used to probe possible mass-variation effects on a cosmological time scale from spectra observed at high redshift, not only in H2 but also in the second most abundant hydrogen isotopomer HD. High resolution laboratory determination of the most prominent HD lines at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is performed at an accuracy of ??/??5×10-8, forming a database for comparison with astrophysical data. Sensitivity coefficients Ki=dln??i/dln?? are determined for HD from quantum ab initio calculations as a function of the proton-electron mass ratio ?. Strategies to deduce possible effects beyond first-order baryon/lepton mass ratio deviations are discussed.

T. I. Ivanov; M. Roudjane; M. O. Vieitez; C. A. de Lange; W.-Ü L. Tchang-Brillet; W. Ubachs

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

The second law of thermodynamics can never be violated for all time- and space-scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maxwell's demon was created with abilities to violate the second law of thermodynamics. But the demon always fell short of doing so because of the imposed restrictive condition that reads, the demon needs to do "work". Therefore, you can always preserve the second law by default. Here, we encounter the supernatural demon (without the above restriction) right at the melting point, and unambiguously expose why the demon is still doomed to fail for all time- and space-scales. This means that the second law of thermodynamics can never be violated. We develop an analytic strategy (based on Newton's third law) to properly analyze the entropy in a chemical system with respect to forward and reverse trajectories. We also explain the physico-chemical processes that are responsible at very short timescales.

Andrew Das Arulsamy

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

48

Dynamic response of materials on subnanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. These relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser-induced ablation can be particularly convenient: this technique has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200 GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including line imaging surface velocimetry, surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response from the polycrystalline microstructure. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1 TPa.

Swift, Damian C.; Tierney, Thomas E.; Luo Shengnian; Paisley, Dennis L.; Kyrala, George A.; Hauer, Allan; Greenfield, Scott R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Lorenzana, Hector E.; Kalantar, Daniel; Remington, Bruce A.; Peralta, Pedro; Loomis, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

A Multi-Stage Very Large-Scale Neighborhood Search for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Soft Time-Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

problem, where customer's time windows may be violated at a certain cost. The Vehicle Routing ProblemA Multi-Stage Very Large-Scale Neighborhood Search for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Soft Time of Computing Science and Engineering Place Sainte-Barbe 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium {Sebastien

Deville, Yves

50

Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

51

Peatland carbon cycle responses to hydrological change at time scales from years to centuries: Impacts on model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Peatland carbon cycle responses to hydrological change at time scales from years to centuries: Impacts on model simulations and regional carbon budgets By Benjamin N. Sulman A dissertation submitted to the long-term storage of carbon in peat, these ecosystems contain a significant fraction of the global

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

52

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 013422 (2011) Time scaling with efficient time-propagation techniques for atoms and molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for atoms and molecules in pulsed radiation fields Aliou Hamido,1 Johannes Eiglsperger,2,3 Javier Madro the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation to treat electron- and photon-impact multiple ionization of atoms spatially. The approach is illustrated in the case of the interaction of a one-dimensional model atom

Sheldon, Nathan D.

53

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007. Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Timesd- Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time35   v Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time

Coughlin, Katie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Global meta-analysis reveals no net change in local-scale plant biodiversity over time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...United Kingdom;eNational Ecological Observatory Network, Boulder, CO 80301; andaDepartement de Biologie, Universite de Sherbrooke...enhancing or maintaining large-scale ecosystem services, such as flood protection or soil stabilization. It is clear that the conservation...

Mark Vellend; Lander Baeten; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Sarah C. Elmendorf; Robin Beauséjour; Carissa D. Brown; Pieter De Frenne; Kris Verheyen; Sonja Wipf

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Global meta-analysis reveals no net change in local-scale plant biodiversity over time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...eNational Ecological Observatory Network, Boulder, CO 80301; andaDepartement de Biologie...large-scale ecosystem services, such as flood protection or soil stabilization...four Front Range plant communities in Colorado. Plant Ecol 157(1): 1 ZZQQhy11...

Mark Vellend; Lander Baeten; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Sarah C. Elmendorf; Robin Beauséjour; Carissa D. Brown; Pieter De Frenne; Kris Verheyen; Sonja Wipf

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Global meta-analysis reveals no net change in local-scale plant biodiversity over time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...enhancing or maintaining large-scale ecosystem services, such as flood protection or soil stabilization. It is clear that the...between 1981 and 1996 in four Front Range plant communities in Colorado. Plant Ecol 157(1): 1 ZZQQhy11. 76. Kralovec J, Pocova...

Mark Vellend; Lander Baeten; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Sarah C. Elmendorf; Robin Beauséjour; Carissa D. Brown; Pieter De Frenne; Kris Verheyen; Sonja Wipf

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Scale and timing of movements on the Great Glen fault, Scotland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Lon - d o n Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l , v. 102, p. 41 -72 . M y k u r a . W., 1975, Poss ible large-scale s inis tral d i sp l acemen t a l o n g the Grea t Glen Fau l t in S c o t l a n d : Geolog ica l Magaz ine , v. 112, p . 91 -93...

58

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was unprecedented in both its magnitude --nearly 5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROBLEM The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was unprecedented in both of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This satellite image shows the oil slick off its magnitude -- nearly 5 million barrels of oil spilled over nearly three months -- and its location

Entekhabi, Dara

59

A Novel Approach to Solvation Time Scale in Nonpolar Solvents via Instability of Solvent Density Modes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The molecular processes underlying the rate-determining factors can be probed by the solvation time1, theoretical, and simulation techniques have been extensively used to understand the solvation time in solvents to study the nonpolar solvation dynamics. Nonpolar solvation dynamics involves changes in the shape and

Biswas, Ranjit

60

Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CoCr and CoCrPt films and the observation window size (40 µmCo 82 Cr 18 film. Three different time windows of 1, 30, andwindow of space and time in CoCr and CoCrPt alloy films. The

Im, M.-Y.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Integrating Preemption Threshold Scheduling and Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Energy Efficient Real-Time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scheduling (PTS) enables designing scalable real-time systems. PTS not only decreases the run-time overhead by the Earliest Dead- line First (EDF) policy. We present an algorithm to compute threshold preemption levels- tion is an important aspect of embedded systems design. Generally speaking, the pro- cessor consumes

Gupta, Rajesh

62

Time Scales and Mechanisms of Relaxation in the Energy Landscape of Polymer Glass under Deformation: Direct Atomistic Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular-dynamics simulation is used to explore the influence of thermal and mechanical history of typical glassy polymers on their deformation. Polymer stress-strain and energy-strain developments have been followed for different deformation velocities, also in closed extension-recompression loops. The latter simulate for the first time the experimentally observed mechanical rejuvenation and overaging of polymers, and energy partitioning reveals essential differences between mechanical and thermal rejuvenation. All results can be qualitatively interpreted by considering the ratios of the relevant time scales: for cooling down, for deformation, and for segmental relaxation.

Alexey V. Lyulin and M. A. J. Michels

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

63

Lifetime of Anthropogenic Climate Change: Millennial Time Scales of Potential CO2 and Surface Temperature Perturbations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multimillennial simulations with a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model are examined to assess the persistence of the climatic impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. It is found that the time required to absorb anthropogenic CO2 strongly ...

M. Eby; K. Zickfeld; A. Montenegro; D. Archer; K. J. Meissner; A. J. Weaver

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Small-scale structure deduced from X- and gamma-ray timing measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray timing observations of neutron stars and black holes are among the few available probes of ultrastrong magnetic fields, strong gravity, high densities, and the propagation of thermonuclear burning. Here we review the evidence for these effects revealed with data from the Rossi Explorer in the last five years. We also discuss the exciting prospects for making the first quantitative tests of strong-gravity general relativistic predictions with a large-area X-ray timing mission.

M. Coleman Miller

2000-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

65

Constraints on the time-scale of nuclear breakup from thermal hard-photon emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measured hard photon multiplicities from second-chance nucleon-nucleon collisions are used in combination with a kinetic thermal model, to estimate the break-up times of excited nuclear systems produced in nucleus-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies. The obtained nuclear break-up time for the $^{129}${Xe} + $^{nat}${Sn} reaction at 50{\\it A} MeV is $\\Delta$$\\tau$ $\\approx$ 100 -- 300 fm/$c$ for all reaction centralities. The lifetime of the radiating sources produced in seven other different heavy-ion reactions studied by the TAPS experiment are consistent with $\\Delta$$\\tau$ $\\approx$ 100 fm/$c$, such relatively long thermal photon emission times do not support the interpretation of nuclear breakup as due to a fast spinodal process for the heavy nuclear systems studied.

R. Ortega; D. d'Enterria; G. Martinez; D. Baiborodin; H. Delagrange; J. Diaz; F. Fernandez; H. Loehner; T. Matulewicz; R. W. Ostendorf; S. Schadmand; Y. Schutz; P. Tlusty; R. Turrisi; V. Wagner; H. W. Wilschut; N. Yahlali

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

66

Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Particle Falls is a large-scale public artwork that provides a real time visualization of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the same time by using particulate air pollution as a basis for a cascading waterfall flowing down the side in California. Despite the invisibility of air, modern sensors can detect tiny particulate pollution levels of particulate pollution in the San Fernando Corridor in the form of a projection on the AT&T Building in San

Maccabe, Barney

68

Scaled Brownian motion: a paradoxical process with a time dependent diffusivity for the description of anomalous diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous diffusion is frequently described by scaled Brownian motion (SBM), a Gaussian process with a power-law time dependent diffusion coefficient. Its mean squared displacement is $\\langle x^2(t)\\rangle\\simeq\\mathscr{K}(t)t$ with $\\mathscr{K}(t)\\simeq t^{\\alpha-1}$ for $0does not exhibit a significant amplitude scatter of the time averaged mean squared displacement. More severely, we demonstrate that under confinement, the dynamics encoded by SBM is fundamentally different from both fractional Brownian motion and continuous time random walks. SBM is highly non-stationary and cannot provide a physical description for particles in a thermalised stationary system. Our findings have direct impact on the modelling of single particle tracking experiments, in particu...

Jeon, J -H; Metzler, R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

70

Agent-based Large-Scale Emergency Evacuation Using Real-Time Open Government Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The open government initiatives have provided tremendous data resources for the transportation system and emergency services in urban areas. This paper proposes a traffic simulation framework using high temporal resolution demographic data and real time open government data for evacuation planning and operation. A comparison study using real-world data in Seattle, Washington is conducted to evaluate the framework accuracy and evacuation efficiency. The successful simulations of selected area prove the concept to take advantage open government data, open source data, and high resolution demographic data in emergency management domain. There are two aspects of parameters considered in this study: user equilibrium (UE) conditions of traffic assignment model (simple Non-UE vs. iterative UE) and data temporal resolution (Daytime vs. Nighttime). Evacuation arrival rate, average travel time, and computation time are adopted as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) for evacuation performance analysis. The temporal resolution of demographic data has significant impacts on urban transportation dynamics during evacuation scenarios. Better evacuation performance estimation can be approached by integrating both Non-UE and UE scenarios. The new framework shows flexibility in implementing different evacuation strategies and accuracy in evacuation performance. The use of this framework can be explored to day-to-day traffic assignment to support daily traffic operations.

Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

X-ray emission current scaling experiments for compact single-tungsten-wire arrays at 80-nanosecond implosion times  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the results of a series of current scaling experiments with the Z accelerator for the compact, single, 20-mm diameter, 10-mm long, tungsten-wire arrays employed for the double-ended hohlraum ICF concept [M. E. Cuneo et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 48, R1 (2006)]. We measured the z-pinch peak radiated x-ray power and total radiated x-ray energy as a function of the peak current, at a constant implosion time ?imp=80ns. Previous x-ray emission current scaling for these compact arrays was obtained at ?imp=95ns in the work of Stygar et al. [Phys. Rev. E 69, 046403 (2004)]. In the present study we utilized lighter single-tungsten-wire arrays. For all the measurements, the load hardware dimensions, materials, and array wire number (N=300) were kept constant and were the same as the previous study. We also kept the normalized load current spatial and temporal profiles the same for all experiments reported in this work. Two different currents, 11.2±0.2MA and 17.0±0.3MA, were driven through the wire arrays. The average peak x-ray power for these compact wire arrays increased by 26%±7%to158±26TW at 17±0.3MA from the 125±24TW obtained at a peak current of 18.8±0.5MA with ?imp=95ns. The higher peak power of the faster implosions may possibly be attributed to a higher implosion velocity, which in turn improves the implosion stability, and/or to shorter wire ablation times, which may lead to a decrease in trailing mass and trailing current. Our results show that the scaling of the radiated x-ray peak power and total radiated x-ray energy scaling with peak drive current to be closer to quadratic than the results of Stygar et al. We find that the x-ray peak radiated power is Pr?I1.57±0.20 and the total x-ray radiated energy Er?I1.9±0.24. We also find that the current scaling exponent of the power is sensitive to the inclusion of a single data point with a peak power at least 1.9? below the average. If we eliminate this particular shot from our analysis (shot 1608), the power and energy scaling becomes closer to quadratic. Namely, we find that the dependence on the peak load current of the peak x-ray radiated power and the total x-ray radiated energy become Pr?I1.71±0.10 and Er?I2.01±0.21, respectively. In this case, the power scaling exponent is different by more than 2? from the previously published results of Stygar et al. Larger data sets are likely required to resolve this uncertainty and eliminate the sensitivity to statistical fluctuations in any future studies of this type. Nevertheless, with or without the inclusion of shot 1608, our results with ?imp=80ns fall short of an I2 scaling of the peak x-ray radiated power by at least 2?. In either case, the results of our study are consistent with the heuristic wire ablation model proposed by Stygar et al. (Pr?I1.5). We also derive an empirical predictive relation that connects the power scaling exponent with certain array parameters.

Michael G. Mazarakis; Michael E. Cuneo; William A. Stygar; Henry C. Harjes; Daniel B. Sinars; Brent M. Jones; Christopher Deeney; Eduardo M. Waisman; Thomas J. Nash; Kenneth W. Struve; Dillon H. McDaniel

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

72

Induced Core Formation Time in Subcritical Magnetic Clouds by Large-Scale Trans-Alfv\\'enic Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We clarify the mechanism of accelerated core formation by large-scale nonlinear flows in subcritical magnetic clouds by finding a semi-analytical formula for the core formation time and describing the physical processes that lead to them. Recent numerical simulations show that nonlinear flows induce rapid ambipolar diffusion that leads to localized supercritical regions that can collapse. Here, we employ non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ambipolar diffusion for gravitationally stratified sheets threaded by vertical magnetic fields. One of the horizontal dimensions is eliminated, resulting in a simpler two-dimensional simulation that can clarify the basic process of accelerated core formation. A parameter study of simulations shows that the core formation time is inversely proportional to the square of the flow speed when the flow speed is greater than the Alfv\\'en speed. We find a semi-analytical formula that explains this numerical result. The formula also predicts that the core formation t...

Kudoh, Takahiro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

A method to extend flamelet manifolds for prediction of NOx and long time scale species with tabulated chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulation is currently used to help design low NOx devices for aircraft engines. In order to improve the prediction of pollutant species, combustion models based on tabulated chemistry have been commonly used in recent years. However, the short time scales of usual flamelet manifolds can lead to errors concerning the NO prediction in post flame area, as shown in this paper. Thus, a new method is proposed to extend the manifold in order to describe the evolution of species with a long characteristic time. This method is tested in the framework of 0D-1D computations. The use of the extended manifold is shown to be necessary to correctly predict the evolution of NO concentration in burnt gases. As an example, the extended and classical manifolds were compared in the framework of 2D simulations of an industrial-like combustor, showing an evident difference on the NO levels predicted in the outlet section.

Aymeric Boucher; Nicolas Bertier; Francis Dupoirieux

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Our paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy and electricity generation technology performance for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on near term to century time scales. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be needed in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 15 to 29 trillion US$ (48–94%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions as well as increased electrification of the global economy. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 18 to 24 trillion US$ (compared to default technology climate policy assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario. We also highlight the implications of different technology evolution scenarios for different regions. Under default technology set, the heaviest investments across scenarios in power generation were observed in China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century.

Vaibhav Chaturvedi; Leon Clarke; James Edmonds; Katherine Calvin; Page Kyle

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Variability of a stellar corona on a time scale of days  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elemental abundance effects in active coronae have eluded our understanding for almost three decades, since the discovery of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect on the sun. The goal of this paper is to monitor the same coronal structures over a time interval of six days and resolve active regions on a stellar corona through rotational modulation. We report on four iso-phase X-ray spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn binary EI Eri with XMM-Newton, carried out approximately every two days, to match the rotation period of EI Eri. We present an analysis of the thermal and chemical structure of the Ei Eri corona as it evolves over the six days. Although the corona is rather steady in its temperature distribution, the emission measure and FIP bias both vary and seem to be correlated. An active region, predating the beginning of the campaign, repeatedly enters into our view at the same phase as it rotates from beyond the stellar limb. As a result, the abundances tend slightly, but consistently, to increa...

Nordon, Raanan; Drake, Stephen A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Time-and Energy-efficient Detection of Unknown Tags in Large-scale RFID Systems Xiulong Liu, Heng Qi, Keqiu Li  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time- and Energy-efficient Detection of Unknown Tags in Large-scale RFID Systems Xiulong Liu, Heng by reducing more than 90% of the required execution time and energy consumption. I. INTRODUCTION Radio, this is the first piece of work taking both time-efficiency and energy-efficiency into consideration, where

Liu, Alex X.

77

Real-Time Imaging of Plant Cell Wall Structure at Nanometer Scale, with Respect to Cellulase Accessibility and Degradation Kinetics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation on real-time imaging of plant cell wall structure at nanometer scale. Objectives are to develop tools to measure biomass at the nanometer scale; elucidate the molecular bases of biomass deconstruction; and identify factors that affect the conversion efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels.

Ding, S. Y.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Time scales of large volume silicic magma systems: Sr isotopic systematics of phenocrysts and glass from the Bishop Tuff, Long Valley, California  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The initial Sr isotopic compositions of glass and mineral separates from the 0.74 Ma Bishop Tuff ashflow in eastern California were determined to investigate the time scales of magmatic processes in a large si...

John N. Christensen; Donald J. DePaolo

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Open-access databases as unprecedented resources and drivers of cultural change in fisheries science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Open-access databases with utility in fisheries science have grown exponentially in quantity and scope over the past decade, with profound impacts to our discipline. The management, distillation, and sharing of an exponentially growing stream of open-access data represents several fundamental challenges in fisheries science. Many of the currently available open-access resources may not be universally known among fisheries scientists. We therefore introduce many national- and global-scale open-access databases with applications in fisheries science and provide an example of how they can be harnessed to perform valuable analyses without additional field efforts. We also discuss how the development, maintenance, and utilization of open-access data are likely to pose technical, financial, and educational challenges to fisheries scientists. Such cultural implications that will coincide with the rapidly increasing availability of free data should compel the American Fisheries Society to actively address these problems now to help ease the forthcoming cultural transition.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Utz, Ryan [National Ecological Observatory Network

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

An Unprecedented Constraint on Water Content in the Sunlit Lunar Exosphere Seen by Lunar-Based Ultraviolet Telescope of Chang'e-3 Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The content of $\\mathrm{OH/H_2O}$ molecules in the tenuous exosphere of the Moon is still an open issue at present. We here report an unprecedented upper limit of the content of the OH radicals, which is obtained from the in-situ measurements carried out \\rm by the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope, a payload of Chinese Chang'e-3 mission. By analyzing the diffuse background in the images taken by the telescope, the column density and surface concentration of the OH radicals are inferred to be $<10^{11}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$ and $<10^{4}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-3}}$ (by assuming a hydrostatic equilibrium with a scale height of 100km), respectively, by assuming that the recorded background is fully contributed by their resonance fluorescence emission. The resulted concentration is lower than the previously reported value by about two orders of magnitude, and is close to the prediction of the sputtering model. In addition, the same measurements and method allow us to derive a surface concentration of $<10^{2}\\ \\math...

Wang, J; Qiu, Y L; Meng, X M; Cai, H B; Cao, L; Deng, J S; Han, X H; Wei, J Y

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Temporal Pointing Variations of The Solar Dynamics Observatory's HMI and AIA Instruments on Sub-Weekly Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Achieving sub-arcsecond co-registration across varying time-lines of multi-wavelength and instrument images is not trivial, and requires accurate characterization of instrument pointing jitter. In this work we have investigated internal pointing errors, on daily and yearly time-scales, occurring across the \\textit{Solar Dynamics Observatory}'s (SDO) {\\it Atmospheric Imaging Assembly} (AIA) and { \\it Helioseismic Magnetic Imager} (HMI). Using cross-correlation techniques on AIA 1700\\,{\\AA} passband and HMI line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms, from three years of observational image pairs at approximately three day intervals, internal pointing errors are quantified. Pointing variations of $\\pm$\\,0.26$\\arcsec$ (jitter limited) and $\\pm$\\,0.50$\\arcsec$ in the solar East-West ($x$) and North-South ($y$) directions, respectively, are measured. AIA observations of the Venus June 2012 transit are used to measure existing coalignment offsets in all passbands. We find AIA passband pointing variations are $$\\,$=$\\, 1.10$\\a...

Orange, N Brice; Chesny, David L; Patel, Maulik; Champey, Patrick; Hesterly, Katie; Anthony, Dylan; Treen, Robert

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Stellar variability on time-scales of minutes: results from the first 5 years of the Rapid Temporal Survey (RATS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Rapid Temporal Survey (RATS) explores the faint, variable sky. Our observations search a parameter space which, until now, has never been exploited from the ground. Our strategy involves observing the sky close to the Galactic plane with wide-field CCD cameras. An exposure is obtained approximately every minute with the total observation of each field lasting around 2 hours. In this paper we present the first 6 epochs of observations which were taken over 5 years from 2003--2008 and cover over 31 square degrees of which 16.2 is within 10{\\deg} of the Galactic plane. The number of stars contained in these data is over 3.0 x10^6. We have developed a method of combining the output of two variability tests in order to detect variability on time-scales ranging from a few minutes to a few hours. Using this technique we find 1.2 x 10^5 variables -- equal to 4.1 per cent of stars in our data. Follow-up spectroscopic observations have allowed us to identify the nature of a fraction of these sources. These include ...

Barclay, Thomas; Hakala, Pasi; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Nelemans, Gijs; Potter, Stephen; Todd, Ian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Self-Adaptive Management of The Sleep Depths of Idle Nodes in Large Scale Systems to Balance Between Energy Consumption and Response Times  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Between Energy Consumption and Response Times Yongpeng Liu(1) , Hong Zhu(2) , Kai Lu(1) , Xiaoping Wang(1.659 MW, which equals the power usage of a middle scale city. In 2006, US servers and data centers U.S. electricity consumption or the output of about 15 typical power plants [2]. In 2007

Zhu, Hong

84

1999 Hazeleger, W., 1 February 1999. Variability in Mode Water Formation on the Decadal Time Scale. University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time Scale. University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. Lipzig, N.P.M. van, 6 October 1999. The surfaceD-Thesis, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. Veefkind, J.P., 11 October 1999. Aerosol Satellite Remote Sensing. PhD-Thesis, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. Bosveld, F.C., 3 November 1999. Exchange processes between a Douglas

Haak, Hein

85

Summary of the Midwest conference on small-scale hydropower in the Midwest: an old technology whose time has come  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A variety of decision makers convened to examine and discuss certain significant problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric development in the Midwestern region, comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The conference opened with an introductory panel of resource persons who outlined the objectives of the conference, presented information on small-scale hydro, and described the materials available to conference participants. A series of workshop sessions followed. Two of the workshop sessions discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The remaining two workshops dealt with economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model developed by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. A plenary session and recommendations completed the workshop.

None

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Dissolution in Porous Media: Multi-Scale Effects of Multi-Component Dissolution Kinetics on Cleanup Time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial organic solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) constitute a principal class of groundwater contaminants. Cleanup of groundwater plume source areas associated with these compounds is problematic, in part, because the compounds often exist in the subsurface as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Ganglia (or 'blobs') of DNAPL serve as persistent sources of contaminants that are difficult to locate and remediate (e.g. Fenwick and Blunt, 1998). Current understanding of the physical and chemical processes associated with dissolution of DNAPLs in the subsurface is incomplete and yet is critical for evaluating long-term behavior of contaminant migration, groundwater cleanup, and the efficacy of source area cleanup technologies. As such, a goal of this project has been to contribute to this critical understanding by investigating the multi-phase, multi-component physics of DNAPL dissolution using state-of-the-art experimental and computational techniques. Through this research, we have explored efficient and accurate conceptual and numerical models for source area contaminant transport that can be used to better inform the modeling of source area contaminants, including those at the LLNL Superfund sites, to re-evaluate existing remediation technologies, and to inspire or develop new remediation strategies. The problem of DNAPL dissolution in natural porous media must be viewed in the context of several scales (Khachikian and Harmon, 2000), including the microscopic level at which capillary forces, viscous forces, and gravity/buoyancy forces are manifested at the scale of individual pores (Wilson and Conrad, 1984; Chatzis et al., 1988), the mesoscale where dissolution rates are strongly influenced by the local hydrodynamics, and the field-scale. Historically, the physico-chemical processes associated with DNAPL dissolution have been addressed through the use of lumped mass transfer coefficients which attempt to quantify the dissolution rate in response to local dissolved-phase concentrations distributed across the source area using a volume-averaging approach (Figure 1). The fundamental problem with the lumped mass transfer parameter is that its value is typically derived empirically through column-scale experiments that combine the effects of pore-scale flow, diffusion, and pore-scale geometry in a manner that does not provide a robust theoretical basis for upscaling. In our view, upscaling processes from the pore-scale to the field-scale requires new computational approaches (Held and Celia, 2001) that are directly linked to experimental studies of dissolution at the pore scale. As such, our investigation has been multi-pronged, combining theory, experiments, numerical modeling, new data analysis approaches, and a synthesis of previous studies (e.g. Glass et al, 2001; Keller et al., 2002) aimed at quantifying how the mechanisms controlling dissolution at the pore-scale control the long-term dissolution of source areas at larger scales.

McNab, W; Ezzedine, S; Detwiler, R

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

87

Multi-physics investigation on the failure mechanism and short-time scale wave motion in flip-chip configuration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scale package of 2 Watts steady state power is subjected to 1000 Watts for about 1 ms, junction temperature was seen to rise 50 o C. Mercado et al. [29] did an integrated transient thermal and mechanical analysis for a molded plastic ball grid array...

Oh, Yoonchan

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

On the seasonal and synoptic time scale variability of the North Atlantic trades and its low-level clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The seasonality in large-scale meteorology and low-level cloud amount (CClow) is explored for a 5°×5° area in the North-Atlantic trades, using twelve years of ERA-Interim and MODIS data, supported by two years of Barbados Cloud Observatory (BCO) ...

Matthias Brueck; Louise Nuijens; Bjorn Stevens

89

Scaling laws governing stochastic growth and division of single bacterial cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uncovering the quantitative laws that govern the growth and division of single cells remains a major challenge. Using a unique combination of technologies that yields unprecedented statistical precision, we find that the sizes of individual Caulobacter crescentus cells increase exponentially in time. We also establish that they divide upon reaching a critical multiple ($\\approx$1.8) of their initial sizes, rather than an absolute size. We show that when the temperature is varied, the growth and division timescales scale proportionally with each other over the physiological temperature range. Strikingly, the cell-size and division-time distributions can both be rescaled by their mean values such that the condition-specific distributions collapse to universal curves. We account for these observations with a minimal stochastic model that is based on an autocatalytic cycle. It predicts the scalings, as well as specific functional forms for the universal curves. Our experimental and theoretical analysis reveals a ...

Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Henry, Jonathan T; Lo, Klevin; Burov, Stanislav; Lin, Yihan; Crooks, Gavin E; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R; Scherer, Norbert F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Time scale of the fission process in the reaction 50A MeV 20Ne + 165Ho  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system of mass 178 amu and excitation energy of 580 MeV that the fission time is [ ] 1 x 10-20 s regardless of the asymmetry....

Mdeiwayeh, Nader

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

91

Pushed for time or saving on fuel: fine-scale energy budgets shed light on currencies in a diving bird  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...maximize the gross rate of energy gain. We suggest that the divergence of time and energy costs with dive depth has implications for the measurement of dive efficiency across...diving taxa. time-energy budget|energy expenditure...experimental Daily Diary units in Argentina (Wilson...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Beyond weather time scale prediction for Hurricane Sandy and Super Typhoon Haiyan in a global climate model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While tropical cyclone (TC) prediction, in particular TC genesis, remains very challenging, accurate prediction of TCs is critical for timely preparedness and mitigation. Using a new version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) ...

Baoqiang Xiang; Shian-Jiann Lin; Ming Zhao; Shaoqing Zhang; Gabriel Vecchi; Tim Li; Xianan Jiang; Lucas Harris; Jan-Huey Chen

93

A method of estimating time scales of atmospheric piston and its application at DomeC (Antarctica)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temporal fluctuations of the atmospheric piston are critical for interferometers as they determine their sensitivity. We characterize an instrumental set-up, termed the piston scope, that aims at measuring the atmospheric time constant, tau0, through the image motion in the focal plane of a Fizeau interferometer. High-resolution piston scope measurements have been obtained at the observatory of Paranal, Chile, in April 2006. The derived atmospheric parameters are shown to be consistent with data from the astronomical site monitor, provided that the atmospheric turbulence is displaced along a single direction. Piston scope measurements, of lower temporal and spatial resolution, were for the first time recorded in February 2005 at the Antarctic site of DomeC. Their re-analysis in terms of the new data calibration sharpens the conclusions of a first qualitative examination.

A. Kellerer; M. Sarazin; T. Butterley; R. Wilson

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

94

Large-Scale Uncertainty and Error Analysis for Time-dependent Fluid/Structure Interactions in Wind Turbine Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is the final report covering the entire period of this aforementioned grant, June 1, 2011 - May 31, 2013 for the portion of the effort corresponding to Stanford University (SU). SU has partnered with Sandia National Laboratories (PI: Mike S. Eldred) and Purdue University (PI: Dongbin Xiu) to complete this research project and this final report includes those contributions made by the members of the team at Stanford. Dr. Eldred is continuing his contributions to this project under a no-cost extension and his contributions to the overall effort will be detailed at a later time (once his effort has concluded) on a separate project submitted by Sandia National Laboratories. At Stanford, the team is made up of Profs. Alonso, Iaccarino, and Duraisamy, post-doctoral researcher Vinod Lakshminarayan, and graduate student Santiago Padron. At Sandia National Laboratories, the team includes Michael Eldred, Matt Barone, John Jakeman, and Stefan Domino, and at Purdue University, we have Prof. Dongbin Xiu as our main collaborator. The overall objective of this project was to develop a novel, comprehensive methodology for uncertainty quantification by combining stochastic expansions (nonintrusive polynomial chaos and stochastic collocation), the adjoint approach, and fusion with experimental data to account for aleatory and epistemic uncertainties from random variable, random field, and model form sources. The expected outcomes of this activity were detailed in the proposal and are repeated here to set the stage for the results that we have generated during the time period of execution of this project: 1. The rigorous determination of an error budget comprising numerical errors in physical space and statistical errors in stochastic space and its use for optimal allocation of resources; 2. A considerable increase in efficiency when performing uncertainty quantification with a large number of uncertain variables in complex non-linear multi-physics problems; 3. A solution to the long-time integration problem of spectral chaos approaches; 4. A rigorous methodology to account for aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, to emphasize the most important variables via dimension reduction and dimension-adaptive refinement, and to support fusion with experimental data using Bayesian inference; 5. The application of novel methodologies to time-dependent reliability studies in wind turbine applications including a number of efforts relating to the uncertainty quantification in vertical-axis wind turbine applications. In this report, we summarize all accomplishments in the project (during the time period specified) focusing on advances in UQ algorithms and deployment efforts to the wind turbine application area. Detailed publications in each of these areas have also been completed and are available from the respective conference proceedings and journals as detailed in a later section.

Alonso, Juan J. [Stanford University; Iaccarino, Gianluca [Stanford University

2013-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

95

Space?time scales of sound?speed perturbations observed in the Philippine Sea: Contributions from internal waves and tides, eddies, and spicy thermohaline structure.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Philippine Sea is a dynamic ocean basin with complex multi?scale sound speed structure. Therefore the PhilSea09 and PhilSea10 experiments have put significant resources toward quantifying the space?time scales of this sound speed variability so that the acoustic transmission data can be properly interpreted. In the PhilSea09 pilot study two moorings equipped with temperature (T) conductivity (C) and pressure sensors along with upper ocean ADCP monitored ocean variability for a month in the Spring. The measurements reveal an energetic and nonlinear mixed diurnal?semidiurnal internal tide a diffuse Garrett–Munk (GM) type internal wave field at or above the reference GM energy level and a strong eddy field. One mooring which was equipped with pumped sensors for enhanced salinity (S) resolution was able to accurately quantify T and S variability along isopycnals (spice). The spice contribution to sound speed fluctuation is strong near the mixed layer but is significantly weaker than the other contributions in the main thermocline. Frequency spectra as well as vertical covariance functions will be presented to quantify the temporal and vertical spatial scales of the observed fluctuations.

John A. Colosi; Brian Dushaw; Rex K. Andrew; Lora J. Van Effelen; Matthew A. Dzieciuch; Peter F. Worcester

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Watching the acetylene vinylidene intramolecular reaction in real time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is a long-standing dream of scientists to capture the ultra-fast dynamics of molecular or chemical reactions in real time and to make a molecular movie. With free-electron lasers delivering extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light at unprecedented intensities, in combination with pump-probe schemes, it is now possible to visualize structural changes on the femtosecond time scale in photo-excited molecules. In hydrocarbons the absorption of a single photon may trigger the migration of a hydrogen atom within the molecule. Here, such a reaction was filmed in acetylene molecules (C2H2) showing a partial migration of one of the protons along the carbon backbone which is consistent with dynamics calculations on ab initio potential energy surfaces. Our approach opens attractive perspectives and potential applications for a large variety of XUV-induced ultra-fast phenomena in molecules relevant to physics, chemistry, and biology.

Jiang, Y H; Rudenko, A; Madjet, M E; Vendrell, O; Kurka, M; Schnorr, K; Foucar, L; Kübel, M; Herrwerth, O; Lezius, M; Kling, M F; van Tilborg, J; Belkacem, A; Ueda, K; Düsterer, S; Treusch, R; Schröter, C D; Santra, R; Ullrich, J; Moshammer, R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Large-scale simulation of steady and time-dependent active suspensions with the force-coupling method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new development of the force-coupling method (FCM) to address the accurate simulation of a large number of interacting micro-swimmers. Our approach is based on the squirmer model, which we adapt to the FCM framework, resulting in a method that is suitable for simulating semi-dilute squirmer suspensions. Other effects, such as steric interactions, can be readily considered with our model. We test our method by comparing the velocity field around a single squirmer and the pairwise interactions between two squirmers with exact solutions to the Stokes equations and results given by other numerical methods. We also illustrate our method's ability to describe spheroidal swimmer shapes and biologically-relevant time-dependent swimming gaits. We detail the numerical algorithm used to compute the hydrodynamic coupling between a large collection ($10^4-10 ^5$) of micro-swimmers. Using this methodology, we investigate the emergence of polar order in a suspension of squirmers and show that for large domains,...

Delmotte, Blaise; Plouraboue, Franck; Climent, Eric

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Large scale electronic structure calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We formulate the Kohn-Sham density functional theory in terms of nonorthogonal, localized orbitals. Within this formulation we introduce a simple and effective method to localize the orbitals. Our approach leads to a plane-wave-based algorithm for total energy calculations whose computational complexity is of O(N), where N is the number of electrons. This opens the way to calculations of unprecedented scale. Our method appears to be of general character and applicable in other contexts such as quantum chemical or projected quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

Giulia Galli and Michele Parrinello

1992-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

99

VisIO: enabling interactive visualization of ultra-scale, time-series data via high-bandwidth distributed I/O systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petascale simulations compute at resolutions ranging into billions of cells and write terabytes of data for visualization and analysis. Interactive visuaUzation of this time series is a desired step before starting a new run. The I/O subsystem and associated network often are a significant impediment to interactive visualization of time-varying data; as they are not configured or provisioned to provide necessary I/O read rates. In this paper, we propose a new I/O library for visualization applications: VisIO. Visualization applications commonly use N-to-N reads within their parallel enabled readers which provides an incentive for a shared-nothing approach to I/O, similar to other data-intensive approaches such as Hadoop. However, unlike other data-intensive applications, visualization requires: (1) interactive performance for large data volumes, (2) compatibility with MPI and POSIX file system semantics for compatibility with existing infrastructure, and (3) use of existing file formats and their stipulated data partitioning rules. VisIO, provides a mechanism for using a non-POSIX distributed file system to provide linear scaling of 110 bandwidth. In addition, we introduce a novel scheduling algorithm that helps to co-locate visualization processes on nodes with the requested data. Testing using VisIO integrated into Para View was conducted using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) on TACC's Longhorn cluster. A representative dataset, VPIC, across 128 nodes showed a 64.4% read performance improvement compared to the provided Lustre installation. Also tested, was a dataset representing a global ocean salinity simulation that showed a 51.4% improvement in read performance over Lustre when using our VisIO system. VisIO, provides powerful high-performance I/O services to visualization applications, allowing for interactive performance with ultra-scale, time-series data.

Mitchell, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Jun [UCF

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

OF HEALTH CARE IN TURBULENT TIMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIXING THE FLOW OF HEALTH CARE IN TURBULENT TIMES INNOVATION REPORT 2014 #12;Since 2012, Algorithms facing health care today. We believe there's an unprecedented opportunity to invent a new vision for health care, and academic medicine is poised to lead the way. Algorithms for Innovations is designed

Feschotte, Cedric

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

111:20141023.1435 Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impact modern technological systems such as communications networks, GPS navigation, and electrical power velocities, as well as electric and magnetic fields, with the unprecedented time resolution and accuracy organizations involved: ·NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) ·Southwest Research Institute (Sw

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

102

Using Soir Lucene for Large-Scale Metagenomics Data Retrieval and Analysis (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

JCVI's Johannes Goll on "Using Solr/Lucene for Large-Scale Metagenomics Data Retrieval and Analysis" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

Goll, Johannes [JCVI

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

103

Exploiting VERITAS Timing Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The 499 pixel photomultiplier cameras of the VERITAS gamma ray telescopes are instrumented with 500MHz sampling Flash ADCs. This paper describes a preliminary investigation of the best methods by which to exploit this information so as to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of Cherenkov light pulses. The FADCs also provide unprecedented resolution for the study of the timing characteristics of Cherenkov images of cosmic-ray and gamma-ray air showers. This capability is discussed, together with the implications for gamma-hadron separation.

J. Holder; for the VERITAS Collaboration

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

104

DOE JGI Quality Metrics; Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

DOE JGI's Alex Copeland on "DOE JGI Quality Metrics" and Michigan State University's C. Titus Brown on "Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

Copeland, Alex [DOE JGI]; Brown, C Titus [Michigan State University

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

105

The Fuzzy Time-Cost-Quality-Environment Trade-off Analysis of Resource-Constrained Multi-mode Construction Systems for Large-Scale Hydroelectric Projects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies the fuzzy time-cost-quality-environment trade-off problem of construction project and establishes a decision making model with multiple modes under resource-constrained environment. The objecti...

Huan Zheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The Fuzzy Time-Cost-Quality-Environment Trade-off Analysis of Multi-mode Construction Systems for Large-scale Hydroelectric Projects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies the time-cost-quality-environment trade-off problem of construction project and establishes a multi-objective decision making model under a fuzzy environment. The objective functions are to min...

Huan Zheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. I. UNIVERSAL SCALING LAWS OF SPACE AND TIME PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We extend a previous statistical solar flare study of 155 GOES M- and X-class flares observed with AIA/SDO to all seven coronal wavelengths (94, 131, 171, 193, 211, 304, and 335 Å) to test the wavelength dependence of scaling laws and statistical distributions. Except for the 171 and 193 Å wavelengths, which are affected by EUV dimming caused by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we find near-identical size distributions of geometric (lengths L, flare areas A, volumes V, and fractal dimension D{sub 2}), temporal (flare durations T), and spatio-temporal parameters (diffusion coefficient ?, spreading exponent ?, and maximum expansion velocities v{sub max}) in different wavelengths, which are consistent with the universal predictions of the fractal-diffusive avalanche model of a slowly driven, self-organized criticality (FD-SOC) system, i.e., N(L)?L {sup –3}, N(A)?A {sup –2}, N(V)?V {sup –5/3}, N(T)?T {sup –2}, and D{sub 2} = 3/2, for a Euclidean dimension d = 3. Empirically, we find also a new strong correlation ??L {sup 0.94±0.01} and the three-parameter scaling law L?? T {sup 0.1}, which is more consistent with the logistic-growth model than with classical diffusion. The findings suggest long-range correlation lengths in the FD-SOC system that operate in the vicinity of a critical state, which could be used for predictions of individual extreme events. We find also that eruptive flares (with accompanying CMEs) have larger volumes V, longer flare durations T, higher EUV and soft X-ray fluxes, and somewhat larger diffusion coefficients ? than confined flares (without CMEs)

Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai, E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com, E-mail: jzhang7@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Dr., MSN 6A2, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

108

Evaluating the effects of terrestrial ecosystems, climate and carbon dioxide on weathering over geological time: a global-scale process-based approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...fossil evidence-[67]. Runoff on the CAMP basalts was low and the remainder of equatorial...case in the latest Maastrichtian when the CAMP and Deccan Trap basalts are covered with...Jones, P. 2000 Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. II...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Vofume 67. numkr I CI1CMICALPtIYSICS LU-l-CRS 1 November 1979 PICOSECOND TIME SCALE OPTICAL COHERENCE EXPERIMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COHERENCE EXPERIMENTS Ii\\:.\\fIXED i+fOLECULAR CRYSTALS: PENTACENE IN NAPHTHALENE Received 19 Ilarch 1979: in final form 13 July 1979 Picosecond time scalt~high-pouer pulse optical coherence mezurements mciuding pumped by a doubled Q-s~itched and mode-locked Nd: YAG laser_ Effects on coherence arising from ewitation

Fayer, Michael D.

110

UTh dating of zircons from Holocene potassic andesites (Maanshan volcano, Tengchong, SE Tibetan Plateau) by depth profiling: Time scales and nature of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Schmitt c , Jianli Sui b a Department of Geology and Geography, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA b Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China c Department of Earth and Space Uranium series disequilibrium Ion probe Residence time Tibetan Plateau Throughout the Cenozoic, post

111

Physical Consequences of a Momenta-Transfering Particle Theory of Induced Gravity and New Measurements Indicating Variation from Inverse Square Law at Length Scale of .1 mm: Statistical Time Properties of Gravitational Interaction and Analysis Thereof  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work presents physical consequences of our theory of induced gravity (Ref.1) regarding: 1) the requirement to consider shape and materials properties when calculating graviton cross section collision area; 2) use of Special Relativity; 3) implications regarding the shape of cosmos; 4) comparison to explanations using General Relativity; 5) properties of black holes; 6) relationship to the strong force and the theorized Higgs boson; 7) the possible origin of magnetic attraction; 8) new measurements showing variation from gravitational inverse square behavior at length scales of 0.1 mm and relationship to the Cosmological constant, and proof of the statistical time properties of the gravitational interaction.

Gary Christopher Vezzoli

2001-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

112

Multi-scale Times and Modes of Fast and Slow Relaxation in Solutions with Coexisting Spherical and Cylindrical Micelles according to the Difference Becker-Doering Kinetic Equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix of coefficients of the linearized kinetic equations applied to aggregation in surfactant solution determine the full spectrum of characteristic times and specific modes of micellar relaxation. The dependence of these relaxation times and modes on the total surfactant concentration has been analyzed for concentrations in the vicinity and well above the second critical micelle concentration (cmc2) for systems with coexisting spherical and cylindrical micelles. The analysis has been done on the basis of a discrete form of the Becker-Doering kinetic equations employing the Smoluchowsky diffusion model for the attachment rates of surfactant monomers to surfactant aggregates with matching the rates for spherical aggregates and the rates for large cylindrical micelles. The equilibrium distribution of surfactant aggregates in solution has been modeled as having one maximum for monomers, another maximum for spherical micelles and wide slowly descending branch for cylindrical micelles. The results of computations have been compared with the analytical ones known in the limiting cases from solutions of the continuous Becker-Doering kinetic equation. They demonstrated a fair agreement even in the vicinity of the cmc2 where the analytical theory looses formally its applicability.

Ilya A. Babintsev; Loran Ts. Adzhemyan; Alexander K. Shchekin

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Running Large Scale Jobs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Running Large Scale Jobs Running Large Scale Jobs Users face various challenges with running and scaling large scale jobs on peta-scale production systems. For example, certain...

114

Following a Structural Phase Transition in Real Time with Atomic Spatial  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Following a Structural Phase Following a Structural Phase Transition in Real Time with Atmic Spatial Resolution Constructing atomic scale mechanisms for chemical, biological, and physical transformations of matter represents a critical goal for numerous scientific and technological challenges that face modern society. The natural length and time scale for atomic dynamics dictate that the scientific tools needed to construct these mechanisms possess Ångström (Å) spatial resolution with femtosecond (fs) temporal resolution. Ultrafast x-ray pulses provide the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, but generating sources intense enough for detailed structural studies has been a significant challenge. The Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) represents the first utilization of a linear electron accelerator to generate fs duration pulses of Å wavelength light for studying structural dynamics. The per pulse fluence at the SPPS exceeds that of all previous ultrafast hard x-ray sources by roughly two orders of magnitude,[1] allowing structural transformations to be investigated with unprecedented dynamical detail.

115

Lifetimes and time scales in atmospheric chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...such as for years with extensive forest fires. Moving beyond atmospheric chemistry, extension of this approach to Earth system models could yield surprises. The coupling across different components of the chemistry-climate system, such as atmospheric...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Time scale modication using a sinusoidal model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, 2006. [16]Con- vention of the Audio Engineering Society, 2006. [17]Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 55(3):156–165,

Daniels, Michelle Lee

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Synthesis of nano-scale fast ion conducting cubic Li7La3Zr2O12  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solution-based process was investigated for synthesizing cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), which is known to exhibit the unprecedented combination of fast ionic conductivity, and stability in air and against Li. Sol–gel chemistry was developed to prepare solid metal–oxide networks consisting of 10 nm cross-links that formed the cubic LLZO phase at 600?° C. Sol–gel LLZO powders were sintered into 96% dense pellets using an induction hot press that applied pressure while heating. After sintering, the average LLZO grain size was 260 nm, which is 13 times smaller compared to LLZO prepared using a solid-state technique. The total ionic conductivity was 0.4 mS cm?1 at 298 K, which is the same as solid-state synthesized LLZO. Interestingly, despite the same room temperature conductivity, the sol–gel LLZO total activation energy is 0.41 eV, which 1.6 times higher than that observed in solid-state LLZO (0.26 eV). We believe the nano-scale grain boundaries give rise to unique transport phenomena that are more sensitive to temperature when compared to the conventional solid-state LLZO.

Jeff Sakamoto; Ezhiylmurugan Rangasamy; Hyunjoung Kim; Yunsung Kim; Jeff Wolfenstine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fish Scales and Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fish Scales and Science Fish Scales and Science Name: Amanda Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: In special education class.Science project time.Topic choosen is HOW DO SCALES HELP FISH? Any suggestions or information would be of help. Replies: Wait a minute. Why do you think the scales help the fish? How do you know they do? Have you talked to a fish lately? Maybe they are useless, or even a problem. Maybe the fish wishes it didn't have scales! I say this only to emphasize two things: First of all, when you think scientifically, the MOST IMPORTANT thing is to be very careful not to assume you know something when you really don't. What I mean by that is: don't think you know the answer before you are dead positive absolutely for-sure 100% certain that you do. Why? Why make a big fuss over being so very careful? Well, I hate to tell you this (but you probably already know it), it's just SO EASY for human beings to fool themselves, to think they know the answers when they really don't know AT ALL what they are talking about. If you have a brother or sister, you know EXACTLY what I mean, I expect.

119

Kuwaiti reconstruction project unprecedented in size, complexity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There had been no challenge like it: a desert emirate ablaze; its main city sacked; the economically crucial oil industry devastated; countryside shrouded in smoke from oil well fires and littered with unexploded ordnance, disabled military equipment, and unignited crude oil. Like the well-documented effort that brought 749 burning wells under control in less than 7 months, Kuwaiti reconstruction had no precedent. Unlike the firefight, reconstruction is no-where complete. It nevertheless has placed two of three refineries back on stream, restored oil production to preinvasion levels, and repaired or rebuilt 17 of 26 oil field gathering stations. Most of the progress has come since the last well fire went out on Nov. 6, 1991. Expatriates in Kuwait since the days of Al-Awda- the return,' in Arabic- attribute much of the rapid progress under Al-Tameer- the reconstruction'- to decisions and preparations made while the well fires still raged. The article describes the planning for Al-Awda, reentering the country, drilling plans, facilities reconstruction, and special problems.

Tippee, B.

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Structural materials: understanding atomic scale microstructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the ability to locate and identify atoms in three dimensions, atom-probe tomography (APT) has revolutionized our understanding of structure-property relationships in materials used for structural applications. The atomic-scale details of clusters, second phases, and microstructural defects that control alloy properties have been investigated, providing an unprecedented level of detail on the origins of aging behavior, strength, creep, fracture toughness, corrosion, and irradiation resistance. Moreover, atomic-scale microscopy combined with atomistic simulation and theoretical modeling of material behavior can guide new alloy design. In this article, selected examples highlight how APT has led to a deeper understanding of materials structures and therefore properties, starting with the phase transformations controlling the aging and strengthening behavior of complex Al-, Fe-, and Ni-based alloys systems. The chemistry of interfaces and structural defects that play a crucial role in high-temperature strengthening, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also discussed, with particular reference to Zr- and Al-alloys and FeAl intermetallics.

Marquis, E A [University of Oxford; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Blavette, D [Universite de Rouen, France; Ringer, S. P. [University of Sydney, Australia; Sudbrack, C [Northwestern University, Evanston; Smith, G.D.W. [University of Oxford

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Digestion time  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Digestion time Digestion time Name: Don Mancosh Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I have always given the rule of thumb in class that material we eat is with us for about 24 hours before exiting the body. The question arises about the time value of liquids. Getting a big coke prior to a 3 hour drive generally means that there will be a stop along the way. Is there a generalization made about liquids in the body similar to the one for solid food? Replies: A physician would give a better answer, but I hazard this: the only liquids which people consume (deliberately) in significant quantities are water, ethyl alcohol and various oils. Water and alcohol are absorbed on a time scale of seconds to minutes through the mouth, stomach and digestive tract. The oils are huge molecules, so I'd guess like any other greasy food they get absorbed in the upper digestive tract. Some of them, perhaps the longest and most nonpolar, are not absorbed at all --- cf. the old-time remedy of mineral oil for constipation --- so there should be some average time-before-what's-left-is-excreted such as you're looking for, and my (wild) guess is that it would not differ substantially from that for food. You can define an average lifetime in the body for alcohol, since the natural level is zero. Rough guidelines are widespread in the context of drunk driving laws. But this is not really possible for water. One's body is normally full up to the brim with water, and there's no way for the body to distinguish between water molecules recently absorbed and molecules that've been moping around since the Beatles split up. Thus the water entering the toilet bowl after the pit stop is not in general the same water as was in the big coke. If you were to consider for water just the average time between drinking and peeing, it would seem to depend strongly on how well hydrated the body was before the drink, and how much was drunk. During sustained heavy exertion in the sun and dry air one can easily drink a pint of water an hour without peeing at all. On the other hand, if one is willing to drink enough water fast enough, so as to establish a high excess of body water one can pee 8 ounces 15 minutes or less after drinking 8 ounces.

122

Is Time Inhomogeneous ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we discuss probability of inhomogeneous time in high or low energy scale of physics. Consequently, the possibility was investigated of using theories such as varying speed of light (VSL) and fractal mathematics to build a framework within which answers can be found to some of standard cosmological problems and physics theories on the basis of time non-homogeneity.

S. Davood Sadatian

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

123

Scaling of cosmic string loops  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the spectrum of loops as a part of a complete network of cosmic strings in flat space-time. After a long transient regime, characterized by production of small loops at the scale of the initial conditions, it appears that a true scaling regime takes over. In the final regime the characteristic size of loops scales as $0.1 t$, and the production rate of small loops goes as $l^{-1.63}$. In the expanding universe, we expect similar behavior with perhaps a less negative index. For such indices, the distribution of loops existing at any given time goes as $l^{-5/2}$ in the radiation era and $l^{-2}$ in the matter era.

Vanchurin, V; Vilenkin, A; Olum, Ken D.; Vanchurin, Vitaly; Vilenkin, Alexander

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Silica Scaling Removal Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Silica Scaling Removal Process Silica Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal...

125

Scale Insects and Mealy Bugs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scale Insects and Mealy Bugs Scale Insects and Mealy Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 404-A January 30, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation SCALE INSECTS AND MEALY BUGS The insect world contains an enormous number and variety of species but, of them all, the Scale Insects and Mealy Bugs come nearest to being vegetables. Most insects are active animals that fly, hop, scamper, crawl or burrow, but these queer creatures spend most of their lives merely sitting in one spot, sucking plant juices from a branch, twig, leaf, or fruit. Some of our most destructive pests are included among the several hundred kinds of these highly specialized insects. They are so small that the average person seldom realizes that they are responsible for the sickly or dying condition of a tree or shrub. Adult scale insects are extremely variable in shape, and range in size from that of a pinhead up to forms which are a quarter of an inch long. Each hides under a hard protective shell, or scale, of wax secreted by pores on its body, and are frequently so numerous that they form a dense crust. The females molt a few times, and usually discard their legs and wings, before they mature. She lays eggs under the scale and then dies. These hatch into young (called "crawlers") which move around for a period varying from a few hours to a day or two before they settle down and build scales. Unlike the female, the male -always the smaller of the two -- goes through a cocoon stage from which he emerges with a pair of wings but with no means of taking food. He merely mates and dies. Males are scarce In most kinds and in many species have never been seen.

126

A Study Of Scale Deposition- An Analogue Of Meso- To Epithermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

scale deposition were measured during different test times and analyses made on the chemistry and mineralogy of scales from the Milos plant; the results indicate that the rates...

127

Robot calibration without scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methods. Scaling is a common way of improving the condition number for a matrix. Researchers in other fields have developed specific methods of scaling matrices to improve the condition number. However, robotics researchers have not specifically addressed...

Ives, Thomas W.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

128

Cosmic string scaling in flat space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the evolution of infinite strings as a part of a complete cosmic string network in flat space. We perform a simulation of the network which uses functional forms for the string position and thus is exact to the limits of computer arithmetic. Our results confirm that the wiggles on the strings obey a scaling law described by universal power spectrum. The average distance between long strings also scales accurately with the time. These results suggest that small-scale structure will also scale in an expanding universe, even in the absence of gravitational damping.

Vitaly Vanchurin; Ken Olum; Alexander Vilenkin

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

129

Multiphoton above-threshold detachment of Li-: Exterior-complex-scaling– generalized-pseudospectral method for calculations of complex-quasienergy resonances in Floquet formulation of time-dependent density-functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-independent non-Hermitian Floquet matrix eigen- value problem @19–22#. Such a TDDFT-Floquet formalism provides a general time-independent approach for nonpertur- bative treatment of multiphoton processes of many-electron quantum systems in periodic, quasiperiodic... state for the eigen- value problem. Accordingly, there is no concept of the initial state in the Floquet formulation of TDDFT. The Floquet states are the eigenstates of the Hermitian operator Hˆ in the extended Hilbert space S. In this respect, Floquet...

Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I

2002-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

130

Information transfer at multiple scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the study of complex systems a fundamental issue is the mapping of the networks of interaction between constituent subsystems of a complex system or between multiple complex systems. Such networks define the web of dependencies and patterns of continuous and dynamic coupling between the system’s elements characterized by directed flow of information spanning multiple spatial and temporal scales. Here, we propose a wavelet-based extension of transfer entropy to measure directional transfer of information between coupled systems at multiple time scales and demonstrate its effectiveness by studying (a) three artificial maps, (b) physiological recordings, and (c) the time series recorded from a chaos-controlled simulated robot. Limitations and potential extensions of the proposed method are discussed.

Max Lungarella; Alex Pitti; Yasuo Kuniyoshi

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

131

Real-time Detection of Parametric Roll  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Early Detection of PArametric ROLL on Ships #12;Real-time Detection of Parametric Roll: FullReal-time Detection of Parametric Roll: Full-scale Validation Roberto Galeazzi Assistant Professor-time Detection of Parametric Roll: Full-scale validation CeSOS Highlights & AMOS Visions Conference 2 DTU

Nørvåg, Kjetil

132

Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded to Large-Scale Distributed Stephen Boyd Neal Parikh of Edinburgh, June 25 2014 1 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large-Scale Distributed Optimization Summary 2 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large

Hall, Julian

133

Microsoft Word - The_Advanced_Networks_and_Services_Underpinning_Modern,Large-Scale_Science.SciDAC.v5.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

: Advanced Networking and Services : Advanced Networking and Services Supporting the Science Mission of DOE's Office of Science William E. Johnston ESnet Dept. Head and Senior Scientist Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May, 2007 1 Introduction In many ways, the dramatic achievements in scientific discovery through advanced computing and the discoveries of the increasingly large-scale instruments with their enormous data handling and remote collaboration requirements, have been made possible by accompanying accomplishments in high performance networking. As increasingly advanced supercomputers and experimental research facilities have provided researchers powerful tools with unprecedented capabilities, advancements in networks connecting scientists to these tools have made these research facilities available to broader communities

134

NAMD - The Engine for Large-Scale Classical MD Simulations of Biomolecular  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NAMD NAMD NAMD - The Engine for Large-Scale Classical MD Simulations of Biomolecular Systems Based on a Polarizable Force Field PI Name: Benoit Roux PI Email: roux@uchicago.edu Institution: Argonne National Laboratory & University of Chicago Allocation Program: ESP Allocation Hours at ALCF: 80 Million Year: 2010 to 2013 Research Domain: Biological Sciences Biology, at the atomic and molecular level, is governed by complex interactions involving a large number of key constituents, including water, ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid membranes. The goal of this project is to develop new technologies to simulate virtual models of biomolecular systems with an unprecedented accuracy. Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on atomic models play an increasingly

135

An Experimentally-Supported Genome-Scale Metabolic Network Reconstruct...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

requirements characteristic of this strain. Conclusions: Y. pestis continues to be a dangerous threat to human health during modern times. The Y. pestis genome-scale metabolic...

136

SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

G. CANAVAN

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Silica Scaling Removal Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Silica Scaling Removal Process Silica Scaling Removal Process Silica Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal silica using small gel particles. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Silica Scaling Removal Process Applications: Cooling tower systems Water treatment systems Water evaporation systems Potential mining applications (produced water) Industry applications for which silica scaling must be prevented Benefits: Reduces scaling in cooling towers by up to 50% Increases the number of cycles of concentration substantially Reduces the amount of antiscaling chemical additives needed Decreases the amount of makeup water and subsequent discharged water (blowdown) Enables considerable cost savings derived from reductions in

138

Linear Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large-scale Electronic Structure Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linear Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large-scale Electronic Structure Calculations Lin-Wang Wang) allocation time in the materials science category [1]. DFT codes can be used to calculate the electronic theory (DFT) calculations for large systems. This method cancels out the artificial boundary effects

139

Thermodynamics and scale relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown how the fractal paths of scale relativity (following Nottale) can be introduced into a thermodynamical context (following Asadov-Kechkin).

Robert Carroll

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

140

EMSL - micro-scales  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

micro-scales en Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsphysical-properties-ambient-and-labo...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Preparation, characterization and scale performance of scale inhibitor copolymer modification with chitosan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scale inhibitor copolymer modification with chitosan was prepared from maleic anhydride, styrene sulfonic sodium, acrylic amide and chitosan. The conditions of preparing scale inhibitor were optimized. The chemical structure and thermal property were investigated. Using the static experiment method, the influences of copolymer concentration, temperature time, Ca2+ concentration, HCO3? concentration of the system on the inhibition efficiency were investigated. The experimental results showed that the polymer was excellent calcium carbonate scale inhibition and the resistance rate of calcium carbonate scale up to 95.62%, and could be used in the system of high temperature and high hardness water.

Xiaorui Guo; Fengxian Qiu; Ke Dong; Xin Zhou; Jing Qi; Yang Zhou; Dongya Yang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

SCALE-CORRECTED ENSEMBLE KALMAN FILTER FOR OBSERVATIONS OF PRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to introduce bias in production forecasts. The Scale-Corrected Ensemble Kalman Filter (SCEnKF) is a method is pressure at time t. Reservoir production properties at time t, such as gas-oil ratio (gor), bottom hole

Eidsvik, Jo

143

Scaling the Incompressible Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive a scaling relation for Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of incompressible fluids. The relation is tested using both numerical simulations and experimental data. We obtain collapse of growth rates for a wide range of initial conditions by using vorticity and velocity scales associated with the interfacial perturbations and the acceleration impulse. A curve fit to the collapsed growth rates yields a fairly universal model for the mixing layer thickness versus time.

Cotrell, D; Cook, A

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

144

Simulations of Kinetic Events at the Atomic Scale  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of kinetic events at the atomic scale of kinetic events at the atomic scale Graeme Henkelman UT Austin Al / Al(100) B 3 I / Si Pd / MgO How can we simulate the dynamics of molecular systems over experimental time scales? Objective: To calculate dynamics of a surface over time scales which are much longer than can be calculated with direct classical dynamics. Problem: time scale gap fs ps ns ms ms s mins atomic dynamics thermally activated experimental vibrations simulations reaction dynamics time scales Most interesting transitions are rare 0.5 eV 1000/s events (much slower than vibrations) Simulating a transition for a typical rare event with classical dynamics can require ~10 12 force evaluations Transition state theory A statistical theory for calculating the rate of slow thermal processes

145

Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A POLYNOMIAL-TIME AFFINE-SCALING METHOD FOR ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

established, for linear programming (Monteiro, Adler and Resende [17]; Jansen,. Roos and Terlaky [11]; Sturm and Zhang [25]), then for semidefinite ...

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

147

Scale Models & Wind Turbines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Scale Models and Wind Turbines Grades: 5-8, 9-12 Topics: Wind Energy Owner: Kidwind Project This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of...

148

Solar Firms Scale Back  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar Firms Scale Back ... First Solar, an Arizona-based thin-film photovoltaics firm, said last week that it will restructure its operations to reduce capacity and shift production to more efficient facilities. ...

MELODY BOMGARDNER

2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

149

Accelerated Least Squares Multidimensional Scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

x(make_x(36,2)) xACCELERATED SCALING R EFERENCES I.ACCELERATED LEAST SQUARES MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING JAN DEare simpler to write. ACCELERATED SCALING It is shown in De

Leeuw, Jan de

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Accelerated Least Squares Multidimensional Scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

x(make_x(36,2)) xACCELERATED SCALING R EFERENCES I.ACCELERATED LEAST SQUARES MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING JAN DEare simpler to write. ACCELERATED SCALING It is shown in De

Jan de Leeuw

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Unmanned deepwater-line repair system passes full-scale trials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first ever full-scale tests of an unmanned, deepwater-pipeline repair system were successfully conducted last year off the coast of Italy. The Italian gas-transmission company SNAM tested a submersible automatic system (SAS) sealine repair system at a depth of 600 m. The modular SAS allows sealines to be repaired by installation of the Nuovo Pignone mechanical connector. The system's trials simulated complete repair intervention on the 20-in. Trans mediterranean pipeline and provided unprecedented experience to SNAM and to the other involved in this project. The paper discusses the origin of the idea for the SAS, the design of the system, construction and testing, the first sea trials, final deep sea trials, and future developments.

Venzi, S.; Vienna, A. (SNAM SpA, Milan (Italy))

1993-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

152

Scaling Solution for Small Cosmic String Loops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The equation governing the time evolution of the number density of loops in a cosmic string network is a detailed balance determined by energy conservation. We solve this equation with the inclusion of the gravitational radiation effect, which causes the loops to shrink (and eventually decay) as time elapses. The solution approaches a scaling regime in which the total energy density in loops remains finite, converging both in the infrared and in the ultraviolet.

Jorge V. Rocha

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

153

The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing: LOFT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LOFT, the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing, is a new space mission concept devoted to observations of Galactic and extra-Galactic sources in the X-ray domain with the main goals of probing gravity theory in the very strong field environment of black holes and other compact objects, and investigating the state of matter at supra-nuclear densities in neutron stars. The instruments on-board LOFT, the Large area detector and the Wide Field Monitor combine for the first time an unprecedented large effective area (~10 m2 at 8 keV) sensitive to X-ray photons mainly in the 2-30 keV energy range and a spectral resolution approaching that of CCD-based telescopes (down to 200 eV at 6 keV). LOFT is currently competing for a launch of opportunity in 2022 together with the other M3 mission candidates of the ESA Cosmic Vision Program.

Bozzo, E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Solazyme Pilot-Scale Biorefinery  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SzIBR will demonstrate integrated scale-up of Solazyme's novel heterotrophic algal oil biomanufacturing process, validate the projected commercial-scale economics of...

155

Angular Scaling In Jets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

156

High-Resolution Simulation of Pore-Scale Reactive Transport Processes Associated with Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New investigative tools combined with experiments and computational methods are being developed to build a next-generation understanding of molecular-to-pore-scale processes in fluid-rock systems and to demonstrate the ability to control critical aspects of flow and transport in porous rock media in particular as applied to geologic sequestration of CO. Of scientific interest is to establish the rules governing emergent behavior at the porous-continuum macroscale under far from equilibrium conditions by carefully understanding the behavior at the underlying pore microscale. To this end the authors present a direct numerical simulation modeling capability that can resolve flow and transport processes in geometric features obtained from the image data of realistic pore space at unprecedented scale and resolution. Here they focus on scaling a new algorithmic approach based on embedded boundary finite-volume methods and algebraic multigrid. They demonstrate the scalability of this new capability known as Chombo-Crunch to more than 100 000 processor cores and show results from pore-scale flow and transport in the realistic pore space obtained from image data.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

xi-scaling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A class of purely kinematical corrections to xi-scaling is exposed. These corrections are inevitably present in any realistic hadron model with spin and gauge invariance and lead to phenomenologically important M/sub hadron//sup 2//Q/sup 2/ corrections to Nachtmann moments.

Gunion, J.F.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Sensor system scaling issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for IR sensor performance is used to compare estimates of sensor cost effectiveness. Although data from aircraft sensors indicate a weaker scaling, their agreement is adequate to support the assessment of the benefits of operating up to the maximum altitude of most current UAVs.

Canavan, G.H.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

The Role of Scaling in Societal Applications: Public and Private  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Role of Scaling in Societal Applications: Public and Private Role of Scaling in Societal Applications: Public and Private Infrastructure Vulnerabilities Title The Role of Scaling in Societal Applications: Public and Private Infrastructure Vulnerabilities Publication Type Book Chapter Year of Publication 2010 Authors Larsen, Peter H. Book Title Scaling Studies in Arctic System Science and Policy Support Date Published 2010 Publisher U.S.Arctic Research Commission Abstract The large number of examples paints the picture of an Arctic experiencing rapid, arguably unprecedented, and ongoing environmental change. Such change, from a biogeophysical perspective, cascades into many domains-land and coastline permafrost degradation, sea ice retreat, winds and waves leading to coastal erosion, changes in vegetation, longer ice-free seasons, "greening" of the Arctic, waterlogging of soils, more variable weather, including extremes of cold or warm, icing, flooding, droughts, and increased incidence of fire. These linked changes in the Arctic environment are fundamentally interdisciplinary in nature and require system-level, synthetic, and multiscale thinking. But the change also reverberates into many societally relevant domains: damage to and loss of civil infrastructure due to permafrost degradation, reduction in ice-dependent transportation routes over land, coastal infrastructure battered by waves, northward migration of pathogens and vectors affecting human health, sea ice retreat leading to coastal erosion, fires and smoke affecting navigation and infrastructure, pest outbreaks, and loss of species, including traditionally hunted/fished species. Although there will be many, clearly positive, effects, including access to ocean shipping, resource extraction, and new fisheries, preliminary assessment indicates substantial negative impacts from climate change alone-of billions if not tens of billions of dollars for the State of Alaska to year 2030. Such estimates are generated by extrapolating site-specific damage assessments through spatial extrapolation to the domain of the entire state-fundamentally a scaling issue, but one with substantial uncertainty surrounding it, as will be discussed below. It is thus important to identify the readiness of the research and assessment community across a wide spectrum of applications. Identifying and filling key gaps in science and technology readiness today helps to forestall delays in acquiring policy-actionable knowledge upon which future climate change adaptation can be based. Focus again will be on climate change, as an overriding backdrop of Arctic system change and as a principal forcing that will challenge policymakers and managers. Seven societal applications are presented: Arctic human health, climate change mitigation and adaptation, infrastructure at risk, subsistence fisheries, non-renewable resource extractions, sea ice navigation, and oil spill response and restoration.

160

Female Team Overall Name Age Rank Time Rank Time Rank Time Pace Rank Time Rank Time Pace Time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Female Team Overall Name Age Rank Time Rank Time Rank Time Pace Rank Time Rank Time Pace Time 1 Amy:56:27.6 Deborah Mc Eligot Deborah Storrings Male Team Overall Name Age Rank Time Rank Time Rank Time Pace Rank Time Rank Time Pace Time 1 Macon Fessenden 20 1 5:42.2 2 0:26.9 1 34:29.7 3:23 1 0:12.8 1 17:41.1 3

Suzuki, Masatsugu

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing Title Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing Publication Type Conference Proceedings LBNL Report Number LBNL-6303E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Pang, Xiufeng, Tianzhen Hong, and Mary Ann Piette Date Published 05/2013 Keywords building performance, energy efficiency, energy modeling, optimal operation, urban scale. Abstract This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

162

Characteristic Spatial Scales in Earthquake Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new technique in order to quantify the dynamics of spatially extended systems. Using a test on the existence of unstable periodic orbits, we identify intermediate spatial scales, wherein the dynamics is characterized by maximum nontrivial determinism. This method is applied to earthquake catalogues containing time, coordinates and magnitude. As a result we extract a set of areas with significant deterministic and low-dimensional dynamics from the data. Finally, a simple model is used to show that these scales can be interpreted as local spatial coupling strengths.

G. Zoeller; R. Engbert; S. Hainzl; J. Kurths

1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

A High Resolution Scale-of-four  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

Fitch, V.

1949-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

Monetary Awards Scale  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

MONETARY AWARDS SCALE FOR INTANGIBLE BENEFITS FROM MONETARY AWARDS SCALE FOR INTANGIBLE BENEFITS FROM SUGGESTIONS, INVENTIONS, SPECIAL ACTS OR SERVICES VALUE OF BENEFIT EXTENT OF APPLICATION Limited Affects functions, mission, or personnel of one office (e.g., field site office or one office within a HQ Departmental element). Affects a small area of science or technology. Extended Affects functions, mission, or personnel of a several field site offices or HQ office within a Departmental element (e.g., more than one). Affects an important area of science or technology. Broad Affects functions, mission, or personnel of an entire Departmental element or Departmental element with multiple site offices. Affects a broad area of science or technology. General Affects functions, mission, or personnel

165

DSM SCALES BACK  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

DSM SCALES BACK ... DSM PHARMACEUTICAL PRODucts is restructuring its pharma chemicals and biologies units, discontinuing operations at its pharmaceutical chemicals plant in South Haven, Mich., in the first half of 2007, and mothballing its biologics facility in Montreal in the beginning of this year. ... They are taking place as part of a DSM review process called Vision 2010 that, among other things, aims to better position the company's contract manufacturing business. ...

RICK MULLIN

2006-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

166

External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing Iridium-192  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing Iridium-192 External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing Iridium-192 Radiography Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing Iridium-192 Radiography Abstract Iridium-192 radiography has been successfully tested as a technique for externally monitoring geothermal scale deposits in piping at the Brawley, CA geothermal field. This technique is applied to piping that handles flowing brine to provide in situ scale deposition observations without the disadvantage of dismantling piping for visual scale inspection. Exposure times and film orientations have been optimized to yield excellent agreement between radiographically detected scale thicknesses and actual

167

Large Scale Parameter Sweep Studies Using Distributed Matlab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Large Scale Parameter Sweep Studies Using Distributed Matlab Vikas Argod Graduate Assistant 225. The implementation is done in Matlab. The discussion extends to large scale problems of similar type using distributed matlab. Use of distributed matlab reduced computation time significantly

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

168

Wind Extremes and Scales: Multifractal Insights and Empirical Evidence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-time scales (e.g. gusts, tempests, etc.) is of prime importance for a safe and efficient wind energy potential estimates and wind farm implementation. We discuss the consequences of the multifractal behaviour17 Wind Extremes and Scales: Multifractal Insights and Empirical Evidence I. Tchiguirinskaia, D

Lovejoy, Shaun

169

Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Informing system design, ensuring productive and efficient code Project Description To address the increasingly complex problems of the modern world, scientists at Los Alamos are pushing the scale of computing to the extreme, forming partnerships with other national laboratories and industry to develop supercomputers that can achieve "exaflop" speeds-that is, a quintillion (a million trillion) calculations per second. To put such speed in perspective, it is equivalent to 50 million laptops all working together at the same time. Researchers are also developing the interacting components of a computational system as a whole. This approach, known as computational co-design, may facilitate revolutionary designs in the next generation of supercomputers.

170

Can the scale factor be rippled?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We address an issue: would the cosmological scale factor be a locally oscillating quantity? This problem is examined in the framework of two classical 1+1-dimensional models: the first one is a string against a curved background, and the second one is an inhomogeneous Bianchi I model. For the string model, it is shown that there exist the gauge and the initial condition providing an oscillation of scale factor against a slowly evolving background, which is not affected by such an oscillation "at the mean". For the inhomogeneous Bianchi I model with the conformal time gauge, an initially homogeneous scale factor can become inhomogeneous and undergo the nonlinear oscillations. As is shown these nonlinear oscillations can be treated as a nonlinear gauge wave.

S. L. Cherkas; V. L. Kalashnikov

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

171

Can the scale factor be rippled?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We address an issue: would the cosmological scale factor be a locally oscillating quantity? This problem is examined in the framework of two classical 1+1-dimensional models: the first one is a string against a curved background, and the second one is an inhomogeneous Bianchi I model. For the string model, it is shown that there exist the gauge and the initial condition providing an oscillation of scale factor against a slowly evolving background, which is not affected by such an oscillation "at the mean". For the inhomogeneous Bianchi I model with the conformal time gauge, an initially homogeneous scale factor can become inhomogeneous and undergo the nonlinear oscillations. As is shown these nonlinear oscillations can be treated as a nonlinear gauge wave.

Cherkas, S L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Horizontal structure of winter time 250 mb jet stream variations on the fifteen day time scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. A principal component analysis is conducted to find leading patterns and to seek any coordinated oscillation patterns between the two jet cores. Maximum and minimum centers of the leading eigenvector are located in the North Atlantic area...

Park, Sangwook

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Large-scale perturbations due to a small-scale instability in a finite-conductivity plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By considering kink modes in a plasma cylinder in a strong axial magnetic field as an example, it is demonstrated that, because of the finite plasma conductivity (the finite longitudinal plasma permittivity {epsilon}{sub parallel}), large-scale perturbations can grow with time due to a small-scale instability that develops near a certain magnetic surface.

Arsenin, V. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Time Brightness  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Perlmutter, et al., in Thermonuclear Supernovae, NATO ASI, v. 486 (1997) Perlmutter, et al., in Thermonuclear Supernovae, NATO ASI, v. 486 (1997) Cosmology from . . . Time Brightness ... . . . 50-100 Fields Lunar Calendar Scheduled Follow-Up Imaging at Hubble, Cerro Tololo, WIYN, Isaac Newton Scheduled Follow-Up Spectroscopy at Keck Almost 1000 Galaxies per Field RESULT: ~24 Type Ia supernovae discovered while still brightening, at new moon Berkeley Lab Keck WIYN Cerro Tololo Isaac Newton Hubble Strategy We developed a strategy to guarantee a group of supernova discoveries on a certain date. Just after a new moon, we observe some 50 to 100 high-galactic lattitute fields-each containing almost a thousand high-redshift galaxies-in two nights on the Cerro Tololo 4-meter telescope with Tyson & Bernstein's wide-field camera. We return three weeks later to observe the same

175

A comprehensive field and laboratory study of scale control and scale squeezes in Sumatra, Indonesia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scale squeezes were performed on thirteen wells in the Duri Field, Sumatra. At the time the squeezes were completed, seven were designed to be `Acid Squeezes` and six were designed to be `Neutral Squeezes.` In the course of preparing for the scale squeezes, produced waters were collected and analyzed. In addition, scale inhibitor evaluations, and inhibitor compatibility studies were completed. Simulated squeezes were done in the laboratory to predict field performance. The methodologies and results of the background work are reported. In addition, the relative effectiveness of the two sets of squeezes is discussed. The inhibitor flowback concentrations alter the squeezes, in all cases, can be explained using speciation chemistry and the amorphous and crystalline phase solubilities of the inhibitor used. The wells squeezed with a more acidic inhibitor have more predictable and uniform inhibitor return concentration curves than the wells squeezed with a more neutral scale inhibitor.

Oddo, J.E.; Reizer, J.M.; Sitz, C.D. [Champion Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Setia, D.E.A. [FMT Production Duri P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia (Indonesia); Hinrichsen, C.J. [Texaco Panama, Bellaire, TX (United States); Sujana, W. [P.T. Champion Kumia Djaja Technologies, Jakarta (Indonesia)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

CATALYST ENHANCED MICRO SCALE BATCHCATALYST ENHANCED MICRO SCALE BATCH ASSEMBLYASSEMBLY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CATALYST ENHANCED MICRO SCALE BATCHCATALYST ENHANCED MICRO SCALE BATCH ASSEMBLYASSEMBLY RajashreeCollection/Analysis Capabilities · Parts (800x800x50µmParts (800x800x50µm33 ) and catalysts (2x2x.5mm) and catalysts (2x2x.5mm33 non-participating millimeter scale parts that act as `catalysts'. We present experimental results

177

The San Jose Scale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control much easier now than we will ever be able to do in the future. It is spreading and every succeeding year makes the problem more and more difficult of control. 1 Let us briefly consider what the insect-is, its habits and life history ; also...? ture, described it and gave it the appropriate name of ? Pernicious Scale.? Its introduction into California was for some years a mystery until it was found that trees imported from China were infested with the pest. In 1901-,02 Prof. C. L. Marlatt...

Conradi, Albert F.

1906-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Scale Invariance in the Severity of Terrorism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the spirit of Richardson's original (1948) study of the statistics of deadly conflicts, we study the frequency and severity of terrorist attacks worldwide over the past 38 years, and show that these events are uniformly characterized by the phenomenon of scale invariance, i.e., the frequency scales as an inverse power of the severity, P(x) ~ x^-alpha. We show that this property is a robust feature of terrorism, existing in terrorism that targets both industrialized and non-industrialized countries, across different weapon-types and even over short time-scales. We show that the scaling exponent fluctuates about alpha= 2.5, that the center of the distribution oscillates slightly with a period of roughly tau ~ 13 years, and that current models of event incidence cannot account for the variation in event severity or the scale invariance property of global terrorism. Finally, we propose a simple toy model for the generation of these statistics, and briefly discuss its implications.

Clauset, A; Gleditsch, K S; Clauset, Aaron; Young, Maxwell; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The large-scale structure of vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The vacuum state in quantum field theory is known to exhibit an important number of fundamental physical features. In this work we explore the possibility that this state could also present a non-trivial space-time structure on large scales. In particular, we will show that by imposing the renormalized vacuum energy-momentum tensor to be conserved and compatible with cosmological observations, the vacuum energy of sufficiently heavy fields behaves at late times as non-relativistic matter rather than as a cosmological constant. In this limit, the vacuum state supports perturbations whose speed of sound is negligible and accordingly allows the growth of structures in the vacuum energy itself. This large-scale structure of vacuum could seed the formation of galaxies and clusters very much in the same way as cold dark matter does.

Albareti, F D; Maroto, A L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Scaling of Decoherence Effects in Quantum Computers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The scaling of decoherence rates with the number of q-bits is studied for a simple quantum computer model. Two state q-bits are localised around well-separated positions via trapping potentials, but vibrational motion of q-bits centre of mass motion occurs. Coherent one and two q-bit gating processes are controlled by external classical fields and facilitated by a high Q cavity mode. Decoherence due to q-bit and cavity mode coupling to a bath of spontaneous emission modes, cavity decay modes and to the vibrational modes is treated. A non-Markovian treatment of the short time behaviour of the fidelity is presented, enabling time scales for decoherence to be determined, together with their dependence on q-bit number for the case where the q-bit/cavity mode system is in a pure state and the baths are in thermal states.

B. J. Dalton

2003-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Confinement scaling and ignition in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A drift wave turbulence model is used to compute the scaling and magnitude of central electron temperature and confinement time of tokamak plasmas. The results are in accord with experiment. Application to ignition experiments shows that high density (1 to 2) . 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/, high field, B/sub T/ > 10 T, but low temperature T approx. 6 keV constitute the optimum path to ignition.

Perkins, F.W.; Sun, Y.C.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous ion, Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+} is oxidized to Fe{sup 3+} - in the presence of goethite seed particles. Rhenium does not mimic that process; it is not a strong enough reducing agent to duplicate the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Fe{sup 2+} redox reactions. Laboratory tests conducted in parallel with these scaled tests identified modifications to the liquid chemistry necessary to reduce ReO{sub 4}{sup -} and capture rhenium in the solids at levels similar to those achieved by Um (2010) for inclusion of Tc into goethite. By implementing these changes, Re was incorporated into Fe-rich solids for testing at VSL. The changes also changed the phase of iron that was in the slurry product: rather than forming goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), the process produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Magnetite was considered by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL to probably be a better product to improve Re retention in the melter because it decomposes at a higher temperature than goethite (1538 C vs. 136 C). The feasibility tests at VSL were conducted using Re-rich magnetite. The tests did not indicate an improved retention of Re in the glass during vitrification, but they did indicate an improved melting rate (+60%), which could have significant impact on HLW processing. It is still to be shown whether the Re is a solid solution in the magnetite as {sup 99}Tc was determined to be in goethite.

Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

2011-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

183

Cosmology on the Largest Scales with the SKA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of the Universe on ultra-large scales is one of the major science cases for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The SKA will be able to probe a vast volume of the cosmos, thus representing a unique instrument, amongst next-generation cosmological experiments, for scrutinising the Universe's properties on the largest cosmic scales. Probing cosmic structures on extremely large scales will have many advantages. For instance, the growth of perturbations is well understood for those modes, since it falls fully within the linear regime. Also, such scales are unaffected by the poorly understood feedback of baryonic physics. On ultra-large cosmic scales, two key effects become significant: primordial non-Gaussianity and relativistic corrections to cosmological observables. Moreover, if late-time acceleration is driven not by dark energy but by modifications to general relativity, then such modifications should become apparent near and above the horizon scale. As a result, the SKA is forecast to deliver transf...

Camera, S; Bull, P; Bertacca, D; Chen, X; Ferreira, P G; Kunz, M; Maartens, R; Mao, Y; Santos, M G; Shapiro, P R; Viel, M; Xu, Y

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Scaling of fluctuations in a colloidal glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report experimental measurements of particle dynamics in a colloidal glass in order to understand the dynamical heterogeneities associated with the cooperative motion of the particles in the glassy regime. We study the local and global fluctuation of correlation and response functions in an aging colloidal glass. The observables display universal scaling behavior following a modified power-law, with a plateau dominating the less heterogeneous short-time regime and a power-law tail dominating the highly heterogeneous long-time regime.

P. Wang; C. Song; H. A. Makse

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

On the physical basis of cosmic time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this manuscript we initiate a systematic examination of the physical basis for the time concept in cosmology. We discuss and defend the idea that the physical basis of the time concept is necessarily related to physical processes which could conceivably take place among the material constituents available in the universe. It is common practice to link the concept of cosmic time with a space-time metric set up to describe the universe at large scales, and then define a cosmic time $t$ as what is measured by a comoving standard clock. We want to examine, however, the physical basis for setting up a comoving reference frame and, in particular, what could be meant by a standard clock. For this purpose we introduce the concept of a `core' of a clock (which, for a standard clock in cosmology, is a scale-setting physical process) and we ask if such a core can--in principle--be found in the available physics contemplated in the various `stages' of the early universe. We find that a first problem arises above the quark-gluon phase transition (which roughly occurs when the cosmological model is extrapolated back to $\\sim 10^{-5}$ seconds) where there might be no bound systems left, and the concept of a physical length scale to a certain extent disappears. A more serious problem appears above the electroweak phase transition believed to occur at $\\sim 10^{-11}$ seconds. At this point the property of mass (almost) disappears and it becomes difficult to identify a physical basis for concepts like length scale, energy scale and temperature -- which are all intimately linked to the concept of time in modern cosmology. This situation suggests that the concept of a time scale in `very early' universe cosmology lacks a physical basis or, at least, that the time scale will have to be based on speculative new physics.

Svend Erik Rugh; Henrik Zinkernagel

2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

186

Planning of Minimum-Time Trajectories for Robot Arms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The minimum-time for a robot arm has been a longstanding and unsolved problem of considerable interest. We present a general solution to this problem that involves joint-space tesselation, a dynamic time-scaling ...

Sahar, Gideon

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Filamentation Time Diagnosis of Thinning Troughs and Cutoff Lows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper analyzes synoptic-scale trough-thinning processes using a filamentation time diagnostic. The filamentation time diagnostic is derived from the potential vorticity equation expressed in spherical coordinates in the horizontal plane and ...

Yu-Ming Tsai; Hung-Chi Kuo; Wayne H. Schubert

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Hurst exponents for short time series  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A concept called balanced estimator of diffusion entropy is proposed to detect quantitatively scalings in short time series. The effectiveness is verified by detecting successfully scaling properties for a large number of artificial fractional Brownian motions. Calculations show that this method can give reliable scalings for short time series with length ?102. It is also used to detect scalings in the Shanghai Stock Index, five stock catalogs, and a total of 134 stocks collected from the Shanghai Stock Exchange Market. The scaling exponent for each catalog is significantly larger compared with that for the stocks included in the catalog. Selecting a window with size 650, the evolution of scaling for the Shanghai Stock Index is obtained by the window's sliding along the series. Global patterns in the evolutionary process are captured from the smoothed evolutionary curve. By comparing the patterns with the important event list in the history of the considered stock market, the evolution of scaling is matched with the stock index series. We can find that the important events fit very well with global transitions of the scaling behaviors.

Jingchao Qi and Huijie Yang

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

189

Absolute Time Radiometric Dating: the source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absolute Time Radiometric Dating: the source of the dates on the Geologic Time Scale #12 as an element changes to another element, e.g. uranium to lead. · The parent element is radioactive · Carbon-14, C14 Nitrogen-14, N14 · Uranium-235, U235 Lead-207, Pb207 · Potassium-40, K40 Argon-40, Ar40

Kammer, Thomas

190

Spatial and Temporal Scales of Sverdrup Balance* MATTHEW D. THOMAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sciences and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden HELEN L. JOHNSON adjustment occurring on time scales consistent with the basin-crossing times for Rossby waves, as predicted). Sverdrup balance describes a simple yet powerful balance between the wind stress curl and the depth

Stevens, David

191

Time Machine at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently, black hole and brane production at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been widely discussed. We suggest that there is a possibility to test causality at the LHC. We argue that if the scale of quantum gravity is of the order of few TeVs, proton-proton collisions at the LHC could lead to the formation of time machines (spacetime regions with closed timelike curves) which violate causality. One model for the time machine is a traversable wormhole. We argue that the traversable wormhole production cross section at the LHC is of the same order as the cross section for the black hole production. Traversable wormholes assume violation of the null energy condition (NEC) and an exotic matter similar to the dark energy is required. Decay of the wormholes/time machines and signatures of time machine events at the LHC are discussed.

I. Ya. Aref'eva; I. V. Volovich

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Scaled Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Place: San Francisco, California Sector: Solar Product: Scaled Solar manufacturers and markets utility-grade, concentrated photovoltaic solar energy systems to commercial...

193

MMR: A Platform for Large-Scale Forensic Computing Vassil Roussev, Liqiang Wang, Golden G. Richard III, Lodovico Marziale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ii MMR: A Platform for Large-Scale Forensic Computing Vassil Roussev, Liqiang Wang, Golden G-SCALE FORENSIC COMPUTING Middleware Support for MapReduce Processing Abstract The timely processing of large-scale digital forensic targets demands the empoyment of large-scale distributed resources, as well

Richard III, Golden G.

194

High-Performance Computing for Real-Time Grid Analysis and Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power grids worldwide are undergoing an unprecedented transition as a result of grid evolution meeting information revolution. The grid evolution is largely driven by the desire for green energy. Emerging grid technologies such as renewable generation, smart loads, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and distributed generation provide opportunities to generate energy from green sources and to manage energy use for better system efficiency. With utility companies actively deploying these technologies, a high level of penetration of these new technologies is expected in the next 5-10 years, bringing in a level of intermittency, uncertainties, and complexity that the grid did not see nor design for. On the other hand, the information infrastructure in the power grid is being revolutionized with large-scale deployment of sensors and meters in both the transmission and distribution networks. The future grid will have two-way flows of both electrons and information. The challenge is how to take advantage of the information revolution: pull the large amount of data in, process it in real time, and put information out to manage grid evolution. Without addressing this challenge, the opportunities in grid evolution will remain unfulfilled. This transition poses grand challenges in grid modeling, simulation, and information presentation. The computational complexity of underlying power grid modeling and simulation will significantly increase in the next decade due to an increased model size and a decreased time window allowed to compute model solutions. High-performance computing is essential to enable this transition. The essential technical barrier is to vastly increase the computational speed so operation response time can be reduced from minutes to seconds and sub-seconds. The speed at which key functions such as state estimation and contingency analysis are conducted (typically every 3-5 minutes) needs to be dramatically increased so that the analysis of contingencies is both comprehensive and real time. An even bigger challenge is how to incorporate dynamic information into real-time grid operation. Today’s online grid operation is based on a static grid model and can only provide a static snapshot of current system operation status, while dynamic analysis is conducted offline because of low computational efficiency. The offline analysis uses a worst-case scenario to determine transmission limits, resulting in under-utilization of grid assets. This conservative approach does not necessarily lead to reliability. Many times, actual power grid scenarios are not studied, and they will push the grid over the edge and resulting in outages and blackouts. This chapter addresses the HPC needs in power grid analysis and operations. Example applications such as state estimation and contingency analysis are given to demonstrate the value of HPC in power grid applications. Future research directions are suggested for high performance computing applications in power grids to improve the transparency, efficiency, and reliability of power grids.

Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

utility-scale | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

898 898 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142258898 Varnish cache server utility-scale Dataset Summary Description No description given. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released July 03rd, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated July 03rd, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords biopower csp geothermal hydropower hydrothermal Renewable Energy Technical Potential rooftop United States utility-scale wind Data text/csv icon United States Renewable Energy Technical Potential (csv, 7.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment

196

Utility Scale Wind turbine Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Three Affiliated Tribes proposing to Department of Energy was nothing new to Denmark. National Meteorological Studies have proved that North Dakota has some of the most consistence wind resources in the world. The Three Affiliated Tribes wanted to assess their potential and become knowledgeable to developing this new and upcoming resource now valuable. By the Tribe implementing the Utility-scale Wind Turbine Project on Fort Berthold, the tribe has proven the ability to complete a project, and has already proceeded in a feasibility studies to developing a large-scale wind farm on the reservation due to tribal knowledge learned, public awareness, and growing support of a Nation wanting clean renewable energy. The tribe is working through the various measures and regulations with the want to be self-sufficient, independent, and marketable with 17,000 times the wind energy needed to service Fort Berthold alone.

Terry Fredericks

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Five-Dimensional Cosmological Scaling Solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A five-dimensional Ricci-flat cosmological solution is studied by assuming that the induced 4D matter contains two components: the usual fluid for dark matter as well as baryons and a scalar field with an exponential potential for dark energy. With use of the phase-plane analysis it is shown that there exist two late-time attractors one of which corresponds to a universe dominated by the scalar field alone and the other is a scaling solution in which the energy density of the scalar field remains proportional to that of the dark matter. It is furthermore shown that for this 5D scaling solution the universe expands with the same rate as in the 4D FRW models and not relies on which 4D hypersurface the universe is located in the 5D manifold.

Baorong Chang; Hongya Liu; Huanying Liu; Lixin Xu

2005-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

198

Time-parallel multiscale/multiphysics framework  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce the time-parallel compound wavelet matrix method (tpCWM) for modeling the temporal evolution of multiscale and multiphysics systems. The method couples time parallel (TP) and CWM methods operating at different spatial and temporal scales. ... Keywords: 02.00.00, 02.10.Jf, 05.10.-a, 46.15.-x, 47.70.Fw, Parallel-in-time, Wavelet-based multiscaling

G. Frantziskonis; K. Muralidharan; P. Deymier; S. Simunovic; P. Nukala; S. Pannala

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

SHARP Assembly-Scale Multiphysics Demonstration Simulations | Argonne  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SHARP Assembly-Scale Multiphysics Demonstration Simulations SHARP Assembly-Scale Multiphysics Demonstration Simulations Title SHARP Assembly-Scale Multiphysics Demonstration Simulations Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2013 Authors Tautges, TJ, Fischer, PF, Grindeanu, I, Jain, R, Mahajan, A, Obabko, AV, Smith, MA, Merzari, E, Ferencz, R Document Number ANL/MCS-NE-13-9 Abstract The NEAMS Reactor Product Line effort aims to develop an integrated multiphysics simulation capability for the design and analysis of future generations of nuclear power plants. The Reactor Product Line code suite's multi-resolution hierarchy is being designed to ultimately span the full range of length and time scales present in relevant reactor design and safety analyses, as well as scale from desktop to petaflop computing platforms.

200

Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar April 16, 2013 1:00PM MDT Webinar This free webinar will be held on April 16, 2013, from 1-2:15 p.m. Mountain Daylight Time. It will provide information on San Jose, California's, commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system, and the Forest County Potawatomi Community's anaerobic digester project. Implementing Anaerobic Digestion in San Jose's Integrated Processing Infrastructure This presentation will provide background on San Jose, California's, leading-edge program using the nation's first commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system to process commercial organics from more than 8,000 businesses in the city. Phase one of the Zero Waste

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Large-Scale Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Large-scale hydropower plants are generally developed to produce electricity for government or electric utility projects. These plants are more than 30 megawatts (MW) in size, and there is more than 80,000 MW of installed generation capacity in the United States today. Most large-scale hydropower projects use a dam and a reservoir to retain water from a river. When the stored water is released, it passes through and rotates turbines, which spin generators to produce electricity. Water stored in a reservoir can be accessed quickly for use during times when the demand for electricity is high. Dammed hydropower projects can also be built as power storage facilities.

202

Large-Scale Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Large-scale hydropower plants are generally developed to produce electricity for government or electric utility projects. These plants are more than 30 megawatts (MW) in size, and there is more than 80,000 MW of installed generation capacity in the United States today. Most large-scale hydropower projects use a dam and a reservoir to retain water from a river. When the stored water is released, it passes through and rotates turbines, which spin generators to produce electricity. Water stored in a reservoir can be accessed quickly for use during times when the demand for electricity is high. Dammed hydropower projects can also be built as power storage facilities.

203

9 - Large-scale biomass combustion plants: an overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: For a long time biomass was combusted mostly on a small scale. Now the largest biomass boilers are over 500 MWth. This chapter tries to outline the main methods for large-scale biomass combustion. The main boiler types are the grate and bubbling-fluidised bed boilers although circulating-fluidised bed and pulverised firing do play a role. Particular emphasis has been placed on emissions, the effect of fuel quality and operating issues.

S. Caillat; E. Vakkilainen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

205

Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up to $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $\\approx 1000$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.

Marino, Dr. Raffaele [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mininni, Dr. Pablo D. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Rosenberg, Duane L [ORNL; Pouquet, Dr. Annick [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Hydranet: network support for scaling of large scale servic es  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the explosive growth of demand for services on the Internet, the networking infrastructure (routers 7 protocols, servers) is under considerable stress. Mechanisms are needed for current and future IP services to scale in a client transparent...

Chawla, Hamesh

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Scale Sensitivity and Rank Preservation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the previous chapters we have extensively used a geometric scale in order to model the gradations of comparative human judgement. Geometric progression seems to be reasonable but the progression factor 2 es...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently f...

Crua, Cyril

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Spreadsheet Based Scaling Calculations and Membrane Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many membrane element manufacturers provide a computer program to aid buyers in the use of their elements. However, to date there are few examples of fully integrated public domain software available for calculating reverse osmosis and nanofiltration system performance. The Total Flux and Scaling Program (TFSP), written for Excel 97 and above, provides designers and operators new tools to predict membrane system performance, including scaling and fouling parameters, for a wide variety of membrane system configurations and feedwaters. The TFSP development was funded under EPA contract 9C-R193-NTSX. It is freely downloadable at www.reverseosmosis.com/download/TFSP.zip. TFSP includes detailed calculations of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration system performance. Of special significance, the program provides scaling calculations for mineral species not normally addressed in commercial programs, including aluminum, iron, and phosphate species. In addition, ASTM calculations for common species such as calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}{times}2H{sub 2}O), BaSO{sub 4}, SrSO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2}, and LSI are also provided. Scaling calculations in commercial membrane design programs are normally limited to the common minerals and typically follow basic ASTM methods, which are for the most part graphical approaches adapted to curves. In TFSP, the scaling calculations for the less common minerals use subsets of the USGS PHREEQE and WATEQ4F databases and use the same general calculational approach as PHREEQE and WATEQ4F. The activities of ion complexes are calculated iteratively. Complexes that are unlikely to form in significant concentration were eliminated to simplify the calculations. The calculation provides the distribution of ions and ion complexes that is used to calculate an effective ion product ''Q.'' The effective ion product is then compared to temperature adjusted solubility products (Ksp's) of solids in order to calculate a Saturation Index (SI) for each solid of interest. The SI is expressed as a log value (log(Q) - log(Ksp)) where positive values indicate potential scaling conditions. As this is an unprotected spreadsheet, the methodology is plainly visible to and readily modified by the user.

Wolfe, T D; Bourcier, W L; Speth, T F

2000-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

Precision Timed Machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.4 Precision Timed Machines . . . . .Precision Timed Machine 2.1precision timed (PRET) machine. pages 264–265, June 2007. [

Liu, Isaac Suyu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for large scale electronic structure calculations. J. Phys.large-scale electronic struc- ture calculations. Phys. Rev.Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations Lin-Wang Wang,

Wang, Lin-Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Linear scaling 3D fragment method for large-scale electronic structure calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

large-scale electronic structure calculations. Phys. Rev. B,for large scale electronic structure calculations. J. Phys.Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations Lin-Wang Wang,

Wang, Lin-Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new linearly scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method for large scale ab initio electronic structure calculations. LS3DF is based on a divide-and-conquer approach, which incorporates a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects due to the subdivision of the system. As a consequence, the LS3DF program yields essentially the same results as direct density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The fragments of the LS3DF algorithm can be calculated separately with different groups of processors. This leads to almost perfect parallelization on tens of thousands of processors. After code optimization, we were able to achieve 35.1 Tflop/s, which is 39percent of the theoretical speed on 17,280 Cray XT4 processor cores. Our 13,824-atom ZnTeO alloy calculation runs 400 times faster than a direct DFTcalculation, even presuming that the direct DFT calculation can scale well up to 17,280 processor cores. These results demonstrate the applicability of the LS3DF method to material simulations, the advantage of using linearly scaling algorithms over conventional O(N3) methods, and the potential for petascale computation using the LS3DF method.

Wang, Lin-Wang; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, Hongzhang; Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David H.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Holographic principle and large scale structure in the universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A reasonable representation of large scale structure, in a closed universe so large it's nearly flat, can be developed by extending the holographic principle and assuming the bits of information describing the distribution of matter density in the universe remain in thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background radiation. The analysis identifies three levels of self-similar large scale structure, corresponding to superclusters, galaxies, and star clusters, between today's observable universe and stellar systems. The self-similarity arises because, according to the virial theorem, the average gravitational potential energy per unit volume in each structural level is the same and depends only on the gravitational constant. The analysis indicates stellar systems first formed at z\\approx62, consistent with the findings of Naoz et al, and self-similar large scale structures began to appear at redshift z\\approx4. It outlines general features of development of self-similar large scale structures at redshift z<4. The analysis is consistent with observations for angular momentum of large scale structures as a function of mass, and average speed of substructures within large scale structures. The analysis also indicates relaxation times for star clusters are generally less than the age of the universe and relaxation times for more massive structures are greater than the age of the universe.

T. R. Mongan

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

215

Energy-optimal schedules of real-time jobs with hard deadlines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we develop algorithms that make optimal use of frequency scaling to schedule jobs with real??time requirements. Dynamic voltage scaling is a technique used to reduce energy consumption in wide variety of systems. Reducing supply...

George, John Vijoe

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Hippocampal ``Time Cells'': Time versus Path Integration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neuron Article Hippocampal ``Time Cells'': Time versus Path Integration Benjamin J. Kraus,1 function of hippocampal networks (Etienne and Jeffery, 2004; McNaughton et al., 1991, 1996, 2006; O

Hasselmo, Michael

217

Time in quantum mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT A. Classical Mechanics B. Quantum Theory . C. The Problem 3 4 6 III. TIME ATOMS AND DISCRETE TIME A. The Earliest Applications of Atomistic and Discrete Time . . . . . B. The Radiating Electron... . C. Quantum Field Theory 8 10 l2 IV. TIME OPERATOR FORMULATIONS 16 A. Advocates Against a Time Operator . B. The Possibility of a Time Operator C, Advocates in Favor of a Time Operator D. A Restricted Time Delay Operator: Scattering Theory...

Chapin, Kimberly R.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

218

Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales...photonic structure| Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales...ultrastructure Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales...Controlled absorption of incident solar radiation is the principal...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) was studied within ESA M3 Cosmic Vision framework and participated in the final down-selection for a launch slot in 2022-2024. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument, LOFT will study the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions, such as the strong gravitational field in the innermost regions of accretion flows close to black holes and neutron stars, and the supra-nuclear densities in the interior of neutron stars. The science payload is based on a Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m 2 effective area, 2-30 keV, 240 eV spectral resolution, 1 deg collimated field of view) and a WideField Monitor (WFM, 2-50 keV, 4 steradian field of view, 1 arcmin source location accuracy, 300 eV spectral resolution). The WFM is equipped with an on-board system for bright events (e.g. GRB) localization. The trigger time and position of these events are broadcast to the ground within 30 s from discovery. In this paper we ...

Feroci, M; Bozzo, E; Barret, D; Brandt, S; Hernanz, M; van der Klis, M; Pohl, M; Santangelo, A; Stella, L; Watts, A; Wilms, J; Zane, S; Ahangarianabhari, M; Albertus, C; Alford, M; Alpar, A; Altamirano, D; Alvarez, L; Amati, L; Amoros, C; Andersson, N; Antonelli, A; Argan, A; Artigue, R; Artigues, B; Atteia, J -L; Azzarello, P; Bakala, P; Baldazzi, G; Balman, S; Barbera, M; van Baren, C; Bhattacharyya, S; Baykal, A; Belloni, T; Bernardini, F; Bertuccio, G; Bianchi, S; Bianchini, A; Binko, P; Blay, P; Bocchino, F; Bodin, P; Bombaci, I; Bidaud, J -M Bonnet; Boutloukos, S; Bradley, L; Braga, J; Brown, E; Bucciantini, N; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Bursa, M; Budtz-Jørgensen, C; Cackett, E; Cadoux, F R; Cais, P; Caliandro, G A; Campana, R; Campana, S; Capitanio, F; Casares, J; Casella, P; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cavazzuti, E; Cerda-Duran, P; Chakrabarty, D; Château, F; Chenevez, J; Coker, J; Cole, R; Collura, A; Cornelisse, R; Courvoisier, T; Cros, A; Cumming, A; Cusumano, G; D'Aì, A; D'Elia, V; Del Monte, E; De Luca, A; De Martino, D; Dercksen, J P C; De Pasquale, M; De Rosa, A; Del Santo, M; Di Cosimo, S; Diebold, S; Di Salvo, T; 1), I Donnarumma; (32), A Drago; (33), M Durant; (107), D Emmanoulopoulos; (135), M H Erkut; (85), P Esposito; (1, Y Evangelista; 1b),; (24), A Fabian; (34), M Falanga; (25), Y Favre; (35), C Feldman; (128), V Ferrari; (3), C Ferrigno; (133), M Finger; (36), M H Finger; (35, G W Fraser; +),; (2), M Frericks; (7), F Fuschino; (125), M Gabler; (37), D K Galloway; (6), J L Galvez Sanchez; (6), E Garcia-Berro; (10), B Gendre; (62), S Gezari; (39), A B Giles; (40), M Gilfanov; (10), P Giommi; (102), G Giovannini; (102), M Giroletti; (4), E Gogus; (105), A Goldwurm; (86), K Goluchová; (16), D Götz; (16), C Gouiffes; (56), M Grassi; (42), P Groot; (17), M Gschwender; (128), L Gualtieri; (32), C Guidorzi; (3), L Guy; (2), D Haas; (50), P Haensel; (29), M Hailey; (19), F Hansen; (42), D H Hartmann; (43), C A Haswell; (88), K Hebeler; (37), A Heger; (2), W Hermsen; (28), J Homan; (19), A Hornstrup; (23, R Hudec; 72),; (45), J Huovelin; (5), A Ingram; (2), J J M in't Zand; (27), G Israel; (20), K Iwasawa; (47), L Izzo; (2), H M Jacobs; (17), F Jetter; (118, T Johannsen; 127),; (2), H M Jacobs; (2), P Jonker; (126), J Josè; (49), P Kaaret; (123), G Kanbach; (23), V Karas; (6), D Karelin; (29), D Kataria; (49), L Keek; (29), T Kennedy; (17), D Klochkov; (50), W Kluzniak; (17), K Kokkotas; (45), S Korpela; (51), C Kouveliotou; (87), I Kreykenbohm; (2), L M Kuiper; (19), I Kuvvetli; (7), C Labanti; (52), D Lai; (53), F K Lamb; (2), P P Laubert; (105), F Lebrun; (8), D Lin; (29), D Linder; (54), G Lodato; (55), F Longo; (19), N Lund; (131), T J Maccarone; (14), D Macera; (8), S Maestre; (62), S Mahmoodifar; (17), D Maier; (56), P Malcovati; (120), I Mandel; (144), V Mangano; (50), A Manousakis; (7), M Marisaldi; (109), A Markowitz; (35), A Martindale; (59), G Matt; (107), I M McHardy; (60), A Melatos; (61), M Mendez; (85), S Mereghetti; (68), M Michalska; (20), S Migliari; (85, R Mignani; 108),; (62), M C Miller; (49), J M Miller; (57), T Mineo; (112), G Miniutti; (64), S Morsink; (65), C Motch; (13), S Motta; (66), M Mouchet; (8), G Mouret; (19), J Mula?ová; (1, F Muleri; 1b),; (140), T Muñoz-Darias; (95), I Negueruela; (28), J Neilsen; (43), A J Norton; (28), M Nowak; (35), P O'Brien; (19), P E H Olsen; (102), M Orienti; (99, M Orio; 110),; (7), M Orlandini; (68), P Orleanski; (35), J P Osborne; (69), R Osten; (70), F Ozel; (1, L Pacciani; 1b),; (119), M Paolillo; (6), A Papitto; (20), J M Paredes; (83, A Patruno; 141),; (71), B Paul; (17), E Perinati; (115), A Pellizzoni; (47), A V Penacchioni; (136), M A Perez; (72), V Petracek; (10), C Pittori; (95), J Pons; (6), J Portell; (115), A Possenti; (73), J Poutanen; (122), M Prakash; (16), P Le Provost; (70), D Psaltis; (8), D Rambaud; (8), P Ramon; (76), G Ramsay; (1, M Rapisarda; 1b),; (77), A Rachevski; (77), I Rashevskaya; (78), P S Ray; (6), N Rea; (80), S Reddy; (113, P Reig; 81),; (63), M Reina Aranda; (28), R Remillard; (62), C Reynolds; (124), L Rezzolla; (20), M Ribo; (2), R de la Rie; (115), A Riggio; (138), A Rios; (82, P Rodríguez- Gil; 104),; (16), J Rodriguez; (3), R Rohlfs; (57), P Romano; (83), E M R Rossi; (50), A Rozanska; (29), A Rousseau; (84), F Ryde; (63), L Sabau-Graziati; (6), G Sala; (85), R Salvaterra; (61), A Sanna; (134), J Sandberg; (130), S Scaringi; (16), S Schanne; (86), J Schee; (87), C Schmid; (117), S Shore; (27), R Schneider; (88), A Schwenk; (89), A D Schwope; (114), J -Y Seyler; (90), A Shearer; (29), A Smith; (58), D M Smith; (29), P J Smith; (23), V Sochora; (1), P Soffitta; (61), P Soleri; (29), A Spencer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Accounting for biological variability and sampling scale: a multi-scale approach to building epidemic models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sedentary, by developing a multi-scale framework...individuals within families (or other social units...within parishes). The multi-scale framework developed...and sampling scale: a multi-scale approach to building epidemic models...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Scale Invariance in Global Terrorism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traditional analysis of international terrorism, now an endemic feature of the modern era, has not sought to explain the emergence of rare but extremely severe events. Using the tools of extremal statistics, we analyze terrorist attacks worldwide between 1968 and 2004, as compiled in the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) database. We find that international terrorism exhibits a "scale-free" behavior with an exponent close to two. We conjecture that such power-law behavior is an extension of the still unexplained scale invariance between the frequency and intensity of wars. Finally, we briefly consider the reasons why such scaling may exist and its implications for counter-terrorism policy.

Clauset, A; Clauset, Aaron; Young, Maxwell

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Scaling analysis for the ocean motions in single phase natural circulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of ocean motions should be analyzed properly in order to guarantee the safety margin of facilities in the engineering design of floating nuclear reactor system. The scaling analysis for the ocean motions in single phase natural circulation is performed. The scaling criteria for both single ocean motions and compound ocean motions are obtained. The selection and optimization of scaling criteria is also analyzed. The oscillating amplitude in experiments should be kept to be identical to that in actual ocean motions. The oscillating period is determined by the time scale. The length scale, oscillating period and experimental power should be taken into consideration synthetically to obtain a reasonable experimental period.

B.H. Yan; Q.L. Wen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Scaling Properties of Universal Tetramers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We evidence the existence of a universal correlation between the binding energies of successive four-boson bound states (tetramers), for large two-body scattering lengths (a), related to an additional scale not constrained by three-body Efimov physics. Relevant to ultracold atom experiments, the atom-trimer relaxation peaks for |a|{yields}{infinity} when the ratio between the tetramer and trimer energies is {approx_equal}4.6 and a new tetramer is formed. The new scale is also revealed for a<0 by the prediction of a correlation between the positions of two successive peaks in the four-atom recombination process.

Hadizadeh, M. R.; Yamashita, M. T. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomio, Lauro [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Delfino, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

LARGE-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS Course Description: Potential vorticity concepts; quasi-geostrophic and semi-geostrophic equa-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Synoptic Time Scales (Hack et al. 1989, Hack and Schubert 1990, Schubert et al. 1991) 4.3 The Shallow

225

Photonic nanojet-enhanced nanometer-scale germanium photodiode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photonic nanojet-enhanced nanometer-scale germanium photodiode Mehdi Hasan and Jamesina J. Simpson 24 July 2013 A design challenge for photodiodes yielding both high speed and responsivity is proposed, focusing electromagnetic energy into a photodiode. Three-dimensional finite-difference time

Simpson, Jamesina J.

226

High-resolution, multi-scale modeling of watershed hydrology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enrique R. Vivoni An Opportunity to Integrate Remote Sensing Observations, Field Data Collection distribution of topography, rainfall, soils, vegetation, meteorology, soil moisture. Field Data and Remote's Hydrologic and Energetic System: Water and Heat Storages and Transports over Many Time and Space Scales P ET

Vivoni, Enrique R.

227

Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires* Departments of Physics by vastly reducing the space, labor, and time required for calculations. Microfluidic systems hold similar, the long-range nature of viscous flows and the small device dimensions inherent in microfluidics mean

Quake, Stephen R.

228

Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we consider the 1-component real scalar $\\phi^4$ theory in 4 space-time dimensions on the lattice and investigate the finite size scaling of thermodynamic quantities to study whether the thermodynamic limit is attained. The results are obtained for the symmetric phase of the theory.

Debasish Banerjee; Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

229

Dynamic bifurcations: hysteresis, scaling laws and feedback control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

slowly in time, for instance: #15; parameters which may be diÃ?cult to control, such as the temperature, such as the temperature di#11;erence in a convection experiment or the supply voltage of an electrical device, whichDynamic bifurcations: hysteresis, scaling laws and feedback control N. Berglund School of Physics

Berglund, Nils

230

Global Warming in Geologic Time  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

David Archer

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

231

Anomalous stress diffusion in earthquake triggering: Correlation length, time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This is consistent with a clock advance on the failure time based on the constitutive rules for subcritical crack growth following a transient change in the loading stress. The power law scaling disappears after a few

232

Ultra-Scale Computing for Emergency Evacuation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emergency evacuations are carried out in anticipation of a disaster such as hurricane landfall or flooding, and in response to a disaster that strikes without a warning. Existing emergency evacuation modeling and simulation tools are primarily designed for evacuation planning and are of limited value in operational support for real time evacuation management. In order to align with desktop computing, these models reduce the data and computational complexities through simple approximations and representations of real network conditions and traffic behaviors, which rarely represent real-world scenarios. With the emergence of high resolution physiographic, demographic, and socioeconomic data and supercomputing platforms, it is possible to develop micro-simulation based emergency evacuation models that can foster development of novel algorithms for human behavior and traffic assignments, and can simulate evacuation of millions of people over a large geographic area. However, such advances in evacuation modeling and simulations demand computational capacity beyond the desktop scales and can be supported by high performance computing platforms. This paper explores the motivation and feasibility of ultra-scale computing for increasing the speed of high resolution emergency evacuation simulations.

Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Zacharia, Thomas [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Vortex Dynamics in NanoScale Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Into the Vortex: Dynamics in Nanoscale Materials Into the Vortex: Dynamics in Nanoscale Materials Micron and nanosized magnets are of great interest for their potential applications in new electronic devices, such as magnetic random access memories. As the size of magnets is reduced to a 1-micron scale and below, the boundaries (surfaces, perimeters, etc) of the objects begin to profoundly influence both the static and dynamic behavior of the materials. Researchers from Argonne's Materials Science Division (MSD), Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), and Advanced Photon Source (APS) have recently examined the dynamics of 3- to 7-micron-diameter NiFe alloy disks with a combination of theoretical calculations and a new time-resolved magnetic imaging technique using synchrotron-based x-ray photoemission electron

234

Tomographic PIV measurement of coherent dissipation scale structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flow Re Reynolds number RI Impellor radius R? Taylors microscale Reynolds number rx, ry, rz Box counting dimensions Sij Strain rate tensor t Time T0 Piston stroke time u0, v0 Coordinates of optical center in image plane u? Azimuthal velocity uim, vim 2D... and U respectively. The largest turbulent motions are observed to transfer their energy on a time-scale of, ?/U , resulting in a rate of energy transfer, which in statistically steady turbulence can be equated to the mean dissipation rate, ?#15...

Worth, Nicholas

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

235

Nature of Subproton Scale Turbulence in the Solar Wind  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nature of subproton scale fluctuations in the solar wind is an open question, partly because two similar types of electromagnetic turbulence can occur: kinetic Alfvén turbulence and whistler turbulence. These two possibilities, however, have one key qualitative difference: whistler turbulence, unlike kinetic Alfvén turbulence, has negligible power in density fluctuations. In this Letter, we present new observational data, as well as analytical and numerical results, to investigate this difference. These results show, for the first time, that the fluctuations well below the proton scale are predominantly kinetic Alfvén turbulence, and, if present at all, the whistler fluctuations make up only a small fraction of the total energy.

C. H. K. Chen; S. Boldyrev; Q. Xia; J. C. Perez

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Chapter 9 - Large-Scale Hydrogen Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Storage technologies are essential for the integration of fluctuating renewable energies. Large scale storage provides grid stability, which are fundamental for a reliable energy systems and the energy balancing in hours to weeks time ranges to match demand and supply. Our system analysis showed that storage needs are in the two-digit terawatt hour and gigawatt range. Other reports confirm that assessment by stating that by 2040, 40 TWh would be required for this application. The present chapter outlines the general components and functions as well as the economics of a large-scale hydrogen energy storage system.

Erik Wolf

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Quantum Critical Scaling in Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that the emergent relativistic symmetry of electrons in graphene near its quantum critical point (QCP) implies a crucial importance of the Coulomb interaction. We derive scaling laws, valid near the QCP, that dictate the nontrivial magnetic and charge response of interacting graphene. Our analysis yields numerous predictions for how the Coulomb interaction will be manifested in experimental observables such as the diamagnetic response and electronic compressibility.

Daniel E. Sheehy and Jörg Schmalian

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

238

Posterior predictive modeling using multi-scale stochastic inverse parameter estimates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multi-scale binary permeability field estimation from static and dynamic data is completed using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. The binary permeability field is defined as high permeability inclusions within a lower permeability matrix. Static data are obtained as measurements of permeability with support consistent to the coarse scale discretization. Dynamic data are advective travel times along streamlines calculated through a fine-scale field and averaged for each observation point at the coarse scale. Parameters estimated at the coarse scale (30 x 20 grid) are the spatially varying proportion of the high permeability phase and the inclusion length and aspect ratio of the high permeability inclusions. From the non-parametric, posterior distributions estimated for these parameters, a recently developed sub-grid algorithm is employed to create an ensemble of realizations representing the fine-scale (3000 x 2000), binary permeability field. Each fine-scale ensemble member is instantiated by convolution of an uncorrelated multiGaussian random field with a Gaussian kernel defined by the estimated inclusion length and aspect ratio. Since the multiGaussian random field is itself a realization of a stochastic process, the procedure for generating fine-scale binary permeability field realizations is also stochastic. Two different methods are hypothesized to perform posterior predictive tests. Different mechanisms for combining multi Gaussian random fields with kernels defined from the MCMC sampling are examined. Posterior predictive accuracy of the estimated parameters is assessed against a simulated ground truth for predictions at both the coarse scale (effective permeabilities) and at the fine scale (advective travel time distributions). The two techniques for conducting posterior predictive tests are compared by their ability to recover the static and dynamic data. The skill of the inference and the method for generating fine-scale binary permeability fields are evaluated through flow calculations on the resulting fields using fine-scale realizations and comparing them against results obtained with the ground truth fine-scale and coarse-scale permeability fields.

Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen; Marzouk, Youssef M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Ray, Jaideep (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McKenna, Sean Andrew

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Scale Dependence and Localization of the Deformation of Arctic Sea Ice David Marsan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and internal stress gradients, producing spatial gradients in the ice velocity that we refer to as deformationScale Dependence and Localization of the Deformation of Arctic Sea Ice David Marsan Laboratoire de of Arctic sea ice over a 3-day time period is performed for scales of 10 to 1000 km. The deformation field

240

Online Speed Scaling Based on Active Job Count to Minimize Flow plus Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Online Speed Scaling Based on Active Job Count to Minimize Flow plus Energy Tak-Wah Lam Lap-Kei Lee research on online job scheduling has gradually taken speed scaling and energy usage into consideration algorithms that aim at minimizing the total flow time plus energy usage. The results are divided into two

Wong, Prudence W.H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

Lehman, S K

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

242

Scale?up considerations: Pilot to commercial scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of Photovoltaic (PV) technology as a viable business enterprise depends largely on its ability to provide a competitive advantage over other current energy technologies in meeting the customers’ needs. Successful commercialization of the PV technology therefore requires in part an efficient and effective manufacturing strategy in order to ensure a superior quality low cost product. Several key design considerations for process scale?up were examined associated with GPI’s PV module manufacturing expansion project completed in Spring 1994. Particular emphasis was given to product specification process specification process engineering design site location selection environmental/health/safety (EHS) factors and plant maintenance.

Dan Weisiger

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Origin of Decadal-Scale, Eastward-Propagating Heat Content Anomalies in the North Pacific  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Upper ocean heat content (OHC) is at the heart of natural climate variability on interannual-to-decadal time scales, providing climate memory and the source of decadal prediction skill. In the midlatitude North Pacific Ocean, OHC signals are often ...

Bunmei Taguchi; Niklas Schneider

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Indianapolis Power and Light- Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: The Small-Scale Renewable Energy Program is currently closed for residential customers. Applications received during this time will be placed on a waiting list. Funds are still available...

245

Statistical Relationships of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation and Large-scale Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures and QuikSCAT surface divergence. We perform correlation analysis, empirical orthogonal function analysis, and logistic regression analysis on monthly, pentad, daily and near-instantaneous time scales. Logistic regression analysis is able...

Borg, Kyle

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

Stochastic variability of large-scale oceanic flows above topography anomalies Antoine Venaille,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the ubiquity of red noise signals in time series of various oceanic metrics is generally thought to result from but with sufficient spatial resolution to simulate the "oceanic weather system", i.e. mesoscale eddies at scale from

247

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Linking subgrid-scale  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Linking subgrid-scale variability in temperature and humidty to convection Linking subgrid-scale variability in temperature and humidty to convection Pincus, Robert NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center Neale, Richard NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center Batstone, Crispian NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center Klein, Stephen Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Convection parameterizations in large-scale models (e.g. Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert) compute the domain-averaged mass flux as the sum across a spectrum of plumes ascending and entraining in a constant environment. It is known, however, that the temperature and humidity (and so the buoyancy of rising plumes) can vary tremendously within domains as large as those encompassed in climate or weather model grid cells. This variability can feed back on itself over time, so that plumes rising in regions where

248

LAMMPS strong scaling performance optimization on Blue Gene/Q  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LAMMPS "Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator" is an open-source molecular dynamics package from Sandia National Laboratories. Significant performance improvements in strong-scaling and time-to-solution for this application on IBM's Blue Gene/Q have been achieved through computational optimizations of the OpenMP versions of the short-range Lennard-Jones term of the CHARMM force field and the long-range Coulombic interaction implemented with the PPPM (particle-particle-particle mesh) algorithm, enhanced by runtime parameter settings controlling thread utilization. Additionally, MPI communication performance improvements were made to the PPPM calculation by re-engineering the parallel 3D FFT to use MPICH collectives instead of point-to-point. Performance testing was done using an 8.4-million atom simulation scaling up to 16 racks on the Mira system at Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF). Speedups resulting from this effort were in some cases over 2x.

Coffman, Paul; Jiang, Wei; Romero, Nichols A.

2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

249

Falsifying High-Scale Leptogenesis at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring a non-zero value for the cross section of any lepton number violating (LNV) process would put a strong lower limit on the washout factor for the effective lepton number density in the early universe at times close to the electroweak phase transition and thus would lead to important constraints on any high-scale model for the generation of the observed baryon asymmetry based on LNV. In particular, for leptogenesis models with masses of the right-handed neutrinos heavier than the mass scale observed at the LHC, the implied large washout factors would lead to a violation of the out-of-equilibrium condition and exponentially suppress the net lepton number produced in such leptogenesis models. We thus demonstrate that the observation of LNV processes at the LHC results in the falsification of high-scale leptogenesis models. However, no conclusions about the viability of leptogenesis models can be drawn from the non-observation of LNV processes.

Frank F. Deppisch; Julia Harz; Martin Hirsch

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

250

Finite-size scaling in unbiased translocation dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Finite-size scaling arguments naturally lead us to introduce a coordinate-dependent diffusion coefficient in a Fokker-Planck description of the late stage dynamics of unbiased polymer translocation through a membrane pore. The solution for the probability density function of the chemical coordinate matches the initial-stage subdiffusive regime and takes into account the equilibrium entropic drive. Precise scaling relations connect the subdiffusion exponent to the divergence with the polymer length of the translocation time, and also to the singularity of the probability density function at the absorbing boundaries. Quantitative comparisons with numerical simulation data in $d=2$ strongly support the validity of the model and of the predicted scalings.

Giovanni Brandani; Fulvio Baldovin; Enzo Orlandini; Attilio L. Stella

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

251

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

252

Time-Resolved  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Time-Resolved Time-Resolved Time-Resolved Print Of the four fundamental parameters that we use to perceive the physical world (energy, momentum, position, and time) three correspond to the three broad categories of synchrotron experimental measurement techniques: spectroscopy (energy), scattering (momentum), and imaging (position). The fourth parameter-time-can in principle be applied to all the techniques. At the ALS, many experiments can be carried out in real time, with data being recorded from the same sample as it changes over time. Some time-resolved experiments take advantage of the pulsed nature of the ALS's synchrotron radiation, which, like a strobe light, can capture a series of "snapshots" of a process that, when viewed sequentially, show us how a given process evolves over time. Other experiments simply require two pulses: one to "pump" energy into the sample system and a second to probe the system's excited state.

253

Cosmologies with a time dependent vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The idea that the cosmological term, Lambda, should be a time dependent quantity in cosmology is a most natural one. It is difficult to conceive an expanding universe with a strictly constant vacuum energy density, namely one that has remained immutable since the origin of time. A smoothly evolving vacuum energy density that inherits its time-dependence from cosmological functions, such as the Hubble rate or the scale factor, is not only a qualitatively more plausible and intuitive idea, but is also suggested by fundamental physics, in particular by quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time. To implement this notion, is not strictly necessary to resort to ad hoc scalar fields, as usually done in the literature (e.g. in quintessence formulations and the like). A "running" Lambda term can be expected on very similar grounds as one expects (and observes) the running of couplings and masses with a physical energy scale in QFT. Furthermore, the experimental evidence that the equation of state of the dark energy could be evolving with time/redshift (including the possibility that it might currently behave phantom-like) suggests that a time-variable Lambda term (possibly accompanied by a variable Newton's gravitational coupling G=G(t)) could account in a natural way for all these features. Remarkably enough, a class of these models (the "new cosmon") could even be the clue for solving the old cosmological constant problem, including the coincidence problem.

Joan Sola

2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

254

Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the drift. The reason for introducing the fracture-matrix partitioning model is to broaden the conceptual model for flow beneath waste emplacement drifts in a way that does not rely on the specific flow behavior predicted by a dual continuum model and to ensure that radionuclide transport is not underestimated. The fracture-matrix partitioning model provides an alternative method of computing the partitioning of radionuclide releases from drifts without seepage into rock fractures and rock matrix. Drifts without seepage are much more likely to have a significant fraction of radionuclide releases into the rock matrix, and therefore warrant additional attention in terms of the partitioning model used for TSPA.

J. Houseworth

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

255

New Scalings in Nuclear Fragmentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fragment partitions of fragmenting hot nuclei produced in central and semiperipheral collisions have been compared in the excitation energy region 4-10 MeV per nucleon where radial collective expansion takes place. It is shown that, for a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the amount of radial collective energy fixes the mean fragment multiplicity. It is also shown that, at a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the different properties of fragment partitions are completely determined by the reduced fragment multiplicity (i.e., normalized to the source size). Freeze-out volumes seem to play a role in the scalings observed.

Bonnet, E. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Le Neindre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, Ensicaen, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Raduta, Ad. R. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Bougault, R. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, Ensicaen, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Wieleczko, J. P. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, F-75141 Paris cedex 03 (France); Gagnon-Moisan, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire, Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Lukasik, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics IFJ-PAN, PL-31342 Krakow (Poland); Marini, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen cedex (France); Parlog, M. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, Ensicaen, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Utility Scale Solar Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Scale Solar Inc Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 94301 Product: California-based PV tracker maker. References: Utility Scale Solar Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help...

258

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF POLLOCK FISH SCALES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indicated that pollock fish scale protein is as well digested but about 30 percent less assimilated than for growth, the biological values for maintenance, and the digestibilities of pollock fish scale possibilities of wool, an

259

"Thermodynamics", Temporal Correlations and Scaling Laws  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Articles Thermodynamics, Temporal Correlations and Scaling Laws Hirokazu Fujisaka * Department...equilibrium statistical-thermodynamics, and the temporal correlation...static and dynamic scaling laws of relevant functions characteristic......

Hirokazu Fujisaka

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Scale-space research at Utrecht University  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the contributions to scale-space research by Utrecht University over the period 1989–1995. Starting with work on the fundamental basis of scale-space from causality and first principles, t...

Bart M. ter Haar Romeny

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Scale-free information systems networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many real, complex networks have been shown to be scale-free. Scale-free in networks mean that their degree distribution is independent of the network size, have short path lengths and are highly clustered. We identify the ...

Ang, Wee Horng

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Scaling Behaviors of Global Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temporal scaling properties of the monthly sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in global ocean basins are examined by the power spectrum and detrended fluctuation analysis methods in this paper. Analysis results show that scaling behaviors of ...

Ming Luo; Yee Leung; Yu Zhou; Wei Zhang

263

CHAPTER XV - TIME SERIES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter provides an overview of time series. A time series is a set of observations of a variable made at different points of time and arranged in chronological order, each observation representing the value of the variable either at a given moment or during the interval of time between this observation and the preceding one. In general, the observations forming a time-series as made at equidistant intervals of time are considered. The factors affecting time-series may be recurring or nonrecurring, or evolutionary, periodic, or random. The method of moving averages consists in determining the average value for a certain number of terms of a time series and taking this average as the trend normal value for the middle of the period covered in the calculation of the average, that is, the period extent of the moving average.

ISAAC PAENSON

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

The Y-12 Times  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

good use Pages 4 and 5 The comings and goings during June Page 7 Y-12's new talent Ray Smith Donna Watson Bill Wilburn Lisa Xiques times times the B&W Technical Services Y-12,...

265

Modeling subsurface contaminant reactions and transport at the watershed scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are: (1) to numerically examine the multiscale effects of physical and chemical mass transfer processes on watershed scale, variably saturated subsurface contaminant transport, and (2) to conduct numerical simulations on watershed scale reactive solute transport and evaluate their implications to uncertainty characterization and cost benefit analysis. Concurrent physical and chemical nonequilibrium caused by inter aggregate gradients of pressure head and solute concentration and intra-aggregate geochemical and microbiological processes, respectively, may arise at various scales and flowpaths. To this date, experimental investigations of these complex processes at watershed scale remain a challenge and numerical studies are often needed for guidance of water resources management and decision making. This research integrates the knowledge bases developed during previous experimental and numerical investigations at a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the concurrent effects of physical and chemical nonequilibrium. Comparison of numerical results with field data indicates that: (1) multiregion, preferential flow and solute transport exist under partially saturated condition and can be confirmed theoretically, and that (2) mass transfer between pore regions is an important process influencing contaminant movement in the subsurface. Simulations of watershed scale, multi species reactive solute transport suggest that dominance of geochemistry and hydrodynamics may occur simultaneously at different locales and influence the movement of one species relative to another. Execution times on the simulations of the reactive solute transport model also indicate that the model is ready to assist the selection of important parameters for site characterization.

Gwo, J.P.; Jardine, P.M.; D`Azevedo, E.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, G.V. [Desert Research Inst., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modeling Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal at the Subfield Scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study developed a computational strategy that utilizes data inputs from multiple spatial scales to investigate how variability within individual fields can impact sustainable residue removal for bioenergy production. Sustainable use of agricultural residues for bioenergy production requires consideration of the important role that residues play in limiting soil erosion and maintaining soil C, health, and productivity. Increased availability of subfield-scale data sets such as grain yield data, high-fidelity digital elevation models, and soil characteristic data provides an opportunity to investigate the impacts of subfield-scale variability on sustainable agricultural residue removal. Using three representative fields in Iowa, this study contrasted the results of current NRCS conservation management planning analysis with subfield-scale analysis for rake-and-bale removal of agricultural residue. The results of the comparison show that the field-average assumptions used in NRCS conservation management planning may lead to unsustainable residue removal decisions for significant portions of some fields. This highlights the need for additional research on subfield-scale sustainable agricultural residue removal including the development of real-time variable removal technologies for agricultural residue.

Muth, D.J.; McCorkle, D.S.; Koch, J.B.; Bryden, K.M.

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

267

Scaling in high-temperature superconductors by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Hartree approximation is used to study the interplay of two kinds of scaling which arise in high-temperature

Ian D Lawrie

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale Martina Otto, Head of the Policy Unit, United Nations Environment Programme

269

Sapphire Energy, Inc. Demonstration-Scale Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Sapphire Energy, Inc. is scaling up an operational facility to demonstrate conversion of algal carbon dioxide to green crude oil.

270

Large scale inhomogeneity and local dynamical friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effect of a density gradient on Chandrasekhar's dynamical friction formula based on the method of 2-body encounters in the local approximation. We apply these generalizations to the orbit evolution of satellite galaxies in Dark Matter haloes. We find from the analysis that the main influence occurs through a position-dependent maximum impact parameter in the Coulomb logarithm, which is determined by the local scale-length of the density distribution. We also show that for eccentric orbits the explicit dependence of the Coulomb logarithm on position yields significant differences for the standard homogeneous force. Including the velocity dependence of the Coulomb logarithm yields ambigous results. The orbital fits in the first few periods are further improved, but the deviations at later times are much larger. The additional force induced by the density gradient, the inhomogeneous force, is not antiparallel to the satellite motion and can exceed 10% of the homogeneous friction force in magnitude. However, due to the symmetry properties of the inhomogeneous force, there is a deformation and no secular effect on the orbit at the first order. Therefore the inhomogeneous force can be safely neglected for the orbital evolution of satellite galaxies. For the homogeneous force we compare numerical N-body calculations with semi-analytical orbits to determine quantitatively the accuracy of the generalized formulae of the Coulomb logarithm in the Chandresekhar approach. With the local scale-length as the maximum impact parameter we find a significant improvement of the orbital fits and a better interpretation of the quantitative value of the Coulomb logarithm.

A. Just; J. Penarrubia

2004-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

271

Research-scale melter test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melter Performance Assessment (MPA) activity in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Technology Development (PHTD) effort is intended to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference HWVP melter. As a part of this activity, a parametric melter test was completed using a Research-Scale Melter (RSM). The RSM is a small, approximately 1/100-scale melter, 6-in.-diameter, that allows rapid changing of process conditions and subsequent re-establishment of a steady-state condition. The test matrix contained nine different segments that varied the melter operating parameters (glass and plenum temperatures) and feed properties (oxide concentration, redox potential, and noble metal concentrations) so that the effects of these parameters on noble metal agglomeration on the melter floor could be evaluated. The RSM operated for 48 days and consumed 1,300 L of feed, equating to 153 tank turnovers. The run produced 531 kg of glass. During the latter portion of the run, the resistance between the electrodes decreased. Upon destructive examination of the melter, a layer of noble metals was found on the bottom. This was surprising because the glass residence time in the RSM is only 10% of the HWVP plant melter. The noble metals layer impacted the melter significantly. Approximately 1/3 of one paddle electrode was melted or corroded off. The cause is assumed to be localized heating from short circuiting of the electrode to the noble metal layer. The metal layer also removed approximately 1/2 in. of the refractory on the bottom of the melter. The mechanism for this damage is not presently known.

Cooper, M.F.; Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Higginson, J.J.; Mahoney, L.A.; Powell, M.R.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Noncommutative Two Time Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a classical formalism describing two-time physics with Abelian canonical gauge field backgrounds. The formalism can be used as a starting point for the construction of an interacting quantized two-time physics theory in a noncommutative soace-time.

W. Chagas-Filho

2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

273

Asia Times -Search Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asia Times - Search Asia Times Advanced Search Southeast Asia Scapegoats for Indonesia's timber://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/EI19Ae01.html (1 of 4)9/4/2007 3:01:50 PM Search #12;Asia Times - rather than on the nationwide band

274

Asia Times -Search Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asia Times - Search Asia Times Advanced Search Southeast Asia Scapegoats for Indonesia's timber://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/EI19Ae01.html (1 of 4)9/4/2007 12:55:07 PM Search #12;Asia Times - rather than on the nationwide band

275

Time-Symmetric Discretization of The Harmonic Oscillator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explicitly and analytically demonstrate that simple time-symmetric discretization of the harmonic oscillator (used as a simple model of a discrete dynamical system), leads to discrete equations of motion whose solutions are perfectly stable at all time scales, and whose energy is exactly conserved. This result is important for both fundamental discrete physics, as well as for numerical analysis and simulation.

Antippa, Adel F. [Departement de Physique Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, G9A 5H7 (Canada); Dubois, Daniel M. [Centre for Hyperincursion and Anticipation in Ordered Systems, CHAOS asbl, Institute of Mathematics, B37, University of Liege Grande Traverse 12, B-4000 LIEGE 1 (Belgium)

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

Absolute Time Radiometric Dating: the source of the dates on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absolute Time Radiometric Dating: the source of the dates on the Geologic Time Scale Radiometric.g. uranium to lead. · The parent element is radioactive, the daughter element is stable. · The decay rate nucleosynthesis. Common Radioactive Elements, Parents and Daughters · Carbon-14, C14 Nitrogen-14, N14 · Uranium

Kammer, Thomas

277

Nuclear Reactions & Scaling Arguments 11 October 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear Reactions & Scaling Arguments 11 October 2011 Goals · Review nuclear reaction rates · Practice using scaling arguments Nuclear Reactions 1. Consider the simple reaction A k1 ---- B k2 ---- C rate for something like p + p D scales like n2 p. Think in microscopic terms. #12;nuclear reactions

Militzer, Burkhard

278

Nuclear Reactions & Scaling Arguments 11 October 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear Reactions & Scaling Arguments 11 October 2011 Goals · Review nuclear reaction rates · Practice using scaling arguments Nuclear Reactions 1. Consider the simple reaction A k1 ---- B k2 ---- C = 3. #12;nuclear reactions & scaling arguments 2 3. Frequently, we approximate nuclear reaction rates

Militzer, Burkhard

279

Conundrum of the Large Scale Streaming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The etiology of the large scale peculiar velocity (large scale streaming motion) of clusters would increasingly seem more tenuous, within the context of the gravitational instability hypothesis. Are there any alternative testable models possibly accounting for such large scale streaming of clusters?

T. M. Malm

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

280

Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Scaling exponents of Forced Polymer Translocation through a nano-pore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate several scaling properties of a translocating homopolymer through a thin pore driven by an external field present inside the pore only using Langevin Dynamics (LD) simulation in three dimension (3D). Specifically motivated by several recent theoretical and numerical studies that are apparently at odds with each other, we determine the chain length dependence of the scaling exponents of the average translocation time, the average velocity of the center of mass, $$, the effective radius of gyration during the translocation process, and the scaling exponent of the translocation coordinate ($s$-coordinate) as a function of the translocation time. We further discuss the possibility that in the case of driven translocation the finite pore size and its geometry could be responsible that the veclocity scaling exponent is less than unity and discuss the dependence of the scaling exponents on the pore geometry for the range of $N$ studied here.

Aniket Bhattacharya; William H. Morrison; Kaifu Luo; Tapio Ala-Nissila; See-Chen Ying; Andrey Milchev; Kurt Binder

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

On the physical basis of cosmic time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this manuscript we initiate a systematic examination of the physical basis for the time concept in cosmology. We discuss and defend the idea that the physical basis of the time concept is necessarily related to physical processes which could conceivably take place among the material constituents available in the universe. It is common practice to link the concept of cosmic time with a space-time metric set up to describe the universe at large scales, and then define a cosmic time $t$ as what is measured by a comoving standard clock. We want to examine, however, the physical basis for setting up a comoving reference frame and, in particular, what could be meant by a standard clock. For this purpose we introduce the concept of a `core' of a clock (which, for a standard clock in cosmology, is a scale-setting physical process) and we ask if such a core can--in principle--be found in the available physics contemplated in the various `stages' of the early universe. We find that a first problem arises above the q...

Rugh, Svend Erik

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale PetaScale Debugging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project investigated novel techniques for debugging scientific applications on petascale architectures. In particular, we developed lightweight tools that narrow the problem space when bugs are encountered. We also developed techniques that either limit the number of tasks and the code regions to which a developer must apply a traditional debugger or that apply statistical techniques to provide direct suggestions of the location and type of error. We extend previous work on the Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT), that has already demonstrated scalability to over one hundred thousand MPI tasks. We also extended statistical techniques developed to isolate programming errors in widely used sequential or threaded applications in the Cooperative Bug Isolation (CBI) project to large scale parallel applications. Overall, our research substantially improved productivity on petascale platforms through a tool set for debugging that complements existing commercial tools. Previously, Office Of Science application developers relied either on primitive manual debugging techniques based on printf or they use tools, such as TotalView, that do not scale beyond a few thousand processors. However, bugs often arise at scale and substantial effort and computation cycles are wasted in either reproducing the problem in a smaller run that can be analyzed with the traditional tools or in repeated runs at scale that use the primitive techniques. New techniques that work at scale and automate the process of identifying the root cause of errors were needed. These techniques significantly reduced the time spent debugging petascale applications, thus leading to a greater overall amount of time for application scientists to pursue the scientific objectives for which the systems are purchased. We developed a new paradigm for debugging at scale: techniques that reduced the debugging scenario to a scale suitable for traditional debuggers, e.g., by narrowing the search for the root-cause analysis to a small set of nodes or by identifying equivalence classes of nodes and sampling our debug targets from them. We implemented these techniques as lightweight tools that efficiently work on the full scale of the target machine. We explored four lightweight debugging refinements: generic classification parameters, such as stack traces, application-specific classification parameters, such as global variables, statistical data acquisition techniques and machine learning based approaches to perform root cause analysis. Work done under this project can be divided into two categories, new algorithms and techniques for scalable debugging, and foundation infrastructure work on our MRNet multicast-reduction framework for scalability, and Dyninst binary analysis and instrumentation toolkits.

Miller, Barton

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Probing dark energy at galactic and cluster scales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate dark matter halo properties as a function of a time-varying dark energy equation of state. The dynamics of the collapse of the halo is governed by the form of the quintessence potential, the time evolution of its equation of state, the initial conditions of the field and its homogeneous nature in the highly non-linear regime. These have a direct impact on the turnaround, virialization and collapse times, altering in consequence the non-linear density contrast and virial radius. We compute halo concentrations using the Eke, Navarro and Steinmetz algorithm, examining two extreme scenarios: first, we assume that the quintessence field does not exhibit fluctuations on cluster scales and below-homogeneous fluid; second, we assume that the field inside the overdensity collapses along with the dark matter-inhomogeneous fluid. The Eke, Navarro and Steinmetz prescription reveals, in general, higher halo concentrations in inhomogeneous dark energy models than in their homogeneous equivalents. Halo concentrations appear to be controlled by both changes in formation epochs of the halo cores and differing virialization overdensities. We derive physical halo properties in all models and discuss their observational implications. We examine two possible methods for comparing observations with theoretical predictions. The first method works on galaxy cluster scales and consists of fitting the observed x-ray cluster gas density distributions to those predicted for an Navarro-Frenk-White profile. The second method works on galaxy scales and involves the observational measurement of the so-called central density parameter.

Mota, David F, E-mail: D.Mota@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Multipoint Fluorescence Quenching-Time Statistics for Single Molecules with Anomalous Valeri Barsegov and Shaul Mukamel*,,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of proteins spans many decades of time scales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds. While ensemble to study of dynamical disorder on a broad range of time scales at the single- molecule level.6-12 In probing dynamic disorder using optical techniques,13 most common observables are autocorrelation functions

Mukamel, Shaul

286

Community Scale Development | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Resource Library » Community Scale Development Energy Resource Library » Community Scale Development Community Scale Development Below are resources for Tribes on community scale energy project development. Commercial Lending in Indian Country: Potential Opportunities in an Emerging Market Explores the commercial lending environment in Indian Country, including the interrelationship of governmental, legal, institutional, organizational, and financial infrastructures. The report examines the major challenges and constraints that have impeded larger scale efforts and describes banking and tribal community responses to these barriers considered critical to successful implementation of commercial lending activities. Source: U.S. Department of the Treasury. Community Wind Financing Handbook Provides information on financing community wind projects, including

287

Past and Future Blurring at Fundamental Length Scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We obtain the {kappa}-deformed versions of the retarded and advanced Green functions and show that their causality properties are blurred in a time interval of the order of a length parameter q=1/(2{kappa}). The functions also indicate a smearing of the light cone. These results favor the interpretation of q as a fundamental length scale below which the concept of a point in space-time should be substituted by the concept of a fuzzy region of radius q, as proposed long ago by Heisenberg.

Neves, M. J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil); Farina, C.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRJ, CP 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-972 (Brazil)

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

288

Space-Time Insight | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Space-Time Insight Space-Time Insight Jump to: navigation, search Name Space-Time Insight Address 45680 Northport Loop East Place Fremont, California Zip 94538 Sector Efficiency Product SpaceTime Awareness Server Year founded 2008 Number of employees 11-50 Website http://www.spacetimeinsight.co Coordinates 37.4923832°, -121.9532879° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.4923832,"lon":-121.9532879,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

289

Formation of morphogen gradients: Local accumulation time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spatial regulation of cell differentiation in embryos can be provided by morphogen gradients, which are defined as the concentration fields of molecules that control gene expression. For example, a cell can use its surface receptors to measure the local concentration of an extracellular ligand and convert this information into a corresponding change in its transcriptional state. We characterize the time needed to establish a steady-state gradient in problems with diffusion and degradation of locally produced chemical signals. A relaxation function is introduced to describe how the morphogen concentration profile approaches its steady state. This function is used to obtain a local accumulation time that provides a time scale that characterizes relaxation to steady state at an arbitrary position within the patterned field. To illustrate the approach we derive local accumulation times for a number of commonly used models of morphogen gradient formation.

Alexander M. Berezhkovskii; Christine Sample; Stanislav Y. Shvartsman

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

290

Transient simulation for large scale flow in bubble columns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The transient simulation of large scale bubbly flow in bubble columns using the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations is investigated in the present paper. An extensive set of bubble forces is used with different models for the bubble induced turbulence. Criteria are given to assess the independence of the simulation time and the time step length. Using these criteria it is shown that a simulation time, time step length and mesh independent solution can be obtained for complex bubbly flows using URANS equations under certain requirements. With the obtained setup the contribution of the resolved turbulence to the total turbulence and the influence of the bubble induced turbulence modeling on the resolved turbulence is investigated. Further, it is pointed out that the virtual mass force is not negligible. The simulations are compared to data from the literature at two different superficial velocities, which cover monodisperse and polydisperse bubbly flows.

T. Ziegenhein; R. Rzehak; D. Lucas

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Advanced Robotics Journal, Vol. X, No. Y, 2002 (to appear) SCALED TELEOPERATION SYSTEM FOR NANO SCALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced Robotics Journal, Vol. X, No. Y, 2002 (to appear) SCALED TELEOPERATION SYSTEM FOR NANO for teleoperated nano scale object interaction and manipulation. Design specifications for a bilateral scaled system, initial experiments are realized for interacting with nano scale surfaces. It is shown that fine

Sitti, Metin

292

Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental canonical commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

Eyo Eyo Ita III; Chopin Soo; Hoi-Lai Yu

2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

294

Time Series Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Know how to apply simple methods for time series forecasting such as moving averages and the three levels of exponential smoothing.

Marc Goetschalckx

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Time integration of reacting flows with CSP tabulation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents recent progress on the use of Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) techniques for time integration of stiff chemical systems. The CSP integration approach removes fast time scales from the reaction system, thereby enabling integration with explicit time stepping algorithms. For further efficiency improvements, a tabulation strategy was developed to allow reuse of the relevant CSP quantities. This paper outlines the method and demonstrates its use on the simulation of hydrogen-air ignition.

Frenklach, Michael (University of California at Berkeley, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Valorani, Mauro (Universita di Roma "La Sapienza," Rome, Italy); Goussis, Dimitris A. (National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece); Najm, Habib N.; Debusschere, Bert J.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study. Of the well-measured fields, 85% involve observations taken with the r filter, which has a wavelength acceptance that is well-matched to supernova spectra. This filter therefore represents the best choice for strong gravitational lens observations with LSST. Our primary conclusion is that the visiting schedule is the single most important parameter to optimize for time delay measurements, and, once a lensed supernova has been detected, that frequent, regular observations should be scheduled to search with the highest sensitivity for multiple, delayed lensed images.

Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC

2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

297

Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours. Based on averaging the two half-lives from the 2H scale acid dissolution in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid solutions, a reasonable half-live for the dissolution of 2H scales in dilute nitric acid is 11.7 ± 1.3 hours. The plant operational time for chemically cleaning (soaking) the 2H evaporator with dilute nitric acid is 32 hours. It therefore may require about 3 half-lives or less to completely dissolve most of the scales in the Evaporator pot which come into contact with the dilute nitric acid solution. On a mass basis, the Al-to-Si ratio for the scale dissolution in 1.5 M nitric acid averaged 1.30 ± 0.20 and averaged 1.18 ± 0.10 for the 2H scale dissolution in 1.25 M nitric acid. These aluminum-to-silicon ratios are in fairly good agreement with ratios from previous studies. Therefore, there is still more aluminum in the 2H evaporator scales than silicon which implies that there are no significant changes in scale properties which will exclude nitric acid as a viable protic solvent for aluminosilicate scale buildup dissolution from the 2H evaporator. Overall, the monitoring of the scale decomposition reaction in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid may be better ascertained through the determination of aluminum concentration in solution than monitoring silicon in solution. Silicon solution chemistry may lead to partial precipitating of silicon with time as the scale and acid solution is heated.

Oji, L.

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

298

Time functions as utilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

E. Minguzzi

2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

299

Meso-scale machining capabilities and issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femto-second laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale electro-mechanical components, which require meso-scale parts that move relative to one another. The meso-scale parts fabricated by subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes have unique tribology issues because of the variety of materials and the surface conditions produced by the different meso-scale manufacturing processes.

BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Acceleration of Time Integration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We outline our strategies for accelerating time integration for long-running simulations, such as those for global climate modeling. The strategies target the Cray XT systems at the National Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our strategies include fully implicit, parallel-in-time, and curvelet methods.

White III, James B [ORNL; Drake, John B [ORNL; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Kothe, Douglas B [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TIMELY WARNING CAMPUS ALERT 13 September 2007 This communication is prepared as part of the Timely of 1990. This federal law requires a general communication to the campus community of all crimes reported. Consider carefully whether your presence at or near the Lancaster Green Apartments while unaccompanied

Hardy, Christopher R.

302

Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy...

303

DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications Large scale Python and other dynamic applications may spend huge...

304

Self-Adaptive Power Management of Idle Nodes in Large Scale Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to balance between the systems energy consumption and the response time is a key problem in the power of idle nodes to achieve low energy consumption and high performance at the same time. The proposed the power usage of a middle scale city. In 2006, US servers and data centers consumed around 61 billion k

Zhu, Hong

305

Connecting the Molecular and the Continuum Scales  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Connecting the Connecting the Molecular and the Continuum Scales Connecting the Molecular and the Continuum Scales Key Challenges: A molecular-scale understanding of structure and surface chemistry of clay mineral surface nanoparticles. Why it Matters: With a ubiquitous presence in natural materials and strong surface reactions, nanoparticles figure importantly in a broad range of phenomena, from climate change to contaminant remediation. Accomplishments: Used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine molecular-scale diffusion coefficients of water tracers and representative cations (Na+,Cs+,Sr2+) in Smectite and found a simple way to accurately relate this to bulk, pore-scale diffusion. The result is that a remarkably simple expression relates Dinterlayer to the pore-scale

306

Scaling in the Lattice Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A good quality scaling of the cluster size distributions is obtained for the Lattice Gas Model using the Fisher's ansatz for the scaling function. This scaling identifies a pseudo-critical line in the phase diagram of the model that spans the whole (subcritical to supercritical) density range. The independent cluster hypothesis of the Fisher approach is shown to describe correctly the thermodynamics of the lattice only far away from the critical point.

F. Gulminelli; Ph. Chomaz; M. Bruno; M. D'Agostino

2002-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

307

Improved Geometrical Scaling at the LHC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that geometrical scaling exhibited by the pT spectra measured by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC is substantially improved if the exponent ? of the saturation scale depends on pT. This dependence is shown to be the same as the dependence of small x exponent of F2 structure function in deep inelastic scattering taken at the scale pT?Q/2.

Michal Praszalowicz

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

308

Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy.

Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); The PULSE Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Markland, Thomas E. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

Engineering-Scale Demonstration of DuraLith and Ceramicrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from the Hanford Waste Immobilization and Treatment Plant, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing on four candidate waste forms. Two of the candidate waste forms have not been developed to scale as the more mature waste forms. This work describes engineering-scale demonstrations conducted on Ceramicrete and DuraLith candidate waste forms. Both candidate waste forms were successfully demonstrated at an engineering scale. A preliminary conceptual design could be prepared for full-scale production of the candidate waste forms. However, both waste forms are still too immature to support a detailed design. Formulations for each candidate waste form need to be developed so that the material has a longer working time after mixing the liquid and solid constituents together. Formulations optimized based on previous lab studies did not have sufficient working time to support large-scale testing. The engineering-scale testing was successfully completed using modified formulations. Further lab development and parametric studies are needed to optimize formulations with adequate working time and assess the effects of changes in raw materials and process parameters on the final product performance. Studies on effects of mixing intensity on the initial set time of the waste forms are also needed.

Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Pires, Richard P.; Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin W.

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

310

Multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a small-scale emerging magnetic flux event and the chromospheric and coronal response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

State-of-the-art solar instrumentation is revealing magnetic activity of the Sun with unprecedented resolution. Observations with the 1.6m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere are among the key research. As part of a joint observing program with NASA's IRIS mission, the NST observed active region NOAA 11810 in photospheric and chromospheric wavelengths. Complimentary data are provided by SDO and Hinode space-based telescopes. The region displayed a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detect a small-scale buoyant horizontal magnetic flux tube causing abnormal granulation and interacting with the pre-existing ambient field in upper atmospheric layers. Following the expansion of distorted granules at the emergence site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the HeI data. IRIS catched ejection of a hot plasma jet...

Dominguez, Santiago Vargas; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Analysis of micro-scale EDM .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) are presented and the application of electro discharge machining (EDM) to this scale of manufacture is discussed. A model relating input… (more)

Tibbles, Christopher Jeremy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Sandia National Laboratories: Characterizing Scaled Wind Farm...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Inflow On April 1, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) research facility will provide...

313

Kairoscope : coordinating time socially  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If everyone says time is relative, why is it still so rigidly defined? There have been many attempts to address the issue of coordinating schedules, but each of these attempts runs into an issue of rigidity: in order to ...

Martin, Reed Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

California's Shaking Next Time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ground along a road. Only 10 hours...expect that the design expertise lavished...architectural designs ofthat time as...the left. The pipelines, rail lines, and aqueducts crossing the San Andreas...block mountain roads. Forty-six...

RICHARD A. KERR

1982-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

315

Vibrational shortcut to the mean-first-passage-time problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

What is the average time a random walker takes to get from A to B on a fractal structure and how does this mean time scale with the size of the system and the distance between source and target? We take a nonprobabilistic approach toward this problem and show how the solution is readily obtained using an analysis of thermal vibrations on fractals. Invariance under scaling and continuity with respect to the spectral dimension are shown to be emergent properties of the solution obtained via vibrational analysis. Our result emphasizes the duality between diffusion and vibrations on fractal structures. Applications to biological systems are discussed.

Shlomi Reuveni; Rony Granek; Joseph Klafter

2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

316

Parallel Scaling Characteristics of Selected NERSC User ProjectCodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents parallel scaling characteristics of NERSC user project codes between Fiscal Year 2003 and the first half of Fiscal Year 2004 (Oct 2002-March 2004). The codes analyzed cover 60% of all the CPU hours delivered during that time frame on seaborg, a 6080 CPU IBM SP and the largest parallel computer at NERSC. The scale in terms of concurrency and problem size of the workload is analyzed. Drawing on batch queue logs, performance data and feedback from researchers we detail the motivations, benefits, and challenges of implementing highly parallel scientific codes on current NERSC High Performance Computing systems. An evaluation and outlook of the NERSC workload for Allocation Year 2005 is presented.

Skinner, David; Verdier, Francesca; Anand, Harsh; Carter,Jonathan; Durst, Mark; Gerber, Richard

2005-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

317

A tentative programme towards a full scale energy amplifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier (EA), following the conceptual design of Ref. [1]. Unlike the presently on going CERN experiments, reaction rates will be sufficiently massive to permit demonstrating the practical feasibility of energy generation on an industrial scale and to tackle the complete family chains of [1] the breeding process in Thorium fuel, [2] the burning of the self-generated Actinides, [3] the Plutonium (higher Actinides) burning of spent fuel from ordinary Reactors and [4] Fuel reprocessing/regeneration. The accelerator must provide a beam power which is commensurate to the rate of transformations which are sought. No existing accelerator can meet such a performance and a dedicated facility must be built. We describe an alternative based on the superconducting cavities (SC) now in standard use at the LEP \\[e^+-e^-\\] collider which is scheduled to terminate its operation by year 200 After this time, with reasonable modifications, the fully opera...

Rubbia, Carlo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions x-rays and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 1012 neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF with predicted ion and neutron spectra neutron anisotropy neutron spot size and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

M. May

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approaches for building energy modeling: forward model andbe developed for rapid building energy modeling at the urbanbuilding performance, energy efficiency, energy modeling,

Pang, Xiufeng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minnesota statewide wind integration study. November 2006.It would be very useful to wind integration studies if thisof net load vs. load Wind integration studies are generally

Coughlin, Katie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

BROWNIAN MOTION INDEXED BY A TIME SCALE DAVID GROW AND SUMAN SANYAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the proba- bility space (C0[0, ), P) and the increments Wti - Wti-1 are normally distributed with mean zero

Sanyal, Suman

322

The ITCZ in the Central and Eastern Pacific on Synoptic Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmos. Sci. , 50, 3380–3403. Hack, J. J. , W. H. Schubert,vorticity strip (Charney 1963; Hack et al. 1989; Schu- bertby Schubert and collaborators (Hack et al. 1989; Schubert et

Wang, Chia-chi; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Interannual Atmospheric Variability Affects Continental Ice Sheet Simulations on Millennial Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

well as cooling at the southeast margin of the ice sheet. Fdue to cooling over the North Ameri- can and Eurasian icetide ice sheet margin resulting in a 1°C cooling over the

Pritchard, Michael S; Bush, Andrew B. G; Marshall, Shawn J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Astronomy 102: Black Holes, Time Warps, and the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bausch and Lomb; phone: 275-8576; Internet: dmw@pas.rochester.edu; Web site: http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~dmw@pas.rochester.edu. For more information, see the separate handouts to be distributed during recitation. Web site: http://www.pas.rochester.edu/~dmw

325

Accessible methods for the dynamic time-scale decomposition of biochemical systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......simulated with Matlab is 102. 3...with the direct simulation of the corresponding...DAE system with Matlab. Figure 6 shows...Computing in Chemical Engineering...slowly oscillating processes: the circadian...In: Winter Simulation Conference 2006...Supplementary Data - pdf file Supplementary......

Irina Surovtsova; Natalia Simus; Thomas Lorenz; Artjom König; Sven Sahle; Ursula Kummer

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Astronomical calibration of the Jurassic time-scale from cyclostratigraphy in British mudrock formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...made below the Yellow Ledge Stone Band (midway through the formation) are suitable for...made below the Yellow Ledge Stone Band (midway through the formation) are suitable for...made below the Yellow Ledge Stone Band (midway through the formation) are suitable for...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Molecullar dynamics algorithm for multiple time scales: Systems with disparate IYMSSeS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Tuckerman*) and Bruce J. Berne Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 Angelo system is taken to be the Hamiltonian of the original system with the slow coordinates held fixed

Berne, Bruce J.

328

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Huei. 2005. Primer on Wind Power for Utility Applications.Wan, Yih-Huei. 2004. Wind Power Plant Behaviors: Analysesof Long-Term Wind Power Data. National Renewable Energy Lab

Coughlin, Katie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Development of Real-time Closed-loop Control Algorithms for Grid-scale Battery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0003507 Hawai`i Energy Sustainability Program Task 3.2 Report ................................................. 29 7.2. Architecture and HMI Step

330

PHYS 626 --Fundamentals of Plasma Physics --Section 6.8 1. The diffusion time scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, S >>1. 3. Magnetic reconnection is a process that merges magnetic field lines, or changes magnetic field lines making an X-point structure. 5. In the Sweet-Parker model, magnetic field lines reconnect-Parker reconnection model is based on 2D resistive MHD in a steady- state, with oppositely orientated magnetic field

Ng, Chung-Sang

331

Quaternary Science Reviews 22 (2003) 16311646 Greenland--Antarctic phase relations and millennial time-scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 54-1520, 77 Massachusetts Avenue of the observed Holocene variability in deep-sea cores is controlled by solar luminosity variations, which if true

Wunsch, Carl

332

Non-Exponential Relaxation Time Scales in Disordered Systems: an Application to Protein Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of an heteropolymeric chain relaxing toward a new equilibrium configuration after the action of an external perturbation. We compare the results from Monte Carlo simulations with the results of a Langevin normal mode decomposition. We discuss, for sake of comparison, the case of an ordered homopolymeric chain.

G. Iori; E. Marinari; G. Parisi

1992-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

333

Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wan, Yih-Huei. 2004. Wind Power Plant Behaviors: Analyses ofthe output of wind power plants. In a typical studyfluctuations across wind power plants located in the same

Coughlin, Katie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Diagenesis in seagrass vegetated sediments: biogeochemical processes on diurnal time scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................................. xii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION...................................................................................... 1 Objectives................................................................................................... 1 Background............................................................................ 90 Model Results and Discussion ................................................................... 92 Summary .................................................................................................... 107 V CONCLUSIONS...

Hebert, Andrew Brian

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Interannual Atmospheric Variability Affects Continental Ice Sheet Simulations on Millennial Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wu, P. , and W. R. Peltier, 1982: Viscous gravitationalG. K. C. Clarke, and W. R. Peltier, 2000: Gla- ciologicalTech. Rep. 2, 17 pp. Peltier, W. R. , 1985: The LAGEOS

Pritchard, Michael S; Bush, Andrew B. G; Marshall, Shawn J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Stochastic models of the meridional overturning circulation: time scales and patterns of variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...model captures the essential physics of the advective feedback bistability...to a Theme Issue Stochastic physics and climate modelling. Figure...038501 . Gardiner, C.W Handbook of stochastic methods for physics, chemistry, and the natural...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present three different detection schemes for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) in direct absorption using a thermoelectrically cooled, distributed-feedback pulsed quantum cascade (qc) laser operating between 217...

B.W.M. Moeskops; H. Naus; S.M. Cristescu; F.J.M. Harren

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Interannual Atmospheric Variability Affects Continental Ice Sheet Simulations on Millennial Time Scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To inform the ongoing development of earth system models that aim to incorporate interactive ice, the potential impact of interannual variability associated with synoptic variability and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) at the Last Glacial ...

Michael S. Pritchard; Andrew B. G. Bush; Shawn J. Marshall

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Intermediate- to Deep-Water Circulation Changes on Short and Long Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circulation in abrupt climate fluctuations. The other two studies investigated deep-water circulation during the Late Cretaceous (~70 ? 100 Ma) greenhouse interval, to determine if deep waters formed in the southern Indian or Atlantic basins. The above... on the late Pleistocene California margin as well as seven Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program Cretaceous aged sites; four in the South Atlantic Ocean, and three in the Indian Ocean. The new Pleistocene data rule out changes in the source...

Murphy, Daniel Patrick

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

340

Protein folding and macromolecular dynamics : fundamental limits of length and time scales.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis, physics-based models of protein folding at the secondary and tertiary level are developed to resolve long-standing issues of protein folding kinetics. As… (more)

Lin, Milo M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

s-Scale Time Synchronization For Energy-Constrained Mission-Critical DTSNs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Taiwan �National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan Abstract--It is generally considered a trivial task-goodput data transmission while the GPS is duty-cycled for energy efficiency. I. INTRODUCTION Being a regional networks (DTSNs). DTSNs have been realized in a number of application domains. For example, DieselNet [3

Huang, Polly

342

Modelling the ecological–functional diversification of marine Metazoa on geological time scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...began to interact with the environment and each other in diverse...For example, ecosystem engineers like corals modify the environment [29,30], providing new...organisms as physical ecosystem engineers. Ecology 78, 1946-1957...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

A diffusion equation to describe scale–and time–dependent dimensions of turbulent interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the case of scalar interfaces, that fractal dimension...dimension. Turbulent-interfaces geometry can also...submitted to a three-dimensional turbulence. Villermaux...correlation function and measuring its standard deviation. For small...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Lifetime of Anthropogenic Climate Change: Millennial Time Scales of Potential CO2 and Surface Temperature Perturbations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Earth system models can be used to simulate the ev- olution of the climate system under different anthro

Scherer, Norbert F.

345

MCODE-3 : time-dependent depletion isotopics with MCNP-5 and SCALE-6.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to operate a reactor safely and efficiently, computer simulations must be used to predict certain nuclear characteristics of the reactor. To determine how materials change in a fission power environment, a ...

Gerrity, Thomas P., III

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

South Pacific Ocean Dipole: A Predictable Mode on Multiseasonal Time Scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluating the climate hindcasts for 1982–2009 from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) project using the Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2), this study identifies substantial areas of high prediction skill of the sea surface ...

Yuanhong Guan; Jieshun Zhu; Bohua Huang; Zeng-Zhen Hu; James L. Kinter III

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Systemwide Energy Minimization in Real-Time Embedded Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%. We show that our scheduling approach minimizes the total static and dynamic energy consumption increase the total energy consumption of the system. A minimum power consumption is associated with keeping the processorenergy consumption as opposed to the entire system energy consumption. The slowdown resulting from DVS

Gupta, Rajesh

348

Influence of Mean State on Climate Variability at Interannual and Decadal Time Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulation 1870-2000 5 GISS E-R 20th century simulation 1870-2000 9 HADCM3 20th century simulation 1860-1999 2 HADGEM1 20th century simulation 1860-1999 2 IAP 20th century simulation 1850-1999 3 INMCM 20th century simulation 1870-1999 1 IPSL 20th... CCSM3 20th century simulation 1870-1999 2 CNRM 20th century simulation 1860-1999 1 CSIRO 20th century simulation 1871-2000 3 GFDL cm2.0 20th century simulation 1861-2000 3 GFDL cm2.1 20th century simulation 1861-2000 3 GISS E-H 20th century...

Zhu, Xiaojie

2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

349

On the time–scales of magmatism at island–arc volcanoes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...absent. Numerous studies in the Cascades, Tonga and Vanuatu have consistently...shallow mantle melting under the Cascades volcanoc arc. Geology 29...Vergniolle, S. 1989 Pressure, gas content and eruption periodicity...high-pressure experiments and natural rocks. J. Volcanol. Geotherm...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

A Toolkit for Real-time Analysis of Dynamic Large-Scale Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contains algorithms to compute metrics of static snapshots of the dynamic graph. I. INTRODUCTION Many that have played on the same team [8], and more abstract things such as functional brain networks where possible to process them in a single machine. Often, the networks are not even stored in a single location

Kuipers, Fernando A.

351

Time Scales of Critical Events Around the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, 2002), vol. 361...Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, 1999), vol. 332...Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, 2002), pp. 9...Renne P. R. , On the ages of flood basalt events . C. R. Geosci...

Paul R. Renne; Alan L. Deino; Frederik J. Hilgen; Klaudia F. Kuiper; Darren F. Mark; William S. Mitchell III; Leah E. Morgan; Roland Mundil; Jan Smit

2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

352

How Much Energy Is Transferred from the Winds to the Thermocline on ENSO Time Scales?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamics of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are studied in terms of the balance between energy input from the winds (via wind power) and changes in the storage of available potential energy in the tropical ocean. Presently, there are ...

Jaclyn N. Brown; Alexey V. Fedorov

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

The Sun and the solar wind variability of different time-scales and the climate dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The role and place of the solar wind energy in the whole spectra of the solar emissions, which could influence Earth's climate dynamics are investigated. Reliable indicators of the direct coupling between the solar wind disturbances and the temperature short-term variations in the high-latitude stratosphere are presented. In the long-terms (several solar cycles), variations of the solar wind dynamic pressure are similar to the correspondent total solar irradiance (TSI) temporal changes.

L.N Makarova; A.V Shirochkov

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10{sup 6} frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

An empirical model for ramp analysis of utility-scale solar PV power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Short-term variability in the power generated by utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants is a cause for concern for power system operators. Without quantitative insights into such variability, system operators will have difficulty in exploiting grid integrated solar power without negatively impacting power quality and grid reliability. In this paper, we describe a statistical method to empirically model the ramping behavior of utility-scale solar PV power output for short time-scales. The general validity of the model is confirmed through the analysis of power output data from a MW-scale solar PV plant located in the state of Karnataka, India. The empirical parameters of the model are investigated for different time-intervals and solar datasets. The proposed model is able to satisfactorily approximate the actual distribution of PV ramp events and can be an effective tool in smartly planning additional resources for PV ramp control.

Bishal Madhab Mazumdar; Mohd. Saquib; Abhik Kumar Das

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

EA-1867: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, Polk  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, 7: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, Polk County, Florida EA-1867: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, Polk County, Florida Summary This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide cost-shared funding to RTI International (RTI) for its proposed project to demonstrate the precommercial scale-up of RTI's high-temperature syngas cleanup and carbon capture and sequestration technologies. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download October 13, 2011 EA-1867: Finding of No Significant Impact RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida (October 2011)

357

EA-1888: Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale Integrated  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

88: Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale 88: Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale Integrated Biorefinery in Old Town, Maine EA-1888: Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale Integrated Biorefinery in Old Town, Maine Summary This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by Old Town Fuel and Fiber to install and operate a demonstration-scale integrated biorefinery at their existing pulp mill in Old Town, Maine, demonstrating the production of n-butanol from lignocellulosic(wood) extract. Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download September 25, 2012 EA-1888: Finding of No Significant Impact Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale Integrated Biorefinery in Old Town, MN September 25, 2012 EA-1888: Final Environmental Assessment

358

EA-1888: Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale Integrated  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8: Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale 8: Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale Integrated Biorefinery in Old Town, Maine EA-1888: Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale Integrated Biorefinery in Old Town, Maine Summary This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by Old Town Fuel and Fiber to install and operate a demonstration-scale integrated biorefinery at their existing pulp mill in Old Town, Maine, demonstrating the production of n-butanol from lignocellulosic(wood) extract. Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download September 25, 2012 EA-1888: Finding of No Significant Impact Old Town Fuel and Fiber Proposed Demonstration-Scale Integrated Biorefinery in Old Town, MN September 25, 2012 EA-1888: Final Environmental Assessment

359

Low sulfate seawater mitigates barite scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-sulfate seawater (LSSW) technology provides operational and economic benefits for desulfating seawater to control barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) and strontium sulfate (SrSO{sub 4}) scale. This concluding article in a three part series describes, from a scale control perspective, the membrane technology deployed in the North Sea Brae fields.

Hardy, J.A.; Simm, I. [Marathon Oil UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

360

4, 40694124, 2007 Global-scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3 /yr for the climateHESSD 4, 4069­4124, 2007 Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge P. D¨oll and K. Fiedler System Sciences Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge P. D¨oll and K. Fiedler Institute

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Spectral multidimensional scaling Yonathan Aflaloa,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

images as feature points that we map to a plane. flat embedding | distance maps | big data | diffusionSpectral multidimensional scaling Yonathan Aflaloa,1 and Ron Kimmelb Departments of a Electrical reduc- tion. There are various approaches for large data simplification by scaling its dimensions down

Kimmel, Ron

362

Fermilab Energy Scaling Workshop April 27, 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fermilab Energy Scaling Workshop April 27, 2009 Rick Field ­ Florida/CDF/CMS Page 1 11stst Workshop-bias" collisions and the "underlying event" in Run 1 at CDF. Rick's View of Hadron Collisions Fermilab 2009 Studying the "associated" charged particle densities in "min-bias" collisions. #12;Fermilab Energy Scaling

Field, Richard

363

Microfluidic Large-Scale Integration: The Evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Large-Scale Integration: The Evolution of Design Rules for Biological Automation, polydimethylsiloxane Abstract Microfluidic large-scale integration (mLSI) refers to the develop- ment of microfluidic, are discussed. Several microfluidic components used as building blocks to create effective, complex, and highly

Quake, Stephen R.

364

February 2002 Grid Scale Oscillations in MICOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are the implications of the grid scale oscillation on ­ Surface Fluxes that drive THC ­ Heat transport ­ MeridionalFebruary 2002 Grid Scale Oscillations in MICOM Balasubramanya T. Nadiga Los Alamos National Model · 3o displaced pole grid. 16 layers · Kraus-Turner Bulk Mixed Layer · Explicit diapycnal

Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. "Balu"

365

Broken Scale Invariance and Anomalous Dimensions  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Mack and Kastrup have proposed that broken scale invariance is a symmetry of strong interactions. There is evidence from the Thirring model and perturbation theory that the dimensions of fields defined by scale transformations will be changed by the interaction from their canonical values. We review these ideas and their consequences for strong interactions.

Wilson, K. G.

1970-05-00T23:59:59.000Z

366

Date centerdTimes New Roman  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The American Recovery and The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act at the Department of Energy OAS-RA-09-01 March 2009 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Special Report on "The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act at the Department of Energy" BACKGROUND The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was signed into law on February 17, 2009, as a way to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in science and health, and invest in the Nation's energy future. This national effort will require an unprecedented level of transparency and

367

Scaling Analysis of On-Chip Power Grid Voltage Variations in Nanometer Scale ULSI  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a detailed scaling analysis of the power supply distribution network voltage drop in DSM technologies. The effects of chip temperature, electromigration and interconnect technology scaling (in...

Amir H. Ajami; Kaustav Banerjee…

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Modeling and application of soil moisture at varying spatial scales with parameter scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dissertation focuses on characterization of subpixel variability within a satellite-based remotely sensed coarse-scale soil moisture footprint. The underlying heterogeneity of coarse-scale soil moisture footprint is masked by the area...

Das, Narendra Narayan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

A Linear Scaling Three Dimensional Fragment Method for Large Scale Electronic Structure Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

large scale electronic structure calculations Lin-Wang Wang,total energy electronic structure calculation method, which

Wang, Lin-Wang; Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

A Linear Scaling Three Dimensional Fragment Method for Large Scale Electronic Structure Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

large scale electronic structure calculations Lin-Wang Wang,total energy electronic structure calculation method, which

Wang, Lin-Wang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance.

Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations Lin-Wang Wang-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method for large scale ab initio electronic structure calculations. LS3DF is based. The fragments of the LS3DF algorithm can be calculated separately with different groups of processors

Bailey, David H.

373

File:Beaufort wind scale.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search File Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » File:Beaufort wind scale.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Beaufort wind scale.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) [Category:Wind for Schools Portal Curricula]] File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 16:44, 2 January 2014 Thumbnail for version as of 16:44, 2 January 2014 1,275 × 1,650 (28 KB) Foteri (Talk | contribs) [Category:Wind for Schools Portal Curricula]][[Category:Wind for Schools Elementary School Curricula]

374

Scaling of the Longitudinal Electric Field and Transformer Ratio in a Nonlinear Plasma Wakefield Accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scaling of the two important figures of merit, the transformer ratio T and the longitudinal electric field E{sub z}, with the peak drive-bunch current I{sub p}, in a nonlinear plasma wakefield accelerator is presented for the first time. The longitudinal field scales as I{sub P}{sup 0.623{+-}0.007}, in good agreement with nonlinear wakefield theory ({approx}I{sub P}{sup 0.5}), while the unloaded transformer ratio is shown to be greater than unity and scales weakly with the bunch current. The effect of bunch head erosion on both parameters is also discussed.

Blumenfeld, I.; /SLAC; Clayton, C.E.; /UCLA; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC; Huang, C.; /UCLA; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; /SLAC; Joshi, C.; /UCLA; Katsouleas, T.; /Southern California U.; Kirby, N.; /SLAC; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; /UCLA; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Zhou, M.; /UCLA

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

375

Dynamical scaling in the domain growth of a chemisorbed overlayer: W(112)(2×1)-O  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We observed a self-similar growth (scaling of oxygen antiphase domains) of the (2×1) structure chemisorbed on the W(112) surface using time-resolved, high-resolution, low-energy electron diffraction technique. The initial stage of domain growth after the system was quenched from a lattice-gas state was shown to obey a curvature-driven mechanism. The scaling function was extracted from the angular distribution of the intensity of the (1/2 0) beam and was compared with recent analytical theories and Monte Carlo simulations. Breakdown of scaling was observed after the termination of the curvature-driven regime.

J.-K. Zuo; G.-C. Wang; T.-M. Lu

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

First International Workshop on Rack-scale Computing (WRSC 2014) The Case for the Holistic Language Runtime System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First International Workshop on Rack-scale Computing (WRSC 2014) The Case for the Holistic Language will be a rack-sized machine instead of an individual server. At the same time, we expect a shift from commodity. In this paper, we make the case that the software for such custom rack-scale machines should move away from

Asanovi?, Krste

377

Impact of Nano-scale Through-Silicon Vias on the Quality of Today and Future 3D IC Designs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Nano-scale Through-Silicon Vias on the Quality of Today and Future 3D IC Designs Dae Hyun sub-micron dimensions in a few years. This downscaling of TSVs requires research on the impact of nano. In this paper, we investigate, for the first time, the impact of nano-scale TSVs on the area, wirelength, delay

Lim, Sung Kyu

378

Nonlinear analysis of time series of vibration data from a friction brake: SSA, PCA, and MFDFA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the methodology of singular spectrum analysis (SSA), principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA), for investigating characteristics of vibration time series data from a friction brake. SSA and PCA are used to study the long time-scale characteristics of the time series. MFDFA is applied for investigating all time scales up to the smallest recorded one. It turns out that the majority of the long time-scale dynamics, that is presumably dominated by the structural dynamics of the brake system, is dominated by very few active dimensions only and can well be understood in terms of low dimensional chaotic attractors. The multi-fractal analysis shows that the fast dynamical processes originating in the friction interface are in turn truly multi-scale in nature.

Nikolay K. Vitanov; Norbert P. Hoffmann; Boris Wernitz

2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

379

Enhancements in SCALE 6.1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a 'plug-and-play' framework with nearly 80 computational modules, including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution. SCALE's graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.1, scheduled for release in the fall of 2010, provides improved reliability and introduces a number of enhanced features, some of which are briefly described here. SCALE 6.1 provides state-of-the-art capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, and radiation shielding in a robust yet user-friendly package. The new features and improved reliability of this latest release of SCALE are intended to improve safety and efficiency throughout the nuclear community.

Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Probabilistic timed behavior trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Behavior Tree notation has been developed as a method for systematically and traceably capturing user requirements. In this paper we extend the notation with probabilistic behaviour, so that reliability, performance, and other dependability properties ... Keywords: behavior trees, model checking, probabilities, timed automata

Robert Colvin; Lars Grunske; Kirsten Winter

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Time reversal communication system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

382

Time-Encoded Imagers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A Tree Swaying in a Turbulent Wind: A Scaling Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A tentative scaling theory is presented of a tree swaying in a turbulent wind. It is argued that the turbulence of the air within the crown is in the inertial regime. An eddy causes a dynamic bending response of the branches according to a time criterion. The resulting expression for the penetration depth of the wind yields an exponent which appears to be consistent with that pertaining to the morphology of the tree branches. An energy criterion shows that the dynamics of the branches is basically passive. The possibility of hydrodynamic screening by the leaves is discussed.

Theo Odijk

2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

384

Magnetic Field Production during Preheating at the Electroweak Scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the generation of magnetic fields during preheating within a scenario of hybrid inflation at the electroweak scale. We find that the nonperturbative and strongly out-of-equilibrium process of generation of magnetic fields with a nontrivial helicity occurs along the lines predicted by Vachaspati many years ago. The magnitude (?B/?EW?10-2) and correlation length of these helical magnetic fields grow linearly with time during preheating and are consistent with the possibility that these seeds gave rise to the microgauss fields observed today in galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Andrés Díaz-Gil; Juan García-Bellido; Margarita García Pérez; Antonio González-Arroyo

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

385

Genepool Time Heatmaps  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Genepool Time Heatmaps Genepool Time Heatmaps Heatmap of Time and Slots Requested vs Time Waited (in hours) | Queue: All | Last 7 Days Time Requested Slots 1wk Job Count Longest Wait 1 23.0 (233) 0.37 (1819) 27.54 (49888) 5.85 (124593) 1.23 (39835) 0.34 (732) 0 0.4 (224) 0.02 (1) 217325 538.96 2 0 0.01 (19) 2.54 (78) 0.2 (140) 0.99 (2683) 0 0 0 0 2920 9.1 4 0.08 (1) 0 2.82 (141) 0.36 (143) 1.07 (12) 0.06 (5) 0.01 (5) 0.06 (1) 1.3 (5) 313 20.48 6 0.01 (2) 0 0.09 (32) 0.07 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 35 1.22 8 0.04 (24) 4.32 (7423) 5.31 (1999) 0.53 (316) 13.14 (2486) 0.01 (2) 1.21 (88) 1.3 (34) 8.33 (68) 12440 46.16 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.56 (1) 0 1 8.56 16 0 0 0 0.03 (1) 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.03 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 (1) 1 0.01 32 0 0 0 0.04 (14) 0 0 0 0.01 (6) 0 20 0.26

386

Hub Synchronization in Scale-Free Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heterogeneity in the degree distribution is known to suppress global synchronization in complex networks of symmetrically coupled oscillators. Scale-free networks display a great deal of heterogeneity, containing a few nodes, termed hubs, that are highly connected, while most nodes receive only a few connections. Here, we show that a group of synchronized nodes may appear in scale-free networks: hubs undergo a transition to synchronization while the other nodes remain unsynchronized. This general phenomenon can occur even in the absence of global synchronization. Our results suggest that scale-free networks may have evolved to complement various levels of synchronization.

Tiago Pereira

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

387

Method and system for small scale pumping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

388

Coherence Scale of the Kondo Lattice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that the large- N approach yields two energy scales for the Kondo lattice model. The single-impurity Kondo temperature, TK, signals the onset of local singlet formation, while Fermi-liquid coherence sets in only below a lower scale, T?. At low conduction electron density nc (“exhaustion” limit), the ratio T?/TK is much smaller than unity, and is shown to depend only on nc and not on the Kondo coupling. The physical meaning of these two scales is demonstrated by computing several quantities as a function of nc and temperature.

S. Burdin; A. Georges; D. R. Grempel

2000-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Scaling the policy response to climate change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article assesses the advantages and disadvantages of fighting climate change through local, bottom-up strategies as well as global, top-down approaches. After noting that each scale of action—the local and the global—has distinct costs and benefits, the article explores the importance of scale in three case studies (the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, and efforts at adaptation/mitigation). It concludes that local thinking must be coupled with global and national scales of action in order to achieve the levels of carbon dioxide reductions needed to avoid dangerous climate impacts.

Benjamin K. Sovacool; Marilyn A. Brown

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

STOPPING TIMES IN QUANTUM MECHANICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Stinespring, Kraus). 3". Time-dependant case General time evolution of an open quantum sys- tem = (Pt)t0

Attal, Stéphane

391

Rick Grush Brain time and phenomenological time (draft) Page 1/37 Brain time and phenomenological time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rick Grush Brain time and phenomenological time (draft) Page 1/37 Brain time and phenomenological "forthwith" in a common structure. - Edmund Husserl, Phenomenology of Inner Time Consciousness1 1 time and phenomenological time (draft) Page 2/37 information-processing structure that accounts

Grush, Rick

392

Determination of fission rate by mean last passage time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mean last passage time is introduced instead of the mean first passage time for determining the decay rate of a nucleus after induced fission. The stationary fission rate calculated by the inverse of the mean last passage time at the saddle point is in agreement with the result of Langevin simulations and better than that of the mean first passing time at the scission point. In particular, we take into account the backstreaming effect where test particles pass over the potential barrier multiple times. It is shown that the oscillating time of a hot fissioning system around the saddle point is the longest one in time scales of the fission, thus more neutrons might be emitted during this period.

Jing-Dong Bao and Ying Jia

2004-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

393

Chaos and Scaling in Classical Non-Abelian Gauge Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Without an ultraviolet cut-off, the time evolution of the classical Yang-Mills equations give rise to a never ending cascading of the modes towards the ultraviolet, and ergodic measures and dynamical averages, such as the spectrum of characteristic Lyapunov exponents (measures of temporal chaos) or spatial correlation functions, are ill defined. A lattice regularization (in space) provides an ultraviolet cut-off of the classical Yang-Mills theory, giving a possibility for the existence of ergodic measures and dynamical averages. We analyze in this investigation in particular the scaling behavior $\\beta = d \\log \\lambda / d \\log E $ of the principal Lyapunov exponent with the energy of the lattice system. A large body of recent literature claims a linear scaling relationship ($\\beta = 1$) between the principal Lyapunov exponent and the average energy per lattice plaquette for the continuum limit of the lattice Yang-Mills equations. We question this result by providing rigorous upper bounds on the Lyapunov exponent for all energies, hence giving a non-positive exponent, $\\beta \\leq 0$, asymptotically for high energies, and we give plausible arguments for a scaling exponent close to $\\beta \\sim 1/4$ for low energies. We argue that the region of low energy is the region which comes closest to what could be termed a ``continuum limit'' for the classical lattice system.

Holger Bech Nielsen; Hans Henrik Rugh; Svend Erik Rugh

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

394

Timely delivery of LIFE Tom Anklam, Lawrence Livermore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Timely delivery of LIFE Tom Anklam, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory October 19, 2011 LIFE_Royal_Society_9/7/11 6 LIFE Fusion Chamber is About the Same Scale as the NIF Target Chamber #12;LIFE Fusion Physics will be Demonstrated on the NIF #12;LIFE will use a modular laser architeccture #12;#12;#12;11 NIF

395

The development of real–time substructure testing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Theme Issue Dynamic testing of structures compiled by M. S. Williams...development of real-time substructure testing A. Blakeborough 1 M. S. Williams 1...Bath BA2 7AY, UK Full-scale dynamic testing of civil engineering structures is extremely...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Property:Scale Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Scale Test Scale Test Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Scale Test Property Type Text Pages using the property "Scale Test" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) M MHK Technologies/Aegir Dynamo + Prototype model has been constructed and tested in a specially designed wave tank MHK Technologies/AirWEC + They had to file a our SBIR Phase I technical report before we could conduct comprehensive open water testing MHK Technologies/Atlantis AN 150 + Atlantis conducted tow testing configuration optimisation and performance enhancement of the Nereus150 prior to offshore installation Tow testing took place in November 2007 and February 2008 the results of this testing were observed verified and validated by Black Veatch B V High correlation between the actual and predicted power output were observed during this testing It is noted that at higher flows the AN400 outperformed the predicted power generation performance during this testing

397

Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Computational co-design may facilitate revolutionary designs in the next generation of supercomputers. Get Expertise Tim Germann Physics and Chemistry of Materials Email Allen McPherson Energy and Infrastructure Analysis Email Turab Lookman Physics and Condensed Matter and Complex Systems Email Computational co-design involves developing the interacting components of a computational system as a whole. Informing system design, ensuring productive and efficient code Project Description To address the increasingly complex problems of the modern world, scientists at Los Alamos are pushing the scale of computing to the extreme, forming partnerships with other national laboratories and industry to

398

External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

can detect scale buildup in pipes to 1-2 m accuracy. Radiography has also detected corrosion in piping. Development of this technique is shown to be useful of monitoring...

399

Strength scaling of brittle graphitic foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...many different type of open- and closed-cell solids such as aerogels (Pekala et al. 1991), graphitic foams (Brezny & Green...mechanical properties and scaling law relationships for silica aerogels and their organic counterparts. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Large scale prediction models and algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over 90% of the data available across the world has been produced over the last two years, and the trend is increasing. It has therefore become paramount to develop algorithms which are able to scale to very high dimensions. ...

Monsch, Matthieu (Matthieu Frederic)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Scaling the Ion Trap Quantum Processor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...atomic ion species to act as "refrigerator" ions to quench the...scale beyond the QCCD in a modular architecture, one can link separate...trapped ion technology. (A) Modular distributed...A major challenge in both modular quantum computer...

C. Monroe; J. Kim

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

Scaling of load in communications networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that the load at each node in a preferential attachment network scales as a power of the degree of the node. For a network whose degree distribution is p(k)?k??, we show that the load is l(k)?k? with ?=??1, implying that the probability distribution for the load is p(l)?1/l2 independent of ?. The results are obtained through scaling arguments supported by finite size scaling studies. They contradict earlier claims, but are in agreement with the exact solution for the special case of tree graphs. Results are also presented for real communications networks at the IP layer, using the latest available data. Our analysis of the data shows relatively poor power-law degree distributions as compared to the scaling of the load versus degree. This emphasizes the importance of the load in network analysis.

Onuttom Narayan and Iraj Saniee

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

403

Program Management for Large Scale Engineering Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this whitepaper is to summarize the LAI research that applies to program management. The context of most of the research discussed in this whitepaper are large-scale engineering programs, particularly in the ...

Oehmen, Josef

404

Dissolution of Barite Scale using Chelating Agents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Barium sulfate scaling can cause many oilfield problems leading to loss of well productivity and well abandonment. Currently, diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is used, along with synergist oxalic acid and potassium hydroxide, to remove...

Shende, Aniket Vishwanath

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

Scaling-up of Chemical Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... were devoted to scaling problems related to specific processes and equipment, including the rotating-disk contactor, cyclones, air-separation plant, continuous-filtration equipment, and solvent extraction and gas absorption ...

1958-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

Large scale transient expression with COS cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate here that transient expression with COS cells can be performed at the one litre scale for a period of more than 10 days. Cells grown in T225 flasks were transfected by electroporation, transferr...

Horst D. Blasey; Jean-Pierre Aubry; Gonzalo J. Mazzei; Alain R. Bernard

407

Scale-Up of Animal Cell Cultures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The techniques of large-scale animal cell culture technology have been in use for almost 30 years now and have become increasingly important in the development and production of biological products of commerci...

Eunan McGlinchey; Donnacha O’Driscoll; Martin Clynes

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Tevatron injection timing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Scale control in thermal desalination processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal desalination processes involve the heating of seawater to form water vapor which is then condensed to produce salt free water. Multiple Effect Evaporation (ME) and Multiple-Stage Flash distillation (MSF) are the two main processes used for thermal distillation. MSF distillation, currently is the dominant process. MSF distillation is run under pressure at relatively high temperatures (90--125 C). Scale formation is one of the most critical problems affecting both processes. In the case of MSF, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are the main scale forming salts. The first two scale forming salts are usually controlled by keeping neutral the pH of the system by the addition of acid. Scale inhibitors are used to prevent calcium sulfate scale. Because of economical reasons, the trend in the industry is to operate systems at as high a temperature and concentration factor as possible in order to increase purified water production at a lower cost. Safety concerns have also increased the need for acid feed elimination as a mean of controlling pH. These practices increased the scaling tendencies in MSF processes and created the need for more effective treatment programs to control scale formation on heat exchangers. A new multi-component inhibitor program that enable operation of MSF systems without the need of acid feed for pH control has been developed. The program prevent scale formation and allows to operate the system under typical or higher concentration factors and temperatures than normally found in MSF evaporators operating with acid feed.

Perez, L.A.; Polizzotti, D.M. [BetzDearborn, Trevose, PA (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Phenomenology of SUSY with intermediate scale physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The presence of fields at an intermediate scale between the Electroweak and the Grand Unification scale modifies the evolution of the gauge couplings and consequently the running of other parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, such as gauginos and scalar masses. The net effect is a modification of the low energy spectrum which affects both the collider phenomenology and the dark matter relic density.

C. Biggio

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Preferred hierarchy scales from the product landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The product landscape method has been recently proposed to solve hierarchy problems such as the cosmological constant problem. We suggest that the parameter distribution on logarithmic scales should be used as a benchmark for hierarchy, and the preferred hierarchy scales can be obtained from the distribution peak. It is shown that generating hierarchy from purely product distribution is very inefficient. To achieve a reasonably acceptable efficiency, other effects such as accumulation of weak hierarchy in the effective theory should be incorporated.

Songlin Lv; Zheng Sun; Lina Wu

2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

412

Standard Model scales from warped extra dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If in the Randall and Sundrum RS1 model the inverse of the compactification radius, the AdS curvature scale, and the five and four-dimensional Planck scales are equal in size, as is natural, then the warp factor at the location of the low energy brane is of value 1/pi. So that all scales derive from locations in the space, we identify the extra dimension with the infinite covering space of the S1/Z2 orbifold. The extra dimension is then essentially a series of connected line intervals, punctuated by branes. Scales on successive branes in the extra dimension descend from Planck scale in a geometric sequence of common ratio 1/pi. Evidence is provided for such a sequence within the spectrum of particle masses, and of a second geometric sequence, of common ratio 2/pi, which suggests that the AdS spacetime is six-dimensional and doubly warped. The scales of the Standard Model lie at coincident levels within the two sequences. A third sequence, of common ratio 1/e, provides a symmetrical framework for the Standard Model and points to a warped product spacetime.

Bernard Riley

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Scaling in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Hartree approximation is used to study the interplay of two kinds of scaling which arise in high-temperature superconductors, namely critical-point scaling and that due to the confinement of electron pairs to their lowest Landau level in the presence of an applied magnetic field. In the neighborhood of the zero-field critical point, thermodynamic functions scale with the scaling variable [T-Tc2(B)]/B1/2?, which differs from the variable [T-Tc(0)]/B1/2? suggested by the Gaussian approximation. Lowest-Landau-level (LLL) scaling occurs in a region of high field surrounding the upper critical-field line but not in the vicinity of the zero-field transition. For YBa2Cu3O7-? in particular, a field of at least 10 T is needed to observe LLL scaling. These results are consistent with a range of recent experimental measurements of the magnetization, transport properties, and, especially, the specific heat of high-Tc materials.

Ian D. Lawrie

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Relating Pore-Scale Uranium Aquatic Speciation to Intermediate-Scale Aquifer Heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The speciation and transport of uranium (VI) through porous media is highly dependent on solution conditions, the presence of complexing ligands, and the nature of the porous media. The dependency on many variables makes prediction of U transport in bench-scale experiments and in the field difficult. In particular, the identification of colloidal U phases poses a technical challenge. Transport of U in the presence and absence of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic acid, SRHA) through silica sand and hematite coated silica sand was tested at pH 4 and 5 using static columns, where flow is controlled by gravity and residence time between advective pore volume exchanges can be strictly controlled. The column effluents were characterized by traditional techniques including ICPMS quantification of total [U] and [Fe], TOC analysis of [DOC], and pH analysis, and also by non-traditional techniques: flow field flow fractionation with online ICPMS detection (FlFFF-ICPMS) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) characterization of effluent fractions. Key results include that the transport of U through the columns was enhanced by pre-equilibration with SRHA, and previously deposited U was remobilized by the addition of SRHA. The advanced techniques yielded important insights on the mechanisms of transport: FlFFF-ICPMS identified a U?SRHA complex as the mobile U species and directly quantified relative amounts of the complex, while specific UV absorbance (SUVA) measurements indicated a composition-based fractionation onto the porous media.

Ranville, James

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Multilevel method for modeling large-scale networks.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the behavior of real complex networks is of great theoretical and practical significance. It includes developing accurate artificial models whose topological properties are similar to the real networks, generating the artificial networks at different scales under special conditions, investigating a network dynamics, reconstructing missing data, predicting network response, detecting anomalies and other tasks. Network generation, reconstruction, and prediction of its future topology are central issues of this field. In this project, we address the questions related to the understanding of the network modeling, investigating its structure and properties, and generating artificial networks. Most of the modern network generation methods are based either on various random graph models (reinforced by a set of properties such as power law distribution of node degrees, graph diameter, and number of triangles) or on the principle of replicating an existing model with elements of randomization such as R-MAT generator and Kronecker product modeling. Hierarchical models operate at different levels of network hierarchy but with the same finest elements of the network. However, in many cases the methods that include randomization and replication elements on the finest relationships between network nodes and modeling that addresses the problem of preserving a set of simplified properties do not fit accurately enough the real networks. Among the unsatisfactory features are numerically inadequate results, non-stability of algorithms on real (artificial) data, that have been tested on artificial (real) data, and incorrect behavior at different scales. One reason is that randomization and replication of existing structures can create conflicts between fine and coarse scales of the real network geometry. Moreover, the randomization and satisfying of some attribute at the same time can abolish those topological attributes that have been undefined or hidden from researchers. We propose to develop multilevel methods to model complex networks. The key point of the proposed strategy is that it will help to preserve part of the unknown structural attributes by guaranteeing the similar behavior of the real and artificial model on different scales.

Safro, I. M. (Mathematics and Computer Science)

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

416

Advanced coal gasifier designs using large-scale simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Porting of the legacy code MFIX to a high performance computer (HPC) and the use of high resolution simulations for the design of a coal gasifier are described here. MFIX is based on a continuum multiphase flow model that considers gas and solids to form interpenetrating continua. Low resolution simulations of a commercial scale gasifier with a validated MFIX model revealed interesting physical phenomena with implications on the gasifier design, which prompted the study reported here. To be predictive, the simulations need to model the spatiotemporal variations in gas and solids volume fractions, velocities, temperatures with any associated phase change and chemical reactions. These processes occur at various time- and length-scales requiring very high spatial resolution and large number of iterations with small time-steps. We were able to perform perhaps the largest known simulations of gas-solids reacting flows, providing detailed information about the gas-solids flow structure and the pressure, temperature and species distribution in the gasifier. One key finding is the new features of the coal jet trajectory revealed with the high spatial resolution, which provides information on the accuracy of the lower resolution simulations. Methodologies for effectively combining high and low resolution simulations for design studies must be developed. From a computational science perspective, we found that global communication has to be reduced to achieve scalability to 1000s of cores, hybrid parallelization is required to effectively utilize the multicore chips, and the wait time in the batch queue significantly increases the actual time-to-solution. From our experience, development is required in the following areas: efficient solvers for heterogeneous, massively parallel systems; data analysis tools to extract information from large data sets; and programming environments for easily porting legacy codes to HPC.

Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area. In a synergistic add-on to our workplan, we analyzed data from field experiments performed at the DOE Naturita Site under a separate DOE SBR grant, on which PI Day-Lewis served as co-PI. Techniques developed for application to Hanford datasets also were applied to data from Naturita. 1. Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) faces enormous scientific and engineering challenges associated with the remediation of legacy contamination at former nuclear weapons production facilities. Selection, design and optimization of appropriate site remedies (e.g., pump-and-treat, biostimulation, or monitored natural attenuation) requires reliable predictive models of radionuclide fate and transport; however, our current modeling capabilities are limited by an incomplete understanding of multi-scale mass transfer—its rates, scales, and the heterogeneity of controlling parameters. At many DOE sites, long “tailing” behavior, concentration rebound, and slower-than-expected cleanup are observed; these observations are all consistent with multi-scale mass transfer [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1995; Haggerty et al., 2000; 2004], which renders pump-and-treat remediation and biotransformation inefficient and slow [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1994; Harvey et al., 1994; Wilson, 1997]. Despite the importance of mass transfer, there are significant uncertainties associated with controlling parameters, and the prevalence of mass transfer remains a point of debate [e.g., Hill et al., 2006; Molz et al., 2006] for lack of experimental methods to verify and measure it in situ or independently of tracer breakthrough. There is a critical need for new field-experimental techniques to measure mass transfer in-situ and estimate multi-scale and spatially variable mass-transfer parame

Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

418

Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Classification of $SU(4) \\times SU(2) \\times U(1)$ Heterotic-String Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The free fermionic construction of the heterotic string in four dimensions produced a large space of three generation models with the underlying $SO(10)$ embedding of the Standard Model states. The $SO(10)$ symmetry is broken to a subgroup directly at the string scale. Over the past few years free fermionic models with the Pati-Salam and flipped $SU(5)$ subgroups have been classified. In this paper we extend this classification program to models in which the $SO(10)$ symmetry is broken at the string level to the $SU(4)\\times SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_R$ (SU421) subgroup. The subspace of free fermionic models that we consider corresponds to symmetric ${\\mathbb{Z}}_2 \\times {\\mathbb{Z}}_2$ orbifolds. We provide a general argument that shows that this class of SU421 free fermionic models cannot produce viable three generation models.

Alon E. Faraggi; Hasan Sonmez

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

420

Multi-scale thermalhydraulic analyses performed in Nuresim and Nurisp projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NURESIM and NURISP successive projects of the 6. and 7. European Framework Programs joined the efforts of 21 partners for developing and validating a reference multi-physics and multi-scale platform for reactor simulation. The platform includes system codes, component codes, and also CFD or CMFD simulation tools. Fine scale CFD simulations are useful for a better understanding of physical processes, for the prediction of small scale geometrical effects and for solving problems that require a fine space and/or time resolution. Many important safety issues usually treated at the system scale may now benefit from investigations at a CFD scale. The Pressurized Thermal Shock is investigated using several simulation scales including Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, Very Large Eddy Simulation and RANS approaches. At the end a coupling of system code and CFD is applied. Condensation Induced Water-Hammer was also investigated at both CFD and 1-D scale. Boiling flow in a reactor core up to Departure from Nucleate Boiling or Dry-Out is investigated at scales much smaller than the classical subchannel analysis codes. DNS was used to investigate very local processes whereas CFD in both RANS and LES was used to simulate bubbly flow and Euler-Lagrange simulations were used for annular mist flow investigations. Loss of Coolant Accidents are usually treated by system codes. Some related issues are now revisited at the CFD scale. In each case the progress of the analysis is summarized and the benefit of the multi-scale approach is shown. (authors)

Bestion, D. [CEA-Grenoble, DEN-DANS-DM2S, Grenoble, (France); Lucas, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, (Germany); Anglart, H. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, (Sweden); Niceno, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villingen, (Switzerland); Vyskocil, L. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, Rez, (Czech Republic)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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421

Fast History Matching of Time-Lapse Seismic and Production-Data for High Resolution Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(e.g. porosity, permeability). More recently, the availability of repeated seismic surveys over the time scale of years (i.e., 4D seismic) has shown promising results for the qualitative determination of changes in fluid phase distributions...

Rey Amaya, Alvaro

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

422

Trends and characteristics of part-time farming in post-war Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Part-time farming is a wide-spread phenomenon in contemporary rural Japan. Characterized by an extremely small-scale rice ... unimodal equitable rural development, most Japanese farm households have combined farm...

R. Kada

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Invariant time-series factorization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time-series analysis is an important domain of machine learning and a plethora of methods have been developed for the task. This paper proposes a new representation of time series, which in contrast to existing approaches, decomposes a time-series dataset ... Keywords: Data mining, Time-series classification, Time-series factorization

Josif Grabocka; Lars Schmidt-Thieme

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. T...

Kaiser, Gerald

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Unprecedented studies of the low-energy negatively charged kaons interactions in nuclear matter by AMADEUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The AMADEUS experiment aims to provide unique quality data of $K^-$ hadronic interactions in light nuclear targets, in order to solve fundamental open questions in the non-perturbative strangeness QCD sector, like the controversial nature of the $\\Lambda(1405)$ state, the yield of hyperon formation below threshold, the yield and shape of multi-nucleon $K^-$ absorption, processes which are intimately connected to the possible existence of exotic antikaon multi-nucleon clusters. AMADEUS takes advantage of the DA$\\Phi$NE collider, which provides a unique source of monochromatic low-momentum kaons and exploits the KLOE detector as an active target, in order to obtain excellent acceptance and resolution data for $K^-$ nuclear capture on H, ${}^4$He, ${}^{9}$Be and ${}^{12}$C, both at-rest and in-flight. During the second half of 2012 a successful data taking was performed with a dedicated pure carbon target implemented in the central region of KLOE, providing a high statistic sample of pure at-rest $K^-$ nuclear i...

Curceanu, C; Bazzi, M; Berucci, C; Bosnar, D; Bragadireanu, A M; Clozza, A; Cargnelli, M; D'uffizi, A; Fabbietti, L; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Sandri, P Levi; Marton, J; Pietreanu, D; Lener, M Poli; Quaglia, R; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D; Sirghi, F; Skurzok, M; Tucakovic, I; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Unprecedented studies of the low-energy negatively charged kaons interactions in nuclear matter by AMADEUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The AMADEUS experiment aims to provide unique quality data of $K^-$ hadronic interactions in light nuclear targets, in order to solve fundamental open questions in the non-perturbative strangeness QCD sector, like the controversial nature of the $\\Lambda(1405)$ state, the yield of hyperon formation below threshold, the yield and shape of multi-nucleon $K^-$ absorption, processes which are intimately connected to the possible existence of exotic antikaon multi-nucleon clusters. AMADEUS takes advantage of the DA$\\Phi$NE collider, which provides a unique source of monochromatic low-momentum kaons and exploits the KLOE detector as an active target, in order to obtain excellent acceptance and resolution data for $K^-$ nuclear capture on H, ${}^4$He, ${}^{9}$Be and ${}^{12}$C, both at-rest and in-flight. During the second half of 2012 a successful data taking was performed with a dedicated pure carbon target implemented in the central region of KLOE, providing a high statistic sample of pure at-rest $K^-$ nuclear interactions. For the future dedicated setups involving cryogenic gaseous targets are under preparation.

C. Curceanu; K. Piscicchia; M. Bazzi; C. Berucci; D. Bosnar; A. M. Bragadireanu; A. Clozza; M. Cargnelli; A. D'uffizi; L. Fabbietti; C. Fiorini; F. Ghio; C. Guaraldo; M. Iliescu; P. Levi Sandri; J. Marton; D. Pietreanu; M. Poli Lener; R. Quaglia; A. Romero Vidal; E. Sbardella; A. Scordo; H. Shi; D. Sirghi; F. Sirghi; M. Skurzok; I. Tucakovic; O. Vazquez Doce; E. Widmann; J. Zmeskal

2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

427

Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprec-edented low extents in the summer of 2007,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling, ice extent remains far below normal. Understanding Sea Ice Loss Key factors behind this recordArctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprec- edented low extents in the summer of 2007, raising concern that the Arctic may be on the verge of a fundamental transition toward a seasonal ice cover

Clements, Craig

428

Mechanistic studies of an unprecedented enzyme-catalysed 1,2-phosphono-migration reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonate ((S)-2-HPP) epoxidase (HppE) is a mononuclear non-haem-iron-dependent enzyme1, 2, 3 responsible for the final step in the biosynthesis of the clinically useful antibiotic fosfomycin4. Enzymes ...

Chang, Wei-chen

429

Identification of Quaternary Shape Memory Alloys with Near-Zero Thermal Hysteresis and Unprecedented  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of Quaternary Shape Memory Alloys with Near-Zero Thermal Hysteresis-film results are successfully transferred to bulk materials and near-zero thermal hysteresis is observed for the phase transformation in bulk alloys using the temperature- dependent alternating current potential drop

Rubloff, Gary W.

430

Studies on Oximidine II - Total Synthesis by an Unprecedented Reductive Coupling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies revealed 4 small molecules as potential leads for further optimization. Dioxins are environmental pollutants that cause a range of biological effects in a dose-dependent manner. The exact mechanism of action for dioxins is not fully understood. 2...

Schneider, Christopher Mark

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

431

Drought 2002 in Colorado: An Unprecedented Drought or a Routine Drought?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOLAN DOESKEN,1 ODILIA BLISS,1 TARA GREEN,1 CLARA CHAFFIN,1,2 JOSE D. SALAS,3 CONNIE A. WOODHOUSE,4, and related impacts. For example, 1 Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1372, U.S.A. 4 Paleoclimatology Branch, National Climatic

432

The Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large Scale Electronic Structure Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

large scale electronic structure calculations Zhengji Zhaoin [8]. 3. Electronic structure calculations for asymmetricd) initio electronic structure Pure CdS calculations. This

Zhao, Zhengji

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific Computing DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific Computing May 16, 2005 - 12:47pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. -- Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced today that DOE's Office of Science is seeking proposals to support innovative, large-scale computational science projects to enable high-impact advances through the use of advanced computers not commonly available in academia or the private sector. Projects currently funded are helping to reduce engine pollution and to improve our understanding of the stars and solar systems and human genetics. Successful proposers will be given the use of substantial computer time and data storage at the department's scientific

434

Breakthrough: MFiX: Building Industry-Scale Machines in a Virtual World |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Breakthrough: MFiX: Building Industry-Scale Machines in a Virtual Breakthrough: MFiX: Building Industry-Scale Machines in a Virtual World Breakthrough: MFiX: Building Industry-Scale Machines in a Virtual World July 11, 2012 - 1:34pm Addthis Mfix is open-source, virtual modeling software that makes coal gasification processes more efficient than was ever possible through lab tests. Modeling reduces the cost and time of testing and building actual systems and ultimately results in lower costs, improved power plant efficiency, and new energy systems that meet or even exceed current or proposed environmental regulations. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What is the future of MFiX? Ultimately, we see MFiX being used to solve industrial-scale

435

DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific Computing DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific Computing May 16, 2005 - 12:47pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. -- Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced today that DOE's Office of Science is seeking proposals to support innovative, large-scale computational science projects to enable high-impact advances through the use of advanced computers not commonly available in academia or the private sector. Projects currently funded are helping to reduce engine pollution and to improve our understanding of the stars and solar systems and human genetics. Successful proposers will be given the use of substantial computer time and data storage at the department's scientific

436

Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

437

Holographic Noise in Michelson Interferometers: A Direct Experimental Probe of Unification at the Planck Scale  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Classical spacetime and quantum mass-energy form the basis of all of physics. They become inconsistent at the Planck scale, 5.4 times 10^{-44} seconds, which may signify a need for reconciliation in a unified theory. Although proposals for unified theories exist, a direct experimental probe of this scale, 16 orders of magnitude above Tevatron energy, has seemed hopelessly out of reach. However in a particular interpretation of holographic unified theories, derived from black hole evaporation physics, a world assembled out of Planck-scale waves displays effects of unification with a new kind of uncertainty in position at the Planck diffraction scale, the geometric mean of the Planck length and the apparatus size. In this case a new phenomenon may measurable, an indeterminacy of spacetime position that appears as noise in interferometers. The colloquium will discuss the theory of the effect, and our plans to build a holographic interferometer at Fermilab to measure it.

Craig Hogan

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Acoustically enhanced remediation, Phase 2: Technology scaling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Weiss Associates is conducting the following three phase program investigating the in-situ application of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) of contaminated unconsolidated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I-- laboratory scale parametric investigation; Phase II--technology Scaling; and Phase III--large scale field tests. AER addresses the need for NAPL (either lighter or denser than water: LNAPL or DNAPL, respectively) in high and low permeability sediments, and the remediation of other types of subsurface contaminants (e.g., metals, radionuclides) in low permeability soils. This program has been placed in the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) DNAPL product. Phase I indicated that AER could be used to effectively remediate NAPL in high permeability soil, and that removal of NAPL from low permeability soil could be increased since the water flux through these soils was significantly increased. Phase II, Technology Scaling, the subject of this paper, focused on (1) evaluating the characteristics of an AER field deployment system, (2) developing DNAPL flow and transport performance data under acoustic excitation, (3) predicting the effect of acoustic remediation in three-dimensional unconsolidated hydrogeologic conditions, (4) conducting an engineering analysis of acoustical sources, and (5) identifying candidate field site(s) for large-scale field testing of the technology.

Iovenitti, J.L.; Hill, D.G. [Weiss Associates, Emeryville, CA (United States); Rynne, T.M.; Spadaro, J.F.; Hutchinson, W. [Scientific Applications and Research Associates, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Illangasakere, T. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Dynamic Time Expansion and Compression Using Nonlinear Waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dynamic time expansion or compression of a small amplitude input signal generated with an initial scale is performed using a nonlinear waveguide. A nonlinear waveguide having a variable refractive index is connected to a bias voltage source having a bias signal amplitude that is large relative to the input signal to vary the reflective index and concomitant speed of propagation of the nonlinear waveguide and an electrical circuit for applying the small amplitude signal and the large amplitude bias signal simultaneously to the nonlinear waveguide. The large amplitude bias signal with the input signal alters the speed of propagation of the small-amplitude signal with time in the nonlinear waveguide to expand or contract the initial time scale of the small-amplitude input signal.

Findikoglu, Alp T.; Hahn, Sangkoo F.; Jia, Quanxi

2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

440

Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Flywheel Energy Storage Plant | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Flywheel Energy Storage Plant Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Flywheel Energy Storage Plant Beacon Power will design, build, and operate a utility-scale 20 MW...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants April 2013 Information Administration | Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii Contents Introduction

442

Real time automated inspection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

Fant, Karl M. (Minneapolis, MN); Fundakowski, Richard A. (Saint Paul, MN); Levitt, Tod S. (Minneapolis, MN); Overland, John E. (Plymouth, MN); Suresh, Bindinganavle R. (New Brighton, MN); Ulrich, Franz W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Real time automated inspection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

444

Time encoded radiation imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

445

Time Variability of the "Quiet" Sun Observed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the geometric and physical parameters of 281 EUV nanoflares, simultaneously detected with the TRACE telescope in the 171 and 195 Å wavelengths. The detection and discrimination of these flarelike events is detailed in the first paper in this series. We determine the loop length l, loop width w, emission measure EM, the evolution of the electron density ne(t) and temperature Te(t), the flare decay time ?decay, and calculate the radiative loss time ?loss, the conductive loss time ?cond, and the thermal energy Eth. The findings are as follows: (1) EUV nanoflares in the energy range of 1024-1026 ergs represent miniature versions of larger flares observed in soft X-rays (SXR) and hard X-rays (HXR), scaled to lower temperatures (Te 2 MK), lower densities (ne 109 cm-3), and somewhat smaller spatial scales (l ? 2-20 Mm). (2) The cooling time ?decay is compatible with the radiative cooling time ?rad, but the conductive cooling timescale ?cond is about an order of magnitude shorter, suggesting repetitive heating cycles in time intervals of a few minutes. (3) The frequency distribution of thermal energies of EUV nanoflares, N(E) ? 10-46(E/1024)-1.8 (s-1 cm-2 ergs-1) matches that of SXR microflares in the energy range of 1026-1029, and exceeds that of nonthermal energies of larger flares observed in HXR by a factor of 3-10 (in the energy range of 1029-1032 ergs). Discrepancies of the power-law slope with other studies, which report higher values in the range of a = 2.0-2.6 (Krucker & Benz; Parnell & Jupp), are attributed to methodical differences in the detection and discrimination of EUV microflares, as well as to different model assumptions in the calculation of the electron density. Besides the insufficient power of nanoflares to heat the corona, we find also other physical limits for nanoflares at energies 1024 ergs, such as the area coverage limit, the heating temperature limit, the lower coronal density limit, and the chromospheric loop height limit. Based on these quantitative physical limitations, it appears that coronal heating requires other energy carriers that are not luminous in EUV, SXR, and HXR.

Markus J. Aschwanden; Ted D. Tarbell; Richard W. Nightingale; Carolus J. Schrijver; Alan Title; Charles C. Kankelborg; Piet Martens; Harry P. Warren

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.

Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

447

Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

448

Generalized Elastic Model: thermal vs non-thermal initial conditions. Universal scaling, roughening, ageing and ergodicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study correlation properties of the generalized elastic model which accounts for the dynamics of polymers, membranes, surfaces and fluctuating interfaces, among others. We develop a theoretical framework which leads to the emergence of universal scaling laws for systems starting from thermal (equilibrium) or non-thermal (non-equilibrium) initial conditions. Our analysis incorporates and broadens previous results such as observables' double scaling regimes, (super)roughening and anomalous diffusion, and furnishes a new scaling behavior for correlation functions at small times (long distances). We discuss ageing and ergodic properties of the generalized elastic model in non-equilibrium conditions, providing a comparison with the situation occurring in continuous time random walk. Our analysis also allows to assess which observable is able to distinguish whether the system is in or far from equilibrium conditions in an experimental set-up.

Taloni, Alessandro; Klafter, Joseph; 10.1209/0295-5075/97/30001

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage...

450

Sandia National Laboratories: Increasing the Scaled Wind Farm...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyIncreasing the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility's Power Production Increasing the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility's Power Production DOE Office of...

451

Secretary Jewell Announces Approval of Second Utility-Scale Solar...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Secretary Jewell Announces Approval of Second Utility-Scale Solar Energy Project on American Indian Trust Land Secretary Jewell Announces Approval of Second Utility-Scale Solar...

452

EBRD-Sustainable Energy Initiative: Scaling Up Finance for Climate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Scaling Up Finance for Climate Change Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: EBRD-Sustainable Energy Initiative: Scaling Up Finance for Climate...

453

Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process Modeling and Manufacturing-Informed Design, April 2013 Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process...

454

Atomic-Scale Simulations of Cascade Overlap and Damage Evolution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic-Scale Simulations of Cascade Overlap and Damage Evolution in Silicon Carbide. Atomic-Scale Simulations of Cascade Overlap and Damage Evolution in Silicon Carbide. Abstract:...

455

Sandia National Laboratories: Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyScaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Baselining Project Accelerates Work Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Baselining Project Accelerates Work Increasing the...

456

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

457

Bench-Scale Fermentation Laboratory (Fact Sheet), National Bioenergy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bench-Scale Fermentation Laboratory Bench-scale process development capabilities for the conversion of biomass to sugars, fuels, and chemicals NREL is a national laboratory of the...

458

2013 Community- and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

2013 Community- and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Finance Workshop Presentations and Agenda 2013 Community- and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable...

459

Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Commercial Scale Project...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commercial Scale Project Development Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Commercial Scale Project Development Watch the DOE Office of Indian Energy advanced course...

460

Utility Scale Renewable Energy Development Near DOD Installations...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Utility Scale Renewable Energy Development Near DOD Installations: Making the Case for Land Use Compatitbility Utility Scale Renewable Energy Development Near DOD Installations:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Application Design Website: www.leonardo-energy.orgwebinar-introduction-small-scale-wind-energy-s Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentintroduction-small-scale-wind-en...

462

Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

463

Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...

464

Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 Sequestration in Arbuckle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CCUS projects. Existing small-scale field projects have been conducted by the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) during their Validation Phase. These small-scale...

465

Large Scale GSHP as Alternative Energy for American Farmers Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Scale GSHP as Alternative Energy for American Farmers Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Large Scale GSHP as Alternative...

466

Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering at Large Scale at NERSC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Volume Rendering at Large Scale Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering at Large Scale volrend-swes.png We studied the performance and scalability characteristics of hybrid''...

467

Scaling in random-bond Ising models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have examined several Ising models with nearest-neighbor interactions taken randomly from a symmetric distribution of width ?J. Results indicate that z1/2?J, where z is the number of nearest neighbors, is a very useful energy and temperature scaling parameter. While this is not surprising in light of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, the degree to which certain model-dependent quantities can be rescaled to fit nearly universal curves is remarkable. This scaling property seems little affected by the location or existence of a spin-glass transition.

M. Thomsen and Mei-ching Fok

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Scale inhibition in desalination applications: An overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desalination is a process in which dissolved impurities are removed from water. Three processes commonly employed include: distillation, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis. This paper provides a general discussion of various desalination processes including advantages and disadvantages of each, performance comparisons, and problems encountered in the operation of the process. An in-depth discussion of fouling by mineral scales, colloidal matter, and metal hydroxides is also included. The role of the foulant control agent in treating a desalination system is also presented. Basic chemistry and efficacy of the individual scale inhibitors is summarized.

Amjad, Z. [BFGoodrich Co., Brecksville, OH (United States). Advanced Technology Group

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

The Intermediate Scale Branch of the Landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three branches of the string theory landscape have plausibly been identified. One of these branches is expected to exhibit a roughly logarithmic distribution of supersymmetry breaking scales. The original KKLT models are in this class. We argue that certain features of the KKLT model are generic to this branch, and that the resulting phenomenology depends on a small set of discrete choices. As in the MSSM, the weak scale in these theories is tuned; a possible explanation is selection for the dark matter density.

Michael Dine

2005-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

470

Peristaltic pumps work in nano scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A design for a pump is suggested which is based on well-known peristaltic pumps. In order to simply describe the operation of the proposed pump, an innovative interpretation of low Reynolds number swimmers is presented and thereafter a similar theoretical model would be suggested to quantify the behavior of the pumps. A coarse-grained molecular dynamic simulation is used to examine the theoretical predictions and measure the efficiency of the pump in nano scales. It is shown that this pump with a modest design is capable of being a good option for transport processes in nano scale.

Farnoush Farahpour; Mohammad Reza Ejtehadi

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

471

Small scale energy release and the acceleration and transport of energetic particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small scale energy release and the acceleration and transport of energetic particles Hugh Hudson1, and of their radio emission mechanisms. The RHESSI3 results are the most distinctive in this time frame observatory) 4 Very Large Array (Socorro, New Mexico) 5 Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (Nobeyama, Japan) 6

Hudson, Hugh

472

Optimizing Large Scale Chemical Transport Models for Multicore Platforms John C. Linford and Adrian Sandu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimizing Large Scale Chemical Transport Models for Multicore Platforms John C. Linford and Adrian: Chemical Transport Model, Domain Decom- position, Time Splitting, Multicore, Scalability, IBM Cell Broadband Engine, Intel Quad-Core Xeon. Abstract The performance of a typical chemical transport model

Sandu, Adrian

473

Algorithms for Adaptive Meshing on Large Scale Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

about scaling to petascale and beyond? #12;ICE is a cell-centered finite volume method for Navier Stokes of reference Uintah MPM-ICE-AMR Software MPM (solids) and ICE (fluids) exchange data several times per of refinement flags in parallel -helps produce global patch set [Analysis submitted to Concurrency] Creates many

474

Effect of Scaling Transfer between Evapotranspiration Maps Derived from LandSat 7 and MODIS Images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sung-ho Hong, Jan M.H. Hendrickx and Brian Borchers New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy place, Socorro, NM 87801 of the spatial distribution of ET over a range of space and time scales is needed for sustainable management coarse resolution images like MODIS provide very useful opportunities to monitor the energy balance

Borchers, Brian

475

ESIF Plugs Utility-Scale Hardware into Simulated Grids to Assess Integration Effects (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), integrated, megawatt-scale power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability allows researchers and manufacturers to test new energy technologies at full power in real-time simulations - safely evaluating component and system performance and reliability before going to market.

Not Available

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Pitch-Scale Modification Based on Formant Extraction from Resampled Speech  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by vocal tract filter. The frequency response of LPC synthesis filter determines the timbre of synthesized and storage, audio-visual systems, speech recognition, and text to speech conversion. The time scaling energy and are relatively stable. In addition, the cross-correlation coefficients are calculated

Chang, Pao-Chi

477

High Performance Computations of Subsurface Reactive Transport Processes at the Pore Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as carbon sequestration drive the geochemistry of porous media far from equilibrium in relatively short time in reservoir scale models. In the DOE Energy Frontier Research Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic Carbon such as reactive surface area or reaction rates as they affect CO2 sequestration, with an objective of upscaling

478

Title of Thesis: RTOS-BASED DYNAMIC VOLTAGE SCALING Degree candidate: Nuengwong Tuaycharoen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Electrical and Computer Engineering Energy consumption of real-time embedded systems becomes more important. The experimental results show that the technique can reduce significantly energy consumption by consuming only 5 of the total energy. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is accepted as the key technique to reduce energy

Jacob, Bruce

479

Scaling Dynamics of a Massive Piston in a Cube Filled With Ideal Gas: Exact Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling Dynamics of a Massive Piston in a Cube Filled With Ideal Gas: Exact Results N. Chernov1 65th birthday Abstract We continue the study of the time evolution of a system consisting of a piston in a cubical container of large size L filled with an ideal gas. The piston has mass M L2 and undergoes

Lebowitz, Joel

480

Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Lee, Kearn P.; Kelly, Steven E.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unprecedented time scales" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

482

Minimal Microwave Anisotropy from Perturbations Induced at Late Times  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aside from primordial gravitational instability of the cosmological fluid, various mechanisms have been proposed to generate large-scale structure at relatively late times, including, e.g., ``late-time'' cosmological phase transitions. In these scenarios, it is envisioned that the universe is nearly homogeneous at the time of last scattering and that perturbations grow rapidly sometime after the primordial plasma recombines. On this basis, it was suggested that large inhomogeneities could be generated while leaving relatively little imprint on the cosmic microwave background (MBR) anisotropy. In this paper, we calculate the minimal anisotropies possible in any ``late-time'' scenario for structure formation, given the level of inhomogeneity observed at present. Since the growth of the inhomogeneity involves time-varying gravitational fields, these scenarios inevitably generate significant MBR anisotropy via the Sachs-Wolfe effect. Moreover, we show that the large-angle MBR anisotropy produced by the rapid post-recombination growth of inhomogeneity is generally greater than that produced by the same inhomogeneity grown via gravitational instability. In ``realistic'' scenarios one can decrease the anisotropy compared to models with primordial adiabatic fluctuations, but only on very small angular scales. The value of any particular measure of the anisotropy can be made small in late-time models, but only by making the time-dependence of the gravitational field sufficiently ``pathological''.

Andrew H. Jaffe; Albert Stebbins; Joshua A. Frieman

1993-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

483

Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties alter s particle dispersion. The joint particle - temperature dispersion leads to a distribution of temperature histories predicted by the ODT . Predictions are shown for the lower moments an d the full distributions of the particle positions, particle - observed gas temperatures and particle temperatures. An analysis of the time scales affecting particle - temperature interactions covers Lagrangian integral time scales based on temperature autoco rrelations, rates of temperature change associated with particle motion relative to the temperature field and rates of diffusional change of temperatures. These latter two time scales have not been investigated previously; they are shown to be strongly in termittent having peaked distributions with long tails. The logarithm of the absolute value of these time scales exhibits a distribution closer to normal. A cknowledgements This work is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under their Counter - Weapons of Mass Destruction Basic Research Program in the area of Chemical and Biological Agent Defeat under award number HDTRA1 - 11 - 4503I to Sandia National Laboratories. The authors would like to express their appreciation for the guidance provi ded by Dr. Suhithi Peiris to this project and to the Science to Defeat Weapons of Mass Destruction program.

Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Fire Behavior at the Landscape Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fire Behavior at the Landscape Scale Scott Stephens, ESPMScott Stephens, ESPM DepartmentStrategies for Landscape Fuel TreatmentsLandscape Fuel Treatments Fire Containment · Fuelbreaks Fire Modification · Area (WUI) ·· Maintenance? Must maintain into futureMaintenance? Must maintain into future #12;Tyee Fire

Stephens, Scott L.

485

Viscosity of Polymer Solutions: Scaling Relationships  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scaling in terms of temperature composition and molecular weight variables has practical and fundamental significance. The hydrodynamics of hard sphere systems suggest the scaling of the dimensionless ratio ? sp /(c[?]) in terms of a concentration parameter ?(M T)=1/[?]. Solutions of flexible chains indicate the appropriateness of this equation at ? and sub ? conditions but otherwise a molecular weight dependence of ? differing from that of [?] ?1 . It is possible however to define a corresponding states principle through an empirical relation between ? and M. In this case 1/??k H [?] with k H the Huggins parameter. This scheme extends in some cases up to the melt. One of us (L.A.U.) has previously considered melt viscosities of low and high molecular weight systems in terms of free volume concepts combined with theoretical liquid state results and with T g scaling the temperature. An extension to solutions yields an explicit viscosity?concentration?temperature function. Gratifying agreement with experiment can be seen. Structural changes generated by temperature concentration and pressure changes are reflected in the scaling parameters.

L. A. Utracki; R. Simha

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Scale symmetry in classical and quantum mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we address again the issue of the scale anomaly in quantum mechanical models with inverse square potential. In particular we examine the interplay between the classical and quantum aspects of the system using in both cases an operatorial approach.

E. Gozzi; D. Mauro

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

Scaling of Excitons in Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Light emission from carbon nanotubes is expected to be dominated by excitonic recombination. Here we calculate the properties of excitons in nanotubes embedded in a dielectric, for a wide range of tube radii and dielectric environments. We find that simple scaling relationships give a good description of the binding energy, exciton size, and oscillator strength.

Vasili Perebeinos; J. Tersoff; Phaedon Avouris

2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

488

WEBPIE: A WEB-SCALE PARALLEL INFERENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WEBPIE: A WEB-SCALE PARALLEL INFERENCE ENGINE Jacopo Urbani, Spyros Kotoulas, Jason Maassen, Niels Amsterdam Monday 10 May 2010 #12;The Semantic Web The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web where the semantics is defined Basically the idea is to move from Web of Documents (Traditional Web) Web of data

489

Acceleration radiation and the Planck scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A uniformly accelerating observer perceives the Minkowski vacuum state as a thermal bath of radiation. We point out that this field-theory effect can be derived, for any dimension higher than two, without actually invoking very high energy physics. This supports the view that this phenomenon is robust against Planck-scale physics and, therefore, should be compatible with any underlying microscopic theory.

I. Agullo; J. Navarro-Salas; G. J. Olmo; L. Parker

2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

490

utility functions scaling profiles utility-fair  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bandwidth utility functions scaling profiles utility-fair I. INTRODUCTION The emerging MPEG-4 video. This can result in a significant increase in the utilization of network capacity [1]. These techniques. Bandwidth utility functions [9] can be used to characterize an application's capability to adapt over

Chang, Shih-Fu

491

Electromagnetic Composites at the Compton Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new class of electromagnetic composite particles is proposed. The composites are very small (the Compton scale), potentially long-lived, would have unique interactions with atomic and nuclear systems, and, if they exist, could explain a number of otherwise anomalous and conflicting observations in diverse research areas.

Frederick J. Mayer; John R. Reitz

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

492

Service Science: Design for Scaling and Transformation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-led revolution which is not just post-Industrial Revolution, but also poising Knowledge Economy for furtherService Science: Design for Scaling and Transformation Cheng K. Hsu Professor of Industrial? Is a service-led revolution reality or gimmick? Each question and answer becomes a chapter of the book, which

Hsu, Cheng

493

Defect Characterization for Scaling of QCA Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operation and ultra low power dissipation [8]. Among these new devices, quantum dot cellular automata (QCA promising new computing scheme in the nano-scale regimes. As an emerging technology, QCA relies on radically voter, the inverter and the binary wire, are provided to show that defects have definitive trends

494

Planck Scale Cosmology in Resummed Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that, by using resummation techniques based on the extension of the methods of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura to Feynman's formulation of Einstein's theory, we get quantum field theoretic predictions for the UV fixed-point values of the dimensionless gravitational and cosmological constants. Connections to the phenomenological asymptotic safety analysis of Planck scale cosmology by Bonanno and Reuter are discussed.

B. F. L. Ward

2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

495

Planck Scale Cosmology and Resummed Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that, by using amplitude-based resummation techniques for Feynman's formulation of Einstein's theory, we get quantum field theoretic 'first principles' predictions for the UV fixed-point values of the dimensionless gravitational and cosmological constants. Connections to the phenomenological asymptotic safety analysis of Planck scale cosmology by Bonanno and Reuter are discussed.

B. F. L. Ward

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

496

7, 1553315563, 2007 Large-scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Pacific, correlations with CO, CO2, CH4, and C2Cl4 were dif- fuse overall, but recognizable on flights out Chemistry and Physics Discussions Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg in the Mexico City the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) cam- paign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

497

SLH Timing Belt Powertrain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine?, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon-#12;fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning a timing-belt based hydroEngine ?powertrain: 1. Can a belt handle the high torques and power loads demanded by the SLH? (Yes.) 2. Can the SLH blades be mounted to belt with a connection that can withstand the loads encountered in operation? (Yes.) 3. Can the belt, with blade attachments, live through the required cyclic loading? (Yes.) The research adds to the general understanding of sustainable small hydropower systems by using innovative system testing to develop and demonstrate performance of a novel powertrain solution, enabling a new type of hydroelectric turbine to be commercially developed. The technical effectiveness of the methods investigated has been shown to be positive through an extensive design and testing process accommodating many constraints and goals, with a major emphasis on high cycle fatigue life. Economic feasibility of the innovations has been demonstrated through many iterations of design for manufacturability and cost reduction. The project is of benefit to the public because it has helped to develop a solution to a major problem -- despite the large available potential for new low-head hydropower, high capital costs and high levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) continue to be major barriers to project development. The hydroEngine? represents a significant innovation, leveraging novel fluid mechanics and mechanical configuration to allow lower-cost turbine manufacture and development of low head hydropower resources.

Schneider, Abe

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

498

Cosmological Implications of the CMB Large-scale Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WMAP and Planck may have uncovered several anomalies in the full CMB sky that could indicate possible new physics driving the growth of density fluctuations in the early Universe. These include an unusually low power at the largest scales and an apparent alignment of the quadrupole and octopole moments. In LCDM, the quadrupole and octopole moments should be statistically independent. These low probability features may simply be due to posterior selections from many such possible effects. If this is not the case, however, their combined statistical significance would be equal to the product of their individual significances. Ignoring the biasing due to posterior selection, the missing large-angle correlations would have a probability as low as ~0.1% and the low-l multipole alignment would be unlikely at the ~4.9% level; under the least favourable conditions, their simultaneous observation in the context of the standard model could then be likely at only the ~0.005% level. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these features are indeed anomalous, and show that the corresponding probability of CMB multipole alignment in the R_h=ct Universe would then be ~7-10%, depending on the number of large-scale Sachs-Wolfe induced fluctuations. Since the low power at the largest spatial scales is reproduced in this cosmology without the need to invoke cosmic variance, the overall likelihood of observing both of these features in the CMB is > 7%, much more likely than in LCDM. The key physical ingredient responsible for this difference is the existence in the former of a maximum fluctuation size at the time of recombination, which is absent in the latter because of inflation.

Fulvio Melia

2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

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Appears in the 40th International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '10) A Unified Model for Timing Speculation: Evaluating the Impact of Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

designs benefit most from timing speculation ­ we report a 47% potential energy- delay reduction, and (3 properties, energy efficiency from CMOS scaling is showing diminishing improvements. To overcome the energy scal