National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for unprecedented time scales

  1. Time-Off Awards Scale | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    scale has been adopted by the servicing human resources office. Time-Off Awards Scale (28.38 KB) Responsible Contacts Lorrenda Buckner HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST (PERFORMANCE ...

  2. Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High resolution global predictions ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time ...

  3. Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran

    2015-01-21

    A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (≈16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.

  4. Mesh Generation for SHARP: Unprecedented Complexity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mesh Generation for SHARP: Unprecedented Complexity Mesh Generation for SHARP: Unprecedented Complexity January 29, 2013 - 1:36pm Addthis SHARP Supporting Elements During this quarter, the framework team was involved in two primary efforts, mesh generation and implementation of a MOAB-based coupled multi-physics simulation. For mesh generation, finishing touches were put on three major, high-complexity hexahedral meshes, and support was provided for their use in various simulations: MATiS-H, an

  5. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on

  6. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  7. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  8. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  9. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  10. Using Focused Regression for Accurate Time-Constrained Scaling of Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, B; Garren, J; Lowenthal, D; Reeves, J; de Supinski, B; Schulz, M; Rountree, B

    2010-01-28

    Many large-scale clusters now have hundreds of thousands of processors, and processor counts will be over one million within a few years. Computational scientists must scale their applications to exploit these new clusters. Time-constrained scaling, which is often used, tries to hold total execution time constant while increasing the problem size along with the processor count. However, complex interactions between parameters, the processor count, and execution time complicate determining the input parameters that achieve this goal. In this paper we develop a novel gray-box, focused median prediction errors are less than 13%. regression-based approach that assists the computational scientist with maintaining constant run time on increasing processor counts. Combining application-level information from a small set of training runs, our approach allows prediction of the input parameters that result in similar per-processor execution time at larger scales. Our experimental validation across seven applications showed that median prediction errors are less than 13%.

  11. Mastering Uncertainty and Risk at Multiple Time Scales in the Future Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Bent, Russell W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2012-07-10

    Today's electrical grids enjoy a relatively clean separation of spatio-temporal scales yielding a compartmentalization of grid design, optimization, control and risk assessment allowing for the use of conventional mathematical tools within each area. In contrast, the future grid will incorporate time-intermittent renewable generation, operate via faster electrical markets, and tap the latent control capability at finer grid modeling scales; creating a fundamentally new set of couplings across spatiotemporal scales and requiring revolutionary advances in mathematics techniques to bridge these scales. One example is found in decade-scale grid expansion planning in which today's algorithms assume accurate load forecasts and well-controlled generation. Incorporating intermittent renewable generation creates fluctuating network flows at the hourly time scale, inherently linking the ability of a transmission line to deliver electrical power to hourly operational decisions. New operations-based planning algorithms are required, creating new mathematical challenges. Spatio-temporal scales are also crossed when the future grid's minute-scale fluctuations in network flows (due to intermittent generation) create a disordered state upon which second-scale transient grid dynamics propagate effectively invalidating today's on-line dynamic stability analyses. Addressing this challenge requires new on-line algorithms that use large data streams from new grid sensing technologies to physically aggregate across many spatial scales to create responsive, data-driven dynamic models. Here, we sketch the mathematical foundations of these problems and potential solutions.

  12. Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds Harrington, Jerry The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase stratus clouds are dominant in the Arctic during much of the year. These clouds typically have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Time scales for the complete glaciation of such clouds (the Bergeron process) are typically computed using the classical mass growth equations for crystals and liquid drops. However, mixed phase arctic stratus have

  13. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  14. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A.

    2011-03-11

    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.

  15. Code-scaling workshop gets research teams ready for prime time | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Computing Facility Code-scaling workshop gets research teams ready for prime time Author: Jim Collins July 5, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google E-mail Printer-friendly version Code to model electrons with X-ray pulses now runs five times faster thanks to hands-on collaboration with Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) staff at the "Scaling Your Science on Mira" workshop. The ALCF is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility. The

  16. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-06-03

    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  17. Kondo time scales for quantum dots: Response to pulsed bias potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plihal, Martin; Langreth, David C.; Nordlander, Peter

    2000-05-15

    The response of a quantum dot in the Kondo regime to rectangular pulsed bias potentials of various strengths and durations is studied theoretically. It is found that the rise time is faster than the fall time, and also faster than time scales normally associated with the Kondo problem. For larger values of the pulsed bias, one can induce dramatic oscillations in the induced current with a frequency approximating the splitting between the Kondo peaks that would be present in steady state. The effect persists in the total charge transported per pulse, which should facilitate the experimental observation of the phenomenon. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. COLLOQUIUM - PLEASE NOTE SPECIAL DATE/TIME: The Magnetospheric MultiScale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mission Investigation of Magnetic Reconnection | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab February 21, 2013, 10:30am to 12:00pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM - PLEASE NOTE SPECIAL DATE/TIME: The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission Investigation of Magnetic Reconnection Professor Roy Torbert University of New Hampshire Presentation: File TC21FEB2013_RBTorbert_COMPRESSED.pptx In late fall 2014, NASA will launch the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study the kinetic physics of magnetic

  19. Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

    2004-11-28

    This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with different capacity. It is assumed that the owner substitutes own electricity load with electricity from the wind mill and sells excess electricity back to the grid on an hourly basis. The problem for the owner is to find the price levels at which it is optimal to invest, and in which capacity to invest. The results suggests it is optimal to wait for significantly higher prices than the net present value break-even. Optimal scale and timing depend on the expected price growth rate and the uncertainty in the future prices.

  20. Model-independent plotting of the cosmological scale factor as a function of lookback time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringermacher, H. I.; Mead, L. R., E-mail: ringerha@gmail.com, E-mail: Lawrence.mead@usm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In this work we describe a model-independent method of developing a plot of scale factor a(t) versus lookback time t{sub L} from the usual Hubble diagram of modulus data against redshift. This is the first plot of this type. We follow the model-independent methodology of Daly and Djorgovski used for their radio-galaxy data. Once the a(t)data plot is completed, any model can be applied and will display as described in the standard literature. We then compile an extensive data set to z = 1.8 by combining Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data from SNLS3 of Conley et al., high-z SNe data of Riess et al., and radio-galaxy data of Daly and Djorgovski to validate the new plot. We first display these data on a standard Hubble diagram to confirm the best fit for ?CDM cosmology, and thus validate the joined data set. The scale factor plot is then developed from the data and the ?CDM model is again displayed from a least-squares fit. The fit parameters are in agreement with the Hubble diagram fit confirming the validity of the new plot. Of special interest is the transition time of the universe, which in the scale factor plot will appear as an inflection point in the data set. Noise is more visible in this presentation, which is particularly sensitive to inflection points of any model displayed in the plot, unlike on a modulus-z diagram, where there are no inflection points and the transition-z is not at all obvious by inspection. We obtain a lower limit of z ? 0.6. It is evident from this presentation that there is a dearth of SNe data in the range z = 1-2, exactly the range necessary to confirm a ?CDM transition-z around z = 0.76. We then compare a 'toy model' wherein dark matter is represented as a perfect fluid with an equation of state p = (1/3) ? to demonstrate the plot sensitivity to model choice. Its density varies as 1/t {sup 2} and it enters the Friedmann equations as ?{sub dark}/t {sup 2}, replacing only the ?{sub dark}/a {sup 3} term. The toy model is a close match to

  1. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy Almost 1,500 solar water heating and PV systems have popped up throughout the territory since the EDIN-USVI project launched in February 2010, and 15 MW of distributed solar PV are either in place or under construction. <em>Photo from Don Buchanan, VIEO, NREL 20152</em> Almost 1,500 solar water heating and PV systems have

  2. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-02

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. However, how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer 'how far is far enough,' we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25–2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high

  3. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-02

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. However, how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer 'how far is far enough,' we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25–2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high

  4. Induced core formation time in subcritical magnetic clouds by large-scale trans-Alfvnic flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudoh, Takahiro; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: basu@uwo.ca

    2014-10-20

    We clarify the mechanism of accelerated core formation by large-scale nonlinear flows in subcritical magnetic clouds by finding a semi-analytical formula for the core formation time and describing the physical processes that lead to them. Recent numerical simulations show that nonlinear flows induce rapid ambipolar diffusion that leads to localized supercritical regions that can collapse. Here, we employ non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ambipolar diffusion for gravitationally stratified sheets threaded by vertical magnetic fields. One of the horizontal dimensions is eliminated, resulting in a simpler two-dimensional simulation that can clarify the basic process of accelerated core formation. A parameter study of simulations shows that the core formation time is inversely proportional to the square of the flow speed when the flow speed is greater than the Alfvn speed. We find a semi-analytical formula that explains this numerical result. The formula also predicts that the core formation time is about three times shorter than that with no turbulence, when the turbulent speed is comparable to the Alfvn speed.

  5. Extending the length and time scales of GramSchmidt Lyapunov vector computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Anthony B.; Green, Jason R.

    2013-08-01

    Lyapunov vectors have found growing interest recently due to their ability to characterize systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of orthogonal GramSchmidt vectors requires multiplication and QR decomposition of large matrices, which grow as N{sup 2} (with the particle count). This expense has limited such calculations to relatively small systems and short time scales. Here, we detail two implementations of an algorithm for computing GramSchmidt vectors. The first is a distributed-memory message-passing method using Scalapack. The second uses the newly-released MAGMA library for GPUs. We compare the performance of both codes for LennardJones fluids from N=100 to 1300 between Intel Nahalem/Infiniband DDR and NVIDIA C2050 architectures. To our best knowledge, these are the largest systems for which the GramSchmidt Lyapunov vectors have been computed, and the first time their calculation has been GPU-accelerated. We conclude that Lyapunov vector calculations can be significantly extended in length and time by leveraging the power of GPU-accelerated linear algebra.

  6. Dynamic response of materials on subnanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Damian C.; Tierney, Thomas E.; Luo Shengnian; Paisley, Dennis L.; Kyrala, George A.; Hauer, Allan; Greenfield, Scott R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Lorenzana, Hector E.; Kalantar, Daniel; Remington, Bruce A.; Peralta, Pedro; Loomis, Eric

    2005-05-15

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. These relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser-induced ablation can be particularly convenient: this technique has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200 GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including line imaging surface velocimetry, surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response from the polycrystalline microstructure. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1 TPa.

  7. Scales

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  8. Time-Varying, Multi-Scale Adaptive System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Infrastructure Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Kurtz, Nolan Scot

    2014-09-01

    The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.

  9. Effects of forcing time scale on the simulated turbulent flows and turbulent collision statistics of inertial particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosa, B.; Parishani, H.; Ayala, O.; Wang, L.-P.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we study systematically the effects of forcing time scale in the large-scale stochastic forcing scheme of Eswaran and Pope [“An examination of forcing in direct numerical simulations of turbulence,” Comput. Fluids 16, 257 (1988)] on the simulated flow structures and statistics of forced turbulence. Using direct numerical simulations, we find that the forcing time scale affects the flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number. Other flow statistics can be predicted using the altered flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number, except when the forcing time scale is made unrealistically large to yield a Taylor microscale flow Reynolds number of 30 and less. We then study the effects of forcing time scale on the kinematic collision statistics of inertial particles. We show that the radial distribution function and the radial relative velocity may depend on the forcing time scale when it becomes comparable to the eddy turnover time. This dependence, however, can be largely explained in terms of altered flow Reynolds number and the changing range of flow length scales present in the turbulent flow. We argue that removing this dependence is important when studying the Reynolds number dependence of the turbulent collision statistics. The results are also compared to those based on a deterministic forcing scheme to better understand the role of large-scale forcing, relative to that of the small-scale turbulence, on turbulent collision of inertial particles. To further elucidate the correlation between the altered flow structures and dynamics of inertial particles, a conditional analysis has been performed, showing that the regions of higher collision rate of inertial particles are well correlated with the regions of lower vorticity. Regions of higher concentration of pairs at contact are found to be highly correlated with the region of high energy dissipation rate.

  10. New Math Captures Fluids in Unprecedented Detail | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Highlights » 2016 » New Math Captures Fluids in Unprecedented Detail Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301) 903-4846

  11. Chicago becomes first city to launch Array of Things, an unprecedented

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    urban sensing project | Argonne National Laboratory The Array of Things node contains sensors that collect information on urban environment, infrastructure, and activity. (image credit: Urban Center for Computation and Data) The Array of Things node contains sensors that collect information on urban environment, infrastructure, and activity. (image credit: Urban Center for Computation and Data) Chicago becomes first city to launch Array of Things, an unprecedented urban sensing project

  12. Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency | U.S. DOE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Science (SC) Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.12 Space Chamber Reaches

  13. Field Experience with and Potential for Multi-time Scale Grid Transactions from Responsive Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-08-01

    The need for and concepts behind demand response are evolving. As the electric system changes with more intermittent renewable electric supply systems, there is a need to allow buildings to provide more flexible demand. This paper presents results from field studies and pilots, as well as engineering estimates of the potential capabilities of fast load responsiveness in commercial buildings. We present a sector wide analysis of flexible loads in commercial buildings, which was conducted to improve resource planning and determine which loads to evaluate in future demonstrations. These systems provide important capabilities for future transactional systems. The field analysis is based on results from California, plus projects in the northwest and east coast. End-uses considered include heating, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting. The timescales of control include day-ahead, as well as day-of, 10-minute ahead and even faster response. This technology can provide DR signals on different times scales to interact with responsive building loads. We describe the latency of the control systems in the building and the round trip communications with the wholesale grid operators.

  14. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-08-21

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f (e.g., Verlet algorithm), is available to propagate the system from time t{sub i} (trajectory positions and velocities x{sub i} = (r{sub i}, v{sub i})) to time t{sub i+1} (x{sub i+1}) by x{sub i+1} = f{sub i}(x{sub i}), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t{sub 0}t{sub M} can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [x{sub i} ? f(x{sub (i?1})]{sub i} {sub =1,M} = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of root finding techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed, and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem is tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations, such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl + 4H{sub 2}O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup ((serial execution time)/(parallel execution time) ) obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations, the algorithms achieved speedups of up to 14

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2-A-3-OK-Real-Time Data Infrastructure for Large Scale Wind Fleets.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real Time Data Infrastructure for Large Real-Time Data Infrastructure for Large Scale Wind Fleets - Return on Investment vs Fundamental Business Requirements Value now. Value over time. © Copyright 2011, OSIsoft, LLC All Rights Reserved. vs. Fundamental Business Requirements Reliability - 4 Ws and an H * What is reliability? - Uptime, OEE, profitable wind plants? (OEE Availability % * Production % * Quality %) * (OEE = Availability % * Production % * Quality %) * Why should money be spent to

  16. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-08-21

    Parallel in time simulation algorithms are presented and applied to conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models of realistic complexity. Assuming that a forward time integrator, f , (e.g. Verlet algorithm) is available to propagate the system from time ti (trajectory positions and velocities xi = (ri; vi)) to time ti+1 (xi+1) by xi+1 = fi(xi), the dynamics problem spanning an interval from t0 : : : tM can be transformed into a root finding problem, F(X) = [xi - f (x(i-1)]i=1;M = 0, for the trajectory variables. The root finding problem is solved using a variety of optimization techniques, including quasi-Newton and preconditioned quasi-Newton optimization schemes that are all unconditionally convergent. The algorithms are parallelized by assigning a processor to each time-step entry in the columns of F(X). The relation of this approach to other recently proposed parallel in time methods is discussed and the effectiveness of various approaches to solving the root finding problem are tested. We demonstrate that more efficient dynamical models based on simplified interactions or coarsening time-steps provide preconditioners for the root finding problem. However, for MD and AIMD simulations such preconditioners are not required to obtain reasonable convergence and their cost must be considered in the performance of the algorithm. The parallel in time algorithms developed are tested by applying them to MD and AIMD simulations of size and complexity similar to those encountered in present day applications. These include a 1000 Si atom MD simulation using Stillinger-Weber potentials, and a HCl+4H2O AIMD simulation at the MP2 level. The maximum speedup obtained by parallelizing the Stillinger-Weber MD simulation was nearly 3.0. For the AIMD MP2 simulations the algorithms achieved speedups of up to 14.3. The parallel in time algorithms can be implemented in a distributed computing environment using very slow TCP/IP networks. Scripts

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: Project Execution and Quality Control U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy In the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), solar energy is helping to alleviate the territory's dependence on fossil fuel while stabilizing and reducing energy costs. Challenge The territory's successes with solar energy started in 2010 when USVI Gov. John P. de Jongh Jr. set an aggressive goal to reduce the USVI's dependence on fossil fuel 60% by 2025. Like many island communities, USVI

  18. Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

  19. Predictive Understanding of the Oceans' Wind-Driven Circulation on Interdecadal Time Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Ghil; Temam, Roger; Y. Feliks; Simonnet, E.; Tachim-Medjo, T.

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to obtain a predictive understanding of a major component of the climate system's interdecadal variability: the oceans' wind-driven circulation. To do so, we developed and applied advanced computational and statistical methods to the problem of climate variability and climate change. The methodology was developed first for models of intermediate complexity, such as the quasi-geostrophic and the primitive equations, which describe the wind-driven, near-surface flow in mid-latitude ocean basins. Our computational work consisted in developing efficient multi-level methods to simulate this flow and study its dependence on physically relevant parameters. Our oceanographic and climate work consisted in applying these methods to study the bifurcations in the wind-driven circulation and their relevance to the flows observed at present and those that might occur in a warmer climate. Both aspects of the work are crucial for the efficient treatment of large-scale, eddy-resolving numerical simulations of the oceans and an increased understanding and better prediction of climate change. Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding ocean-atmosphere interaction in the mid-latitudes. An important by-product of this research is a novel approach to explaining the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  20. Estimation of the time scale of last chance alpha emission using an atomic clock''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallamore, L.; Sarantites, D.G.; Charity, R.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Sobotka, L.G. ); Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.; Varner, R.L. )

    1994-02-01

    The probability of filling a [ital K]-vacancy, created on the incoming part of the collision, before [alpha]-particle emission is used to time the decay of Yb compound nuclei. These nuclei were produced in the fusion reaction 250 MeV [sup 60]Ni+[sup 100]Mo. In general the nuclear decays are too fast to be timed by this clock, however, [alpha]-particle emitting compound nucleus states have lifetimes sufficiently long for this technique to work when both the [alpha]-particle has low energy and the compound nucleus spin is large. This supports the existence of last, or near last, chance [alpha]-particle emission in the deexcitation of high spin compound nuclei.

  1. Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

    1999-11-09

    The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

  2. Agent-based Large-Scale Emergency Evacuation Using Real-Time Open Government Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Cheng; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The open government initiatives have provided tremendous data resources for the transportation system and emergency services in urban areas. This paper proposes a traffic simulation framework using high temporal resolution demographic data and real time open government data for evacuation planning and operation. A comparison study using real-world data in Seattle, Washington is conducted to evaluate the framework accuracy and evacuation efficiency. The successful simulations of selected area prove the concept to take advantage open government data, open source data, and high resolution demographic data in emergency management domain. There are two aspects of parameters considered in this study: user equilibrium (UE) conditions of traffic assignment model (simple Non-UE vs. iterative UE) and data temporal resolution (Daytime vs. Nighttime). Evacuation arrival rate, average travel time, and computation time are adopted as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) for evacuation performance analysis. The temporal resolution of demographic data has significant impacts on urban transportation dynamics during evacuation scenarios. Better evacuation performance estimation can be approached by integrating both Non-UE and UE scenarios. The new framework shows flexibility in implementing different evacuation strategies and accuracy in evacuation performance. The use of this framework can be explored to day-to-day traffic assignment to support daily traffic operations.

  3. Studies of Ocean Predictability at Decade to Century Time Scales Using a Global Ocean General Circulation Model in a Parallel Computing Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, T.P.

    1998-11-30

    The objectives of this report are to determine the structure of oceanic natural variability at time scales of decades to centuries, characterize the physical mechanisms responsible for the variability; determine the relative importance of heat, fresh water, and moment fluxes on the variability; determine the predictability of the variability on these times scales. (B204)

  4. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-11-01

    Electrification plays a crucial role in cost-effective greenhouse gas emissions mitigation strategies. Such strategies in turn carry implications for financial capital markets. This paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on decade to century time scales. We go further to explore the implications of technology performance and the stringency of climate policy for capital investment demands by the power sector. Finally, we discuss the regional distribution of investment demands. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be need in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 16 to 29 Trillion US$ (60-110%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 8 to21 Trillion US$ (default technology assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario with higher savings being obtained under the most stringent climate policy. The heaviest investments in power generation were observed in the China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century.

  5. A relationship between statistical time to breakdown distributions and pre-breakdown negative differential resistance at nanometric scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foissac, R.; Blonkowski, S.; Delcroix, P.; Kogelschatz, M.

    2014-07-14

    Using an ultra-high vacuum Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) current voltage, pre-breakdown negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics are measured together with the time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) distributions of Si/SiON (1.4 and 2.6?nm thick). Those experimental characteristics are systematically compared. The NDR effect is modelled by a conductive filament growth. It is showed that the Weibull TDDB statistic distribution scale factor is proportional to the growth rate of an individual filament and then has the same dependence on the electric field. The proportionality factor is a power law of the ratio between the surfaces of the CAFM tip and the filament's top. Moreover, it was found that, for the high fields used in those experiments, the TDDB acceleration factor as the growth rate characteristic is proportional to the Zener tunnelling probability. Those observations are discussed in the framework of possible breakdown or forming mechanism.

  6. Dynamic response of materials on sub-nanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, D C; Tierney, T E; Luo, S N; Paisley, D L; Kyrala, G A; Hauer, A; Greenfield, S R; Koskelo, A C; McClellan, K J; Lorenzana, H E; Knudson, M D; Peralta, P P; Loomis, E

    2004-12-09

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. these relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser ablation can be particularly convenient. The TRIDENT laser has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including surface velocimetry (line-imaging VISAR), surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically-driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1TPa.

  7. Real-Time Imaging of Plant Cell Wall Structure at Nanometer Scale, with Respect to Cellulase Accessibility and Degradation Kinetics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2012-05-01

    Presentation on real-time imaging of plant cell wall structure at nanometer scale. Objectives are to develop tools to measure biomass at the nanometer scale; elucidate the molecular bases of biomass deconstruction; and identify factors that affect the conversion efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels.

  8. Northern Hemisphere wintertime variability in a two-level general circulation model. Part II. The maintenance of short and long time-scale disturbances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, Y.; Esbensen, S.K.

    1986-12-01

    The energetics of large-scale disturbances of the wintertime, Northern Hemisphere circulation are studied with the OSU two-level general circulation model. The behavior of simulated eddies with short time-scale (2.5 to 10 days) is found to be consistent with observations and with baroclinic instability theory. Eddies with long time-scales (>10 days) appear to be maintained primarily by high-latitude baroclinic energy conversions. Energy conversions characteristic of barotropic processes are found at jet stream latitudes.

  9. Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time with respect to the BNB Trigger Time [µs] 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Fractional Flash Count per 0.15 µs with respect to Cosmic Background Measured Cosmic Rate (Beam-Off) BNB Trigger Data (Beam-On) [4.51E18 POT]

  10. Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 15 20 Time with respect to the NuMI Trigger Time [µs] 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Fractional Flash Count per 0.5 µs with respect to Cosmic Background Measured Cosmic Rate (Beam-Off) NuMI Trigger Data (Beam-On) [4.83E18 POT]

  11. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio VS{sup ?1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup ?1}): VS{sup ?1}?=?v{sub gr}T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ? (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program Statistics is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: VS{sup ?1}?=?4.46?10{sup ?11}T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr}?=?4.4610{sup ?11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/SMv{sub gr}>h/2? and T{sub dt}Mv{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2? are valid, where h= 6.62610{sup ?34} J?s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  12. Attosecond Light and Science at the Time-scale of the Electron - Coherent X-Rays from Tabletop Ultrafast Lasers

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Margaret, Murnane [University of Colorado, Boulder and NIST

    2010-09-01

    Ever since the invention of the laser 50 years ago and its application in nonlinear optics, scientists have been striving to extend coherent laser beams into the x-ray region of the spectrum. Very recently however, the prospects for tabletop coherent sources at very short wavelengths, even in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum at wavelengths < 1nm, have brightened considerably. This advance is possible by taking nonlinear optics techniques to an extreme - physics that is the direct result of a new ability to manipulate electrons on the fastest, attosecond, time-scales of our natural world. Several applications have already been demonstrated, including making a movie of how electrons rearrange in a chemical bond changes shape as a molecule breaks apart, following how fast a magnetic material can flip orientation, understanding how fast heat flows in a nanocircuit, or building a microscope without lenses. Nature 460, 1088 (2009); Science 317, 775 (2007); Physical Review Letters 103, 257402 (2009); Nature Materials 9, 26 (2010); Nature 463, 214 (2010); Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  13. Open-access databases as unprecedented resources and drivers of cultural change in fisheries science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Utz, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Open-access databases with utility in fisheries science have grown exponentially in quantity and scope over the past decade, with profound impacts to our discipline. The management, distillation, and sharing of an exponentially growing stream of open-access data represents several fundamental challenges in fisheries science. Many of the currently available open-access resources may not be universally known among fisheries scientists. We therefore introduce many national- and global-scale open-access databases with applications in fisheries science and provide an example of how they can be harnessed to perform valuable analyses without additional field efforts. We also discuss how the development, maintenance, and utilization of open-access data are likely to pose technical, financial, and educational challenges to fisheries scientists. Such cultural implications that will coincide with the rapidly increasing availability of free data should compel the American Fisheries Society to actively address these problems now to help ease the forthcoming cultural transition.

  14. Scaling MG-RAST to Terabases (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Desai, Narayan [ANL

    2013-01-22

    Argonne National Lab's Narayan Desai on "Scaling MG-RAST to Terabases" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  15. Summary of the Midwest conference on small-scale hydropower in the Midwest: an old technology whose time has come

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    A variety of decision makers convened to examine and discuss certain significant problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric development in the Midwestern region, comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The conference opened with an introductory panel of resource persons who outlined the objectives of the conference, presented information on small-scale hydro, and described the materials available to conference participants. A series of workshop sessions followed. Two of the workshop sessions discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The remaining two workshops dealt with economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model developed by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. A plenary session and recommendations completed the workshop.

  16. The effect of large-scale model time step and multiscale coupling frequency on cloud climatology, vertical structure, and rainfall extremes in a superparameterized GCM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sungduk; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2015-12-17

    The effect of global climate model (GCM) time step—which also controls how frequently global and embedded cloud resolving scales are coupled—is examined in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model ver 3.0. Systematic bias reductions of time-mean shortwave cloud forcing (~10 W/m2) and longwave cloud forcing (~5 W/m2) occur as scale coupling frequency increases, but with systematically increasing rainfall variance and extremes throughout the tropics. An overarching change in the vertical structure of deep tropical convection, favoring more bottom-heavy deep convection as a global model time step is reduced may help orchestrate these responses. The weak temperature gradient approximation is more faithfully satisfied when a high scale coupling frequency (a short global model time step) is used. These findings are distinct from the global model time step sensitivities of conventionally parameterized GCMs and have implications for understanding emergent behaviors of multiscale deep convective organization in superparameterized GCMs. Lastly, the results may also be useful for helping to tune them.

  17. The effect of large-scale model time step and multiscale coupling frequency on cloud climatology, vertical structure, and rainfall extremes in a superparameterized GCM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Sungduk; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2015-12-17

    The effect of global climate model (GCM) time step—which also controls how frequently global and embedded cloud resolving scales are coupled—is examined in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model ver 3.0. Systematic bias reductions of time-mean shortwave cloud forcing (~10 W/m2) and longwave cloud forcing (~5 W/m2) occur as scale coupling frequency increases, but with systematically increasing rainfall variance and extremes throughout the tropics. An overarching change in the vertical structure of deep tropical convection, favoring more bottom-heavy deep convection as a global model time step is reduced may help orchestrate these responses. The weak temperature gradient approximation is more faithfullymore » satisfied when a high scale coupling frequency (a short global model time step) is used. These findings are distinct from the global model time step sensitivities of conventionally parameterized GCMs and have implications for understanding emergent behaviors of multiscale deep convective organization in superparameterized GCMs. Lastly, the results may also be useful for helping to tune them.« less

  18. Atomistic simulation of laser-pulse surface modification: Predictions of models with various length and time scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starikov, Sergey V. Pisarev, Vasily V.

    2015-04-07

    In this work, the femtosecond laser pulse modification of surface is studied for aluminium (Al) and gold (Au) by use of two-temperature atomistic simulation. The results are obtained for various atomistic models with different scales: from pseudo-one-dimensional to full-scale three-dimensional simulation. The surface modification after laser irradiation can be caused by ablation and melting. For low energy laser pulses, the nanoscale ripples may be induced on a surface by melting without laser ablation. In this case, nanoscale changes of the surface are due to a splash of molten metal under temperature gradient. Laser ablation occurs at a higher pulse energy when a crater is formed on the surface. There are essential differences between Al ablation and Au ablation. In the first step of shock-wave induced ablation, swelling and void formation occur for both metals. However, the simulation of ablation in gold shows an additional athermal type of ablation that is associated with electron pressure relaxation. This type of ablation takes place at the surface layer, at a depth of several nanometers, and does not induce swelling.

  19. DOE's Office of Science Awards 18 Million Hours of Supercomputing Time to 15 Teams for Large-Scale Scientific Computing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WASHINGTON, D.C. - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced today that DOE's Office of Science has awarded a total of 18.2 million hours of computing time on some of the world's most powerful...

  20. Large-Scale Uncertainty and Error Analysis for Time-dependent Fluid/Structure Interactions in Wind Turbine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, Juan J.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-08-25

    The following is the final report covering the entire period of this aforementioned grant, June 1, 2011 - May 31, 2013 for the portion of the effort corresponding to Stanford University (SU). SU has partnered with Sandia National Laboratories (PI: Mike S. Eldred) and Purdue University (PI: Dongbin Xiu) to complete this research project and this final report includes those contributions made by the members of the team at Stanford. Dr. Eldred is continuing his contributions to this project under a no-cost extension and his contributions to the overall effort will be detailed at a later time (once his effort has concluded) on a separate project submitted by Sandia National Laboratories. At Stanford, the team is made up of Profs. Alonso, Iaccarino, and Duraisamy, post-doctoral researcher Vinod Lakshminarayan, and graduate student Santiago Padron. At Sandia National Laboratories, the team includes Michael Eldred, Matt Barone, John Jakeman, and Stefan Domino, and at Purdue University, we have Prof. Dongbin Xiu as our main collaborator. The overall objective of this project was to develop a novel, comprehensive methodology for uncertainty quantification by combining stochastic expansions (nonintrusive polynomial chaos and stochastic collocation), the adjoint approach, and fusion with experimental data to account for aleatory and epistemic uncertainties from random variable, random field, and model form sources. The expected outcomes of this activity were detailed in the proposal and are repeated here to set the stage for the results that we have generated during the time period of execution of this project: 1. The rigorous determination of an error budget comprising numerical errors in physical space and statistical errors in stochastic space and its use for optimal allocation of resources; 2. A considerable increase in efficiency when performing uncertainty quantification with a large number of uncertain variables in complex non-linear multi-physics problems; 3. A

  1. Local timespace mesh refinement for simulation of elastic wave propagation in multi-scale media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostin, Victor; Lisitsa, Vadim; Reshetova, Galina; Tcheverda, Vladimir

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents an original approach to local timespace grid refinement for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in models with localized clusters of micro-heterogeneities. The main features of the algorithm are the application of temporal and spatial refinement on two different surfaces; the use of the embedded-stencil technique for the refinement of grid step with respect to time; the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based interpolation to couple variables for spatial mesh refinement. The latter makes it possible to perform filtration of high spatial frequencies, which provides stability in the proposed finite-difference schemes. In the present work, the technique is implemented for the finite-difference simulation of seismic wave propagation and the interaction of such waves with fluid-filled fractures and cavities of carbonate reservoirs. However, this approach is easy to adapt and/or combine with other numerical techniques, such as finite elements, discontinuous Galerkin method, or finite volumes used for approximation of various types of linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations.

  2. Acoustic Source Localization via Time Difference of Arrival Estimation for Distributed Sensor Networks Using Tera-Scale Optical Core Devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Imam, Neena; Barhen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    For real-time acoustic source localization applications, one of the primary challenges is the considerable growth in computational complexity associated with the emergence of ever larger, active or passive, distributed sensor networks. These sensors rely heavily on battery-operated system components to achieve highly functional automation in signal and information processing. In order to keep communication requirements minimal, it is desirable to perform as much processing on the receiver platforms as possible. However, the complexity of the calculations needed to achieve accurate source localization increases dramatically with the size of sensor arrays, resulting in substantial growth of computational requirements that cannot bemore » readily met with standard hardware. One option to meet this challenge builds upon the emergence of digital optical-core devices. The objective of this work was to explore the implementation of key building block algorithms used in underwater source localization on the optical-core digital processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Inc. This demonstration of considerably faster signal processing capability should be of substantial significance to the design and innovation of future generations of distributed sensor networks.« less

  3. The tale of a modern animal plague: Tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tully, Damien C. Fares, Mario A.

    2008-12-20

    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes.

  4. VisIO: enabling interactive visualization of ultra-scale, time-series data via high-bandwidth distributed I/O systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Christopher J; Ahrens, James P; Wang, Jun

    2010-10-15

    Petascale simulations compute at resolutions ranging into billions of cells and write terabytes of data for visualization and analysis. Interactive visuaUzation of this time series is a desired step before starting a new run. The I/O subsystem and associated network often are a significant impediment to interactive visualization of time-varying data; as they are not configured or provisioned to provide necessary I/O read rates. In this paper, we propose a new I/O library for visualization applications: VisIO. Visualization applications commonly use N-to-N reads within their parallel enabled readers which provides an incentive for a shared-nothing approach to I/O, similar to other data-intensive approaches such as Hadoop. However, unlike other data-intensive applications, visualization requires: (1) interactive performance for large data volumes, (2) compatibility with MPI and POSIX file system semantics for compatibility with existing infrastructure, and (3) use of existing file formats and their stipulated data partitioning rules. VisIO, provides a mechanism for using a non-POSIX distributed file system to provide linear scaling of 110 bandwidth. In addition, we introduce a novel scheduling algorithm that helps to co-locate visualization processes on nodes with the requested data. Testing using VisIO integrated into Para View was conducted using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) on TACC's Longhorn cluster. A representative dataset, VPIC, across 128 nodes showed a 64.4% read performance improvement compared to the provided Lustre installation. Also tested, was a dataset representing a global ocean salinity simulation that showed a 51.4% improvement in read performance over Lustre when using our VisIO system. VisIO, provides powerful high-performance I/O services to visualization applications, allowing for interactive performance with ultra-scale, time-series data.

  5. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Running Large Scale Jobs Running Large Scale Jobs Users face various challenges with running and scaling large scale jobs on peta-scale production systems. For example, certain applications may not have enough memory per core, the default environment variables may need to be adjusted, or I/O dominates run time. This page lists some available programming and run time tuning options and tips users can try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers

  6. Time-Dependent Measure of a Nano-Scale Force-Pulse Driven by the Axonemal Dynein Motors in Individual Live Sperm Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M J; Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M W; Balhorn, R

    2009-04-23

    Nano-scale mechanical forces generated by motor proteins are crucial to normal cellular and organismal functioning. The ability to measure and exploit such forces would be important to developing motile biomimetic nanodevices powered by biological motors for Nanomedicine. Axonemal dynein motors positioned inside the sperm flagellum drive microtubule sliding giving rise to rhythmic beating of the flagellum. This force-generating action makes it possible for the sperm cell to move through viscous media. Here we report new nano-scale information on how the propulsive force is generated by the sperm flagellum and how this force varies over time. Single cell recordings reveal discrete {approx}50 ms pulses oscillating with amplitude 9.8 {+-} 2.6 nN independent of pulse frequency (3.5-19.5 Hz). The average work carried out by each cell is 4.6 x 10{sup -16} J per pulse, equivalent to the hydrolysis of {approx}5,500 ATP molecules. The mechanochemical coupling at each active dynein head is {approx}2.2 pN/ATP, and {approx}3.9 pN per dynein arm, in agreement with previously published values obtained using different methods.

  7. SociAL Sensor Analytics: Measuring Phenomenology at Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Rose, Stuart J.; McKenzie, Taylor K.

    2013-06-04

    The objective of this paper is to present a system for interrogating immense social media streams through analytical methodologies that characterize topics and events critical to tactical and strategic planning. First, we propose a conceptual framework for interpreting social media as a sensor network. Time-series models and topic clustering algorithms are used to implement this concept into a functioning analytical system. Next, we address two scientific challenges: 1) to understand, quantify, and baseline phenomenology of social media at scale, and 2) to develop analytical methodologies to detect and investigate events of interest. This paper then documents computational methods and reports experimental findings that address these challenges. Ultimately, the ability to process billions of social media posts per week over a period of years enables the identification of patterns and predictors of tactical and strategic concerns at an unprecedented rate through SociAL Sensor Analytics (SALSA).

  8. Wakefield Computations for the CLIC PETS using the Parallel Finite Element Time-Domain Code T3P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candel, A; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; /CERN

    2009-06-19

    In recent years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the high-performance parallel 3D electromagnetic time-domain code, T3P, for simulations of wakefields and transients in complex accelerator structures. T3P is based on advanced higher-order Finite Element methods on unstructured grids with quadratic surface approximation. Optimized for large-scale parallel processing on leadership supercomputing facilities, T3P allows simulations of realistic 3D structures with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design of the next generation of accelerator facilities. Applications to the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) are presented.

  9. Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale Biomass 2013 Washington, 1 August 2013 Martina Otto Head of Policy Unit, Energy Branch United Nations Environment Programme www.unep.org/energy/bioenergy UNEP Global Environment Outlook - GEO-5: We are already observing changes to the Earth System, unprecedented in human history. Efforts to slow the rate or extent of change have resulted in moderate successes but have not succeeded in reversing adverse environmental changes. We need transformational

  10. Using Soir Lucene for Large-Scale Metagenomics Data Retrieval and Analysis (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Goll, Johannes [JCVI

    2013-01-22

    JCVI's Johannes Goll on "Using Solr/Lucene for Large-Scale Metagenomics Data Retrieval and Analysis" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  11. DOE JGI Quality Metrics; Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Copeland, Alex [DOE JGI]; Brown, C Titus [Michigan State University

    2013-01-22

    DOE JGI's Alex Copeland on "DOE JGI Quality Metrics" and Michigan State University's C. Titus Brown on "Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  12. The OME Framework for genome-scale systems biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palsson, Bernhard O.; Ebrahim, Ali; Federowicz, Steve

    2014-12-19

    The life sciences are undergoing continuous and accelerating integration with computational and engineering sciences. The biology that many in the field have been trained on may be hardly recognizable in ten to twenty years. One of the major drivers for this transformation is the blistering pace of advancements in DNA sequencing and synthesis. These advances have resulted in unprecedented amounts of new data, information, and knowledge. Many software tools have been developed to deal with aspects of this transformation and each is sorely needed [1-3]. However, few of these tools have been forced to deal with the full complexity of genome-scale models along with high throughput genome- scale data. This particular situation represents a unique challenge, as it is simultaneously necessary to deal with the vast breadth of genome-scale models and the dizzying depth of high-throughput datasets. It has been observed time and again that as the pace of data generation continues to accelerate, the pace of analysis significantly lags behind [4]. It is also evident that, given the plethora of databases and software efforts [5-12], it is still a significant challenge to work with genome-scale metabolic models, let alone next-generation whole cell models [13-15]. We work at the forefront of model creation and systems scale data generation [16-18]. The OME Framework was borne out of a practical need to enable genome-scale modeling and data analysis under a unified framework to drive the next generation of genome-scale biological models. Here we present the OME Framework. It exists as a set of Python classes. However, we want to emphasize the importance of the underlying design as an addition to the discussions on specifications of a digital cell. A great deal of work and valuable progress has been made by a number of communities [13, 19-24] towards interchange formats and implementations designed to achieve similar goals. While many software tools exist for handling genome-scale

  13. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M. Stoeckl, C.; Albert, F.; Palmer, N. E.; Dppner, T.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Bachmann, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; LaCaille, G.; Bradley, D. K.; Lee, J. J.

    2014-11-15

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostica multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20500 keV rangehas been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ?300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U K{sub ?}). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (?90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests.

  14. Scaling Up

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Up Scaling Up Many scientists appreciate Python's power for prototyping and developing scientific computing and data-intensive applications. However, creating parallel Python applications that scale well in modern high-performance computing environments can be challenging for a variety of reasons. Approaches to parallel processing in Python at NERSC are described on this page. Here we outline various approaches to scaling parallel Python applications at NERSC so that users may select the

  15. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  16. Digital scale converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  17. Variable dimensionality in the uranium fluoride/2-methyl-piperazine system: Synthesis and structures of UFO-5, -6, and -7; Zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials with unprecedented topologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, R.J.; Halasyamani, P.S.; Bee, J.S.; O'Hare, D.

    1999-02-24

    Recently, low temperature (T < 300 C) hydrothermal reactions of inorganic precursors in the presence of organic cations have proven highly productive for the synthesis of novel solid-state materials. Interest in these materials is driven by the astonishingly diverse range of structures produced, as well as by their many potential materials chemistry applications. This report describes the high yield, phase pure hydrothermal syntheses of three new uranium fluoride phases with unprecedented structure types. Through the systematic control of the synthesis conditions the authors have successfully controlled the architecture and dimensionality of the phase formed and selectively synthesized novel zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials.

  18. SMART Scale

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SMART Scale Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Colin Clark, CClark@ecoact.org ECOLOGY ACTION Project Summary Timeline:  Start date: October 1, 2013  Planned end date: September 30, 2016 Key Milestones :  June 2014: Research and develop list of measures needed to enhance Ecology !ction's DI 2.0 model to achieve an average of at least 20% energy savings  October 2014: Identification and Selection of Demonstration

  19. scale model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scale model - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  20. On the increase of the non-uniform scaling of the magnetic field variations before the M{sub w}9.0 earthquake in Japan in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skordas, E. S.

    2014-06-01

    By applying Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to the time series of the geomagnetic data recorded at three measuring stations in Japan, Rong et al. in 2012 recently reported that anomalous magnetic field variations were identified well before the occurrence of the disastrous Tohoku M{sub w}9.0 earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 in Japan exhibiting increased non-uniform scaling behavior. Here, we provide an explanation for the appearance of this increase of non-uniform scaling on the following grounds: These magnetic field variations are the ones that accompany the electric field variations termed Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activity which have been repeatedly reported that precede major earthquakes. DFA as well as multifractal DFA reveal that the latter electric field variations exhibit scaling behavior as shown by analyzing SES activities observed before major earthquakes in Greece. Hence, when these variations are superimposed on a background of pseudosinusoidal trend, their long range correlation propertiesquantified by DFAare affected resulting in an increase of the non-uniform scaling behavior. The same is expected to hold for the former magnetic field variations. This explanation is strengthened by recent findings showing that the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity exhibited an unprecedented minimum almost two months before the Tohoku earthquake occurrence which is characteristic for an almost simultaneous emission of Seismic Electric Signals activity.

  1. DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications Large scale Python and other dynamic applications may spend huge time at startup. The DLFM library,...

  2. Report on Fission Time Projection Chamber M3FT-12IN0210052

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James K. Jewell

    2012-08-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is a collaborative effort to implement an innovative approach and deliver unprecedented fission measurements to DOE programs. This 4?-detector system will provide unrivaled 3-D data about the fission process. Shown here is a half populated TPC (2?) at the LLNL TPC laboratory as it undergoes testing before being shipped to LANSCE for beam experiments.

  3. Hopper Scaling Incentive Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Incentive Program Hopper Scaling Incentive Program August 30, 2011 by Francesca Verdier For projects that haven't yet scaled their codes to 683 or more nodes (which is the level at which a job is considered "big" on hopper) NERSC is offering scaling incentives, mostly focused on the use of OpenMP. For some codes, adding OpenMP directives will allow you to scale up and run bigger science problems. For users accepted in the Scaling Incentive Program: First, you'll need to

  4. Parallel time integration software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds mustmore » come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.« less

  5. EXPLOSIVE EVENTS ON A SUBARCSECOND SCALE IN IRIS OBSERVATIONS: A CASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Fu, Hui; Madjarska, Maria S.; Doyle, J. G.; Galsgaard, Klaus

    2014-12-20

    We present a study of a typical explosive event (EE) at subarcsecond scale witnessed by strong non-Gaussian profiles with blue- and redshifted emission of up to 150 km s{sup –1} seen in the transition region Si IV 1402.8 Å, and the chromospheric Mg II k 2796.4 Å and C II 1334.5 Å observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. For the first time an EE is found to be associated with very small-scale (∼120 km wide) plasma ejection followed by retraction in the chromosphere. These small-scale jets originate from a compact bright-point-like structure of ∼1.''5 size as seen in the IRIS 1330 Å images. SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI co-observations show that the EE lies in the footpoint of a complex loop-like brightening system. The EE is detected in the higher temperature channels of AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, and 131 Å, suggesting that it reaches a higher temperature of log T = 5.36 ± 0.06 (K). Brightenings observed in the AIA channels with durations 90-120 s are probably caused by the plasma ejections seen in the chromosphere. The wings of the C II line behave in a similar manner to the Si IV'S, indicating close formation temperatures, while the Mg II k wings show additional Doppler-shifted emission. Magnetic convergence or emergence followed by cancellation at a rate of 5 × 10{sup 14} Mx s{sup –1} is associated with the EE region. The combined changes of the locations and the flux of different magnetic patches suggest that magnetic reconnection must have taken place. Our results challenge several theories put forward in the past to explain non-Gaussian line profiles, i.e., EEs. Our case study on its own, however, cannot reject these theories; thus, further in-depth studies on the phenomena producing EEs are required.

  6. TIMING APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, A.E.; Geisow, J.C.H.

    1956-04-17

    The timing device comprises an escapement wheel and pallet, a spring drive to rotate the escapement wheel to a zero position, means to wind the pretensioned spring proportional to the desired signal time, and a cam mechanism to control an electrical signal switch by energizing the switch when the spring has been wound to the desired position, and deenergizing it when it reaches the zero position. This device produces an accurately timed signal variably witain the control of the operator.

  7. Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

  8. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  9. Time Off

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Off Time Off A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contact Benefits Office (505) 667-1806 Email Time Off Work schedules A variety of work schedules are available that allow flexibility for workers and Laboratory programs. The most popular work schedule is the 9/80-employees work 80 hours over a 9 workday (two week) period, with a Friday off every other week. Holidays The Lab recognizes these 12

  10. Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  11. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    peta-scale production systems. For example, certain applications may not have enough memory per core, the default environment variables may need to be adjusted, or IO dominates...

  12. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers and compiler options The available compilers on Hopper are PGI, Cray, Intel, GNU,...

  13. Scale Models & Wind Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbines * Readings about Cape Wind and other offshore and onshore siting debates for wind farms * Student Worksheet * A number of scale model items: Ken, Barbie or other dolls...

  14. PULSE SCALING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kandiah, K.

    1954-06-01

    Pulse scaling systems embodying multi-electrode gaseous-discharge tubes of the type having a plurality of stable discharge paths are described. The novelty of this particular system lies in the simplification of the stepping arrangement between successive tubes. In one form the invention provides a multistage scaler comprising a pulse generator, a first multi-electrode scaling tube of the type set forth coupled to said generator to receive transfer pulses therefrom and one or more succeeding multi-electrode scaling tubes each deriving its transfer pulses from preceding scaling tubes.

  15. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal silica using small gel particles....

  16. Large-Scale Sequencing: The Future of Genomic Sciences Colloquium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret Riley; Merry Buckley

    2009-01-01

    Genetic sequencing and the various molecular techniques it has enabled have revolutionized the field of microbiology. Examining and comparing the genetic sequences borne by microbes - including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microbial eukaryotes - provides researchers insights into the processes microbes carry out, their pathogenic traits, and new ways to use microorganisms in medicine and manufacturing. Until recently, sequencing entire microbial genomes has been laborious and expensive, and the decision to sequence the genome of an organism was made on a case-by-case basis by individual researchers and funding agencies. Now, thanks to new technologies, the cost and effort of sequencing is within reach for even the smallest facilities, and the ability to sequence the genomes of a significant fraction of microbial life may be possible. The availability of numerous microbial genomes will enable unprecedented insights into microbial evolution, function, and physiology. However, the current ad hoc approach to gathering sequence data has resulted in an unbalanced and highly biased sampling of microbial diversity. A well-coordinated, large-scale effort to target the breadth and depth of microbial diversity would result in the greatest impact. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to discuss the scientific benefits of engaging in a large-scale, taxonomically-based sequencing project. A group of individuals with expertise in microbiology, genomics, informatics, ecology, and evolution deliberated on the issues inherent in such an effort and generated a set of specific recommendations for how best to proceed. The vast majority of microbes are presently uncultured and, thus, pose significant challenges to such a taxonomically-based approach to sampling genome diversity. However, we have yet to even scratch the surface of the genomic diversity among cultured microbes. A coordinated sequencing effort of cultured organisms is an appropriate place to begin

  17. Nagios Down-Time scripts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddeberg, Patrick

    2014-11-11

    The Nagios Down-Time scripts are a set of Python scripts that create a commandline interface to Nagios' scheduled down-times. This allows for large-scale management of down-times, beyond what is feasible with the default web interface. Additionally, one of the scripts can be setup to periodically send emails of down-times that are scheduled to end within a specified amount of time after the script has been run; for example, it could run once a day and send an email including down-times ending within the next 24 hours.

  18. Nagios Down-Time scripts

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-11-11

    The Nagios Down-Time scripts are a set of Python scripts that create a commandline interface to Nagios' scheduled down-times. This allows for large-scale management of down-times, beyond what is feasible with the default web interface. Additionally, one of the scripts can be setup to periodically send emails of down-times that are scheduled to end within a specified amount of time after the script has been run; for example, it could run once a day andmore » send an email including down-times ending within the next 24 hours.« less

  19. Time-stretch microscopy based on time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chi Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-07-28

    Time-stretch microscopy has emerged as an ultrafast optical imaging concept offering the unprecedented combination of the imaging speed and sensitivity. However, dedicated wideband and coherence optical pulse source with high shot-to-shot stability has been mandated for time-wavelength mappingthe enabling process for ultrahigh speed wavelength-encoded image retrieval. From the practical point of view, exploiting methods to relax the stringent requirements (e.g., temporal stability and coherence) for the source of time-stretch microscopy is thus of great value. In this paper, we demonstrated time-stretch microscopy by reconstructing the time-wavelength mapping sequence from a wideband incoherent source. Utilizing the time-lens focusing mechanism mediated by a narrow-band pulse source, this approach allows generation of a wideband incoherent source, with the spectral efficiency enhanced by a factor of 18. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, time-stretch imaging with the scan rate as high as MHz and diffraction-limited resolution is achieved based on the wideband incoherent source. We note that the concept of time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source can also be generalized to any high-speed optical real-time measurements, where wavelength is acted as the information carrier.

  20. Synthesis of millimeter-scale transition metal dichalcogenides single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gong, Yongji; Ye, Gonglan; Lei, Sidong; Shi, Gang; Vajtai, Robert; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Zhou, Wu; Li, Bo; Ajayan, Pullikel M.

    2016-02-10

    The emergence of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) atomic layers has opened up unprecedented opportunities in atomically thin electronics. Yet the scalable growth of TMD layers with large grain sizes and uniformity has remained very challenging. Here is reported a simple, scalable chemical vapor deposition approach for the growth of MoSe2 layers is reported, in which the nucleation density can be reduced from 105 to 25 nuclei cm-2, leading to millimeter-scale MoSe2 single crystals as well as continuous macrocrystalline films with millimeter size grains. The selective growth of monolayers and multilayered MoSe2 films with well-defined stacking orientation can also bemore » controlled via tuning the growth temperature. In addition, periodic defects, such as nanoscale triangular holes, can be engineered into these layers by controlling the growth conditions. The low density of grain boundaries in the films results in high average mobilities, around ≈42 cm2 V-1 s-1, for back-gated MoSe2 transistors. This generic synthesis approach is also demonstrated for other TMD layers such as millimeter-scale WSe2 single crystals.« less

  1. Scaling phenomena in fatigue and fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barenblatt, G.I.

    2004-12-01

    The general classification of scaling laws will be presented and the basic concepts of modern similarity analysis--intermediate asymptotics, complete and incomplete similarity--will be introduced and discussed. The examples of scaling laws corresponding to complete similarity will be given. The Paris scaling law in fatigue will be discussed as an instructive example of incomplete similarity. It will be emphasized that in the Paris law the powers are not the material constants. Therefore, the evaluation of the life-time of structures using the data obtained from standard fatigue tests requires some precautions.

  2. Scaling Your Science on Mira | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Your Science on Mira Scaling Your Science In this intensive 3-day scaling lab, ALCF and industry professionals will share the latest techniques and tools to help you scale your code to the next level. Work along side these experts to enhance your code's scalability over 12 full hours of dedicated hands-on time. Test and debug as you go with exclusive full-system reservations for this premier scaling event. Scaling Your Science on Mira is intended for experienced HPC users with near-term

  3. Three DOE Labs Now Connected With Ultra-High Speed Network That is 10 Times

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers | Department of Energy DOE Labs Now Connected With Ultra-High Speed Network That is 10 Times Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers Three DOE Labs Now Connected With Ultra-High Speed Network That is 10 Times Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers November 14, 2011 - 4:09pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is now supporting scientific research at unprecedented bandwidth speeds - at least ten times faster than

  4. DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications Large scale Python and other dynamic applications may spend huge time at startup. The DLFM library, developed by Mike Davis at Cray, Inc., is a set of functions that can be incorporated into a dynamically-linked application to provide improved performance during the loading of dynamic libraries when running the application at large scale on Edison. To access this library, do module

  5. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  6. Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-02-17

    This program is used to compute the predicted normalized elution time (NET) for a list of peptide sequences. It includes the Kangas/Petritis neural network trained model, the Krokhin hydrophobicity model, and the Mant hydrophobicity model. In addition, it can compute the predicted strong cation exchange (SCX) fraction (on a 0 to 1 scale) in which a given peptide will appear.

  7. Wakefield Simulation of CLIC PETS Structure Using Parallel 3D Finite Element Time-Domain Solver T3P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; /CERN

    2009-06-19

    In recent years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel 3D Finite Element electromagnetic time-domain code T3P. Higher-order Finite Element methods on conformal unstructured meshes and massively parallel processing allow unprecedented simulation accuracy for wakefield computations and simulations of transient effects in realistic accelerator structures. Applications include simulation of wakefield damping in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) power extraction and transfer structure (PETS).

  8. Scaled Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: Scaled Solar manufacturers and markets utility-grade, concentrated photovoltaic solar energy systems to commercial customers References: Scaled Solar1 This...

  9. Sensor system scaling issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-07-01

    A model for IR sensor performance is used to compare estimates of sensor cost effectiveness. Although data from aircraft sensors indicate a weaker scaling, their agreement is adequate to support the assessment of the benefits of operating up to the maximum altitude of most current UAVs.

  10. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  11. SciDAC Institute for Ultra-Scale Visualization: Activity Recognition for Ultra-Scale Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silver, Deborah

    2014-04-30

    Understanding the science behind ultra-scale simulations requires extracting meaning from data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. Developing scalable parallel visualization algorithms is a key step enabling scientists to interact and visualize their data at this scale. However, at extreme scales, the datasets are so huge, there is not even enough time to view the data, let alone explore it with basic visualization methods. Automated tools are necessary for knowledge discovery -- to help sift through the information and isolate characteristic patterns, thereby enabling the scientist to study local interactions, the origin of features and their evolution in large volumes of data. These tools must be able to operate on data of this scale and work with the visualization process. In this project, we developed a framework for activity detection to allow scientists to model and extract spatio-temporal patterns from time-varying data.

  12. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  13. Scaled Wind Farm Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaled Wind Farm Technology - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  14. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  15. Megawatt Electrolysis Scale Up

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MW Electrolysis Scale Up E Anderson DOE Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop 27-28 February 2014 27 28 February 2014 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO (tm) ® Proton, Proton OnSite, Proton Energy Systems, the Proton design, StableFlow, StableFlow Hydrogen Control System and design, HOGEN, and FuelGen are trademarks or registered trademarks of Proton Energy Systems, Inc. Any other brands and/or names used herein are the property of their respective owners. Motivation - MW

  16. Mira_Scaling_0516

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John C. Linford, Sameer S hende, e t al. {jlinford,sameer}@paratools.com Scaling Y our Science on M ira 24 May 2 016, A LCF * Integrated toolkit for performance problem s olving - Instrumentation, measurement, analysis, visualization - Portable profiling and tracing - Performance data management and data mining * Direct and indirect measurement * Free, open source, BSD license * Available on a ll HPC p latforms (and some non---HPC) * http://tau.uoregon.edu/ Copyright © ParaTools, Inc. 2 TAU

  17. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 25 years. A Tangible Challenge Our understanding of how electrons move within an atom is, in general, based on the assumption that individual electrons are sensitive only to...

  18. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are important in the development of gas lasers, gas discharge devices, and plasma chemistry. In addition, inner-shell ionization and hollow-atom formation are attractive for...

  19. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the development of gas lasers, gas discharge devices, and plasma chemistry. In addition, inner-shell ionization and hollow-atom formation are attractive for use in x-ray lasers. ...

  20. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy A History of the Southeastern Power Administration (1990 - 2010) A History of the Southeastern Power Administration (1990 - 2010) Southeastern Power Administration was established in 1950 by the Secretary of the Interior to carry out the functions assigned to the Secretary by the Flood Control Act of 1944. In 1977, Southeastern was transferred to the newly created United States Department of Energy. Southeastern, headquartered in Elberton, Georgia, is responsible for

  1. Unprecedented Precise Determination of Three-Dimensional Atomic...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    materials and lead to advances in materials science, nanoscience, chemistry, and biology. ... build new devices, and find important applications for materials science to biology. ...

  2. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for future theory development. Top: Absorption of a photon by an He- ion in the 1s2s2p 4Po ground state boosts a 1s electron into an empty 2p orbital, forming the triply excited...

  3. Unmanned deepwater-line repair system passes full-scale trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venzi, S.; Vienna, A. )

    1993-09-06

    The first ever full-scale tests of an unmanned, deepwater-pipeline repair system were successfully conducted last year off the coast of Italy. The Italian gas-transmission company SNAM tested a submersible automatic system (SAS) sealine repair system at a depth of 600 m. The modular SAS allows sealines to be repaired by installation of the Nuovo Pignone mechanical connector. The system's trials simulated complete repair intervention on the 20-in. Trans mediterranean pipeline and provided unprecedented experience to SNAM and to the other involved in this project. The paper discusses the origin of the idea for the SAS, the design of the system, construction and testing, the first sea trials, final deep sea trials, and future developments.

  4. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  5. Small-scale strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the world of power project development there is a market for smaller scale cogeneration projects in the range of 1MW to 10MW. In the European Union alone, this range will account for about $25 Billion in value over the next 10 years. By adding the potential that exists in Eastern Europe, the numbers are even more impressive. In Europe, only about 7 percent of needed electrical power is currently produced through cogeneration installations; this is expected to change to around 15 percent by the year 2000. Less than one year ago, two equipment manufacturers formed Dutch Power Partners (DPP) to focus on the market for industrial cogeneration throughout Europe.

  6. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less

  7. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  8. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Target 2014 Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences: Target 2014 BESFrontcover.png Final Report Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences, Report of the Joint BES/ ASCR / NERSC Workshop conducted February 9-10, 2010 Workshop Agenda The agenda for this workshop is presented here: including presentation times and speaker information. Read More » Workshop Presentations Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic

  9. Scale dependency of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Zhang, G.

    2003-05-30

    It has been recognized that matrix diffusion is an important process for retarding solute transport in fractured rock. Based on analyses of tracer transport data from a number of field tests, we demonstrate for the first time that the effective matrix-diffusion coefficient may be scale dependent and generally increases with test scale. A preliminary theoretical explanation of this scale dependency is also presented, based on the hypothesis that solute travel paths within a fracture network are fractals.

  10. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous

  11. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  12. Confinement scaling and ignition in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, F.W.; Sun, Y.C.

    1985-10-01

    A drift wave turbulence model is used to compute the scaling and magnitude of central electron temperature and confinement time of tokamak plasmas. The results are in accord with experiment. Application to ignition experiments shows that high density (1 to 2) . 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/, high field, B/sub T/ > 10 T, but low temperature T approx. 6 keV constitute the optimum path to ignition.

  13. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  14. Data triage enables extreme-scale computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data triage enables extreme-scale computing Data triage enables extreme-scale computing Data selection and triage are important techniques for large-scale data, which can ...

  15. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Drift Scale THM Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rutqvist

    2004-10-07

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a

  17. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/∼eprice.

  18. DOE's Office of Science Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Seeks Proposals for Expanded Large-Scale Scientific Computing DOE's Office of Science ... Successful proposers will be given the use of substantial computer time and data storage ...

  19. ON THE COSMIC EVOLUTION OF THE SCALING RELATIONS BETWEEN BLACK HOLES AND THEIR HOST GALAXIES: BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE zCOSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Lusso, E.; Mignoli, M.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Fiore, F.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.; Miyaji, T.; Renzini, A.; Salvato, M.; Silverman, J.; Trump, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the physical properties (rest-frame K-band luminosity and total stellar mass) of the hosts of 89 broad-line (type-1) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the zCOSMOS survey in the redshift range 1 < z < 2.2. The unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage of the survey field allows us to disentangle the emission of the host galaxy from that of the nuclear black hole in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We derive an estimate of black hole masses through the analysis of the broad Mg II emission lines observed in the medium-resolution spectra taken with VIMOS/VLT as part of the zCOSMOS project. We found that, as compared to the local value, the average black hole to host-galaxy mass ratio appears to evolve positively with redshift, with a best-fit evolution of the form (1+z){sup 0.68+}-{sup 0.12+0.6{sub -0.3}}, where the large asymmetric systematic errors stem from the uncertainties in the choice of initial mass function, in the calibration of the virial relation used to estimate BH masses and in the mean QSO SED adopted. On the other hand, if we consider the observed rest-frame K-band luminosity, objects tend to be brighter, for a given black hole mass, than those on the local M{sub BH}-M{sub K} relation. This fact, together with more indirect evidence from the SED fitting itself, suggests that the AGN hosts are likely actively star-forming galaxies. A thorough analysis of observational biases induced by intrinsic scatter in the scaling relations reinforces the conclusion that an evolution of the M{sub BH}-M{sub *} relation must ensue for actively growing black holes at early times: either its overall normalization, or its intrinsic scatter (or both) appear to increase with redshift. This can be interpreted as signature of either a more rapid growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift, a change of structural properties of AGN hosts at earlier times, or a significant mismatch between the typical growth times of

  20. SCALING PROPERTIES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUCTUATIONS IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Jean Carlos; Mason, Joanne; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Cattaneo, Fausto E-mail: j.mason@exeter.ac.uk E-mail: cattaneo@flash.uchicago.edu

    2014-09-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale—the Alfvén velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this also imposes stringent conditions on numerical studies of MHD turbulence. In contrast with the hydrodynamic case, the discretization scale in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence should decrease faster than the dissipation scale, in order for the simulations to remain resolved as the Reynolds number increases.

  1. High-Performance Computing for Real-Time Grid Analysis and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2013-10-31

    Power grids worldwide are undergoing an unprecedented transition as a result of grid evolution meeting information revolution. The grid evolution is largely driven by the desire for green energy. Emerging grid technologies such as renewable generation, smart loads, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and distributed generation provide opportunities to generate energy from green sources and to manage energy use for better system efficiency. With utility companies actively deploying these technologies, a high level of penetration of these new technologies is expected in the next 5-10 years, bringing in a level of intermittency, uncertainties, and complexity that the grid did not see nor design for. On the other hand, the information infrastructure in the power grid is being revolutionized with large-scale deployment of sensors and meters in both the transmission and distribution networks. The future grid will have two-way flows of both electrons and information. The challenge is how to take advantage of the information revolution: pull the large amount of data in, process it in real time, and put information out to manage grid evolution. Without addressing this challenge, the opportunities in grid evolution will remain unfulfilled. This transition poses grand challenges in grid modeling, simulation, and information presentation. The computational complexity of underlying power grid modeling and simulation will significantly increase in the next decade due to an increased model size and a decreased time window allowed to compute model solutions. High-performance computing is essential to enable this transition. The essential technical barrier is to vastly increase the computational speed so operation response time can be reduced from minutes to seconds and sub-seconds. The speed at which key functions such as state estimation and contingency analysis are conducted (typically every 3-5 minutes) needs to be dramatically increased so that the analysis of contingencies is both

  2. Out-of-Time Beam Extinction in the MU2E Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prebys, E. J.; Werkema, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for the conversion of a muon to an electron in the field of an atomic nucleus with unprecedented sensitivity. The experiment requires a beam consisting of proton bunches 250 ns FW long, separated by 1.7 $\\mu$ sec, with no out-of-time protons at the $10^{10}$ fractional level. Satisfying this "extinction" requirement is very challenging. The formation of the bunches is expected to result in an extinction on the order of $10^5$. The remaining extinction will be accomplished by a system of resonant magnets and collimators, configured such that only in-time beam is delivered to the experiment. Our simulations show that the total extinction achievable by the system is on the order of $10^{12}$, with an efficiency for transmitting in-time beam of 99.6%.

  3. A scaling analysis of thermoacoustic convection in a zero-gravity environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krane, R.J.; Parang, M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a scaling analysis of a one-dimensional thermoacoustic convection heat transfer process in a zero-gravity environment. The relative importance of the terms in the governing equations is discussed for different time scales without attempting to solve the equations. The scaling analysis suggests certain generalizations that can be made in this class of heat transfer problems.

  4. Utility Scale Solar Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    HB 4037 of 2016 created the Solar Incentive Program for utility-scale solar development. The bill directs Oregon's Business Development Department (the Department) to establish and administer a...

  5. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  6. A High-Performance Rechargeable Iron Electrode for Large-Scale Battery-Based Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Yang, C; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, robust and efficient large-scale electrical energy storage systems are vital to the utilization of electricity generated from solar and wind resources. In this regard, the low cost, robustness, and eco-friendliness of aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries are particularly attractive and compelling. However, wasteful evolution of hydrogen during charging and the inability to discharge at high rates have limited the deployment of iron-based aqueous batteries. We report here new chemical formulations of the rechargeable iron battery electrode to achieve a ten-fold reduction in the hydrogen evolution rate, an unprecedented charging efficiency of 96%, a high specific capacity of 0.3 Ah/g, and a twenty-fold increase in discharge rate capability. We show that modifying high-purity carbonyl iron by in situ electro-deposition of bismuth leads to substantial inhibition of the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The in situ formation of conductive iron sulfides mitigates the passivation by iron hydroxide thereby allowing high discharge rates and high specific capacity to be simultaneously achieved. These major performance improvements are crucial to advancing the prospect of a sustainable large-scale energy storage solution based on aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.034208jes] All rights reserved.

  7. WINDExchange: Utility-Scale Wind

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Utility-Scale Wind Photo of two people standing on top of the nacelle of a utility-scale wind turbine. Wind is an important source of affordable, renewable energy, currently supplying nearly 5% of our nation's electricity demand. By generating electricity from wind turbines, the United States can reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, diversify its energy supply, provide cost-competitive electricity to key coastal regions, and help revitalize key sectors of its economy, including manufacturing.

  8. Scale Models and Wind Turbines

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    As wind turbines and wind farms become larger to take advantage of the economies of scale and increased wind speeds at higher altitudes, their impact in the locales where they are sited becomes more dramatic. One place this is especially contentious is in the offshore environment of the Northeast. This lesson explores scale models and the issues surrounding models and their accuracy when developing a large wind farm. Worksheets are included.

  9. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, David

    2008-02-27

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  10. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2010-01-08

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  11. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2008-02-27

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  12. Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

  13. Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marino, R.; Mininni, P. D.; Rosenberg, D. L.; Pouquet, A.

    2014-08-28

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up tomore » $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $$\\approx 1000$$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $$\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.« less

  14. Daylight Savings Time Starts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daylight Savings Time Starts Daylight Savings Time Starts WHEN: Mar 08, 2015 3:00 AM - 11:59 PM WHERE: World Time Zones CATEGORY: Holiday INTERNAL: Calendar Login Daylight Savings...

  15. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Jobs Dispatched / Hour What is the Scheduler Cycle? The Univa Grid Engine Scheduler cycle performs a number of important tasks, including: Prioritizing Jobs Reserving Resources for jobs requesting more resources (slots / memory) Dispatching jobs or tasks to the compute nodes Evaluating job dependencies The "cycle time" is the length of time it takes the scheduler to complete all

  16. Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Craig J.; Kwon, Ohkyung

    2015-06-22

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.

  17. Oxide scale exfoliation and regrowth in TP347H superheater tubes: Oxide scale exfoliation and regrowth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, A. S.; Wright, I. G.; Shingledecker, J. P.

    2012-07-23

    This paper provides an introduction to a comprehensive model being developed to predict and control oxide scale exfoliation from the steam-side of superheater and reheater tubes in steam boilers. The model deals with the main phenomena involved in scale growth and failure in steam, and incorporates major variables related to boiler design and operation. The considerations used to calculate oxide growth under the specific constrains of small diameter tubes carrying high-pressure steam and operating with large temperature gradients under temperature and pressure cycling conditions, as well as the evolution of stresses and strains in the scales, are indicated but only a cursory description is given of the details of the analytical treatments. An example is presented of calculations made with the model to predict the extent of blockage expected in a single superheater loop as a function of time and outlet steam temperature under several realistic service conditions. The results suggest that problems due to scale exfoliation would be expected early in the operating life of superheater tubes made from austenitic steel TP347H.

  18. Improving OpenMP Scaling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving OpenMP Scaling Improving OpenMP Scaling Introduction Cori's Knights Landing (KNL) processors will each have more than 60 cores, with each core having the ability to support 4 hardware threads, leading to the possibility of up to 240 threads per single-socket node. Your application is likely to run on KNL without significant modification, but achieving good performance while using all the cores and threads may be more difficult. Applications may not fit into the memory of a Cori node if

  19. Chemical and microstructural characterization of thermally grown alumina scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Richier, C.; Veal, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate the chemical, microstructural, and mechanical integrity of thermally grown oxide scales to establish requirements for improved corrosion performance in terms of composition, structure, and properties. Iron aluminides of several compositions were selected for the study. Oxidation studies were conducted in air and oxygen environments at 1000{degrees}C. The results showed that the scaling kinetics followed a parabolic rate law but that the rates in early stages of oxidation were significantly greater than in later stages; the difference could be attributed to the presence of fast-growing transient iron oxides in the layer during the early stages. Further, scale failure occurred via gross spallation, scale cracking, and nodule formation and was influenced by alloy composition. Auger electron spectroscopy of Ar-exposed specimens of ternary Fe-Cr-Al alloy showed sulfur on the gas/scale side of the interface; the sulfur decreased as the exposure time increased. Raman spectroscopy and ruby fluorescence were used to examine the scale development as a function of oxidation temperature. Ruby-line shift is used to examine phase transformations in alumina and to calculate compressive strains in thermally grown scales.

  20. High-scale axions without isocurvature from inflationary dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kearney, John; Orlofsky, Nicholas; Pierce, Aaron

    2016-05-31

    Observable primordial tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would point to a high scale of inflation HI. If the scale of Peccei-Quinn (PQ) breaking fa is greater than HI/2π, CMB constraints on isocurvature naively rule out QCD axion dark matter. This assumes the potential of the axion is unmodified during inflation. We revisit models where inflationary dynamics modify the axion potential and discuss how isocurvature bounds can be relaxed. We find that models that rely solely on a larger PQ-breaking scale during inflation fI require either late-time dilution of the axion abundance or highly super-Planckian fI that somehowmore » does not dominate the inflationary energy density. Models that have enhanced explicit breaking of the PQ symmetry during inflation may allow fa close to the Planck scale. Lastly, avoiding disruption of inflationary dynamics provides important limits on the parameter space.« less

  1. The Y-12 Times

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gail Powell Elaine Ruth Ray Smith Donna Watson Lisa Xiques times times the B&W Technical Services Y-12, LLC, a partnership between Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group Inc. ...

  2. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and time) three correspond to the three broad categories of synchrotron experimental measurement techniques: spectroscopy (energy), scattering (momentum), and imaging...

  3. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-08-26

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H{sup +}] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  4. Mechanistically-Based Field-Scale Models of Uranium Biogeochemistry from Upscaling Pore-Scale Experiments and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Scheibe; Alexandre Tartakovsky; Brian Wood; Joe Seymour

    2007-04-19

    generally not be applicable to other broad classes of problems, we believe that this approach (if applied over time to many types of problems) offers greater potential for long-term progress than attempts to discover a universal solution or theory. We are developing and testing this approach using porous media and model reaction systems that can be both experimentally measured and quantitatively simulated at the pore scale, specifically biofilm development and metal reduction in granular porous media. The general approach we are using in this research follows the following steps: (1) Perform pore-scale characterization of pore geometry and biofilm development in selected porous media systems. (2) Simulate selected reactive transport processes at the pore scale in experimentally measured pore geometries. (3) Validate pore-scale models against laboratory-scale experiments. (4) Perform upscaling to derive continuum-scale (local darcy scale) process descriptions and effective parameters. (5) Use upscaled models and parameters to simulate reactive transport at the continuum scale in a macroscopically heterogeneous medium.

  5. DECORRELATION TIMES OF PHOTOSPHERIC FIELDS AND FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welsch, B. T.; Kusano, K.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Muglach, K.

    2012-03-10

    We use autocorrelation to investigate evolution in flow fields inferred by applying Fourier local correlation tracking (FLCT) to a sequence of high-resolution (0.''3), high-cadence ({approx_equal} 2 minute) line-of-sight magnetograms of NOAA active region (AR) 10930 recorded by the narrowband filter imager of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the Hinode satellite over 2006 December 12 and 13. To baseline the timescales of flow evolution, we also autocorrelated the magnetograms, at several spatial binnings, to characterize the lifetimes of active region magnetic structures versus spatial scale. Autocorrelation of flow maps can be used to optimize tracking parameters, to understand tracking algorithms' susceptibility to noise, and to estimate flow lifetimes. Tracking parameters varied include: time interval {Delta}t between magnetogram pairs tracked, spatial binning applied to the magnetograms, and windowing parameter {sigma} used in FLCT. Flow structures vary over a range of spatial and temporal scales (including unresolved scales), so tracked flows represent a local average of the flow over a particular range of space and time. We define flow lifetime to be the flow decorrelation time, {tau}. For {Delta}t > {tau}, tracking results represent the average velocity over one or more flow lifetimes. We analyze lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls as functions of magnetic field strength and spatial scale. We find a significant trend of increasing lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls with field strength, consistent with Lorentz forces partially governing flows in the active photosphere, as well as strong trends of increasing flow lifetime and decreasing magnitudes with increases in both spatial scale and {Delta}t.

  6. Ultra-Scale Computing for Emergency Evacuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Nutaro, James J; Liu, Cheng; Zacharia, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Emergency evacuations are carried out in anticipation of a disaster such as hurricane landfall or flooding, and in response to a disaster that strikes without a warning. Existing emergency evacuation modeling and simulation tools are primarily designed for evacuation planning and are of limited value in operational support for real time evacuation management. In order to align with desktop computing, these models reduce the data and computational complexities through simple approximations and representations of real network conditions and traffic behaviors, which rarely represent real-world scenarios. With the emergence of high resolution physiographic, demographic, and socioeconomic data and supercomputing platforms, it is possible to develop micro-simulation based emergency evacuation models that can foster development of novel algorithms for human behavior and traffic assignments, and can simulate evacuation of millions of people over a large geographic area. However, such advances in evacuation modeling and simulations demand computational capacity beyond the desktop scales and can be supported by high performance computing platforms. This paper explores the motivation and feasibility of ultra-scale computing for increasing the speed of high resolution emergency evacuation simulations.

  7. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter space that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.

  8. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter spacemore » that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.« less

  9. Results of intermediate-scale hot isostatic press can experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.O.; Vinjamuri, K.

    1995-05-01

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) has been managed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for a number of years. Since 1963, liquid HLW has been solidified into a granular solid (calcine). Presently, over 3,800 m{sup 3} of calcine is stored in partially-underground stainless steel bins. Four intermediate- scale HLW can tests (two 6-in OD {times} 12-in tall and two 4-in OD {times} 7-in tall) are described and compared to small-scale HIP can tests (1- to 3-in OD {times} 1- to 4.5-in tall). The intermediate-scale HIP cans were loaded with a 70/30 calcine/frit blend and HIPped at an off-site facility at 1050{degrees}C; and 20 ksi. The dimensions of two cans (4-in OD {times} 7-in tall) were monitored during the HIP cycle with eddy-current sensors. The sensor measurements indicated that can deformation occurs rapidly at 700{degrees}C; after which, there is little additional can shrinkage. HIP cans were subjected to a number of analyses including calculation of the overall packing efficiency (56 to 59%), measurement of glass-ceramic (3.0 to 3.2 g/cc), 14-day MCC-1 leach testing (total mass loss rates < 1 g/m{sup 2} day), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on these analyses, the glass-ceramic material produced in intermediate-scale cans is similar to material produced in small-scale cans. No major scale-up problems were indicated. Based on the packing efficiency observed in intermediate- and small-scale tests, the overall packing efficiency of production-scale (24-in OD {times} 36- to 190-in tall) cans would be approximately 64% for a pre-HIP right-circular cylinder geometry. An efficiency of 64% would represent a volume reduction factor of 2.5 over a candidate glass waste prepared at 33 wt% waste loading.

  10. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, H.H.

    1960-08-30

    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  11. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owren, H.M.; Johnson, B.M.; Smith, V.L.

    1958-04-22

    The time calibrator of an electric signal displayed on an oscilloscope is described. In contrast to the conventional technique of using time-calibrated divisions on the face of the oscilloscope, this invention provides means for directly superimposing equal time spaced markers upon a signal displayed upon an oscilloscope. More explicitly, the present invention includes generally a generator for developing a linear saw-tooth voltage and a circuit for combining a high-frequency sinusoidal voltage of a suitable amplitude and frequency with the saw-tooth voltage to produce a resultant sweep deflection voltage having a wave shape which is substantially linear with respect to time between equal time spaced incremental plateau regions occurring once each cycle of the sinusoidal voltage. The foregoing sweep voltage when applied to the horizontal deflection plates in combination with a signal to be observed applied to the vertical deflection plates of a cathode ray oscilloscope produces an image on the viewing screen which is essentially a display of the signal to be observed with respect to time. Intensified spots, or certain other conspicuous indications corresponding to the equal time spaced plateau regions of said sweep voltage, appear superimposed upon said displayed signal, which indications are therefore suitable for direct time calibration purposes.

  12. Task Time Tracker

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  13. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  14. TIMING OF SHOCK WAVES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuck, J.L.

    1955-03-01

    This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with a voltage applied there-across which is insufficient to cause discharge. When it is desired to initiate operation of a device at the time the explosive shock wave reaches a particular point on the explosive line, the device having an inherent time delay, the electrodes are located ahead of the point such that the ionization of the area between the electrodes caused by the traveling explosive shock wave sends a signal to initiate operation of the device to cause it to operate at the proper time. The operated device may be photographic equipment consisting of an x-ray illuminating tube.

  15. Progress in Fast, Accurate Multi-scale Climate Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, William D; Johansen, Hans; Evans, Katherine J; Woodward, Carol S.; Caldwell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present a survey of physical and computational techniques that have the potential to con- tribute to the next generation of high-fidelity, multi-scale climate simulations. Examples of the climate science problems that can be investigated with more depth include the capture of remote forcings of localized hydrological extreme events, an accurate representation of cloud features over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and parallel, large ensembles of simulations to more effectively explore model sensitivities and uncertainties. Numerical techniques, such as adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time integration, and separate treatment of fast physical time scales are enabling improved accuracy and fidelity in simulation of dynamics and allow more complete representations of climate features at the global scale. At the same time, part- nerships with computer science teams have focused on taking advantage of evolving computer architectures, such as many-core processors and GPUs, so that these approaches which were previously considered prohibitively costly have become both more efficient and scalable. In combination, progress in these three critical areas is poised to transform climate modeling in the coming decades.

  16. Progress in fast, accurate multi-scale climate simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collins, W. D.; Johansen, H.; Evans, K. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a survey of physical and computational techniques that have the potential to contribute to the next generation of high-fidelity, multi-scale climate simulations. Examples of the climate science problems that can be investigated with more depth with these computational improvements include the capture of remote forcings of localized hydrological extreme events, an accurate representation of cloud features over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and parallel, large ensembles of simulations to more effectively explore model sensitivities and uncertainties. Numerical techniques, such as adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time integration, and separate treatment of fast physical time scales are enablingmore » improved accuracy and fidelity in simulation of dynamics and allowing more complete representations of climate features at the global scale. At the same time, partnerships with computer science teams have focused on taking advantage of evolving computer architectures such as many-core processors and GPUs. As a result, approaches which were previously considered prohibitively costly have become both more efficient and scalable. In combination, progress in these three critical areas is poised to transform climate modeling in the coming decades.« less

  17. Progress in fast, accurate multi-scale climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W. D.; Johansen, H.; Evans, K. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a survey of physical and computational techniques that have the potential to contribute to the next generation of high-fidelity, multi-scale climate simulations. Examples of the climate science problems that can be investigated with more depth with these computational improvements include the capture of remote forcings of localized hydrological extreme events, an accurate representation of cloud features over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and parallel, large ensembles of simulations to more effectively explore model sensitivities and uncertainties. Numerical techniques, such as adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time integration, and separate treatment of fast physical time scales are enabling improved accuracy and fidelity in simulation of dynamics and allowing more complete representations of climate features at the global scale. At the same time, partnerships with computer science teams have focused on taking advantage of evolving computer architectures such as many-core processors and GPUs. As a result, approaches which were previously considered prohibitively costly have become both more efficient and scalable. In combination, progress in these three critical areas is poised to transform climate modeling in the coming decades.

  18. Coordinate time dependence in quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bojowald, Martin; Singh, Parampreet; Skirzewski, Aureliano

    2004-12-15

    The intuitive classical space-time picture breaks down in quantum gravity, which makes a comparison and the development of semiclassical techniques quite complicated. Using ingredients of the group averaging method to solve constraints one can nevertheless introduce a classical coordinate time into the quantum theory, and use it to investigate the way a semiclassical continuous description emerges from discrete quantum evolution. Applying this technique to test effective classical equations of loop cosmology and their implications for inflation and bounces, we show that the effective semiclassical theory is in good agreement with the quantum description even at short scales.

  19. Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, S K

    2011-07-06

    How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and

  20. Multi-scale Shock Technique

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-01

    The code to be released is a new addition to the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code. LAMMPS is developed and maintained by Sandia, is publicly available, and is used widely by both natioanl laboratories and academics. The new addition to be released enables LAMMPS to perform molecular dynamics simulations of shock waves using the Multi-scale Shock Simulation Technique (MSST) which we have developed and has been previously published. This technique enables molecular dynamics simulations of shockmore » waves in materials for orders of magnitude longer timescales than the direct, commonly employed approach.« less

  1. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.R. Dixon

    2004-02-17

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document two models for drift-scale radionuclide transport. This has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]), which includes planning documents for the technical work scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.15, Work Package AUZM11, ''Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport.'' The technical work scope for this Model Report calls for development of a process-level model and an abstraction model representing diffusive release from the invert to the rocks, partitioned between fracture and matrix, as compared to the fracture-release approach used in the Site Recommendation. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of that drift. The plan for validation of the models documented in this Model Report is given in Section I-5 of Attachment I in BSC (2002 [160819]). Note that the model validation presented in Section 7 deviates from the technical work plan (BSC 2002 [160819], Section I-5) in that an independent technical review specifically for model validation has not been conducted, nor publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Model validation presented in Section 7 is based on corroboration with alternative mathematical models, which is also called out by the technical work plan (BSC 2002 [160819], Section I-5), and is sufficient based on the requirements of AP-SIII.10Q for model validation. See Section 7 for additional discussion. The phenomenon of flow and transport in the vicinity of the waste emplacement drift are evaluated in this model report under ambient thermal, chemical, and mechanical conditions. This includes the effects of water diversion around an emplacement drift and the flow and transport behavior expected in a fractured rock below the drift. The reason for a separate assessment of drift-scale transport is that the effects of waste emplacement drifts on flow

  2. Digital time delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  3. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  4. Time of Flight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Flight Techniques Since the LANSCE proton beam is pulsed, the energy of the neutrons that are produced can be determined by Time-of-Flight (TOF) techniques. Neutron Time-of-Flight Since the LANSCE proton beam is pulsed, the energy of the neutrons that are produced can be determined by Time-of-Flight (TOF) techniques. The proton beam pulse strikes the tungsten neutron production target and neutrons, gamma rays and charged particles are produced. The charged particles are removed from the beam

  5. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  6. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter X-Ray Imaging of...

  7. Time Card Entry System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montierth, B. S.

    1996-05-07

    The Time Card Entry System was developed for the Department of Enegy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to interface with the DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system for payroll. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills U.S. Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two week payroll cycle using ETA. A tour of duty profile (e.g., ten hour day, four day week with Sunday, friday and Saturday off), previously established in the ETA system, is imported into the Time Card Entry System by the timekeepers. An individual''s profile establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two cycle, data is exported by the timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA files.

  8. Time Card Entry System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-05-07

    The Time Card Entry System was developed for the Department of Enegy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to interface with the DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system for payroll. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills U.S. Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two weekmore » payroll cycle using ETA. A tour of duty profile (e.g., ten hour day, four day week with Sunday, friday and Saturday off), previously established in the ETA system, is imported into the Time Card Entry System by the timekeepers. An individual''s profile establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two cycle, data is exported by the timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA files.« less

  9. PathScale Compliers at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-800-66-NERSC, option 3 or 510-486-8611 Home For Users Software Compilers PathScale PathScale Compilers (Fortran, C, C++) Availability The Pathscale...

  10. 50MW extreme-scale turbine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MW extreme-scale turbine - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers 50MW extreme-scale turbine HomeTag:50MW ...

  11. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, William R.

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  12. Utility Scale Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scale Solar Inc Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 94301 Product: California-based PV tracker maker. References: Utility Scale Solar Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  13. Inflation with a Planck-scale frequency cutoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, Jens C.

    2001-06-15

    The implementation of a Planck-scale high frequency and short wavelength cutoff in quantum theories on expanding backgrounds may have potentially nontrivial implications, such as the breaking of local Lorentz invariance and the existence of a yet unknown mechanism for the creation of vacuum modes. In scenarios where inflation begins close to the cutoff scale, these effects could have observable consequences as trans-Planckian modes are redshifted to cosmological scales. In close analogy with similar studies of Hawking radiation, a simple theory of a minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space is studied, with a high frequency cutoff imposed by a nonlinear dispersion relation. Under certain conditions the model predicts deviations from the standard inflationary scenario. We also comment on the difficulties in generalizing fluid models of Hawking radiation to cosmological space-times.

  14. LAMMPS strong scaling performance optimization on Blue Gene/Q

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffman, Paul; Jiang, Wei; Romero, Nichols A.

    2014-11-12

    LAMMPS "Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator" is an open-source molecular dynamics package from Sandia National Laboratories. Significant performance improvements in strong-scaling and time-to-solution for this application on IBM's Blue Gene/Q have been achieved through computational optimizations of the OpenMP versions of the short-range Lennard-Jones term of the CHARMM force field and the long-range Coulombic interaction implemented with the PPPM (particle-particle-particle mesh) algorithm, enhanced by runtime parameter settings controlling thread utilization. Additionally, MPI communication performance improvements were made to the PPPM calculation by re-engineering the parallel 3D FFT to use MPICH collectives instead of point-to-point. Performance testing was done using an 8.4-million atom simulation scaling up to 16 racks on the Mira system at Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF). Speedups resulting from this effort were in some cases over 2x.

  15. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Jordan, John K.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  16. Range Fuels Commercial-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Range Fuels commercial-scale biorefinery will use a variety of feedstocks to create cellulosic ethanol, methanol, and power.

  17. Bench-Scale Fermentation Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Bench-Scale Fermentation Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

  18. PV Controls Utility-Scale Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2015-10-14

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the utility-scale PV controls demonstration project.

  19. Monetary Awards Scale | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monetary Awards Scale Monetary Awards Scale Chart of the monetary awards scale allowed for intangible and tangible benefits from suggestions, inventions, special acts or services. Monetary Awards Scale (199.43 KB) Responsible Contacts Lorrenda Buckner HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST (PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT) E-mail lorrenda.buckner@hq.doe.gov Phone 202-586-8451 More Documents & Publications Manager's Desk Reference on Human Capital Management Flexibilities Supervisory - Non-Supervisory Employee

  20. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar introduces the “Large Scale Renewable Energy Guide." The webinar will provide an overview of this important FEMP guide, which describes FEMP's approach to large-scale renewable energy projects and provides guidance to Federal agencies and the private sector on how to develop a common process for large-scale renewable projects.

  1. PREDICTION OF OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN STEAM TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation results are presented for the prediction of the likelihood of oxide scale exfoliation from superheater tubes. The scenarios considered involved alloys T22, TP347H, and TP347HFG subjected to a simplified operating cycle in a power plant generating supercritical steam. The states of stress and strain of the oxides grown in steam were based solely on modeling the various phenomena experienced by superheater tubes during boiler operation, current understanding of the oxidation behavior of each alloy in steam, and consideration of operating parameters such as heat flux, tube dimensions, and boiler duty cycle. Interpretation of the evolution of strain in these scales, and the approach to conditions where scale failure (hence exfoliation) is expected, makes use of the type of Exfoliation Diagrams that incorporate various cracking and exfoliation criteria appropriate for the system considered. In these diagrams, the strain accumulation with time in an oxide is represented by a strain trajectory derived from the net strain resulting from oxide growth, differences in coefficients of thermal expansion among the components, and relaxation due to creep. It was found that an oxide growing on a tube subjected to routine boiler load cycling conditions attained relatively low values of net strain, indicating that oxide failure would not be expected to occur during normal boiler operation. However, during a boiler shut-down event, strains sufficient to exceed the scale failure criteria were developed after times reasonably in accord with plant experience, with the scales on the ferritic steel failing in tension, and those on the austenitic steels in compression. The results presented illustrate that using this approach to track the state of strain in the oxide scale through all phases of boiler operation, including transitions from full-to-low load and shut-down events, offers the possibility of identifying the phase(s) of boiler operation during which oxide

  2. Enabling department-scale supercomputing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, D.S.; Hart, W.E.; Phillips, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have one of the longest and most consistent histories of supercomputer use. The authors summarize the architecture of DOE`s new supercomputers that are being built for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The authors then argue that in the near future scaled-down versions of these supercomputers with petaflop-per-weekend capabilities could become widely available to hundreds of research and engineering departments. The availability of such computational resources will allow simulation of physical phenomena to become a full-fledged third branch of scientific exploration, along with theory and experimentation. They describe the ASCI and other supercomputer applications at Sandia National Laboratories, and discuss which lessons learned from Sandia`s long history of supercomputing can be applied in this new setting.

  3. Supporting large-scale computational science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musick, R., LLNL

    1998-02-19

    Business needs have driven the development of commercial database systems since their inception. As a result, there has been a strong focus on supporting many users, minimizing the potential corruption or loss of data, and maximizing performance metrics like transactions per second, or TPC-C and TPC-D results. It turns out that these optimizations have little to do with the needs of the scientific community, and in particular have little impact on improving the management and use of large-scale high-dimensional data. At the same time, there is an unanswered need in the scientific community for many of the benefits offered by a robust DBMS. For example, tying an ad-hoc query language such as SQL together with a visualization toolkit would be a powerful enhancement to current capabilities. Unfortunately, there has been little emphasis or discussion in the VLDB community on this mismatch over the last decade. The goal of the paper is to identify the specific issues that need to be resolved before large-scale scientific applications can make use of DBMS products. This topic is addressed in the context of an evaluation of commercial DBMS technology applied to the exploration of data generated by the Department of Energy`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The paper describes the data being generated for ASCI as well as current capabilities for interacting with and exploring this data. The attraction of applying standard DBMS technology to this domain is discussed, as well as the technical and business issues that currently make this an infeasible solution.

  4. Chemical cartography with apogee: Large-scale mean metallicity maps of the Milky Way disk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayden, Michael R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Lee, Young Sun; Bovy, Jo; Majewski, Steven R.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Cunha, Katia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Girardi, Léo; Hearty, Fred R.; Nidever, David; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu E-mail: feuilldk@nmsu.edu; and others

    2014-05-01

    We present Galactic mean metallicity maps derived from the first year of the SDSS-III APOGEE experiment. Mean abundances in different zones of projected Galactocentric radius (0 < R < 15 kpc) at a range of heights above the plane (0 < |z| < 3 kpc), are derived from a sample of nearly 20,000 giant stars with unprecedented coverage, including stars in the Galactic mid-plane at large distances. We also split the sample into subsamples of stars with low- and high-[α/M] abundance ratios. We assess possible biases in deriving the mean abundances, and find that they are likely to be small except in the inner regions of the Galaxy. A negative radial metallicity gradient exists over much of the Galaxy; however, the gradient appears to flatten for R < 6 kpc, in particular near the Galactic mid-plane and for low-[α/M] stars. At R > 6 kpc, the gradient flattens as one moves off the plane, and is flatter at all heights for high-[α/M] stars than for low-[α/M] stars. Alternatively, these gradients can be described as vertical gradients that flatten at larger Galactocentric radius; these vertical gradients are similar for both low- and high-[α/M] populations. Stars with higher [α/M] appear to have a flatter radial gradient than stars with lower [α/M]. This could suggest that the metallicity gradient has grown steeper with time or, alternatively, that gradients are washed out over time by migration of stars.

  5. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

    2006-08-01

    Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of

  6. Examining the Variability of Wind Power Output in the Regulation Time Frame: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Shedd, S.; Florita, A.

    2012-08-01

    This work examines the distribution of changes in wind power for different time scales in the regulation time frame as well as the correlation of changes in power output for individual wind turbines in a wind plant.

  7. SCALE DEPENDENCE OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Balogh, Andre; Goldstein, Melvyn L. E-mail: kandu@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: melvyn.l.goldstein@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    We determine the magnetic helicity, along with the magnetic energy, at high latitudes using data from the Ulysses mission. The data set spans the time period from 1993 to 1996. The basic assumption of the analysis is that the solar wind is homogeneous. Because the solar wind speed is high, we follow the approach first pioneered by Matthaeus et al. by which, under the assumption of spatial homogeneity, one can use Fourier transforms of the magnetic field time series to construct one-dimensional spectra of the magnetic energy and magnetic helicity under the assumption that the Taylor frozen-in-flow hypothesis is valid. That is a well-satisfied assumption for the data used in this study. The magnetic helicity derives from the skew-symmetric terms of the three-dimensional magnetic correlation tensor, while the symmetric terms of the tensor are used to determine the magnetic energy spectrum. Our results show a sign change of magnetic helicity at wavenumber k {approx} 2 AU{sup -1} (or frequency {nu} {approx} 2 {mu}Hz) at distances below 2.8 AU and at k {approx} 30 AU{sup -1} (or {nu} {approx} 25 {mu}Hz) at larger distances. At small scales the magnetic helicity is positive at northern heliographic latitudes and negative at southern latitudes. The positive magnetic helicity at small scales is argued to be the result of turbulent diffusion reversing the sign relative to what is seen at small scales at the solar surface. Furthermore, the magnetic helicity declines toward solar minimum in 1996. The magnetic helicity flux integrated separately over one hemisphere amounts to about 10{sup 45} Mx{sup 2} cycle{sup -1} at large scales and to a three times lower value at smaller scales.

  8. Climate Time-Machine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Time-Machine Climate Time-Machine 20th Century Reanalysis Project Explores Earth's Past and Future Climate January 25, 2011 Berkeley Lab Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 5849 Wiley-Blackwell Contact: Ben Norman, lifesciencenews@wiley.com,+44(0)1243 770 375 Science Contact: Jeffrey Whitaker, Jeffrey.S.Whitaker@noaa.gov, +1 303 497 6313 2011-01-25-20C-Climate.jpg A dust storm approaching Stratford, TX on April 18, 1935. The 20th Century Reanalysis Project will provide

  9. Synthesis, structure, and physical properties of [Sm(C{sub 6}NO{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 2n}.(H{sub 5}O{sub 2}){sub n}(ZnCl{sub 5}){sub n}(ZnCl{sub 4}){sub 2n}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 2n} with unprecedented ZnCl{sub 5}{sup 3-} species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yiming Chen Wentong; Wu Jihuai

    2008-08-15

    A novel bimetallic 4f-3d metal-isonicotinic acid inorganic-organic hybrid complex [Sm(C{sub 6}NO{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 2n}.(H{sub 5}O{sub 2}){sub n}(ZnCl{sub 5}){sub n}(ZnCl{sub 4}){sub 2n}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 2n} (1) has been synthesized via hydrothermal reaction and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 is characteristic of a one-dimensional polycationic chain-like structure and unprecedented ZnCl{sub 5}{sup 3-} species. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title complex displays interesting emissions in a wide region. Optical absorption spectra of 1 reveal the presence of an optical gap of 3.59 eV. - Graphical abstract: A novel bimetallic 4f-3d metal-isonicotinic acid inorganic-organic hybrid complex was synthesized. It is characteristic of a one-dimensional polycationic chain-like structure. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title complex displays interesting emissions in a wide region. Optical absorption spectra of 1 reveal the presence of a wide optical bandgap.

  10. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  11. Genepool Time Heatmaps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genepool Time Heatmaps Heatmap of Time and Slots Requested vs Time Waited (in hours) | Queue: All | Last 7 Days Time Requested Slots <1h 1-2h 2-6h 6-12h 12-24h 24-36h 36-48h 48h-1wk >1wk Job Count Longest Wait 1 23.0 (233) 0.37 (1819) 27.54 (49888) 5.85 (124593) 1.23 (39835) 0.34 (732) 0 0.4 (224) 0.02 (1) 217325 538.96 2 0 0.01 (19) 2.54 (78) 0.2 (140) 0.99 (2683) 0 0 0 0 2920 9.1 4 0.08 (1) 0 2.82 (141) 0.36 (143) 1.07 (12) 0.06 (5) 0.01 (5) 0.06 (1) 1.3 (5) 313 20.48 6 0.01 (2) 0 0.09

  12. Time and Attendance Reporting

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-10-22

    DOE O 535.1 establishes the Department's requirements and responsibilities governing time and attendance reporting. The purpose of this revision is to reflect the transition of payroll processing from the Capital Accounting Center to the Defense Finance and Accounting System. Cancels DOE O 3600.1B. Canceled by DOE O 322.1C.

  13. Time Series Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-11-02

    TSDB is a Python module for storing large volumes of time series data. TSDB stores data in binary files indexed by a timestamp. Aggregation functions (such as rate, sum, avg, etc.) can be performed on the data, but data is never discarded. TSDB is presently best suited for SNMP data but new data types are easily added.

  14. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  15. Time reversal communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  16. Joint EM-NE-International Study of Glass Behavior over Geologic Time Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Joseph V.; Ebert, W. L.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-03-30

    Vitrification has been chosen as the best demonstrated available technology for waste immobilization worldwide. To date, the contributions of physical and chemical processes controlling the long-term glass dissolution rate in geologic disposal remain uncertain; leading to a lack of international consensus on a glass corrosion rate law. Existing rate laws have overcome the uncertainty through conservatism, but a thorough mechanistic understanding of waste form durability in geologic environments would improve public and regulator confidence, as well as lead to cost savings if it is possible to take credit for the true durability of the waste form itself in system evaluations. To this end, six nations have joined together to formulate a joint plan for collaborative research into the mechanisms controlling the long-term corrosion of glass. This report highlights the technical program plan behind the US portion of this effort, with an emphasis on the current understanding (and limitations) of several mechanistic theories for glass corrosion. Some recent results are presented to provide an example of the ongoing research.

  17. Joint EM-NE-International Study of Glass Behavior over Geologic Time Scales - 12303

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, J.V.; Schreiber, D.K.; Strachan, D.M.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P. O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Icenhower, J.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Vitrification has been chosen as the best demonstrated available technology for waste immobilization worldwide. To date, the contributions of physical and chemical processes controlling the long-term glass dissolution rate in geologic disposal remain uncertain, leading to a lack of international consensus on a rate law for glass corrosion. Existing rate laws have overcome uncertainty through conservatism, but a thorough mechanistic understanding of waste form durability in geologic environments would improve public and regulator confidence. If it is possible to take credit for the true durability of the waste form in repository system evaluations, then it is possible to design the repository with less conservatism with concomitant cost savings. To gain a fundamental understanding of the dissolution rate law, six nations have joined together to formulate a joint plan for collaborative research into the mechanisms controlling the long-term corrosion of glass. This report highlights the technical program plan behind the US portion of this effort, with an emphasis on the current understanding (and limitations) of several mechanistic theories for glass corrosion. Some recent results are presented to provide an example of the ongoing research. Atom probe tomography has been used to provide a high-resolution analysis of elemental concentration gradients present at the hydrated glass / pristine glass interface in SON68 after 25.75 years of corrosion in a simulated granitic groundwater at 90 deg. C. The most valuable result of these initial studies is the success of the technique. Characterization by APT had never been previously demonstrated for glass corrosion layers. The resolution of APT is a powerful addition to the tools with which we can investigate the mechanisms dominating glass corrosion. Some other key results of this study include the observation that the elemental interfacial width between the hydrated glass and pristine glass appears to be much sharper (?2 nm for B, Na and Al) than had been previously measured using nanoSIMS (?240 nm). It is not clear whether the APT analysis and nanoSIMS characterizations were possibly performed on topographically unique regions, or whether nanoSIMS overestimated the elemental width. However, the APT data seems very convincing that the elemental width can be much sharper than was previously thought. This result calls into question some of the assumptions made for the diffusion-control models of glass dissolution, since such a sharp profile would not match the diffusion coefficients used to date. Other results, such as the observation of apparently layered concentration profiles, show that gel evolution is not as simple as is currently assumed in nearly every model. This task is a good example of the collaborative nature of the I-TEAM effort. Based on experimental needs and differences in expertise, scientists from DOE and CEA worked together to change the level of understanding in the field. These types of interactions are nearly ubiquitous among the tasks in the technical program plan. With the excellence of the team in place and the willingness of the participants to work together for a common understanding, the stated goal of consensus on the mechanistic basis for radionuclide release from glass is well within reach. (authors)

  18. Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.

    2011-04-15

    Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.

  19. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport from Decimeter-Scale Heterogeneity to Plume-Scale Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Gary P; Kohler, Matthias; Kannappan, Ramakrishnan; Briggs, Martin; Day-Lewis, Fred

    2015-02-24

    Reactive solute transport in aquifers is commonly affected by rate limited mass transfer. This slow mass transfer can exhibit significant control on the times required to restore contaminated aquifers to near-pristine conditions under both ambient and forced-gradient flow systems and is therefore important to understand. Both nonreactive and reactive tracer experiments provide valuable insight into the exchange of solute between mobile and immobile porosity. At the grain scale and column scale, mass transfer limitations were manifested as a concentration rebound when contaminated sediments were contacted with pristine groundwater. This behavior was successfully modeled using the multirate mass transfer model. Mass transfer observed in a 2 m long intermediate laboratory scale experiment showed significant concentration rebound in the first half meter along a flowpath through the tank and negligible rebound near the exit of the tank. Experimental observations and model simulations show that although concentration rebound was small at the end of the tank, the overall elution of uranium from of the tank was still controlled by mass transfer which was manifested by a long tail. At the field scale, mass transfer parameters inferred from geo-electrical measurements of bulk conductivity and traditional conductivity measurements of fluid samples showed significant spatial variability. Overall the improved understanding of mass transfer across multiple scales should lead to more robust reactive transport simulations and site management.

  20. Advanced modeling to accelerate the scale up of carbon capture technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David C.; Sun, XIN; Storlie, Curtis B.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale-up new carbon capture technologies. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  1. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  2. Kinetic Simulations of Fusion Energy Dynamics at the Extreme Scale |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Kinetic Simulations of Fusion Energy Dynamics at the Extreme Scale PI Name: William Tang PI Email: tang@pppl.gov Institution: Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 40 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Physics To build the scientific foundations needed to develop fusion power as a clean and sustainable energy source, the timely development of a high-physics-fidelity predictive simulation capability for

  3. Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale PetaScale Debugging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Barton

    2014-06-30

    This project investigated novel techniques for debugging scientific applications on petascale architectures. In particular, we developed lightweight tools that narrow the problem space when bugs are encountered. We also developed techniques that either limit the number of tasks and the code regions to which a developer must apply a traditional debugger or that apply statistical techniques to provide direct suggestions of the location and type of error. We extend previous work on the Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT), that has already demonstrated scalability to over one hundred thousand MPI tasks. We also extended statistical techniques developed to isolate programming errors in widely used sequential or threaded applications in the Cooperative Bug Isolation (CBI) project to large scale parallel applications. Overall, our research substantially improved productivity on petascale platforms through a tool set for debugging that complements existing commercial tools. Previously, Office Of Science application developers relied either on primitive manual debugging techniques based on printf or they use tools, such as TotalView, that do not scale beyond a few thousand processors. However, bugs often arise at scale and substantial effort and computation cycles are wasted in either reproducing the problem in a smaller run that can be analyzed with the traditional tools or in repeated runs at scale that use the primitive techniques. New techniques that work at scale and automate the process of identifying the root cause of errors were needed. These techniques significantly reduced the time spent debugging petascale applications, thus leading to a greater overall amount of time for application scientists to pursue the scientific objectives for which the systems are purchased. We developed a new paradigm for debugging at scale: techniques that reduced the debugging scenario to a scale suitable for traditional debuggers, e.g., by narrowing the search for the root-cause analysis

  4. Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Method and its Application to a Collision of an Ion with a 2D Material Title: Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent ...

  5. Large-Scale Modeling of Epileptic Seizures: Scaling Properties of Two Parallel Neuronal Network Simulation Algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Lee, Hyong C.; Hereld, Mark; Visser, Sid; Stevens, Rick L.; Wildeman, Albert; van Drongelen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Our limited understanding of the relationship between the behavior of individual neurons and large neuronal networks is an important limitation in current epilepsy research and may be one of the main causes of our inadequate ability to treat it. Addressing this problem directly via experiments is impossibly complex; thus, we have been developing and studying medium-large-scale simulations of detailed neuronal networks to guide us. Flexibility in the connection schemas and a complete description of the cortical tissue seem necessary for this purpose. In this paper we examine some of the basic issues encountered in these multiscale simulations. We have determinedmore » the detailed behavior of two such simulators on parallel computer systems. The observed memory and computation-time scaling behavior for a distributed memory implementation were very good over the range studied, both in terms of network sizes (2,000 to 400,000 neurons) and processor pool sizes (1 to 256 processors). Our simulations required between a few megabytes and about 150 gigabytes of RAM and lasted between a few minutes and about a week, well within the capability of most multinode clusters. Therefore, simulations of epileptic seizures on networks with millions of cells should be feasible on current supercomputers.« less

  6. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  7. Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

  8. Full-Scale Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Processes in the Earth's Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliasson, B.; Stenflo, L.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    We present a full-scale simulation study of ionospheric turbulence by means of a generalized Zakharov model based on the separation of variables into high-frequency and slow time scales. The model includes realistic length scales of the ionospheric profile and of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields, and uses ionospheric plasma parameters relevant for high-latitude radio facilities such as Eiscat and HAARP. A nested grid numerical method has been developed to resolve the different length-scales, while avoiding severe restrictions on the time step. The simulation demonstrates the parametric decay of the ordinary mode into Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, followed by a Langmuir wave collapse and short-scale caviton formation, as observed in ionospheric heating experiments.

  9. THE Arp 220 MERGER ON kpc SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, S.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Eckart, A.; Downes, D.; Scharwaechter, J.

    2012-07-20

    For the first time, we study the eastern nucleus in greater detail and search for the more extended emission in the molecular gas in different CO line transitions of the famous ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220. Furthermore, we present a model of the merger in Arp 220 on large scales with the help of the CO data and an optical and near-infrared composite Hubble Space Telescope image of the prototypical ULIRG. Using the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI), we obtained CO (2-1) and (1-0) data at wavelengths of 1 and 3 mm in 1994, 1996, 1997, and 2006 at different beam sizes and spatial resolutions. The simulations of the merger in Arp 220 were performed with the Identikit modeling tool. The model parameters that describe the galaxy merger best give a mass ratio of 1:2 and result in a merger of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} yr. The low-resolution CO (1-0) PdBI observations suggest that there are indications for emission {approx}10'' toward the south, as well as to the north and to the west of the two nuclei.

  10. Reducing Waste in Extreme Scale Systems through Introspective Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bautista-Gomez, Leonardo; Gainaru, Ana; Perarnau, Swann; Engelmann, Christian; Cappello, Franck; Snir, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is an important challenge for extreme- scale supercomputers. Today, failures in supercomputers are assumed to be uniformly distributed in time. However, recent studies show that failures in high-performance computing systems are partially correlated in time, generating periods of higher failure density. Our study of the failure logs of multiple supercomputers show that periods of higher failure density occur with up to three times more than the average. We design a monitoring system that listens to hardware events and forwards important events to the runtime to detect those regime changes. We implement a runtime capable of receiving notifications and adapt dynamically. In addition, we build an analytical model to predict the gains that such dynamic approach could achieve. We demonstrate that in some systems, our approach can reduce the wasted time by over 30%.

  11. Large-Scale Information Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Nicol; H. R. Ammerlahn; M. E. Goldsby; M. M. Johnson; D. E. Rhodes; A. S. Yoshimura

    2000-12-01

    Large enterprises are ever more dependent on their Large-Scale Information Systems (LSLS), computer systems that are distinguished architecturally by distributed components--data sources, networks, computing engines, simulations, human-in-the-loop control and remote access stations. These systems provide such capabilities as workflow, data fusion and distributed database access. The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) contains many examples of LSIS components, a fact that motivates this research. However, most LSIS in use grew up from collections of separate subsystems that were not designed to be components of an integrated system. For this reason, they are often difficult to analyze and control. The problem is made more difficult by the size of a typical system, its diversity of information sources, and the institutional complexities associated with its geographic distribution across the enterprise. Moreover, there is no integrated approach for analyzing or managing such systems. Indeed, integrated development of LSIS is an active area of academic research. This work developed such an approach by simulating the various components of the LSIS and allowing the simulated components to interact with real LSIS subsystems. This research demonstrated two benefits. First, applying it to a particular LSIS provided a thorough understanding of the interfaces between the system's components. Second, it demonstrated how more rapid and detailed answers could be obtained to questions significant to the enterprise by interacting with the relevant LSIS subsystems through simulated components designed with those questions in mind. In a final, added phase of the project, investigations were made on extending this research to wireless communication networks in support of telemetry applications.

  12. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E. (Fremont, CA); Struve, Kenneth W. (Albuquerque, NM); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  13. SPECIAL DATE AND TIME

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPECIAL DATE AND TIME Evolving views of the outer solar system: new insights from NASA's New Horizons mission's historic first Pluto fly-by Dr. Kimberly Ennico Smith NASA Ames Research Center, Astrophysics Branch April 11, 2016 2:00 p.m. - Wilson Hall, One West On July 14, 2015, after a 9.5 year trek across the solar system, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft successfully flew by Pluto and its system of moons, taking imagery, spectra and in-situ particle data. In this internet- information age, this

  14. Aug 2010 Times

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 August 2010 www.y12.doe.gov/news/times.php P.O. Box 2009 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8245 W H A T ' S I N S I D E Page 2 ARRA work continues Page 4 Sharing secrets with the public Page 5 Apprentices are a sure bet Page 6 Need a yo-yo? Stop by JA BizTown's Y-12 booth Page 8 Employees drop the pounds B&W Technical Services Y-12, LLC, a partnership between Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group Inc. and Bechtel National Inc., operates the Y-12 National Security Complex. A newsletter for

  15. Scaling Rules for Pre-Injector Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Schwarz; Dan Amidei

    2003-07-13

    Proposed designs of the prebunching system of the NLC and TESLA are based on the assumption that scaling the SLC design to NLC/TESLA requirements should provide the desired performance. A simple equation is developed to suggest a scaling rule in terms of bunch charge and duration. Detailed simulations of prebunching systems scaled from a single design have been run to investigate these issues.

  16. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math » Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design » Publications Publications Ramon Ravelo, Qi An, Timothy C. Germann, and Brad Lee Holian, "Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of shock induced plasticity in tantalum single crystals," AIP Conference Proceedings 1426, 1263-1266 (2012). Frank J. Cherne, Guy Dimonte, and Timothy C. Germann, "Richtymer-Meshkov instability examined with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations," AIP

  17. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Handling Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8, 2007 Jerry Gillette Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Handling Equipment Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting Argonne National Laboratory Some Delivery Pathways Will Necessitate the Use of Large- Scale Liquid Hydrogen Handling Equipment „ Potential Scenarios include: - Production plant shutdowns - Summer-peak storage „ Equipment Needs include: - Storage tanks - Liquid Pumps - Vaporizers - Ancillaries 2 1 Concern is that Scaling up from Small Units Could Significantly Underestimate Costs of Larger

  18. Driving Innovation, Speeding Adoption, Scaling Savings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Driving Innovation, Speeding Adoption, Scaling Savings An Overview of the Building Technologies Office Roland Risser 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review April 4, 2016 2 ...

  19. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Informing system design, ensuring productive and efficient code Project Description To address the increasingly complex problems of the modern ...

  20. Characterizing Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Inflow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Inflow - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  1. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Vermont's Small Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program (SSREIP), initiated in June 2003, currently provides funding for new solar water heating and advanced wood pellet heating installations. T...

  2. Connecting the Molecular and the Continuum Scales

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    range of phenomena, from climate change to contaminant remediation. Accomplishments: Used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine molecular-scale diffusion coefficients of...

  3. Commercial-Scale Renewable-Energy Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Rhode Island Commerce Corporation (Commerce RI) seeks to fund commercial scale renewable energy projects to generate electricity for onsite consumption. Commerce RI provides incentives for...

  4. SCALING OF COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADES FOR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR MEGAWATT-SCALE WIND TURBINE BLADES: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND ... Both VARTM and prepreg materials have particular design challenges for manufacturing ...

  5. Atomic Scale Characterization of Compound Semiconductors using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    more fundamental understanding of carrier dynamics in photovoltaic (PV) device structures. ... Applying these improved analysis conditions to III-V based PV gives an atomic scale ...

  6. INDUSTRIAL SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF SMART MANUFACTURING ACHIEVING...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing (554.65 KB) More Documents & Publications CX-010754: Categorical Exclusion Determination RAPID FREEFORM SHEET METAL FORMING: ...

  7. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Publications Publications Ramon Ravelo, Qi An, Timothy C. Germann, and Brad Lee Holian, ...

  8. Scaling of Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Collisionless...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Scaling of Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Collisionless Pair Plasmas Authors: Liu, Yi-Hsin ; Guo, Fan ; Daughton, William ; Li, Hui ; Hesse, Michael Publication Date: ...

  9. Algenol Biofuels Inc., Integrated Pilot-Scale Biorefinery | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Algenol Biofuels Inc., Integrated Pilot-Scale Biorefinery Algenol Biofuels Inc., Integrated Pilot-Scale Biorefinery Algenol Biofuels Inc., will create a pilot-scale biorefinery ...

  10. Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials Process Development and Scale up of Advanced ... More Documents & Publications Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte ...

  11. Sapphire Energy, Inc. Demonstration-Scale Project | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sapphire Energy, Inc. Demonstration-Scale Project Sapphire Energy, Inc. Demonstration-Scale Project Sapphire Energy, Inc. is scaling up an operational facility to demonstrate ...

  12. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias; Wilcox, Lucas C.; Hill, Judith C.; Ghattas, Omar; Berggren, Martin Olof; Akcelik, Volkan; Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is critically important to numerous analysis algorithms, including large scale optimization, uncertainty quantification,reduced order modeling, and error estimation. Our research focused on developing tools, algorithms and standard interfaces to facilitate the implementation of sensitivity type analysis into existing code and equally important, the work was focused on ways to increase the visibility of sensitivity analysis. We attempt to accomplish the first objective through the development of hybrid automatic differentiation tools, standard linear algebra interfaces for numerical algorithms, time domain decomposition algorithms and two level Newton methods. We attempt to accomplish the second goal by presenting the results of several case studies in which direct sensitivities and adjoint methods have been effectively applied, in addition to an investigation of h-p adaptivity using adjoint based a posteriori error estimation. A mathematical overview is provided of direct sensitivities and adjoint methods for both steady state and transient simulations. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the utility of these methods. A direct sensitivity method is implemented to solve a source inversion problem for steady state internal flows subject to convection diffusion. Real time performance is achieved using novel decomposition into offline and online calculations. Adjoint methods are used to reconstruct initial conditions of a contamination event in an external flow. We demonstrate an adjoint based transient solution. In addition, we investigated time domain decomposition algorithms in an attempt to improve the efficiency of transient simulations. Because derivative calculations are at the root of sensitivity calculations, we have developed hybrid automatic differentiation methods and implemented this approach for shape optimization for gas dynamics using the Euler equations. The hybrid automatic differentiation method was applied to a first

  13. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2014-09-23

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10

  14. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  15. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  16. Gradient Flow and Scale Setting on MILC HISQ Ensembles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bazavov, A.; Bernard, C.; Brown, N.; Komijani, J.; DeTar, C.; Foley, J.; Levkova, L.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U. M.; Laiho, J.; et al

    2016-05-25

    We report on a scale determination with gradient-flow techniques on the Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration. The ensembles include four lattice spacings, ranging from approximately 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and both physical and unphysical values of the quark masses. The scales p √t0/a and w0/a and their tree-level improvements,√t0;imp and w0;imp, are computed on each ensemble using Symanzik ow and the cloverleaf definition of the energy density E. Using a combination of continuum chiral perturbation theory and a Taylor-series ansatz for the lattice-spacing and strong-coupling dependence, the results are simultaneously extrapolatedmore » to the continuum and interpolated to physical quark masses. We also determine the scales p t0 = 0:1416(+8-5) fm and w0 = 0:1717(+12-11) fm, where the errors are sums, in quadrature, of statistical and all systematic errors. The precision of w0 and √t0 is comparable to or more precise than the best previous estimates, respectively. We also find the continuum mass-dependence of w0 that will be useful for estimating the scales of other ensembles. Furthermore, we estimate the integrated autocorrelation length of . For long flow times, the autocorrelation length of appears to be comparable to or smaller than that of the topological charge.« less

  17. Large-scale BAO signatures of the smallest galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalal, Neal; Pen, Ue-Li; Seljak, Uros E-mail: pen@cita.utoronto.ca

    2010-11-01

    Recent work has shown that at high redshift, the relative velocity between dark matter and baryonic gas is typically supersonic. This relative velocity suppresses the formation of the earliest baryonic structures like minihalos, and the suppression is modulated on large scales. This effect imprints a characteristic shape in the clustering power spectrum of the earliest structures, with significant power on ∼ 100 Mpc scales featuring highly pronounced baryon acoustic oscillations. The amplitude of these oscillations is orders of magnitude larger at z ∼ 20 than previously expected. This characteristic signature can allow us to distinguish the effects of minihalos on intergalactic gas at times preceding and during reionization. We illustrate this effect with the example of 21 cm emission and absorption from redshifts during and before reionization. This effect can potentially allow us to probe physics on kpc scales using observations on 100 Mpc scales. We present sensitivity forecasts for FAST and Arecibo. Depending on parameters, this enhanced structure may be detectable by Arecibo at z ∼ 15−20, and with appropriate instrumentation FAST could measure the BAO power spectrum with high precision. In principle, this effect could also pose a serious challenge for efforts to constrain dark energy using observations of the BAO feature at low redshift.

  18. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, Karl M.; Fundakowski, Richard A.; Levitt, Tod S.; Overland, John E.; Suresh, Bindinganavle R.; Ulrich, Franz W.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  19. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  20. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  1. Broken Scale Invariance and Anomalous Dimensions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Wilson, K. G.

    1970-05-01

    Mack and Kastrup have proposed that broken scale invariance is a symmetry of strong interactions. There is evidence from the Thirring model and perturbation theory that the dimensions of fields defined by scale transformations will be changed by the interaction from their canonical values. We review these ideas and their consequences for strong interactions.

  2. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  3. UTILITY-SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UTILITY-SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR UTILITY-SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR SOLAR: UTILITY-SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR POSTER (1.07 MB) More Documents & Publications UTILITY-SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR Download LPO's Illustrated Poster Series ANTELOPE VALLEY SOLAR RANCH MESQUITE

  4. Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells Studied by Nanometre-Scale Profiling of Electrical Potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Luther, Joseph M.; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P.; et al

    2015-09-28

    Organometal–halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells—which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output—by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. Moreover, the distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p–n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfacesmore » and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. When we combined the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.« less

  5. Opto-Electronic Characterization CdTe Solar Cells from TCO to Back Contact with Nano-Scale CL Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moseley, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Paudel, Naba; Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Kuciauskas, Darius; Guthrey, Harvey L.; Duenow, Joel; Yan, Yanfa; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    2015-06-14

    We used cathodoluminescence (CL) (spectrum-per-pixel) imaging on beveled CdTe solar cell sections to investigate the opto-electronic properties of these devices from the TCO to the back contact. We used a nano-scale CL probe to resolve luminescence from grain boundary (GB) and grain interior (GI) locations near the CdS/CdTe interface where the grains are very small. As-deposited, CdCl2-treated, Cu-treated, and (CdCl2+Cu)-treated cells were analyzed. Color-coded CL spectrum imaging maps on bevels illustrate the distribution of the T=6 K luminescence transitions through the depth of devices with unprecedented spatial resolution. The CL at the GBs and GIs is shown to vary significantly from the front to the back of devices and is a sensitive function of processing. Supporting D-SIMS depth profile, TRPL lifetime, and C-V measurements are used to link the CL data to the J-V performance of devices.

  6. Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells Studied by Nanometre-Scale Profiling of Electrical Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Luther, Joseph M.; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P.; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2015-09-28

    Organometal–halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells—which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output—by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. Moreover, the distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p–n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfaces and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. When we combined the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.

  7. EEHG Performance and Scaling Laws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penn, Gregory

    2013-10-09

    This note will calculate the idealized performance of echo-enabled harmonic generation performance (EEHG), explore the parameter settings, and look at constraints determined by incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) and intrabeam scattering (IBS). Another important effect, time-of-flight variations related to transverse emittance, is included here but without detailed explanation because it has been described previously. The importance of ISR and IBS is that they lead to random energy shifts that lead to temporal shifts after the various beam manipulations required by the EEHG scheme. These effects give competing constraints on the beamline. For chicane magnets which are too compact for a given R56, the magnetic fields will be sufficiently strong that ISR will blur out the complex phase space structure of the echo scheme to the point where the bunching is strongly suppressed. The effect of IBS is more omnipresent, and requires an overall compact beamline. It is particularly challenging for the second pulse in a two-color attosecond beamline, due to the long delay between the first energy modulation and the modulator for the second pulse.

  8. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M.; Welch, D.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  9. Quantitative nanometer-scale mapping of dielectric tunability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tselev, Alexander; Klein, Andreas; Gassmann, Juergen; Jesse, Stephen; Li, Qian; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Wisinger, Nina Balke

    2015-08-21

    Two scanning probe microscopy techniques—near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM)—are used to characterize and image tunability in a thin (Ba,Sr)TiO3 film with nanometer scale spatial resolution. While sMIM allows direct probing of tunability by measurement of the change in the dielectric constant, in PFM, tunability can be extracted via electrostrictive response. The near-field microwave imaging and PFM provide similar information about dielectric tunability with PFM capable to deliver quantitative information on tunability with a higher spatial resolution close to 15 nm. This is the first time that information about the dielectric tunability is available on suchmore » length scales.« less

  10. Design for a small-scale fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    The paper describes the small-scale fuel alcohol plant (SSFAT) which was designed as a small-scale chemical processing plant. The DOE publication, Fuel from Farms, set forth the basic design requirements. To lower operating costs, it was important that all the processes required to produce alcohol were integrated. Automated control was also an important consideration in the design to reduce the number of operators and operator time, thus reducing operating costs. Automated control also provides better quality control of the final product. The plant is presently operating in a test mode to evaluate operating characteristics. The discussion covers the following topics - design requirements; plan operations; fermentation; distillation; microprocessor control; automatic control; operating experience. 1 ref.

  11. Parallel Scaling Characteristics of Selected NERSC User ProjectCodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, David; Verdier, Francesca; Anand, Harsh; Carter,Jonathan; Durst, Mark; Gerber, Richard

    2005-03-05

    This report documents parallel scaling characteristics of NERSC user project codes between Fiscal Year 2003 and the first half of Fiscal Year 2004 (Oct 2002-March 2004). The codes analyzed cover 60% of all the CPU hours delivered during that time frame on seaborg, a 6080 CPU IBM SP and the largest parallel computer at NERSC. The scale in terms of concurrency and problem size of the workload is analyzed. Drawing on batch queue logs, performance data and feedback from researchers we detail the motivations, benefits, and challenges of implementing highly parallel scientific codes on current NERSC High Performance Computing systems. An evaluation and outlook of the NERSC workload for Allocation Year 2005 is presented.

  12. Engineering-Scale Demonstration of DuraLith and Ceramicrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Pires, Richard P.; Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin W.

    2011-09-23

    To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from the Hanford Waste Immobilization and Treatment Plant, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing on four candidate waste forms. Two of the candidate waste forms have not been developed to scale as the more mature waste forms. This work describes engineering-scale demonstrations conducted on Ceramicrete and DuraLith candidate waste forms. Both candidate waste forms were successfully demonstrated at an engineering scale. A preliminary conceptual design could be prepared for full-scale production of the candidate waste forms. However, both waste forms are still too immature to support a detailed design. Formulations for each candidate waste form need to be developed so that the material has a longer working time after mixing the liquid and solid constituents together. Formulations optimized based on previous lab studies did not have sufficient working time to support large-scale testing. The engineering-scale testing was successfully completed using modified formulations. Further lab development and parametric studies are needed to optimize formulations with adequate working time and assess the effects of changes in raw materials and process parameters on the final product performance. Studies on effects of mixing intensity on the initial set time of the waste forms are also needed.

  13. Large-scale soil bioremediation using white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holroyd, M.L.; Caunt, P.

    1995-12-31

    Some organic pollutant compounds are considered resistant to conventional bioremediation because of their structure or behavior in soil. This phenomenon, together with the increasing need to reach lower target levels in shorter time periods, has shown the need for improved or alternative biological processes. It has been known for some time that the white-rot fungi, particularly the species Phanerochaete chrysosporium, have potentially useful abilities to rapidly degrade pollutant molecules. The use of white-rot fungi at the field scale presents a number of challenges, and this paper outlines the use of a process incorporating Phanerochaete to successfully bioremediate over 6,000 m{sup 3} of chlorophenol-contaminated soil at a site in Finland. Moreover, the method developed is very cost-effective and proved capable of reaching the very low target levels within the contracted time span.

  14. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  15. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  16. Optimal observation time window for forecasting the next earthquake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omi, Takahiro; Shinomoto, Shigeru; Kanter, Ido

    2011-02-15

    We report that the accuracy of predicting the occurrence time of the next earthquake is significantly enhanced by observing the latest rate of earthquake occurrences. The observation period that minimizes the temporal uncertainty of the next occurrence is on the order of 10 hours. This result is independent of the threshold magnitude and is consistent across different geographic areas. This time scale is much shorter than the months or years that have previously been considered characteristic of seismic activities.

  17. Global scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Ashehad; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Reich, Peter B.; Bauerle, William L.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Santiago, Louis S.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (Vc,m) rate scaled to 25°C (i.e., Vc,25; μmol CO2·m–2·s–1) and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) scaled to 25°C (i.e., J25; μmol electron·m–2·s–1) at the global scale. Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed Vc,25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2–2.5 times and 6–9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain ~56% and ~66% of the variation in Vc,25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. As a result, our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land–atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.

  18. Global scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ali, Ashehad; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Reich, Peter B.; Bauerle, William L.; Wilson, Cathy J.; et al

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (Vc,m) rate scaled to 25°C (i.e., Vc,25; μmol CO2·m–2·s–1) and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) scaled to 25°C (i.e., J25; μmol electron·m–2·s–1) at the global scale.more » Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed Vc,25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2–2.5 times and 6–9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain ~56% and ~66% of the variation in Vc,25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. As a result, our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land–atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.« less

  19. Enhancements in SCALE 6.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rearden, Bradley T

    2010-01-01

    The Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a 'plug-and-play' framework with nearly 80 computational modules, including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution. SCALE's graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.1, scheduled for release in the fall of 2010, provides improved reliability and introduces a number of enhanced features, some of which are briefly described here. SCALE 6.1 provides state-of-the-art capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, and radiation shielding in a robust yet user-friendly package. The new features and improved reliability of this latest release of SCALE are intended to improve safety and efficiency throughout the nuclear community.

  20. Understanding transport through dimensionless parameter scaling experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.

    1997-07-01

    The related methods of dimensional analysis, similarity, and scale invariance provide a powerful technique for analyzing physical systems. For example, the complex plasma dynamics governed by the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations can be characterized by sets of dimensionless quantities through the application of these techniques. Significant progress has been made recently towards predicting and understanding radial heat transport using dimensionless parameter scaling techniques. Previous experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have measured the variation of heat transport with the relative gyroradius ({rho}*); in this paper, the scaling of heat transport with plasma beta ({beta}) and normalized collisionality ({nu}) for L-mode and H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak is reported. Following the scale invariance approach to confinement scaling, the thermal diffusivity ({chi}) is assumed to depend only on local dimensionless quantities. Understanding the beta and collisionality scaling of transport helps to differentiate between various proposed mechanisms of turbulent transport and allows the origin of power degradation and density scaling of confinement to be determined.

  1. Modernization Enhancements in SCALE 6.2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rearden, Bradley T; Lefebvre, Robert A; Lefebvre, Jordan P; Clarno, Kevin T; Williams, Mark L; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Mertyurek, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. However, the underlying architecture of SCALE is based on a 40-year old design with dozens of independent functional modules and control programs, primarily implemented in the Fortran programming language, with extensive use of customized intermediate files to control the logical flow of the analysis. Data are passed between individual computational codes using custom binary files that are read from and written to the hard disk. The SCALE modernization plan provides a progression towards SCALE 7, which will provide an object-oriented parallel-enabled software infrastructure with state-of-the-art methods implemented as reusable components. This paper provides a brief overview of the goals of SCALE modernization and details some modernized features available with SCALE 6.2.

  2. Method and system for small scale pumping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  3. Multi-scale modeling of inter-granular fracture in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Pritam; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.; Biner, S. Bulent

    2015-03-01

    A hierarchical multi-scale approach is pursued in this work to investigate the influence of porosity, pore and grain size on the intergranular brittle fracture in UO2. In this approach, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to obtain the fracture properties for different grain boundary types. A phase-field model is then utilized to perform intergranular fracture simulations of representative microstructures with different porosities, pore and grain sizes. In these simulations the grain boundary fracture properties obtained from molecular dynamics simulations are used. The responses from the phase-field fracture simulations are then fitted with a stress-based brittle fracture model usable at the engineering scale. This approach encapsulates three different length and time scales, and allows the development of microstructurally informed engineering scale model from properties evaluated at the atomistic scale.

  4. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  5. Real-Time Benchmark Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-17

    This software provides a portable benchmark suite for real time kernels. It tests the performance of many of the system calls, as well as the interrupt response time and task response time to interrupts. These numbers provide a baseline for comparing various real-time kernels and hardware platforms.

  6. Using Advanced Modeling to Accelerate the Scale-Up of Carbon Capture Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David; Sun, Xin; Storlie, Curtis; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-18

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of many approaches that are critical for significantly reducing domestic and global CO2 emissions. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Clean Coal Technology Program Plan envisions 2nd generation CO2 capture technologies ready for demonstration-scale testing around 2020 with the goal of enabling commercial deployment by 2025 [1]. Third generation technologies have a similarly aggressive timeline. A major challenge is that the development and scale-up of new technologies in the energy sector historically takes up to 15 years to move from the laboratory to pre-deployment and another 20 to 30 years for widespread industrial scale deployment. In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale up new carbon capture technologies. The CCSI Toolset (1) enables promising concepts to be more quickly identified through rapid computational screening of processes and devices, (2) reduces the time to design and troubleshoot new devices and processes by using optimization techniques to focus development on the best overall process conditions and by using detailed device-scale models to better understand and improve the internal behavior of complex equipment, and (3) provides quantitative predictions of device and process performance during scale up based on rigorously validated smaller scale simulations that take into account model and parameter uncertainty[2]. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  7. External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can detect scale buildup in pipes to 1-2 m accuracy. Radiography has also detected corrosion in piping. Development of this technique is shown to be useful of monitoring...

  8. Advancing Solar Technologies at the Utility Scale

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This video provides an overview of the utility-scale solar inverter testing capabilities at the U.S. Department of Energy’s new Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) at the National Renewable...

  9. SCE&G- Customer Scale Solar Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G) Customer Scale Solar Rebate Program, a part of SCE&G's voluntary Distributed Energy Resource Program, was approved by an order issued on July 15,...

  10. Duke Energy Carolinas Customer Scale Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duke Energy Carolinas' Customer Scale Solar Rebate Program, a part of Duke Energy's voluntary Distributed Energy Resource Program,  was approved by an order issued on July 15, 2015.

  11. 'Sidecars' Pave the Way for Concurrent Analytics of Large-Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulations 'Sidecars' Pave the Way for Concurrent Analytics of Large-Scale Simulations 'Sidecars' Pave the Way for Concurrent Analytics of Large-Scale Simulations Halo Finder Enhancement Puts Supercomputer Users in the Driver's Seat November 2, 2015 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Nyxfilamentsandreeberhalos In this Reeber halo finder simulation, the blueish haze is a volume rendering of the density field that Nyx calculates every time step. The light blue and

  12. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math » Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Computational co-design may facilitate revolutionary designs in the next generation of supercomputers. Get Expertise Tim Germann Physics and Chemistry of Materials Email Allen McPherson Energy and Infrastructure Analysis Email Turab Lookman Physics and Condensed Matter and Complex Systems Email Computational co-design involves developing the interacting components of a

  13. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Informing system design, ensuring productive and efficient code Project Description To address the increasingly complex problems of the modern world, scientists at Los Alamos are pushing the scale of computing to the extreme, forming partnerships with other national laboratories and industry to develop supercomputers that can achieve "exaflop" speeds-that is, a quintillion (a million trillion) calculations per second. To put such speed in perspective,

  14. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Grid Scale Flow Batteries IMRE GYUK, PROGRAM MANAGER ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH, DOE FlowBat 03- 07- 12 Without technological breakthroughs in efficient, large scale Energy Storage, it will be difficult to rely on intermittent renewables for much more than 20-30% of our Electricity. Secretary Chu, Feb. 2010 The need for regulation services can dramatically increase as the amount of variable renewable resources is increased. Local storage is among the best means to ensure we can reliably

  15. Large-Scale PCA for Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large-Scale PCA for Climate Large-Scale PCA for Climate The most widely used tool for extracting important patterns from the measurements of atmospheric and oceanic variables is the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) technique. EOFs are popular because of their simplicity and their ability to reduce the dimensionality of large nonlinear, high-dimensional systems into fewer dimensions while preserving the most important patterns of variations in the measurements. Because EOFs are a particular

  16. Scaling of Sweet-Parker reconnection with secondary islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-12-15

    Sweet-Parker (collisional) magnetic reconnection at high Lundquist number is modified by secondary islands. Daughton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065004 (2009)] suggested the Sweet-Parker model governs the fragmented current sheet segments. If true, the reconnection rate would increase by the square root of the number of secondary islands. High Lundquist number resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which agree, in a time-averaged sense, with the predicted scaling. This result may have important implications for energy storage before a solar eruption and its subsequent release.

  17. The chip-scale atomic clock : prototype evaluation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mescher, Mark; Varghese, Mathew; Lutwak, Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Tepolt, Gary; Geib, Kent Martin; Leblanc, John; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Rashid, Ahmed

    2007-12-01

    The authors have developed a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) for applications requiring atomic timing accuracy in portable battery-powered applications. At PTTI/FCS 2005, they reported on the demonstration of a prototype CSAC, with an overall size of 10 cm{sup 3}, power consumption > 150 mW, and short-term stability sy(t) < 1 x 10-9t-1/2. Since that report, they have completed the development of the CSAC, including provision for autonomous lock acquisition and a calibrated output at 10.0 MHz, in addition to modifications to the physics package and system architecture to improve performance and manufacturability.

  18. A Pore Scale Evaluation of the Kinetics of Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation Reactions (EMSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steefel, Carl I.

    2006-06-01

    The chief goals for CEKA are to (1) collect and synthesize molecular-level kinetic data into a coherent framework that can be used to predict time evolution of environmental processes over a range of temporal and spatial scales; (2) train a cohort of talented and diverse students to work on kinetic problems at multiple scales; (3) develop and promote the use of new experimental techniques in environmental kinetics; (4) develop and promote the use of new modeling tools to conceptualize reaction kinetics in environmental systems; and (5) communicate our understanding of issues related to environmental kinetics and issues of scale to the broader scientific community and to the public.

  19. INTERMITTENCY OF SOLAR WIND DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS FROM ION TO ELECTRON SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C. H. K.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; afrnkov, J.; N?me?ek, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The intermittency of density fluctuations in the solar wind at kinetic scales has been examined using high time resolution Faraday cup measurements from the Spektr-R spacecraft. It was found that the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations are highly non-Gaussian over this range, but do not show large changes in shape with scale. These properties are statistically similar to those of the magnetic fluctuations and are important to understanding the dynamics of small scale turbulence in the solar wind. Possible explanations for the behavior of the density and magnetic fluctuations are discussed.

  20. Webinar July 28: H2 @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Webinar July 28: H2 @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity Webinar July 28: H2 @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity July 20, 2016 - 1:14pm Addthis The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "H2 @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity" on Thursday, July 28 from 12 to 1 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). Hydrogen, as a flexible, clean energy-carrying intermediate, has the potential to be a centerpiece of a future energy system where aggressive market penetration of renewables

  1. Classifying forest productivity at different scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when evaluating, using, or constructing forest productivity classifications. First, the factors which dominate spatial variability in forest productivity are scale dependent. For example, within a stand, spatial variability in productivity is dominated by microsite differences; within a national forest such as the Cherokee National Forest, spatial variability is dominated by topography and land-use history (e.g., years since harvest); within a large region such as the southeast, spatial variability is dominated by climatic patterns. Second, classifications developed at different spatial scales are often used for different purposes. For example, stand-level classifications are often keys or rules used in the field to judge the quality or potential of a site. National-forest classifications are often presented as maps or tables and may be used in forest land planning. Regional classifications may be maps or tables and may be used to quantify or predict resource availability. These scale-related differences in controlling factors and purposes will affect both the methods and the data used to develop classifications. In this paper, I will illustrate these points by describing and comparing three forest productivity classifications, each developed for a specific purpose at a specific scale. My objective is not to argue for or against any of these particular classifications but rather to heighten awareness of the critical role that spatial scale plays in the use and development of forest productivity classifications. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Flow topologies and turbulence scales in a jet-in-cross-flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Ruiz, Anthony M.; Lacaze, Guilhem

    2015-04-03

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the flow topologies and turbulence scales in the jet-in-cross-flow experiment of [Su and Mungal JFM 2004]. The analysis is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique with a highly resolved grid and time-step and well controlled boundary conditions. This enables quantitative agreement with the first and second moments of turbulence statistics measured in the experiment. LES is used to perform the analysis since experimental measurements of time-resolved 3D fields are still in their infancy and because sampling periods are generally limited with direct numerical simulation. A major focal point is the comprehensivemore » characterization of the turbulence scales and their evolution. Time-resolved probes are used with long sampling periods to obtain maps of the integral scales, Taylor microscales, and turbulent kinetic energy spectra. Scalar-fluctuation scales are also quantified. In the near-field, coherent structures are clearly identified, both in physical and spectral space. Along the jet centerline, turbulence scales grow according to a classical one-third power law. However, the derived maps of turbulence scales reveal strong inhomogeneities in the flow. From the modeling perspective, these insights are useful to design optimized grids and improve numerical predictions in similar configurations.« less

  3. Flow topologies and turbulence scales in a jet-in-cross-flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Ruiz, Anthony M.; Lacaze, Guilhem

    2015-04-03

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the flow topologies and turbulence scales in the jet-in-cross-flow experiment of [Su and Mungal JFM 2004]. The analysis is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique with a highly resolved grid and time-step and well controlled boundary conditions. This enables quantitative agreement with the first and second moments of turbulence statistics measured in the experiment. LES is used to perform the analysis since experimental measurements of time-resolved 3D fields are still in their infancy and because sampling periods are generally limited with direct numerical simulation. A major focal point is the comprehensive characterization of the turbulence scales and their evolution. Time-resolved probes are used with long sampling periods to obtain maps of the integral scales, Taylor microscales, and turbulent kinetic energy spectra. Scalar-fluctuation scales are also quantified. In the near-field, coherent structures are clearly identified, both in physical and spectral space. Along the jet centerline, turbulence scales grow according to a classical one-third power law. However, the derived maps of turbulence scales reveal strong inhomogeneities in the flow. From the modeling perspective, these insights are useful to design optimized grids and improve numerical predictions in similar configurations.

  4. Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

  5. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2014-10-01

    joint particle - temperature dispersion leads to a distribution of temperature histories predicted by the ODT . Predictions are shown for the lower moments an d the full distributions of the particle positions, particle - observed gas temperatures and particle temperatures. An analysis of the time scales affecting particle - temperature interactions covers Lagrangian integral time scales based on temperature autoco rrelations, rates of temperature change associated with particle motion relative to the temperature field and rates of diffusional change of temperatures. These latter two time scales have not been investigated previously; they are shown to be strongly in termittent having peaked distributions with long tails. The logarithm of the absolute value of these time scales exhibits a distribution closer to normal. A cknowledgements This work is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under their Counter - Weapons of Mass Destruction Basic Research Program in the area of Chemical and Biological Agent Defeat under award number HDTRA1 - 11 - 4503I to Sandia National Laboratories. The authors would like to express their appreciation for the guidance provi ded by Dr. Suhithi Peiris to this project and to the Science to Defeat Weapons of Mass Destruction program.

  6. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  7. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collet, Séverine H. Picard-Hagen, Nicole Lacroix, Marlène Z. Puel, Sylvie Viguié, Catherine Bousquet-Melou, Alain Toutain, Pierre-Louis Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  8. Confinement Time Exceeding One Second for a Toroidal Electron Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marler, J. P.; Stoneking, M. R.

    2008-04-18

    Nearly steady-state electron plasmas are trapped in a toroidal magnetic field for the first time. We report the first results from a new toroidal electron plasma experiment, the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II, in which electron densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} are trapped in a 270 deg. toroidal arc (670 G toroidal magnetic field) by application of trapping potentials to segments of a conducting shell. The total charge inferred from measurements of the frequency of the m=1 diocotron mode is observed to decay on a 3 s time scale, a time scale that approaches the predicted limit due to magnetic pumping transport. Three seconds represents {approx_equal}10{sup 5} periods of the lowest frequency plasma mode, indicating that nearly steady-state conditions are achieved.

  9. Real-time calibration of a feedback trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Jun, Yonggun; Bechhoefer, John

    2014-09-15

    Feedback traps use closed-loop control to trap or manipulate small particles and molecules in solution. They have been applied to the measurement of physical and chemical properties of particles and to explore fundamental questions in the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of small systems. These applications have been hampered by drifts in the electric forces used to manipulate the particles. Although the drifts are small for measurements on the order of seconds, they dominate on time scales of minutes or slower. Here, we show that a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm can allow real-time measurement and control of electric and stochastic forces over time scales of hours. Simulations show that the RML algorithm recovers known parameters accurately. Experimental estimates of diffusion coefficients are also consistent with expected physical properties.

  10. Dynamic time expansion and compression using nonlinear waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Hahn, Sangkoo F.; Jia, Quanxi

    2004-06-22

    Dynamic time expansion or compression of a small-amplitude input signal generated with an initial scale is performed using a nonlinear waveguide. A nonlinear waveguide having a variable refractive index is connected to a bias voltage source having a bias signal amplitude that is large relative to the input signal to vary the reflective index and concomitant speed of propagation of the nonlinear waveguide and an electrical circuit for applying the small-amplitude signal and the large amplitude bias signal simultaneously to the nonlinear waveguide. The large amplitude bias signal with the input signal alters the speed of propagation of the small-amplitude signal with time in the nonlinear waveguide to expand or contract the initial time scale of the small-amplitude input signal.

  11. Dynamic Time Expansion and Compression Using Nonlinear Waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Hahn, Sangkoo F.; Jia, Quanxi

    2004-06-22

    Dynamic time expansion or compression of a small amplitude input signal generated with an initial scale is performed using a nonlinear waveguide. A nonlinear waveguide having a variable refractive index is connected to a bias voltage source having a bias signal amplitude that is large relative to the input signal to vary the reflective index and concomitant speed of propagation of the nonlinear waveguide and an electrical circuit for applying the small amplitude signal and the large amplitude bias signal simultaneously to the nonlinear waveguide. The large amplitude bias signal with the input signal alters the speed of propagation of the small-amplitude signal with time in the nonlinear waveguide to expand or contract the initial time scale of the small-amplitude input signal.

  12. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; A.D. Walters

    2000-01-01

    During the past quarter, several modifications were made to the TES unit and the materials handling system. The cylindrical electrodes were replaced by a set of screen electrodes to provide a more uniform electrostatic field. The problem with the recycle conveyor neutralizing the particle charge was also corrected by replacing it with a bucket elevator. In addition, problems with the turbocharger were corrected by increasing the number of charging stages from one to two. These modifications have significantly improved the separation performance and have permitted the POC-scale unit to achieve results in line with those obtained by the bench-scale separator. The testing phase of the project was continued at a rapid pace during this quarter. The test work showed that the modifications to the TES unit and the reduction in feed size from 28 mesh to 35 mesh resulted in significant overall improvement in yield and combustible recovery compared to the data reported in the last quarter. At that time, there was a significant discrepancy between the bench-scale and the pilot-scale results. The pilot-scale test work is now approaching the bench scale test results. However, further pilot-scale test work is required to further improve the results and duplicate the bench-scale test work.

  13. Oak Ridge Integrated Field-Scale Research Challenge:Task D -Multi-Process and Multi-Scale Modeling and Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Parker

    2007-04-19

    The task objectives are: (1) Gain an improved understanding of hydrologic, geochemical and biological processes and their interactions at relevant time and space scales; and (2) Develop practical, site-independent tools for evaluating effects of natural and engineered processes on long-term performance.

  14. ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS WITH THE RACETRACK NON-SCALING FFAG FOR E-RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; LITVINENKO, V.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.

    2007-06-25

    The future relativistic electron hadron collider: e-RHIC requires acceleration of electrons to 10 GeV. In the case that the super conducting linac is selected for acceleration, an energy recovery scheme is required. We propose to study a possibility of using the non-scaling Fixed-Field Gradient-Accelerator (NS-FFAG) for different energies. The beam will be accelerated by the superconducting linac at the top of the sine function, brought back to the front of the linac by the non-scaling FFAG and repeating this few times until the total energy of 20 GeV is reached. After collisions the beam is brought back by the non-scaling FFAG and decelerated (on the lower RF phase) in the same sequence but in the reverse order. Conventional and non-conventional beam dynamic issues will be discussed, like the transit time matching effect and the time of flight adjustments.

  15. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  16. Multilevel method for modeling large-scale networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safro, I. M.

    2012-02-24

    Understanding the behavior of real complex networks is of great theoretical and practical significance. It includes developing accurate artificial models whose topological properties are similar to the real networks, generating the artificial networks at different scales under special conditions, investigating a network dynamics, reconstructing missing data, predicting network response, detecting anomalies and other tasks. Network generation, reconstruction, and prediction of its future topology are central issues of this field. In this project, we address the questions related to the understanding of the network modeling, investigating its structure and properties, and generating artificial networks. Most of the modern network generation methods are based either on various random graph models (reinforced by a set of properties such as power law distribution of node degrees, graph diameter, and number of triangles) or on the principle of replicating an existing model with elements of randomization such as R-MAT generator and Kronecker product modeling. Hierarchical models operate at different levels of network hierarchy but with the same finest elements of the network. However, in many cases the methods that include randomization and replication elements on the finest relationships between network nodes and modeling that addresses the problem of preserving a set of simplified properties do not fit accurately enough the real networks. Among the unsatisfactory features are numerically inadequate results, non-stability of algorithms on real (artificial) data, that have been tested on artificial (real) data, and incorrect behavior at different scales. One reason is that randomization and replication of existing structures can create conflicts between fine and coarse scales of the real network geometry. Moreover, the randomization and satisfying of some attribute at the same time can abolish those topological attributes that have been undefined or hidden from

  17. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M

    2003-11-11

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3{omega}) with a total intensity of 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO{sub 2} producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n{sub e} = 6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T{sub e} = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last {approx}1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length ({approx}2 mm). increasing to 12% for {approx}7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths.

  18. Scaling and dimensional analysis of acoustic streaming jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudjed, B.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Ben Hadid, H.

    2014-09-15

    This paper focuses on acoustic streaming free jets. This is to say that progressive acoustic waves are used to generate a steady flow far from any wall. The derivation of the governing equations under the form of a nonlinear hydrodynamics problem coupled with an acoustic propagation problem is made on the basis of a time scale discrimination approach. This approach is preferred to the usually invoked amplitude perturbations expansion since it is consistent with experimental observations of acoustic streaming flows featuring hydrodynamic nonlinearities and turbulence. Experimental results obtained with a plane transducer in water are also presented together with a review of the former experimental investigations using similar configurations. A comparison of the shape of the acoustic field with the shape of the velocity field shows that diffraction is a key ingredient in the problem though it is rarely accounted for in the literature. A scaling analysis is made and leads to two scaling laws for the typical velocity level in acoustic streaming free jets; these are both observed in our setup and in former studies by other teams. We also perform a dimensional analysis of this problem: a set of seven dimensionless groups is required to describe a typical acoustic experiment. We find that a full similarity is usually not possible between two acoustic streaming experiments featuring different fluids. We then choose to relax the similarity with respect to sound attenuation and to focus on the case of a scaled water experiment representing an acoustic streaming application in liquid metals, in particular, in liquid silicon and in liquid sodium. We show that small acoustic powers can yield relatively high Reynolds numbers and velocity levels; this could be a virtue for heat and mass transfer applications, but a drawback for ultrasonic velocimetry.

  19. Gradient Flow and Scale Setting on MILC HISQ Ensembles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazavov, A.; Bernard, C.; Brown, N.; Komijani, J.; DeTar, C.; Foley, J.; Levkova, L.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U. M.; Laiho, J.; Sugar, R. L.; Toussaint, D.; Van de Water, R. S.

    2015-03-25

    We report on a scale determination with gradient-ow techniques on the Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration. The ensembles include four lattice spacings, ranging from approximately 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and both physical and unphysical values of the quark masses. The scales p √t0/a and w0/a and their tree-level improvements,√t0;imp and w0;imp, are computed on each ensemble using Symanzik ow and the cloverleaf de_nition of the energy density E. Using a combination of continuum chiral perturbation theory and a Taylor-series ansatz for the lattice-spacing and strong-coupling dependence, the results are simultaneously extrapolated to the continuum and interpolated to physical quark masses. We also determine the scales p t0 = 0:1416(+8-5) fm and w0 = 0:1717(+12-11) fm, where the errors are sums, in quadrature, of statistical and all systematic errors. The precision of w0 and √t0 is comparable to or more precise than the best previous estimates, respectively. We also find the continuum mass-dependence of w0 that will be useful for estimating the scales of other ensembles. Furthermore, we estimate the integrated autocorrelation length of . For long ow times, the autocorrelation length of appears to be comparable to or smaller than that of the topological charge.

  20. Conduction in alumina with atomic scale copper filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xu; Liu, Jie; Anantram, M. P.

    2014-10-28

    The conductance of atomic scale filaments with three and seven Cu atoms in ?-alumina are calculated using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the filament with 3 Cu atoms is sufficient to increase the conductance of 1.3?nm thick alumina film by more than 10{sup 3} times in linear response. As the applied voltage increases, the current quickly saturates and differential resistance becomes negative. Compared to the filament with three Cu atoms, while the conductance of the filament with seven Cu atoms is comparable in linear response, they carry as much as twenty times larger current at large biases. The electron transport is analyzed based on local density of states, and the negative differential resistance in the seven Cu filaments occurs due to their narrow bandwidth.

  1. October 2008 Y-12 Times

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ray Smith Donna Watson Lisa Xiques times times the B&W Technical Services Y-12, LLC, a partnership between Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group Inc. and Bechtel National Inc., ...

  2. Scaling of multitension cosmic superstring networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira; Wyman, Mark

    2005-05-15

    Brane inflation in superstring theory ends when branes collide, initiating the hot big bang. Cosmic superstrings are produced during the brane collision. The cosmic superstrings produced in a D3-brane-antibrane inflationary scenario have a spectrum: (p,q) bound states of p fundamental (F) strings and q D-strings, where p and q are coprime. By extending the velocity-dependent one-scale network evolution equations for Abelian Higgs cosmic strings to allow a spectrum of string tensions, we construct a coupled (infinite) set of equations for strings that interact through binding and self-interactions. We apply this model to a network of (p,q) superstrings. Our numerical solutions show that (p,q) networks rapidly approach a stable scaling solution. We also extract the relative densities of each string type from our solutions. Typically, only a small number of the lowest tension states are populated substantially once scaling is reached. The model we study also has an interesting new feature: the energy released in (p,q) string binding is by itself adequate to allow the network to reach scaling. This result suggests that the scaling solution is robust. To demonstrate that this result is not trivial, we show that choosing a different form for string interactions can lead to network frustration.

  3. Charging Your Time - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health & Safety Exposition Charging Your Time About Us Hanford Cultural Resources Charging Your Time Committee Members Contact Us Electronic Registration Form Exhibitor and Vendor Information EXPO 2016 Sponsors EXPO Award Criteria How to Get to TRAC Special Events What is EXPO Why Should I Participate in EXPO Charging Your Time Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size How Do I Charge My Time Spent at EXPO? Each Hanford Prime Contractor may have

  4. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuderman, J F

    1981-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  5. Unprecedentedly Strong and Narrow Electromagnetic Emissions Stimulated by High-Frequency Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norin, L.; Leyser, T. B.; Nordblad, E.; Thide, B.; McCarrick, M.

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  6. An unprecedented blend of intense magnetic and X-ray laser pulses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Accelerator Laboratory. A team led by scientists at the U.S. Department of ... SIMES investigator Wei-Sheng Lee, who co-led the study with Jun-Sik Lee of SSRL and ...

  7. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn more about the development of successful solar projects in the USVI. (250.84 KB) More Documents & Publications A 448-kW PV system installed at the Cyril E. King Airport on ...

  8. Probing the Planck Scale with Proton Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnik, Roni; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2004-04-28

    We advocate the idea that proton decay may probe physics at the Planck scale instead of the GUT scale. This is possible because supersymmetric theories have dimension-5 operators that can induce proton decay at dangerous rates, even with R-parity conservation. These operators are expected to be suppressed by the same physics that explains the fermion masses and mixings. We present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in models with a string-inspired anomalous U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Protons and neutrons can decay via R-parity conserving non-renormalizable superpotential terms that are suppressed by the Planck scale and powers of the Cabibbo angle. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.

  9. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Presentation covers the Large-scale RE Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger than 10 MWs at...

  10. Large-Scale First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for large-scale parallel platforms such as BlueGeneL. Strong scaling tests for a Materials Science application show an 86% scaling efficiency between 1024 and 32,768 CPUs. ...

  11. Laser propagation in underdense plasmas: Scaling arguments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The propagation of an intense laser beam in the underdense plasma is modelled by treating the plasma as a relativistic, zero temperature, charged fluid. For paraxial propagation and a sufficiently underdense plasma ({omega}p/{omega} {much_lt} 1), a multiple-scales technique is used to expand the exact equations in powers of the small parameter {theta} {equivalent_to} {omega}p/{omega}. The zeroth order equations are used in a critical examination of previous work on this problem, and to derive a scaling law for the threshold power required for cavitation.

  12. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  13. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.

    2014-10-16

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into amore » time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator.All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the 'optimal' method. In conclusion, the purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization.« less

  14. Multi-scale thermalhydraulic analyses performed in Nuresim and Nurisp projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bestion, D.; Lucas, D.; Anglart, H.; Niceno, B.; Vyskocil, L.

    2012-07-01

    The NURESIM and NURISP successive projects of the 6. and 7. European Framework Programs joined the efforts of 21 partners for developing and validating a reference multi-physics and multi-scale platform for reactor simulation. The platform includes system codes, component codes, and also CFD or CMFD simulation tools. Fine scale CFD simulations are useful for a better understanding of physical processes, for the prediction of small scale geometrical effects and for solving problems that require a fine space and/or time resolution. Many important safety issues usually treated at the system scale may now benefit from investigations at a CFD scale. The Pressurized Thermal Shock is investigated using several simulation scales including Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, Very Large Eddy Simulation and RANS approaches. At the end a coupling of system code and CFD is applied. Condensation Induced Water-Hammer was also investigated at both CFD and 1-D scale. Boiling flow in a reactor core up to Departure from Nucleate Boiling or Dry-Out is investigated at scales much smaller than the classical subchannel analysis codes. DNS was used to investigate very local processes whereas CFD in both RANS and LES was used to simulate bubbly flow and Euler-Lagrange simulations were used for annular mist flow investigations. Loss of Coolant Accidents are usually treated by system codes. Some related issues are now revisited at the CFD scale. In each case the progress of the analysis is summarized and the benefit of the multi-scale approach is shown. (authors)

  15. Characterization of Filtration Scale-Up Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Luna, Maria L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Jagoda, Lynette K.

    2009-03-09

    The scale-up performance of sintered stainless steel crossflow filter elements planned for use at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were characterized in partial fulfillment (see Table S.1) of the requirements of Test Plan TP RPP WTP 509. This test report details the results of experimental activities related only to filter scale-up characterization. These tests were performed under the Simulant Testing Program supporting Phase 1 of the demonstration of the pretreatment leaching processes at PEP. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the tests discussed herein for Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to address the data needs of Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004. Scale-up characterization tests employ high-level waste (HLW) simulants developed under the Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-469. The experimental activities outlined in TP-RPP-WTP-509 examined specific processes from two broad areas of simulant behavior: 1) leaching performance of the boehmite simulant as a function of suspending phase chemistry and 2) filtration performance of the blended simulant with respect to filter scale-up and fouling. With regard to leaching behavior, the effect of anions on the kinetics of boehmite leaching was examined. Two experiments were conducted: 1) one examined the effect of the aluminate anion on the rate of boehmite dissolution and 2) another determined the effect of secondary anions typical of Hanford tank wastes on the rate of boehmite dissolution. Both experiments provide insight into how compositional variations in the suspending phase impact the effectiveness of the leaching processes. In addition, the aluminate anion studies provide information on the consequences of gibbsite in waste. The latter derives from the expected fast dissolution of gibbsite relative to boehmite. This test report concerns only results of the filtration performance with respect to scale-up. Test results for boehmite

  16. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2013-09-18

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  17. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Lee, Kearn P.; Kelly, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  18. Scaling behavior studies of Ar{sup +} ion irradiated ripple structured mica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metya, Amaresh Ghose, Debabrata

    2014-04-24

    We have studied scaling behavior of ripple structured mica surfaces. Clean mica (001) surface is sputtered by 500 eV Ar{sup +} ion beam at 40° incidence angle for different time ranging from 28 minutes to 245 minutes to form ripples on it. The scaling of roughness of sputtered surface characterized by AFM is observed into two regime here; one is super roughening which is for above the crossover bombardment time (i.e, t{sub x} ≥ 105 min) with the scaling exponents α = α{sub s} = 1.45 ± 0.03, α{sub local} = 0.87 ± 0.03, β = 1.81 ± 0.01, β{sub local} = 1.67 ± 0.07 and another is a new type of scaling dynamics for t{sub x} ≤ 105 min with the scaling exponents α = 0.95 (calculated), α{sub s} = 1.45 ± 0.03, α{sub local} = 0.87 ± 0.03, β = 1.81 ± 0.01, β{sub local} = 1.67 ± 0.07. In the super roughening scaling dynamics, two types of power law dependency is observed on spatial frequency of morphology (k): for higher k values PSD ∼ k{sup −4} describing diffusion controlled smoothening and for lower k values PSD ∼ k{sup −2} reflecting kinetic roughening.

  19. Observation of multi-scale oscillation of laminar lifted flames with low-frequency AC electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, S.K.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, M.K.; Won, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-01-15

    The oscillation behavior of laminar lifted flames under the influence of low-frequency AC has been investigated experimentally in coflow jets. Various oscillation modes were existed depending on jet velocity and the voltage and frequency of AC, especially when the AC frequency was typically smaller than 30 Hz. Three different oscillation modes were observed: (1) large-scale oscillation with the oscillation frequency of about 0.1 Hz, which was independent of the applied AC frequency, (2) small-scale oscillation synchronized to the applied AC frequency, and (3) doubly-periodic oscillation with small-scale oscillation embedded in large-scale oscillation. As the AC frequency decreased from 30 Hz, the oscillation modes were in the order of the large-scale oscillation, doubly-periodic oscillation, and small-scale oscillation. The onset of the oscillation for the AC frequency smaller than 30 Hz was in close agreement with the delay time scale for the ionic wind effect to occur, that is, the collision response time. Frequency-doubling behavior for the small-scale oscillation has also been observed. Possible mechanisms for the large-scale oscillation and the frequency-doubling behavior have been discussed, although the detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be a future study. (author)

  20. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System ...

  1. Funding Opportunity Coming Soon: Scaling up the Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coming Soon: Scaling up the Next Generation of Building Efficiency Packages Funding Opportunity Coming Soon: Scaling up the Next Generation of Building Efficiency Packages May 10, ...

  2. Alaska Facility- and Community-Scale Project Development Regional...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facility- and Community-Scale Project Development Regional Energy Workshops Alaska Facility- and Community-Scale Project Development Regional Energy Workshops April 13, 2015 - ...

  3. Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process Modeling and ... design framework enabled by multi-scale, physics-based process models. ...

  4. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives PDF icon nanoparticulate-basedlubricati...

  5. Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Opening Plenary Session: Celebrating Successes-The ...

  6. Creating Large Scale Database Servers (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Creating Large Scale Database Servers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Creating Large Scale Database Servers The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator ...

  7. Flambeau River Biofuels Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flambeau River Biofuels Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery Flambeau River Biofuels Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery The Flambeau River biorefinery will be added to an existing pulp and ...

  8. Rapid Software Prototyping Into Large Scale Control Systems ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rapid Software Prototyping Into Large Scale Control Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Software Prototyping Into Large Scale Control Systems Authors: Fishler, ...

  9. Spring Forward: Top Strategies for Growing and Scaling Your Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spring Forward: Top Strategies for Growing and Scaling Your Program (301) Spring Forward: Top Strategies for Growing and Scaling Your Program (301) May 2

  10. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon ...

  11. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining ... Title: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface ...

  12. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy ...

  13. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017 The NERSC Program Requirements Review "Large Scale Production Computing and ...

  14. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  15. Community- and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Finance Workshop: Colorado Community- and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Finance ...

  16. Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Community Scale Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Scale Project Development Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Community Scale Project Development Watch the DOE Office of Indian Energy renewable energy course ...

  17. Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based on CFLs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based on CFLs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Large-Scale Residential Energy Efficiency Programs Based...

  18. Charged Pion Photoproduction And Scaling (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Charged Pion Photoproduction And Scaling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Charged Pion Photoproduction And Scaling You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  19. The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

  20. Scaling up Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: finance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scaling up Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: finance and investment perspectives Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Scaling up Renewable Energy in...

  1. Electric Power Industry Needs for Grid-Scale Storage Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Needs for Grid-Scale Storage Applications Electric Power Industry Needs for Grid-Scale Storage Applications Stationary energy storage technologies will address the growing ...

  2. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds Title: Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds This work empirically examines the ...

  3. ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation and Analyses of Automotive Engines Title ACCOLADES: A Scalable Workflow Framework for Large-Scale Simulation and...

  4. Scaling behavior and complexity of plastic deformation for a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scaling behavior and complexity of plastic deformation for a bulk metallic glass at cryogenic temperatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling behavior and ...

  5. Verenium Pilot- and Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Verenium Pilot- and Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery Verenium Pilot- and Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery The Verenium facility will produce ethanol from lignocellulosic agricultural ...

  6. Energy scaling advantages of resistive memory crossbar based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy scaling advantages of resistive memory crossbar based computation and its application to sparse coding Prev Next Title: Energy scaling advantages of resistive memory ...

  7. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research: Target 2014 ASCRFrontcover.png Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for ...

  8. Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in...

  9. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance These ...

  10. Commercial-Scale Project Development and Finance Workshop Agenda...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Commercial-Scale Project Development and Finance Workshop Agenda and Presentations: Colorado Commercial-Scale Project Development and Finance Workshop Agenda and Presentations: ...

  11. Community- and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Finance Workshop Agenda Community- and Facility-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Finance ...

  12. 2013 Commercial-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Commercial-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Finance Workshop Presentations and Agenda 2013 Commercial-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and ...

  13. WETS - Azura Half Scale Testing MOIS Documentation

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Eric

    2015-05-30

    This submission includes documentation on the Modular Ocean Instrumentation System (MOIS) installation on the Azura 1/2 scale wave energy converter at the Marine Station Kaneohe Bay (MCBH). Data from the deployment will be uploaded over the course of the test. The instrumentation and data come from the NREL team participating in this testing.

  14. Community-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Office of Indian Energy, with support from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is offering an interactive workshop at the Agua Caliente Resort and Casino in Rancho Mirage, California, that that will walk participants through the process for developing community-scale renewable energy projects on tribal lands.

  15. Large-scale quasi-geostrophic magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balk, Alexander M.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of a shallow fluid layer on a rapidly rotating planet or star. The presence of a background toroidal magnetic field is assumed, and the 'shallow water' beta-plane approximation is used. We derive a single equation for the slow large length scale dynamics. The range of validity of this equation fits the MHD of the lighter fluid at the top of Earth's outer core. The form of this equation is similar to the quasi-geostrophic (Q-G) equation (for usual ocean or atmosphere), but the parameters are essentially different. Our equation also implies the inverse cascade; but contrary to the usual Q-G situation, the energy cascades to smaller length scales, while the enstrophy cascades to the larger scales. We find the Kolmogorov-type spectrum for the inverse cascade. The spectrum indicates the energy accumulation in larger scales. In addition to the energy and enstrophy, the obtained equation possesses an extra (adiabatic-type) invariant. Its presence implies energy accumulation in the 30° sector around zonal direction. With some special energy input, the extra invariant can lead to the accumulation of energy in zonal magnetic field; this happens if the input of the extra invariant is small, while the energy input is considerable.

  16. Amplitude scaling of solar array discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogorad, A.; Bowman, C.; Rayadurg, L. . Astro-Space Div.); Sterner, T.; Loman, J.; Armenti, J. . Astro Space Div.)

    1990-12-01

    Sections of solar panel of four different sizes were charged in a 20-keV monoenergetic electron beam. The measured amplitudes of discharge transients coupled into power lines scaled linearly with the length of the rows of parallel-connected solar cells in the solar cell circuits.

  17. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include

  18. A Metascalable Computing Framework for Large Spatiotemporal-Scale Atomistic Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, K; Seymour, R; Wang, W; Kalia, R; Nakano, A; Vashishta, P; Shimojo, F; Yang, L H

    2009-02-17

    A metascalable (or 'design once, scale on new architectures') parallel computing framework has been developed for large spatiotemporal-scale atomistic simulations of materials based on spatiotemporal data locality principles, which is expected to scale on emerging multipetaflops architectures. The framework consists of: (1) an embedded divide-and-conquer (EDC) algorithmic framework based on spatial locality to design linear-scaling algorithms for high complexity problems; (2) a space-time-ensemble parallel (STEP) approach based on temporal locality to predict long-time dynamics, while introducing multiple parallelization axes; and (3) a tunable hierarchical cellular decomposition (HCD) parallelization framework to map these O(N) algorithms onto a multicore cluster based on hybrid implementation combining message passing and critical section-free multithreading. The EDC-STEP-HCD framework exposes maximal concurrency and data locality, thereby achieving: (1) inter-node parallel efficiency well over 0.95 for 218 billion-atom molecular-dynamics and 1.68 trillion electronic-degrees-of-freedom quantum-mechanical simulations on 212,992 IBM BlueGene/L processors (superscalability); (2) high intra-node, multithreading parallel efficiency (nanoscalability); and (3) nearly perfect time/ensemble parallel efficiency (eon-scalability). The spatiotemporal scale covered by MD simulation on a sustained petaflops computer per day (i.e. petaflops {center_dot} day of computing) is estimated as NT = 2.14 (e.g. N = 2.14 million atoms for T = 1 microseconds).

  19. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David; Singha, Kamini; Johnson, Timothy C.; Haggerty, Roy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John W.

    2014-11-25

    -part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area. In a synergistic add-on to our workplan, we analyzed data from field experiments performed at the DOE Naturita Site under a separate DOE SBR grant, on which PI Day-Lewis served as co-PI. Techniques developed for application to Hanford datasets also were applied to data from Naturita.

  20. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Peter T. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  1. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  2. Three-body dwell time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelkar, N. G.

    2010-06-15

    The lifetime of an unstable state or resonance formed as an intermediate state in two-body scattering is known to be related to the dwell time or the time spent within a given region of space by the two interacting particles. This concept is extended to the case of three-body systems and a relation connecting the three-body dwell time with the two-body dwell times of the substructures of the three-body system is derived for the case of separable wave functions. The Kapur-Peierls formalism is revisited to discover one of the first definitions of dwell time in the literature. An extension of the Kapur-Peierls formalism to the three-body case shows that the lifetime of a three-body resonance can indeed be given by the three-body dwell time.

  3. Reactor control rod timing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, P.T.

    1982-02-09

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (Above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  4. Quantum dynamics via Planck-scale-stepped action-carrying 'Graph Paths'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, Geoffrey F.

    2003-05-05

    A divergence-free, parameter-free, path-based discrete-time quantum dynamics is designed to not only enlarge the achievements of general relativity and the standard particle model, by approximations at spacetime scales far above Planck scale while far below Hubble scale, but to allow tackling of hitherto inaccessible questions. ''Path space'' is larger than and precursor to Hilbert-space basis. The wave-function-propagating paths are action-carrying structured graphs-cubic and quartic structured vertices connected by structured ''fermionic'' or ''bosonic'' ''particle'' and ''nonparticle'' arcs. A Planck-scale path step determines the gravitational constant while controlling all graph structure. The basis of the theory's (zero-rest-mass) elementary-particle Hilbert space (which includes neither gravitons nor scalar bosons) resides in particle arcs. Nonparticle arcs within a path are responsible for energy and rest mass.

  5. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  6. Scale and the representation of human agency in the modeling of agroecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L.; King, Anthony W.; Ernst, Kathleen M.; Absar, Syeda Mariya; Nair, Sujithkumar Surendran; Parish, Esther S.

    2015-07-17

    Human agency is an essential determinant of the dynamics of agroecosystems. However, the manner in which agency is represented within different approaches to agroecosystem modeling is largely contingent on the scales of analysis and the conceptualization of the system of interest. While appropriate at times, narrow conceptualizations of agroecosystems can preclude consideration for how agency manifests at different scales, thereby marginalizing processes, feedbacks, and constraints that would otherwise affect model results. Modifications to the existing modeling toolkit may therefore enable more holistic representations of human agency. Model integration can assist with the development of multi-scale agroecosystem modeling frameworks that capture different aspects of agency. In addition, expanding the use of socioeconomic scenarios and stakeholder participation can assist in explicitly defining context-dependent elements of scale and agency. Finally, such approaches, however, should be accompanied by greater recognition of the meta agency of model users and the need for more critical evaluation of model selection and application.

  7. Evaluation of integral continuing experimental capability (CEC) concepts for light water reactor research: PWR scaling concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condie, K G; Larson, T K; Davis, C B; McCreery, G E

    1987-02-01

    In this report reactor transients and thermal-hydraulic phenomena of importance (based on probabilistic risk assessment and the International Code Assessment Program) to reactor safety were examined and identified. Established scaling methodologies were used to develop potential concepts for integral thermal-hydraulic testing facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of each concept are evaluated. Analysis is conducted to examine the scaling of various phenomena in each of the selected concepts. Results generally suggest that a facility capable of operating at typical reactor operating conditions will scale most phenomena reasonably well. Although many phenomena in facilities using Freon or water at nontypical pressure will scale reasonably well, those phenomena that are heavily dependent on quality (heat transfer or critical flow for example) can be distorted. Furthermore, relation of data produced in facilities operating with nontypical fluids or at nontypical pressures to large plants will be a difficult and time consuming process.

  8. Holographic Noise in Michelson Interferometers: A Direct Experimental Probe of Unification at the Planck Scale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hogan, Craig

    2010-01-08

    Classical spacetime and quantum mass-energy form the basis of all of physics. They become inconsistent at the Planck scale, 5.4 times 10^{-44} seconds, which may signify a need for reconciliation in a unified theory. Although proposals for unified theories exist, a direct experimental probe of this scale, 16 orders of magnitude above Tevatron energy, has seemed hopelessly out of reach. However in a particular interpretation of holographic unified theories, derived from black hole evaporation physics, a world assembled out of Planck-scale waves displays effects of unification with a new kind of uncertainty in position at the Planck diffraction scale, the geometric mean of the Planck length and the apparatus size. In this case a new phenomenon may measurable, an indeterminacy of spacetime position that appears as noise in interferometers. The colloquium will discuss the theory of the effect, and our plans to build a holographic interferometer at Fermilab to measure it.

  9. Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ICONE 15

    2007-04-01

    Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (thermal striping) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.

  10. Application of scaling properties of the Vlasov and the Fokker-Planck equations to improved macroparticle models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. MacLachlan

    2001-07-12

    Numerical simulations of cooling processes over minutes or hours of real time are usually carried out using direct solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. However, by using scaling rules derived from that equation, it is possible to use macroparticle representations of the beam distribution. Besides having applications for cooling alone, the macroparticle approach allows combining the cooling process with other dynamical processes which are represented by area-preserving maps. A time-scaling rule derived from the Vlasov equation can be used to adjust the time step of a map-based dynamics calculation to one more suitable for combining with a macroparticle Fokker-Planck calculation. The time scaling for the Vlasov equation is also useful for substantially more rapid calculations when a macroparticle model of a conservative multiparticle system requires a large number of macroparticles to faithfully produce the collective potential or when the model must simulate a long time period.

  11. Space and time renormalization in phase transition dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Francuz, Anna; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Gardas, Bartłomiej; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2016-02-18

    Here, when a system is driven across a quantum critical point at a constant rate, its evolution must become nonadiabatic as the relaxation time τ diverges at the critical point. According to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM), the emerging post-transition excited state is characterized by a finite correlation length ξˆ set at the time tˆ=τˆ when the critical slowing down makes it impossible for the system to relax to the equilibrium defined by changing parameters. This observation naturally suggests a dynamical scaling similar to renormalization familiar from the equilibrium critical phenomena. We provide evidence for such KZM-inspired spatiotemporal scaling by investigatingmore » an exact solution of the transverse field quantum Ising chain in the thermodynamic limit.« less

  12. A study on a voloxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller for a scale-up DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Sup; Park, Byung-Suk; Jung, Jae-Hoo

    2007-07-01

    For a oxidation of UO{sub 2} pellets of tens/kg in a vol-oxidizer, the existing devices take a long time, also, for their scale-up to an engineering scale, we need the optimum oxygen concentration with an maximum oxidation efficiency. In this study, we attained the optimum oxygen concentration to shorten the oxidation time of a simulation fuel using a vol-oxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller and sensor. We compared the characteristics of a galvanic sensor with a zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) one. The simulation fuel was manufactured with 14 metallic oxides, and used at a mass of 500 g HM/batch. At 500 deg. C, the galvanic and zirconium oxide sensors measured the oxidation time for the simulation fuel. Also, the oxidation time of the simulation fuel was measured according to a change of the oxygen concentration with the selected sensor, and the sample was analyzed. (authors)

  13. Nonlinear and linear timescales near kinetic scales in solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Shay, M. A.; Oughton, S.; Osman, K. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Gary, S. P.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.

    2014-08-01

    The application of linear kinetic treatments to plasma waves, damping, and instability requires favorable inequalities between the associated linear timescales and timescales for nonlinear (e.g., turbulence) evolution. In the solar wind these two types of timescales may be directly compared using standard Kolmogorov-style analysis and observational data. The estimated local (in scale) nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic cascade times, evaluated as relevant kinetic scales are approached, remain slower than the cyclotron period, but comparable to or faster than the typical timescales of instabilities, anisotropic waves, and wave damping. The variation with length scale of the turbulence timescales is supported by observations and simulations. On this basis the use of linear theory—which assumes constant parameters to calculate the associated kinetic rates—may be questioned. It is suggested that the product of proton gyrofrequency and nonlinear time at the ion gyroscales provides a simple measure of turbulence influence on proton kinetic behavior.

  14. DESAlert: Enabling real-time transient follow-up with Dark Energy Survey data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poci, A.

    2015-04-12

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is currently undertaking an observational program imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the DES will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) over five years. Once GRBs are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of GRB activity, collates useful information from archival DES data, and promulgates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that DES data provide for relative photometry of GRBs or their afterglows, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential GRB host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software as it presently operates, as well as the data products that it produces, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to several previously-detected GRBs.

  15. First-time measurements will advance turbulence models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conditions for Stockpile Stewardship | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) First-of-its-Kind NNSA Capability to Support Study of Materials at Extreme Conditions for Stockpile Stewardship August 04, 2016 WASHINGTON - A new first-of-its-kind-worldwide research capability will help unravel the mysteries of material behavior at extreme conditions and short time scales in support of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) vital national

  16. Real Time Diagnostics for Algae-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-time Monitoring And Diagnostics Detecting pathogens and predators to quickly recover from pond crashes Algal Pond Crash Detection Sandia National Laboratories is developing a suite of complementary technologies to help the emerging algae industry detect and quickly recover from algal pond crashes, an obstacle to large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels. Because of the way algae is grown and produced in most algal ponds, they are prone to attack by fungi, rotifers, viruses or other

  17. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  18. Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2015-06-28

    Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices, the solar

  19. ESIF Plugs Utility-Scale Hardware into Simulated Grids to Assess Integration Effects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), integrated, megawatt-scale power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability allows researchers and manufacturers to test new energy technologies at full power in real-time simulations - safely evaluating component and system performance and reliability before going to market.

  20. Durability study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale demonstration hydrogen storage system as part of a Work for Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed based on the properties and characteristics of sodium alanates which are complex metal hydrides. The technology resulting from this program was developed to enable heat and mass management during refueling and hydrogen delivery to an automotive system. During this program the Demonstration System was subjected to repeated hydriding and dehydriding cycles to enable comparison of the vehicle-scale system performance to small-scale sample data. This paper describes the experimental results of life-cycle studies of the Demonstration System. Two of the four hydrogen storage modules of the Demonstration System were used for this study. A well-controlled and repeatable sorption cycle was defined for the repeated cycling, which began after the system had already been cycled forty-one times. After the first nine repeated cycles, a significant hydrogen storage capacity loss was observed. It was suspected that the sodium alanates had been affected either morphologically or by contamination. The mechanisms leading to this initial degradation were investigated and results indicated that water and/or air contamination of the hydrogen supply may have lead to oxidation of the hydride and possibly kinetic deactivation. Subsequent cycles showed continued capacity loss indicating that the mechanism of degradation was gradual and transport or kinetically limited. A materials analysis was then conducted using established methods including treatment with carbon dioxide to react with sodium oxides that may have formed. The module tubes were sectioned to examine chemical composition and morphology as a function of axial position. The results will be discussed.

  1. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma; Benz, Zachary

    2015-11-01

    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandia’s simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandia’s current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  2. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arcilesi, David J.; Ham, Tae Kyu; Kim, In Hun; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Oh, Chang H.

    2015-07-01

    A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

  3. Elementary wideband timing of radio pulsars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennucci, Timothy T.; Demorest, Paul B.; Ransom, Scott M. E-mail: pdemores@nrao.edu

    2014-08-01

    We present an algorithm for the simultaneous measurement of a pulse time-of-arrival (TOA) and dispersion measure (DM) from folded wideband pulsar data. We extend the prescription from Taylor's 1992 work to accommodate a general two-dimensional template 'portrait', the alignment of which can be used to measure a pulse phase and DM. We show that there is a dedispersion reference frequency that removes the covariance between these two quantities and note that the recovered pulse profile scaling amplitudes can provide useful information. We experiment with pulse modeling by using a Gaussian-component scheme that allows for independent component evolution with frequency, a 'fiducial component', and the inclusion of scattering. We showcase the algorithm using our publicly available code on three years of wideband data from the bright millisecond pulsar J18242452A (M28A) from the Green Bank Telescope, and a suite of Monte Carlo analyses validates the algorithm. By using a simple model portrait of M28A, we obtain DM trends comparable to those measured by more standard methods, with improved TOA and DM precisions by factors of a few. Measurements from our algorithm will yield precisions at least as good as those from traditional techniques, but is prone to fewer systematic effects and is without ad hoc parameters. A broad application of this new method for dispersion measure tracking with modern large-bandwidth observing systems should improve the timing residuals for pulsar timing array experiments, such as the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves.

  4. Mixing lengths scaling in a gravity flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Micheal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Jun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the mixing processes in a gravity current. The turbulent transport of momentum and buoyancy can be described in a very direct and compact form by a Prandtl mixing length model [1]: the turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and buoyancy are found to scale quadraticatly with the vertical mean gradients of velocity and density. The scaling coefficient is the square of the mixing length, approximately constant over the mixing zone of the stratified shear layer. We show in this paper how, in different flow configurations, this length can be related to the shear length of the flow {radical}({var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}{sub z}u{sup 3}).

  5. NON-SCALING FIXED FIELD GRADIENT OPTIMIZATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2004-10-13

    Optimization of the non-scaling FFAG lattice for the specific application of the muon acceleration with respect to the minimum orbit offsets, minimum path length and smallest circumference is described. The short muon lifetime requires fast acceleration. The acceleration is in this work assumed to be with super-conducting cavities. This sets up a condition of acceleration at the top of the sinusoidal RF wave.

  6. DOE/Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  7. Large-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management

  8. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  9. Parallel Index and Query for Large Scale Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Ruebel, Oliver; Howison, Mark; Qiang, Ji; Prabhat,; Austin, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes; Ryne, Rob D.; Shoshani, Arie

    2011-07-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets, but numerous challenges remain in terms of designing a system for process- ing general scientific datasets. The system needs to be able to run on distributed multi-core platforms, efficiently utilize underlying I/O infrastructure, and scale to massive datasets. We present FastQuery, a novel software framework that address these challenges. FastQuery utilizes a state-of-the-art index and query technology (FastBit) and is designed to process mas- sive datasets on modern supercomputing platforms. We apply FastQuery to processing of a massive 50TB dataset generated by a large scale accelerator modeling code. We demonstrate the scalability of the tool to 11,520 cores. Motivated by the scientific need to search for inter- esting particles in this dataset, we use our framework to reduce search time from hours to tens of seconds.

  10. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Wei; Sathre, Roger; William R. Morrow, III; Shehabi, Arman

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  11. Scaled experiments of explosions in cavities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grun, J.; Cranch, G. A.; Lunsford, R.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Weaver, J.; Dunlop, W.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-05-11

    Consequences of an explosion inside an air-filled cavity under the earth's surface are partly duplicated in a laboratory experiment on spatial scales 1000 smaller. The experiment measures shock pressures coupled into a block of material by an explosion inside a gas-filled cavity therein. The explosion is generated by suddenly heating a thin foil that is located near the cavity center with a short laser pulse, which turns the foil into expanding plasma, most of whose energy drives a blast wave in the cavity gas. Variables in the experiment are the cavity radius and explosion energy. Measurements and GEODYN code simulationsmore » show that shock pressuresmeasured in the block exhibit a weak dependence on scaled cavity radius up to ~25 m/kt1/3, above which they decrease rapidly. Possible mechanisms giving rise to this behavior are described. As a result, the applicability of this work to validating codes used to simulate full-scale cavityexplosions is discussed.« less

  12. Large-Scale Data Challenges in Future Power Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jian; Sharma, Poorva; Gorton, Ian; Akyol, Bora A.

    2013-03-25

    This paper describes technical challenges in supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems and discusses various design options to address these challenges. Even though the existing U.S. power grid has served the nation remarkably well over the last 120 years, big changes are in the horizon. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components. The whole system becomes highly dynamic and needs constant adjustments based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMUs) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can support this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in cloud services, the data layer for smart grids must address some unique challenges. This layer must be scalable to support millions of sensors and a large number of diverse applications and still provide real time guarantees. Moreover, the system needs to be highly reliable and highly secure because the power grid is a critical piece of infrastructure. No existing systems can satisfy all the requirements at the same time. We examine various design options. In particular, we explore the special characteristics of power grid data to meet both scalability and quality of service requirements. Our initial prototype can improve performance by orders of magnitude over existing general-purpose systems. The prototype was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and was shown to be able to integrate huge amount of data from a large number of sensors and a diverse set of applications.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Extreme event time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsExtreme event time ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Extreme event time The time of extreme meteorological events such as min/max temperature and wind gusts. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  14. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A megawatt-scale systems integration R&D facility. Unique Capabilites Hardware-in-the-Loop at Megawatt-scale Power Megawatt-scale power-in-the-loop allows researchers and manufacturers to conduct integration tests at full power and actual load levels in real-time simulation and evaluate component and system performance before going to market. High Performance Computing Data Center (HPCDC) Petascale computing at the HPCDC enables unprecedented large-scale modeling and simulation of material

  15. Renewable Energy: Utility-Scale Policies and Programs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Utility-Scale Policies and Programs Renewable Energy: Utility-Scale Policies and Programs Utility-scale renewable energy projects are typically defined as those 10 megawatts or larger. Utility-scale renewable energy projects can benefit from state and local policies and programs that help to address and overcome potential barriers to implementation. Resources related to different types of utility-scale renewable energy policies and programs are available below. Feed-in Tariffs A

  16. Electrodynamics on {kappa}-Minkowski space-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harikumar, E.; Juric, T.; Meljanac, S.

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, we derive Lorentz force and Maxwell's equations on kappa-Minkowski space-time up to the first order in the deformation parameter. This is done by elevating the principle of minimal coupling to noncommutative space-time. We also show the equivalence of minimal coupling prescription and Feynman's approach. It is shown that the motion in kappa space-time can be interpreted as motion in a background gravitational field, which is induced by this noncommutativity. In the static limit, the effect of kappa deformation is to scale the electric charge. We also show that the laws of electrodynamics depend on the mass of the charged particle, in kappa space-time.

  17. Pulsar timing signal from ultralight scalar dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Rubakov, Valery E-mail: rubakov@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2014-02-01

    An ultralight free scalar field with mass around 10{sup ?23}?10{sup ?22} eV is a viable dark mater candidate, which can help to resolve some of the issues of the cold dark matter on sub-galactic scales. We consider the gravitational field of the galactic halo composed out of such dark matter. The scalar field has oscillating in time pressure, which induces oscillations of gravitational potential with amplitude of the order of 10{sup ?15} and frequency in the nanohertz range. This frequency is in the range of pulsar timing array observations. We estimate the magnitude of the pulse arrival time residuals induced by the oscillating gravitational potential. We find that for a range of dark matter masses, the scalar field dark matter signal is comparable to the stochastic gravitational wave signal and can be detected by the planned SKA pulsar timing array experiment.

  18. Green's function analysis of homogeneous slab time eigenvalues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kornreich, D. E.; Parsons, Donald Kent

    2004-01-01

    Several recent papers have examined higher mode eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for multiplying systems. One of the goals of these analyses was to produce benchmark-quality results of the fundamental multiplication eigenvalue along with associated higher mode eigenvalues. The Green's Function Method (GFM) was found to be quite useful in these analyses. In this paper we extend our use of the GFM to include the calculation of real time eigenvalues. Many large-scale transport codes have difficulty calculating negative time eigenvalues, and the availability of benchmark-quality positive time eigenvalues is also scarce. Thus, we enhance the suite of benchmark-quality results for nuclear code developers by adding some time eigenvalue results.

  19. Probing Planck scale physics with IceCube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Halzen, Francis; Hooper, Dan; Sarkar, Subir; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2005-09-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be affected by decoherence induced e.g. by Planck scale suppressed interactions with the space-time foam predicted in some approaches to quantum gravity. We study the prospects for observing such effects at IceCube, using the likely flux of TeV antineutrinos from the Cygnus spiral arm. We formulate the statistical analysis for evaluating the sensitivity to quantum decoherence in the presence of the background from atmospheric neutrinos, as well as from plausible cosmic neutrino sources. We demonstrate that IceCube will improve the sensitivity to decoherence effects of O(E{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}) by 17 orders of magnitude over present limits and, moreover, that it can probe decoherence effects of O(E{sup 3}/M{sub Pl}{sup 2}) which are well beyond the reach of other experiments.

  20. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  1. Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    While many U.S. manufacturing operations utilize ... time across an entire production operation are rare in ... systems can be applied is in the management of waste heat. ...

  2. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  3. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthik, Rajasekar; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban

  4. GRANULAR-SCALE MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATIONS IN THE PHOTOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo, M.; Low, B. C.; Lites, B. W.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of five granular-scale magnetic flux cancellations just outside the moat region of a sunspot by using accurate spectropolarimetric measurements and G-band images with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard Hinode. The opposite-polarity magnetic elements approach a junction of the intergranular lanes and then collide with each other there. The intergranular junction has strong redshifts, darker intensities than the regular intergranular lanes, and surface converging flows. This clearly confirms that the converging and downward convective motions are essential for the approaching process of the opposite-polarity magnetic elements. However, the motion of the approaching magnetic elements does not always match with their surrounding surface flow patterns in our observations. This suggests that, in addition to the surface flows, subsurface downward convective motions and subsurface magnetic connectivities are important for understanding the approach and collision of the opposite-polarity elements observed in the photosphere. We find that the horizontal magnetic field appears between the canceling opposite-polarity elements in only one event. The horizontal fields are observed along the intergranular lanes with Doppler redshifts. This cancellation is most probably a result of the submergence (retraction) of low-lying photospheric magnetic flux. In the other four events, the horizontal field is not observed between the opposite-polarity elements at any time when they approach and cancel each other. These approaching magnetic elements are more concentrated rather than gradually diffused, and they have nearly vertical fields even while they are in contact each other. We thus infer that the actual flux cancellations are highly time-dependent events at scales less than a pixel of Hinode SOT (about 200 km) near the solar surface.

  5. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  6. TCES. Time Card Entry System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montierth, B.

    1996-05-01

    The Time Card Entry System was developed for the Department of Enegy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to interface with the DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system for payroll. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills U.S. Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two week payroll cycle using ETA. A tour of duty profile (e.g., ten hour day, four day week with Sunday, friday and Saturday off), previously established in the ETA system, is imported into the Time Card Entry System by the timekeepers. An individual`s profile establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two cycle, data is exported by the timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA files.

  7. DEGREE-SCALE GeV 'JETS' FROM ACTIVE AND DEAD TeV BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D.; Kachelriess, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Elyiv, A.

    2010-08-20

    We show that images of TeV blazars in the GeV energy band should contain, along with point-like sources, degree-scale jet-like extensions. These GeV extensions are the result of electromagnetic cascades initiated by TeV {gamma}-rays interacting with extragalactic background light and the deflection of the cascade electrons/positrons in extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMFs). Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the spectral and timing properties of the degree-scale extensions in simulated GeV band images of TeV blazars. We show that the brightness profile of such degree-scale extensions can be used to infer the light curve of the primary TeV {gamma}-ray source over the past 10{sup 7} yr, i.e., over a time scale comparable to the lifetime of the parent active galactic nucleus. This implies that the degree-scale jet-like GeV emission could be detected not only near known active TeV blazars, but also from 'TeV blazar remnants', whose central engines were switched off up to 10 million years ago. Since the brightness profile of the GeV 'jets' depends on the strength and the structure of the EGMF, their observation provides additional information about the EGMF.

  8. Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S.; Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V.; Esaulov, Andrey A.; Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I.; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Vigil, Marcelino Patricio

    2008-09-01

    A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we

  9. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1983-10-04

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t[sub max]--t[sub min]) of a series of paired time signals t[sub 1] and t[sub 2] varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t[sub 1][<=]t[sub 2] and t[sub 1]+t[sub 2] equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t[sub min]) of the first signal t[sub 1] closer to t[sub max] and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20--800. 6 figs.

  10. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, George E.; Dawson, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t.sub.max -t.sub.min) of a series of paired time signals t.sub.1 and t.sub.2 varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t.sub.1 .ltoreq.t.sub.2 and t.sub.1 +t.sub.2 equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t.sub.min) of the first signal t.sub.1 closer to t.sub.max and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20-800.

  11. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1981-02-11

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

  12. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  13. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-04-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.

  14. Detection of submicron scale cracks and other surface anomalies using positron emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Thomas E.; Howell, Richard H.; Colmenares, Carlos A.

    2004-02-17

    Detection of submicron scale cracks and other mechanical and chemical surface anomalies using PET. This surface technique has sufficient sensitivity to detect single voids or pits of sub-millimeter size and single cracks or fissures of millimeter size; and single cracks or fissures of millimeter-scale length, micrometer-scale depth, and nanometer-scale length, micrometer-scale depth, and nanometer-scale width. This technique can also be applied to detect surface regions of differing chemical reactivity. It may be utilized in a scanning or survey mode to simultaneously detect such mechanical or chemical features over large interior or exterior surface areas of parts as large as about 50 cm in diameter. The technique involves exposing a surface to short-lived radioactive gas for a time period, removing the excess gas to leave a partial monolayer, determining the location and shape of the cracks, voids, porous regions, etc., and calculating the width, depth, and length thereof. Detection of 0.01 mm deep cracks using a 3 mm detector resolution has been accomplished using this technique.

  15. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu

    1997-08-01

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  16. MANAGING OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN BOILERS WITH TP347H SUPERHEATER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G.; Shingledecker, John P.; Tortorelli, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    A model based on a concept of fraction of exfoliated area as a function of oxide scale strain energy was developed to predict the extent of exfoliation of steam-side scale from boiler tube superheater loops. As compared with the Armitt diagram, which can be used to predict when scale damage and exfoliation would be likely to occur, a fraction of exfoliated area approach provides an estimation of mass of scale released and the fraction of tube likely to be blocked by the exfoliation. This paper show results for the extent of blockage expected in a single bend of a superheater loop was predicted as a function of operating time, bend geometry, and outlet steam temperature under realistic service conditions that include outages. The deposits of exfoliated scale were assumed to be distributed horizontally the tubes bends. Three types of bends were considered: regular bends, short bends, and hairpin bends. The progressive increase in steam and tube temperatures along a single loop of superheater tubing and the ensuing variation of oxide scale thickness are considered. Numerical simulation results for a superheater loop made of TP347H austenitic steel indicated that tube blockage fractions larger than 50% are likely to occur within the first two years of boiler operation (with regularly scheduled outages) for outlet tube temperatures of 540-570oC, which is consistent with practical experience. Higher blockage fractions were predicted for tubes with short bends and hairpin bends than for tubes with regular bends, of length that are larger than five internal tube diameters. Finally, the blockage model presented can be used with some confidence to devise operating schedules for managing the consequences of oxide scale exfoliation based on projections of time to some critical blockage fraction for specific boiler operating conditions.

  17. Scaled Testing of Hydrogen Gas Getters for Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, J.; Mroz, E.; Haga, M.; Hollis, W. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Peterson, E.; Stone, M.; Orme, C.; Luther, T.; Benson, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage and shipment containers. Hydrogen forms a flammable mixture with air over a wide range of concentrations (5% to 75%), and very low energy is needed to ignite hydrogen-air mixtures. For these reasons, the concentration of hydrogen in waste shipment containers (Transuranic Package Transporter-II or TRUPACT-II containers) needs to remain below the lower explosion limit of hydrogen in air (5 vol%). Accident scenarios and the resulting safety analysis require that this limit not be exceeded. The use of 'hydrogen getters' is being investigated as a way to prevent the build up of hydrogen in TRUPACT-II containers. Preferred getters are solid materials that scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and chemically and irreversibly bind it into the solid state. In this study, two getter systems are evaluated: a) 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl)benzene or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds; and b) a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter, VEI or TruGetter, characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds. Carbon in both getter types may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. With oxygen present, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB and VEI performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests using small test volumes (ml-scale), high hydrogen generation rates, and short time spans of hours to days. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether DEB and VEI perform satisfactorily in actual drum-scale tests with realistic hydrogen generation rates and time frames. The two getter systems were evaluated in test vessels comprised of a Gas Generation Test Program-style bell-jar and a drum equipped with a composite drum filter. The vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the

  18. Laboratory measurements of large-scale carbon sequestration flows in saline reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N

    2010-01-01

    Brine saturated with CO{sub 2} is slightly denser than the original brine causing it to sink to the bottom of a saline reservoir where the CO{sub 2} is safely sequestered. However, the buoyancy of pure CO{sub 2} relative to brine drives it to the top of the reservoir where it collects underneath the cap rock as a separate phase of supercritical fluid. Without additional processes to mix the brine and CO{sub 2}, diffusion in this geometry is slow and would require an unacceptably long time to consume the pure CO{sub 2}. However, gravity and diffusion-driven convective instabilities have been hypothesized that generate enhanced CO{sub 2}-brine mixing promoting dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine on time scale of a hundred years. These flows involve a class of hydrodynamic problems that are notoriously difficult to simulate; the simultaneous flow of mUltiple fluids (CO{sub 2} and brine) in porous media (rock or sediment). The hope for direct experimental confirmation of simulations is dim due to the difficulty of obtaining high resolution data from the subsurface and the high pressures ({approx}100 bar), long length scales ({approx}100 meters), and long time scales ({approx}100 years) that are characteristic of these flows. We have performed imaging and mass transfer measurements in similitude-scaled laboratory experiments that provide benchmarks to test reservoir simulation codes and enhance their predictive power.

  19. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    -part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area. In a synergistic add-on to our workplan, we analyzed data from field experiments performed at the DOE Naturita Site under a separate DOE SBR grant, on which PI Day-Lewis served as co-PI. Techniques developed for application to Hanford datasets also were applied to data from Naturita. 1. Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) faces enormous scientific and engineering challenges associated with the remediation of legacy contamination at former nuclear weapons production facilities. Selection, design and optimization of appropriate site remedies (e.g., pump-and-treat, biostimulation, or monitored natural attenuation) requires reliable predictive models of radionuclide fate and transport; however, our current modeling capabilities are limited by an incomplete understanding of multi-scale mass transfer—its rates, scales, and the heterogeneity of controlling parameters. At many DOE sites, long “tailing” behavior, concentration rebound, and slower-than-expected cleanup are observed; these observations are all consistent with multi-scale mass transfer [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1995; Haggerty et al., 2000; 2004], which renders pump-and-treat remediation and biotransformation inefficient and slow [Haggerty and Gorelick, 1994; Harvey et al., 1994; Wilson, 1997]. Despite the importance of mass transfer, there are significant uncertainties associated with controlling parameters, and the prevalence of mass transfer remains a point of debate [e.g., Hill et al., 2006; Molz et al., 2006] for lack of experimental methods to verify and measure it in situ or independently of tracer breakthrough. There is a critical need for new field-experimental techniques to

  20. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H., III

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  1. Breakthrough: MFiX: Building Industry-Scale Machines in a Virtual World |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Breakthrough: MFiX: Building Industry-Scale Machines in a Virtual World Breakthrough: MFiX: Building Industry-Scale Machines in a Virtual World July 11, 2012 - 1:34pm Addthis Mfix is open-source, virtual modeling software that makes coal gasification processes more efficient than was ever possible through lab tests. Modeling reduces the cost and time of testing and building actual systems and ultimately results in lower costs, improved power plant efficiency, and new

  2. ARM - PI Product - Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Retrievals ProductsCloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files

  3. Probing low-scale quantum gravity with high-energy neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ennadifi, Salah Eddine

    2013-05-15

    Motivated by the quantum structure of space-time at high scales M{sub QG}, we study the propagation behavior of the high-energy neutrino within the quantum gravity effect. We consider the possible induced dispersive effect and derive the resulting vacuum refraction index {eta}{sub vac}(E{sub {nu}}) Asymptotically-Equal-To 1 + E{sub {nu}}{sup 2}/M{sub QG}{sup 2}. Then, by referring to the SN1987A and basing on the recorded neutrino data we approach the corresponding scale M{sub QG} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10{sup 4} GeV.

  4. Minimizing System Noise Effects For Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation Through Function Delegation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, Jack J.; Bosilca, George

    2013-06-11

    The primary goal of the Minimizing System Noise Effects For Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation through Function Delegation project is to eliminate or at best strongly minimize the impact of the noise introduced by the operating system, during large scale parallel applications runs. Collective communication operations are a basic building block for parallel programing models and scientific applications. These operations often dominate execution time of applications and tend to limit their scalability. In order to address this challenge, we evaluated different strategies to adapt the collective communications underlying topologies to the hardware architecture in order to provide increased levels of performance to the parallel applications.

  5. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Webinar July 28: H2@Scale - A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential Opportunity Webinar July 28: H2@Scale - A Potential Opportunity July 20, 2016 The Energy Department's Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "H2@Scale - A Potential Opportunity" on Thursday, July 28, from 10 to 11 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time. Hydrogen, as a flexible, clean energy-carrying intermediate, has the potential to be a centerpiece of a future energy system where aggressive market penetration of renewables (wind and solar) are coupled

  6. NREL: Transportation Research - Webinar July 28: H2@Scale - A Potential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Opportunity Webinar July 28: H2@Scale - A Potential Opportunity July 20, 2016 The Energy Department's Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "H2@Scale - A Potential Opportunity" on Thursday, July 28, from 10 to 11 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time. Hydrogen, as a flexible, clean energy-carrying intermediate, has the potential to be a centerpiece of a future energy system where aggressive market penetration of renewables (wind and solar) are coupled with

  7. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  8. bench scale dev | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004360 The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will evaluate the Hot Carbonate Absorption Process (Hot-CAP) process with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping. The Hot-CAP is an absorption-based, post-combustion CO2 technology that uses a carbonate salt (K2CO3 or Na2CO3) as a solvent. The process integrates a high

  9. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories' Scaled Wind Farm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility is located at Texas Tech University's National Wind Institute Research Center in Lubbock, Texas. SWiFT is the principal facility for investigating wind turbine wakes as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Atmosphere to Electrons research initiative (DOE-A2e). The SWiFT facility supports A2e's goal of ensuring that future wind farms are sited, built, and operated to produce the most cost-effective and usable electric power possible, given

  11. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  12. Long-time dynamics through parallel trajectory splicing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perez, Danny; Cubuk, Ekin D.; Waterland, Amos; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Voter, Arthur F.

    2015-11-24

    Simulating the atomistic evolution of materials over long time scales is a longstanding challenge, especially for complex systems where the distribution of barrier heights is very heterogeneous. Such systems are difficult to investigate using conventional long-time scale techniques, and the fact that they tend to remain trapped in small regions of configuration space for extended periods of time strongly limits the physical insights gained from short simulations. We introduce a novel simulation technique, Parallel Trajectory Splicing (ParSplice), that aims at addressing this problem through the timewise parallelization of long trajectories. The computational efficiency of ParSplice stems from a speculation strategymore » whereby predictions of the future evolution of the system are leveraged to increase the amount of work that can be concurrently performed at any one time, hence improving the scalability of the method. ParSplice is also able to accurately account for, and potentially reuse, a substantial fraction of the computational work invested in the simulation. We validate the method on a simple Ag surface system and demonstrate substantial increases in efficiency compared to previous methods. As a result, we then demonstrate the power of ParSplice through the study of topology changes in Ag42Cu13 core–shell nanoparticles.« less

  13. Long-time dynamics through parallel trajectory splicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Danny; Cubuk, Ekin D.; Waterland, Amos; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Voter, Arthur F.

    2015-11-24

    Simulating the atomistic evolution of materials over long time scales is a longstanding challenge, especially for complex systems where the distribution of barrier heights is very heterogeneous. Such systems are difficult to investigate using conventional long-time scale techniques, and the fact that they tend to remain trapped in small regions of configuration space for extended periods of time strongly limits the physical insights gained from short simulations. We introduce a novel simulation technique, Parallel Trajectory Splicing (ParSplice), that aims at addressing this problem through the timewise parallelization of long trajectories. The computational efficiency of ParSplice stems from a speculation strategy whereby predictions of the future evolution of the system are leveraged to increase the amount of work that can be concurrently performed at any one time, hence improving the scalability of the method. ParSplice is also able to accurately account for, and potentially reuse, a substantial fraction of the computational work invested in the simulation. We validate the method on a simple Ag surface system and demonstrate substantial increases in efficiency compared to previous methods. As a result, we then demonstrate the power of ParSplice through the study of topology changes in Ag42Cu13 core–shell nanoparticles.

  14. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  15. Wavelet-based surrogate time series for multiscale simulation of heterogeneous catalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Savara, Aditya Ashi; Daw, C. Stuart; Xiong, Qingang; Gur, Sourav; Danielson, Thomas L.; Hin, Celine N.; Pannala, Sreekanth; Frantziskonis, George N.

    2016-01-28

    We propose a wavelet-based scheme that encodes the essential dynamics of discrete microscale surface reactions in a form that can be coupled with continuum macroscale flow simulations with high computational efficiency. This makes it possible to simulate the dynamic behavior of reactor-scale heterogeneous catalysis without requiring detailed concurrent simulations at both the surface and continuum scales using different models. Our scheme is based on the application of wavelet-based surrogate time series that encodes the essential temporal and/or spatial fine-scale dynamics at the catalyst surface. The encoded dynamics are then used to generate statistically equivalent, randomized surrogate time series, which canmore » be linked to the continuum scale simulation. As a result, we illustrate an application of this approach using two different kinetic Monte Carlo simulations with different characteristic behaviors typical for heterogeneous chemical reactions.« less

  16. Current Density Scaling in Electrochemical Flow Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyt, NC; Wainright, JS; Savinell, RF

    2015-02-18

    Electrochemical flow capacitors (EFCs) are a recently developed energy storage technology. One of the principal performance metrics of an EFC is the steady-state electrical current density that it can accept or deliver. Numerical models exist to predict this performance for specific cases, but here we present a study of how the current varies with respect to the applied cell voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, and slurry properties using scaling laws. The scaling relationships are confirmed by numerical simulations and then subsequently by comparison to results from symmetric cell EFC experiments. This modeling approach permits the delimitation of three distinct operational regimes dependent on the values of two nondimensional combinations of the pertinent variables (specifically, a capacitive Graetz number and a conductivity ratio). Lastly, the models and nondimensional numbers are used to provide design guidance in terms of criteria for proper EFC operation. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  17. Scalings for radiation from plasma bubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, A. G. R.

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, electron trajectories are studied analytically in the rest frame of a plasma bubble using nonevolving, linear, radial electric and azimuthal magnetic fields in a spherical structure. The electron motion is broken into two distinct periods; one where it orbits around the periphery to the rear of the bubble, and one where it performs oscillations within the bubble interior. By using the first period as an initial condition for the second, general scalings are developed for the x-ray radiation produced by the electron oscillations. The equations are also analyzed to give self-trapping conditions for the electron and to examine the sensitivity of the transverse momentum to small variations from an orbit that is a circular arc. The scalings are in reasonable agreement with recent experiments on x-ray generation and predict a peak spectral brightness of S{approx_equal}6x10{sup 27} photons/s mrad mm 0.1%BW of radiation with a critical energy of 300 MeV using a single stage accelerator driven by a 120 PW laser.

  18. Adjustments to the ICVGT scale of INRIM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steur, P. P. M.; Giraudi, D.

    2013-09-11

    At the 8{sup th} Temperature Symposium the results have been presented for the Interpolating Constant Volume Gas thermometer at INRIM (then IMGC), featuring a cryogenic pressure transducer, with an expanded uncertainty of less then 1.5 mK. However, for its fixed points this scale still relied on a NPL calibration as carried by rhodium-iron thermometer 232324. After the clarification, in 2005, by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) of the definition of the equilibrium hydrogen (e-H2) triple point this scale was due to be adjusted for the isotopic content in the e-H2 fixed point cell. Only when this thermometer was re-calibrated in 2010 at INRIM at the three fixed points of the ICVGT was this adjustment performed, being the isotopic composition of the hydrogen cell known. With the start of the Neon Project in 2005, it became clear that a second adjustment would soon be needed, once the CCT will have decided on the way to deal with the isotopic composition of neon. The paper presents the experimental data of 2010, discusses the stability of the thermometer, and the size of the correction at the hydrogen point and of the likely correction (and its uncertainty) to be applied to the neon point, the isotopic composition of this cell being known as well.

  19. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. KELLER

    2004-11-03

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086

  20. Analysis of Femtosecond Timing Noise and Stability in Microwave Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, Michael R.; /Stevens Tech. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To probe chemical dynamics, X-ray pump-probe experiments trigger a change in a sample with an optical laser pulse, followed by an X-ray probe. At the Linac Coherent Light Source, LCLS, timing differences between the optical pulse and x-ray probe have been observed with an accuracy as low as 50 femtoseconds. This sets a lower bound on the number of frames one can arrange over a time scale to recreate a 'movie' of the chemical reaction. The timing system is based on phase measurements from signals corresponding to the two laser pulses; these measurements are done by using a double-balanced mixer for detection. To increase the accuracy of the system, this paper studies parameters affecting phase detection systems based on mixers, such as signal input power, noise levels, temperature drift, and the effect these parameters have on components such as the mixers, splitters, amplifiers, and phase shifters. Noise data taken with a spectrum analyzer show that splitters based on ferrite cores perform with less noise than strip-line splitters. The data also shows that noise in specific mixers does not correspond with the changes in sensitivity per input power level. Temperature drift is seen to exist on a scale between 1 and 27 fs/{sup o}C for all of the components tested. Results show that any components using more metallic conductor tend to exhibit more noise as well as more temperature drift. The scale of these effects is large enough that specific care should be given when choosing components and designing the housing of high precision microwave mixing systems for use in detection systems such as the LCLS. With these improvements, the timing accuracy can be improved to lower than currently possible.

  1. Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-10-27

    FRANTIC-3 was developed to evaluate system unreliability using time-dependent techniques. The code provides two major options: to evaluate standby system unavailability or, in addition to the unavailability to calculate the total system failure probability by including both the unavailability of the system on demand as well as the probability that it will operate for an arbitrary time period following the demand. The FRANTIC-3 time dependent reliability models provide a large selection of repair and testingmore » policies applicable to standby or continously operating systems consisting of periodically tested, monitored, and non-repairable (non-testable) components. Time-dependent and test frequency dependent failures, as well as demand stress related failure, test-caused degradation and wear-out, test associated human errors, test deficiencies, test override, unscheduled and scheduled maintenance, component renewal and replacement policies, and test strategies can be prescribed. The conditional system unavailabilities associated with the downtimes of the user specified failed component are also evaluated. Optionally, the code can perform a sensitivity study for system unavailability or total failure probability to the failure characteristics of the standby components.« less

  2. Time Ordered Astrophysics Scalable Tools

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-12-14

    This software package provides tools for astrophysical experiments which record data in the form of individual time streams from discrete detectors. TOAST provides tools from meta-data manipulation and job set up, I/O operation, telescope pointing reconstruction, and map-making. It also provides tools for constructing simulated observations.

  3. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  4. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE’s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE’s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  5. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  6. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  7. Dish/Stirling Hybrid-Receiver Sub-Scale Tests and Full-Scale Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, Charles; Bohn, Mark S.; Corey, John; Mehos, Mark; Moreno, James; Rawlinson, Scott

    1999-05-24

    We have designed and tested a prototype dish/Stirling hybrid-receiver combustion system. The system consists of a pre-mixed natural-gas burner heating a pin-finned sodium heat pipe. The design emphasizes simplicity, low cost, and ruggedness. Our test was on a 1/6th -scale device, with a nominal firing rate of 18kWt, a power throughput of 13kWt, and a sodium vapor temperature of 750C. The air/fuel mixture was electrically preheated to 640C to simulate recuperation. The test rig was instrumented for temperatures, pressures, flow rates, overall leak rate, and exhaust emissions. The data verify our burner and heat-transfer models. Performance and post-test examinations validate our choice of materials and fabrication methods. Based on the 1/6th -scale results, we are designing a till-scale hybrid receiver. This is a fully-integrated system, including burner, pin-fin primary heat exchanger, recuperator (in place of the electrical pre-heater used in the prototype system), solar absorber, and sodium heat pipe. The major challenges of the design are to avoid pre-ignition, achieve robust heat-pipe performance, and attain long life of the burner matrix, recuperator, and flue-gas seals. We have used computational fluid dynamics extensively in designing to avoid pre-ignition and for designing the heat-pipe wick, and we have used individual component tests and results of the 1/6th -scale test to optimize for long life. In this paper, we present our design philosophy and basic details of our design. We describe the sub-scale test rig and compare test results with predictions. Finally, we outline the evolution of our full-scale design, and present its current status.

  8. Scaling of X pinches from 1 MA to 6 MA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Wenger, David Franklin; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2010-09-01

    This final report for Project 117863 summarizes progress made toward understanding how X-pinch load designs scale to high currents. The X-pinch load geometry was conceived in 1982 as a method to study the formation and properties of bright x-ray spots in z-pinch plasmas. X-pinch plasmas driven by 0.2 MA currents were found to have source sizes of 1 micron, temperatures >1 keV, lifetimes of 10-100 ps, and densities >0.1 times solid density. These conditions are believed to result from the direct magnetic compression of matter. Physical models that capture the behavior of 0.2 MA X pinches predict more extreme parameters at currents >1 MA. This project developed load designs for up to 6 MA on the SATURN facility and attempted to measure the resulting plasma parameters. Source sizes of 5-8 microns were observed in some cases along with evidence for high temperatures (several keV) and short time durations (<500 ps).

  9. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brian Eric

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  10. Time and Resource Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-08

    RESTORE is a computer software tool that allows one to model a complex set of steps required to accomplish a goal (e.g., repair a ruptured natural gas pipeline and restore service to customers). However, the time necessary to complete step may be uncertain and may be affected by conditions, such as the weather, the time of day, the day of the week. Therefore, "nature" can influence which steps are taken and the time needed tomore » complete each step. In addition, the tool allows one to model the costs for each step, which also may be uncertain. RESTORE allows the user to estimate the time and cost, both of which may be uncertain, to achieve an intermediate stage of completion, as well as overall completion. The software also makes it possible to model parallel, competing groups of activities (i.e., parallel paths) so that progreSs at a ‘merge point’ can proceed before other competing activities are completed. For example, RESTORE permits one to model a workaround and a simultaneous complete repair to determine a probability distribution for the earliest time service can be restored to a critical customer. The tool identifies the ‘most active path’ through the network of tasks, which is extremely important information for assessing the most effective way to speed-up or slow-down progress. Unlike other project planning and risk analysis tools, RESTORE provides an intuitive, graphical, and object-oriented environment for structuring a model and setting its parameters.« less

  11. Large-scale seismic waveform quality metric calculation using Hadoop

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Magana-Zook, Steven; Gaylord, Jessie M.; Knapp, Douglas R.; Dodge, Douglas A.; Ruppert, Stanley D.

    2016-05-27

    Here in this work we investigated the suitability of Hadoop MapReduce and Apache Spark for large-scale computation of seismic waveform quality metrics by comparing their performance with that of a traditional distributed implementation. The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC) provided 43 terabytes of broadband waveform data of which 5.1 TB of data were processed with the traditional architecture, and the full 43 TB were processed using MapReduce and Spark. Maximum performance of ~0.56 terabytes per hour was achieved using all 5 nodes of the traditional implementation. We noted that I/O dominated processing, and that I/Omore » performance was deteriorating with the addition of the 5th node. Data collected from this experiment provided the baseline against which the Hadoop results were compared. Next, we processed the full 43 TB dataset using both MapReduce and Apache Spark on our 18-node Hadoop cluster. We conducted these experiments multiple times with various subsets of the data so that we could build models to predict performance as a function of dataset size. We found that both MapReduce and Spark significantly outperformed the traditional reference implementation. At a dataset size of 5.1 terabytes, both Spark and MapReduce were about 15 times faster than the reference implementation. Furthermore, our performance models predict that for a dataset of 350 terabytes, Spark running on a 100-node cluster would be about 265 times faster than the reference implementation. We do not expect that the reference implementation deployed on a 100-node cluster would perform significantly better than on the 5-node cluster because the I/O performance cannot be made to scale. Finally, we note that although Big Data technologies clearly provide a way to process seismic waveform datasets in a high-performance and scalable manner, the technology is still rapidly changing, requires a high degree of investment in personnel, and will

  12. Sub-scale Drum Test Memo | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sub-scale Drum Test Memo Sub-scale Drum Test Memo This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident Investigation Board's ...

  13. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test You are accessing a document from the ...

  14. A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Wakes A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Wakes September 12, 2014 - 11:22am ...

  15. Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant Lessons Learned Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant Lessons Learned May 20, 2009 - 1:00pm ...

  16. Charged Pion Photoproduction And Scaling (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Charged Pion Photoproduction And Scaling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Charged Pion Photoproduction And Scaling The gamma-n -->pi- p and gamma-p --> pi+ n reactions ...

  17. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines David ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test ...

  18. The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    during flexure through its corrugated morphology, which limits how much of the scale is under high stress during bending. As the scales will deform and bend in response to a...

  19. Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects Locations of Smart Grid Demonstration and Large-Scale Energy Storage Projects Map of the United States ...

  20. NewPage Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NewPage Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery NewPage Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery The NewPage biorefinery will be added to an existing pulp and paper mill to create renewable ...

  1. Sandia Wake-Imaging System Successfully Deployed at Scaled Wind...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... a full-scale field demonstration at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility in Lubbock, Texas, in July. This successful field demonstration was a culmination of ...

  2. Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas You ...

  3. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar ...

  4. Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Facility Scale Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    points Facility-scale process as an investment (or a commitment to an alternative utility payment) How to pay for a facility-scale project (or the renewable energy from it). ...

  5. Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Presentation from the 34th Tritium ...

  6. Advances in Coupling of Kinetics and Molecular Scale Tools to Shed Light on Soil Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-02

    Biogeochemical processes in soils such as sorption, precipitation, and redox play critical roles in the cycling and fate of nutrients, metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in soil and water environments. Advanced analytical tools enable soil scientists to track these processes in real-time and at the molecular scale. Our review focuses on recent research that has employed state-of-the-art molecular scale spectroscopy, coupled with kinetics, to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient and metal(loid) reactivity and speciation in soils. We found that by coupling kinetics with advanced molecular and nano-scale tools major advances have been made in elucidating important soil chemical processes including sorption, precipitation, dissolution, and redox of metal(loids) and nutrients. Such advances will aid in better predicting the fate and mobility of nutrients and contaminants in soils and water and enhance environmental and agricultural sustainability.

  7. Heterogeneity and Scaling in Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory N. Boitnott; Gilles Y. Bussod; Paul N. Hagin; Stephen R. Brown

    2005-04-18

    The accurate characterization and remediation of contaminated subsurface environments requires the detailed knowledge of subsurface structures and flow paths. Enormous resources are invested in scoping and characterizing sites using core sampling, 3-D geophysical surveys, well tests, etc.... Unfortunately, much of the information acquired is lost to compromises and simplifications made in constructing numerical grids for the simulators used to predict flow and transport from the contaminated area to the accessible environment. In rocks and soils, the bulk geophysical and transport properties of the matrix and of fracture systems are determined by the juxtaposition of geometric features at many length scales. In the interest of computational efficiency, recognized heterogeneities are simplified, averaged out, or entirely ignored in spite of recent studies that recognize that: (1) Structural and lithologic heterogeneities exist on all scales in rocks. (2) Small heterogeneities influence, and can control the physical and chemical properties of rocks. In this work we propose a physically based approach for the description and treatment of heterogeneities, that highlights the use of laboratory equipment designed to measure the effect on physical properties of fine scale heterogeneities observed in rocks and soils. We then discuss the development of an integration methodology that uses these measurements to develop and upscale flow and transport models. Predictive simulations are 'calibrated' to the measured heterogeneity data, and subsequently upscaled in a way that is consistent with the transport physics and the efficient use of environmental geophysics. This methodology provides a more accurate interpretation and representation of the subsurface for both environmental engineering and remediation. We show through examples, (i) the important influence of even subtle heterogeneity in the interpreting of geophysical data, and (ii) how physically based upscaling can lead

  8. SimFS: A Large Scale Parallel File System Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-08-30

    The software provides both framework and tools to simulate a large-scale parallel file system such as Lustre.

  9. Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Community Scale Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development | Department of Energy Community Scale Project Development Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Community Scale Project Development Watch the DOE Office of Indian Energy renewable energy course entitled "Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Financing: Community Scale" by clicking on the .swf link below. You can also download a PDF of the PowerPoint slides. This course provides in-depth information on community-scale project development process for

  10. Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Facility Scale Project Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Facility Scale Project Development Tribal Renewable Energy Advanced Course: Facility Scale Project Development Watch the DOE Office of Indian Energy renewable energy course entitled "Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Financing: Facility Scale" by clicking on the .swf file below. You can also download a PDF of the PPT slides. This course provides in-depth information on the process for developing facility-scale renewable energy projects on tribal

  11. Large-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Large-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Renewable energy projects larger than 10 megawatts (MW), also known as utility-scale projects, are complex and typically require private-sector financing. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) developed a guide to help federal agencies, and the developers and financiers that work with them, to successfully install these projects at federal facilities. FEMP's Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide,

  12. The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the Amazon Basin, has a remarkable ability to resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armor. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in a fine, plate-like structure. To study how these scales respond to

  13. The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the Amazon Basin, has a remarkable ability to resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armor. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in a fine, plate-like structure. To study how these scales respond to

  14. The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the Amazon Basin, has a remarkable ability to resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armor. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in a fine, plate-like structure. To study how these scales respond to

  15. The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the Amazon Basin, has a remarkable ability to resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armor. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in a fine, plate-like structure. To study how these scales respond to

  16. The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the Amazon Basin, has a remarkable ability to resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armor. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in a fine, plate-like structure. To study how these scales respond to

  17. The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Monday, 25 November 2013 12:06 Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the Amazon Basin, has a remarkable ability to resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armor. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils

  18. H2 @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity Webinar H2 @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity Webinar Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "H2 @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity" held on July 28, 2016. H2 @ Scale - A Potential Opportunity Webinar Slides (7.34 MB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Small Unmanned Air Vehicles Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Small Unmanned Air Vehicles Webinar H2 Refuel H-Prize Updates

  19. Nationwide: The Nations First Commercial-Scale Biorefineries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE's investment aids in the creation of the first commercial-scale biorefineries in the United States.

  20. Large-Scale Algal Cultivation, Harvesting and Downstream Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    screening strains for desirable characteristics, identifying and mitigating contaminants, scaling up cultures for outdoor growth, harvesting and processing technologies,...