National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for unlimited x-ray energy

  1. Energy Unlimited Wind Farm II | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owner Energy Unlimited Developer Energy Unlimited Energy Purchaser Southern California Edison Co Location San Gorgonio CA Coordinates 33.9095, -116.734 Show Map Loading map......

  2. Unlimited Energy GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Unlimited Energy GmbH Place: Berlin, Germany Zip: 12435 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Unlimited Energy is a German-based project developer, specialising in...

  3. On the Way to Unlimited Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the Way to Unlimited Energy On the Way to Unlimited Energy Print Tuesday, 08 March 2016 11:22 One of the most pressing challenges of our time is the transition from a predominantly fossil-based energy supply to renewable ones. Photovoltaics, or more precisely the method of converting solar energy into direct-current electricity, is for many reasons a particularly attractive form of renewable energy. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are a special type of photovoltaic that uses organic

  4. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich ; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  5. Energy Unlimited Wind Farm I | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Status In Service Developer Energy Unlimited Energy Purchaser Southern California Edison Co Location San Gorgonio CA Coordinates 33.9095, -116.734 Show Map Loading map......

  6. Inverters Unlimited Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inverters Unlimited Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inverters Unlimited Inc Place: New York Zip: 12205 Sector: Solar Product: US-based manufacturer of solar inverters....

  7. Solar Unlimited USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USA Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Solar Unlimited USA Name: Solar Unlimited USA Address: 2353 Park Ave. Place: Cedar City, Utah Zip: 84721 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar...

  8. Joule Unlimited previously Joule Biotechnologies | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Joule Unlimited (previously Joule Biotechnologies) Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip: 2142 Product: Massachusetts-based industrial biotechnology...

  9. X-Ray Diffraction > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Diffraction...

  10. Category:X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) page? For detailed information on...

  11. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sprays X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ... More Documents & Publications X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of ...

  12. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod A new energy ...

  13. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Goodman, Claude A.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  14. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  15. Dimensionality and noise in energy selective x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Robert E.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test a method to quantify the effect of dimensionality on the noise in energy selective x-ray imaging.Methods: The Cramr-Rao lower bound (CRLB), a universal lower limit of the covariance of any unbiased estimator, is used to quantify the noise. It is shown that increasing dimensionality always increases, or at best leaves the same, the variance. An analytic formula for the increase in variance in an energy selective x-ray system is derived. The formula is used to gain insight into the dependence of the increase in variance on the properties of the additional basis functions, the measurement noise covariance, and the source spectrum. The formula is also used with computer simulations to quantify the dependence of the additional variance on these factors. Simulated images of an object with three materials are used to demonstrate the trade-off of increased information with dimensionality and noise. The images are computed from energy selective data with a maximum likelihood estimator.Results: The increase in variance depends most importantly on the dimension and on the properties of the additional basis functions. With the attenuation coefficients of cortical bone, soft tissue, and adipose tissue as the basis functions, the increase in variance of the bone component from two to three dimensions is 1.4 10{sup 3}. With the soft tissue component, it is 2.7 10{sup 4}. If the attenuation coefficient of a high atomic number contrast agent is used as the third basis function, there is only a slight increase in the variance from two to three basis functions, 1.03 and 7.4 for the bone and soft tissue components, respectively. The changes in spectrum shape with beam hardening also have a substantial effect. They increase the variance by a factor of approximately 200 for the bone component and 220 for the soft tissue component as the soft tissue object thickness increases from 1 to 30 cm. Decreasing the energy resolution of the detectors increases the variance of the bone component markedly with three dimension processing, approximately a factor of 25 as the resolution decreases from 100 to 3 bins. The increase with two dimension processing for adipose tissue is a factor of two and with the contrast agent as the third material for two or three dimensions is also a factor of two for both components. The simulated images show that a maximum likelihood estimator can be used to process energy selective x-ray data to produce images with noise close to the CRLB.Conclusions: The method presented can be used to compute the effects of the object attenuation coefficients and the x-ray system properties on the relationship of dimensionality and noise in energy selective x-ray imaging systems.

  16. PHERMEX: pulsed high energy radiographic machine emitting x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompass the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz radio-frequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intense sub-microsecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result in (1) an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three-time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  17. PHERMEX: Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompasses the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz-radiofrequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, firing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intensive submicrosecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result (1) in an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  18. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) typically performed using a SEM or EPMA, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Rock Lab Analysis Core Analysis Cuttings Analysis Isotopic...

  19. Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline...

  20. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances...

  1. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modularmore » and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.« less

  2. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  3. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, D.R.

    1995-07-18

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays from the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detector such that each one of the semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction. 5 figs.

  4. INTERMEDIATE ENERGY X-RAY (IEX) BEAMLINE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INTERMEDIATE ENERGY X-RAY (IEX) BEAMLINE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE Jessica McChesney, APS beamline scientist, connecting the transition edge sensor (TES) detector to the...

  5. Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gleason, Shaun S.; Paulus, Michael J.; Mullens, James A.

    2002-04-09

    At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

  6. Intermediate Energy X-ray Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Intermediate Energy X-ray Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source Using relatively low-energy X-rays, the IEX beamline will help illuminate electronic ordering and emergent phenomena in ordered materials to better understand the origins of distinct electronic properties. PDF icon IEX

  7. TMX-upgrade. X-ray diagnostic: low-energy temperature determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacoby, B.A.

    1981-05-01

    In order to properly design the x-ray filter set, a reasonable computational model of the plasma emission had to be developed. The radiation continuum computed consisted of two components: bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation. The contribution of line radiation from low Z impurities was estimated to be negligible for x-ray energies above 1 keV.

  8. Research Opportunities in Photochemistry, Solar Energy & Advanced X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods (Stanford, CA) - JCAP Research Opportunities in Photochemistry, Solar Energy & Advanced X-ray Methods (Stanford, CA) Research Opportunities in Photochemistry, Solar Energy & Advanced X-ray Methods (Stanford, CA) Thu, Jun 16, 2016 12:00pm 12:00 Fri, Jun 17, 2016 1:00pm 13:00 "The workshop is aimed at strengthening the connection between mission needs in Basic Energy Sciences and the X-ray facilities and in particular identifying key questions in solar energy conversion

  9. In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials Tuesday, July 9, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Johanna Nelson, Stanford Postdoctoral Scholar, SSRL MSD Hard X-ray Department A key factor in the global move towards clean, renewable energy is the electrification of the automobile. Current battery technology limits EV (electric vehicles) to a short travel range, slow recharge, and costly price tag. Li-ion batteries promise the high

  10. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    physics research (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research This content will become publicly available on May 29, 2016 Title: Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission

  11. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, A.; Luo, J.; Wang, A.; Broadbent, C.; Zhong, J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z.

    2015-03-14

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. In addition, an efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent inmore » the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.« less

  12. Novel X-ray imaging diagnostics of high energy nanosecond pulse accelerators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Graham W.; Gallegos, Roque Rosauro; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Beutler, David Eric; Dudley, John; Seymour, Calvin L. G.; Bell, John D.

    2004-08-01

    Pioneering x-ray imaging has been undertaken on a number of AWE's and Sandia National Laboratories radiation effects x-ray simulators. These simulators typically yield a single very short (<50ns) pulse of high-energy (MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung) x-ray radiation with doses in the kilorad (krad(Si)) region. X-ray source targets vary in size from 2 to 25cm diameter, dependent upon the particular simulator. Electronic imaging of the source x-ray emission under dynamic conditions yields valuable information upon how the simulator is performing. The resultant images are of interest to the simulator designer who may configure new x-ray source converter targets and diode designs. The images can provide quantitative information about machine performance during radiation effects testing of components under active conditions. The effects testing program is a valuable interface for validation of high performance computer codes and models for the radiation effects community. A novel high-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer is described whereby the spectral energy (0.1 to 2.5MeV) profile may be discerned from the digitally recorded and viewable images via a pinhole/scintillator/CCD imaging system and knowledge of the filtration parameters. Unique images, analysis and a preliminary evaluation of the capability of the spectrometer are presented. Further, a novel time resolved imaging system is described that captures a sequence of high spatial resolution temporal images, with zero interframe time, in the nanosecond timeframe, of our source x-rays.

  13. Runaway electron energy measurement using hard x-ray spectroscopy in 'Damavand' tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasouli, C.; Farahbod, A. H.; Rasouli, H.; Lamehi, M.; Iraji, D.; Akhtari, K.; Modarresi, H.

    2009-01-15

    Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in ''Damavand'' tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak.

  14. Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N.; Kurosawa, T.; Richter, M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Tiedtke, K.; Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M.; Tono, K.; Ishikawa, T.

    2012-07-09

    The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

  15. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    density (HED) plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Authors: Chen, H ; Bitter, M ; Hill, K W ; Kerr, S ; Magee, E ; Nagel, S R ; Park, J ; Schneider, M B ; Stone, G ; Williams, G J ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date: 2014-05-29 OSTI Identifier:

  16. The energy dependence of lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldeland, Einar; Hole, Eli Olaug; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a systematic investigation of the energy dependence of alanine and lilthium formate EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays. Methods: Lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters were exposed to eight different x-ray beam qualities, with nominal potentials ranging from 50 to 200 kV. Following ionometry based on standards of absorbed dose to water, the dosimeters were given two different doses of approximately 3 and 6 Gy for each radiation quality, with three dosimeters for each dose. A reference series was also irradiated to three different dose levels at a {sup 60}Co unit. The dose to water energy response, that is, the dosimeter reading per absorbed dose to water relative to that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, was estimated for each beam quality. In addition, the energy response was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations and compared to the experimental energy response. Results: The experimental energy response estimates ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 and from 0.68 to 0.90 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. The uncertainties in the experimental energy response estimates were typically 3%. The relative effectiveness, that is, the ratio of the experimental energy response to that following Monte Carlo simulations was, on average, 0.96 and 0.94 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that lithium formate dosimeters are less dependent on x-ray energy than alanine. Furthermore, as the relative effectiveness for both lithium formate and alanine were systematically less than unity, the yield of radiation-induced radicals is decreased following x-irradiation compared to irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

  17. Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Inubushi, Yuichi

    2010-10-15

    Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 {mu}m and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

  18. Thermal Acoustic Sensor for High Pulse Energy X-ray FEL Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.J.; Frisch, J.C.; Kraft, E.M.; Loos, J.; Bentsen, G.S.; /Rochester U.

    2011-12-13

    The pulse energy density of X-ray FELs will saturate or destroy conventional X-ray diagnostics, and the use of large beam attenuation will result in a beam that is dominated by harmonics. We present preliminary results at the LCLS from a pulse energy detector based on the thermal acoustic effect. In this type of detector an X-ray resistant material (boron carbide in this system) intercepts the beam. The pulse heating of the target material produces an acoustic pulse that can be detected with high frequency microphones to produce a signal that is linear in the absorbed energy. The thermal acoustic detector is designed to provide first- and second-order calorimetric measurement of X-ray FEL pulse energy. The first-order calorimetry is a direct temperature measurement of a target designed to absorb all or most of the FEL pulse power with minimal heat leak. The second-order measurement detects the vibration caused by the rapid thermoelastic expansion of the target material each time it absorbs a photon pulse. Both the temperature change and the amplitude of the acoustic signal are directly related to the photon pulse energy.

  19. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Diagnostics Maintenance of existing devices and development of advanced concepts Contact John Oertel (505) 665-3246 Email Hot, dense matter produced by intense laser interaction with a solid target often produces x-rays with energies from 100 eV to those exceeding 100 keV. A suite of diagnostics and methods have been deployed at Trident to diagnose the x-ray emission from laser-matter interaction experiments, or to use the x-rays as a probe of dense matter. These

  20. Filter-fluorescer measurement of low-voltage simulator x-ray energy spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, G.T.; Craven, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray energy spectra of the Maxwell Laboratories MBS and Physics International Pulserad 737 were measured using an eight-channel filter-fluorescer array. The PHOSCAT computer code was used to calculate channel response functions, and the UFO code to unfold spectrum.

  1. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density...

  2. Radiological Worker Training - Radiological Safety Training for Radiation Producing (X-Ray) Devices

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    C December 2008 DOE HANDBOOK Radiological Worker Training Radiological Safety Training for Radiation Producing (X-Ray) Devices U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE Radiological Worker Training - Appendix C Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-Ray) Devices DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 Program Management ii This document is available on the Department of Energy

  3. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Huanjun; Cho, Hyo-Min; Molloi, Sabee; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90 from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and ?66.33 mV, respectively. The detectors energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 2045 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. Conclusions: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the detector. The proposed x-ray fluorescence technique offers an accurate and efficient way to calibrate the energy response of a photon-counting detector.

  4. X-Ray Energy Responses of Silicon Tomography Detectors Irradiated with Fusion Produced Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohagura, J. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirata, M. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Numakura, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, N. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fukai, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tomii, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tokioka, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyake, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kiminami, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyoshi, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Yamauchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Kondoh, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Nishitani, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    In order to clarify the effects of fusion-produced neutron irradiation on silicon semiconductor x-ray detectors, the x-ray energy responses of both n- and p-type silicon tomography detectors used in the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak (n-type) and the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror (p-type) are studied using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory of the National Laboratory for High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The fusion neutronics source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is employed as well-calibrated D-T neutron source with fluences from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2} onto these semiconductor detectors. Different fluence dependence is found between these two types of detectors; that is, (i) for the n-type detector, the recovery of the degraded response is found after the neutron exposure beyond around 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} onto the detector. A further finding is followed as a 're-degradation' by a neutron irradiation level over about 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, (ii) the energy response of the p-type detector shows only a gradual decrease with increasing neutron fluences. These properties are interpreted by our proposed theory on semiconductor x-ray responses in terms of the effects of neutrons on the effective doping concentration and the diffusion length of a semiconductor detector.

  5. The Application of Monochromatic Energies to Investigate Multiphase Porous Media Systems using Synchrotron X-ray Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, Kyungmin; Willson, Clinton S.

    2006-01-31

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is becoming a useful tool for nondestructive imaging of many geoenvironmental and geotechnical systems. Conventional X-ray CT systems typically utilize a polychromatic X-ray beam. While providing a high throughput of photons, the use of polychromatic energy can make quantifying material concentrations, densities or composition very difficult or impossible without appropriate standards. Synchrotron X-rays have an extremely small angular divergence, thus permitting spatial resolution that is only limited by the optical components of the system. In addition, the ability to tune to a monochromatic X-ray energy allows better phase contrast by reducing beam hardening and allowing for elemental discrimination. In this work we will show how monochromatic energy can be used to provide high-quality images allowing for phase separation several different porous media systems thus improving our ability to quantify a range of processes and phenomena.

  6. Near optimal energy selective x-ray imaging system performance with simple detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Robert E.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: This article describes a method to achieve near optimal performance with low energy resolution detectors. Tapiovaara and Wagner [Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 519-529 (1985)] showed that an energy selective x-ray system using a broad spectrum source can produce images with a larger signal to noise ratio (SNR) than conventional systems using energy integrating or photon counting detectors. They showed that there is an upper limit to the SNR and that it can be achieved by measuring full spectrum information and then using an optimal energy dependent weighting. Methods: A performance measure is derived by applying statistical detection theory to an abstract vector space of the line integrals of the basis set coefficients of the two function approximation to the x-ray attenuation coefficient. The approach produces optimal results that utilize all the available energy dependent data. The method can be used with any energy selective detector and is applied not only to detectors using pulse height analysis (PHA) but also to a detector that simultaneously measures the total photon number and integrated energy, as discussed by Roessl et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 959-966 (2007)]. A generalization of this detector that improves the performance is introduced. A method is described to compute images with the optimal SNR using projections in a ''whitened'' vector space transformed so the noise is uncorrelated and has unit variance in both coordinates. Material canceled images with optimal SNR can also be computed by projections in this space. Results: The performance measure is validated by showing that it provides the Tapiovaara-Wagner optimal results for a detector with full energy information and also a conventional detector. The performance with different types of detectors is compared to the ideal SNR as a function of x-ray tube voltage and subject thickness. A detector that combines two bin PHA with a simultaneous measurement of integrated photon energy provides near ideal performance across a wide range of operating conditions. Conclusions: Low energy resolution detectors can be used in energy selective x-ray imaging systems to produce images with near optimal performance.

  7. Simulation of X-ray Irradiation on Optics and Chamber Wall Materials for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Stein, W

    2003-09-10

    We have used the ABLATOR code to analyze the effect of the x-ray emission from direct drive targets on the optics and the first wall of a conceptual laser Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant. For this purpose, the ABLATOR code has been modified to incorporate the predicted x-ray spectrum from a generic direct drive target. We have also introduced elongation calculations in ABLATOR to predict the thermal stresses in the optic and first wall materials. These results have been validated with thermal diffusion calculations, using the LLNL heat transfer and dynamic structural finite element codes Topaz3d and Dyna3d. One of the most relevant upgrades performed in the ABLATOR code consists of the possibility to accommodate multi-material simulations. This new feature allows for a more realistic modeling of typical IFE optics and first wall materials, which may have a number of different layers. Finally, we have used the XAPPER facility, at LLNL, to develop our predictive capability and validate the results. The ABLATOR code will be further modified, as necessary, to predict the effects of x-ray irradiation in both the IFE real case and our experiments on the XAPPER facility.

  8. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr Kalpha source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility. ...

  9. X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (802 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Sandia National Laboratories has created an improved efficiency compact X-ray source to address a wide range of applications. The high average power large area X-ray tube provides increased X-ray generation efficiency

  10. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  11. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10-5or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  12. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10-5or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  13. High-energy x-ray response of photographic films: models and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henke, B.L.; Uejio, J.Y.; Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Fujiwara, F.G.

    1986-11-01

    A detailed characterization has been established for the new, high-sensitivity double-emulsion Kodak Direct Exposure Film (DEF). The experimental data base consisted of density-versus-exposure measurements that were duplicated at several laboratories for x radiations in the 1000-10,000-eV region. The absortpion and geometric properties of the film were determined, which, along with the density-exposure data, permitted the application of a relatively simple analytical model description for the optical density, D, as a function of the intensity, I (photons/..mu..m/sup 2/), the photon energy, E (eV), and the angle of incidence, 0, of the exposing radiation. A detailed table is presented for the I values corresponding to optical densities in the 0.2--2.0 range and to photon energies, E (eV), in the 1000-10,000-eV region. Experimentally derived conversion relations have been obtained that allow the density values to be expressed as either diffuse of specular. Also presented here is a similar characterization of the complementary, single-emulsion x-ray film, Kodak SB-5 (or 392). For the 1000-10,000-eV region this x-ray film is appreciably less sensitive but has higher resolution.

  14. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as replacing, but as complimentary to conventional CT, to be used in specific applications.

  15. Efficacy of fixed filtration for rapid kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.; Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Dose efficiency of dual kVp imaging can be improved if the two beams are filtered to remove photons in the common part of their spectra, thereby increasing spectral separation. While there are a number of advantages to rapid kVp-switching for dual energy, it may not be feasible to have two different filters for the two spectra. Therefore, the authors are interested in whether a fixed added filter can improve the dose efficiency of kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems. Methods: The authors hypothesized that a K-edge filter would provide the energy selectivity needed to remove overlap of the spectra and hence increase the precision of material separation at constant dose. Preliminary simulations were done using calcium and water basis materials and 80 and 140 kVp x-ray spectra. Precision of the decomposition was evaluated based on the propagation of the Poisson noise through the decomposition function. Considering availability and cost, the authors chose a commercial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screen as the filter for their experimental validation. Experiments were conducted on a table-top system using a phantom with various thicknesses of acrylic and copper and 70 and 125 kVp x-ray spectra. The authors kept the phantom exposure roughly constant with and without filtration by adjusting the tube current. The filtered and unfiltered raw data of both low and high energy were decomposed into basis material and the variance of the decomposition for each thickness pair was calculated. To evaluate the filtration performance, the authors measured the ratio of material decomposition variance with and without filtration. Results: Simulation results show that the ideal filter material depends on the object composition and thickness, and ranges across the lanthanide series, with higher atomic number filters being preferred for more attenuating objects. Variance reduction increases with filter thickness, and substantial reductions (40%) can be achieved with a 2 loss in intensity. The authors experimental results validate the simulations, yet were overall slightly worse than expectation. For large objects, conventional (non-K-edge) beam hardening filters perform well. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential of fixed K-edge filtration to improve the dose efficiency and material decomposition precision for rapid kVp-switching dual energy systems.

  16. The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser August 17, 2010 - 6:19pm Addthis The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu participated in the dedication of the world's first free-electron and most powerful X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). In light of this occasion (pun intended), we posted an in-depth look at the innovative

  17. Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) typically performed using a SEM or EPMA, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Data Collection and Mapping 2-M Probe Survey Fault Mapping Field...

  18. Note: Characterization of a high-photon-energy X-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, M.; Schiebel, P.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. U.; Eichman, B.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Fiksel, G.; Zhong, Z.; Stephens, R. B.

    2013-10-15

    The Bragg angle, rocking curve, and reflection efficiency of a quartz crystal x-ray imager (Miller indices 234) were measured at photon energy of 15.6909 keV, corresponding to the K{sub α2} line of Zr, using the X15A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One flat and three spherically curved samples were tested. The peak reflectivity of the best-performing crystal was determined to be (3.6 ± 0.7) × 10{sup −4} with a rocking-curve full width at half maximum of 0.09°. The Zr K{sub α2} emission was imaged from a hot Zr plasma generated by a 10-J multiterawatt laser.

  19. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to findmore » the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.« less

  20. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to find the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.

  1. Laboratory-based x-ray reflectometer for multilayer characterization in the 15150 keV energy band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windt, David L.

    2015-04-15

    A laboratory-based X-ray reflectometer has been developed to measure the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings at their operational X-ray energies and incidence angles. The instrument uses a sealed-tube X-ray source with a tungsten anode that can operate up to 160 kV to provide usable radiation in the 15150 keV energy band. Two sets of adjustable tungsten carbide slit assemblies, spaced 4.1 m apart, are used to produce a low-divergence white beam, typically set to 40 ?m 800 ?m in size at the sample. Multilayer coatings under test are held flat using a vacuum chuck and are mounted at the center of a high-resolution goniometer used for precise angular positioning of the sample and detector; additionally, motorized linear stages provide both vertical and horizontal adjustments of the sample position relative to the incident beam. A CdTe energy-sensitive detector, located behind a third adjustable slit, is used in conjunction with pulse-shaping electronics and a multi-channel analyzer to capture both the incident and reflected spectra; the absolute reflectance of the coating under test is computed as the ratio of the two spectra. The instruments design, construction, and operation are described in detail, and example results are presented obtained with both periodic, narrow-band and depth-graded, wide-band hard X-ray multilayer coatings.

  2. Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    kastengren.pdf More Documents & Publications Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal Structure X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process and Diesel Sprays

  3. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  4. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  5. X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds June 30, 2011 - 2:56pm Addthis A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather. Bottom: x-ray images showing the distribution of copper (red) in the same organisms. | Photo Courtesy of Gregory Stewart, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather.

  6. Learning to Apply Metrology Principles to the Measurement of X-ray Intensities in the 500 eV to 110 keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J.; Pond, T.; Silbernagel, C.; Torres, P.; Marlett, K.; Goldin, F.; Cyr, S.

    2011-02-08

    National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by “the National Voluntary Laboratories Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which is the accrediting body of” the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTec’s starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories. This paper will serve as a teaching tool, by way of this example using the NSTec X-ray sources, for the process and methods used in developing an accredited traceable metrology.

  7. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  8. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band M. B. McGarry 1,a) , P. Franz 2 , D. J. Den Hartog 1 , J. A. Goetz 1 and J. Johnson 1 a) Electronic mail: mbmcgarry@wisc.edu Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 096105 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4894656 Abstract Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the

  9. Measurement of high energy x-ray beam penumbra with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-08-15

    High energy x-ray beam penumbra are measured using Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT, due to its limited energy dependence and high spatial resolution provide a high level of accuracy for dose assessment in penumbral regions. The spatial resolution of film detector systems is normally limited by the scanning resolution of the densitometer. Penumbral widths (80%/20%) measured at D{sub max} were found to be 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4 mm ({+-}0.2 mm) using 5, 10, 20, and 30 cm square field sizes, respectively, for a 6 MV linear accelerator produced x-ray beam. This is compared to 3.2 mm{+-}0.2 mm (Kodak EDR2) and 3.6 mm{+-}0.2 mm (Kodak X-Omat V) at 10 cmx10 cm measured using radiographic film. Using a zero volume extrapolation technique for ionization chamber measurements, the 10 cmx10 cm field penumbra at D{sub max} was measured to be 3.1 mm, a close match to Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT results. Penumbral measurements can also be made at other depths, including the surface, as the film does not suffer significantly from dosimetric variations caused by changing x-ray energy spectra. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film provides an adequate measure of penumbral dose for high energy x-ray beams.

  10. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E{sub c}. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  11. Soft X-ray irradiation of methanol ice: Formation of products as a function of photon energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Yih, T.-S.; Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Muoz Caro, G. M.; Jimnez-Escobar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pure methanol ices have been irradiated with monochromatic soft X-rays of 300 and 550 eV close to the 1s resonance edges of C and O, respectively, and with a broadband spectrum (250-1200 eV). The infrared (IR) spectra of the irradiated ices show several new products of astrophysical interest such as CH{sub 2}OH, H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 4}, HCOOH, HCOCH{sub 2}OH, CH{sub 3}COOH, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, as well as HCO, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The effect of X-rays is the result of the combined interactions of photons and electrons with the ice. A significant contribution to the formation and growth of new species in the CH{sub 3}OH ice irradiated with X-rays is given by secondary electrons, whose energy distribution depends on the energy of X-ray photons. Within a single experiment, the abundances of the new products increase with the absorbed energy. Monochromatic experiments show that product abundances also increase with the photon energy. However, the abundances per unit energy of newly formed species show a marked decrease in the broadband experiment as compared to irradiations with monochromatic photons, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the energy deposition rate. The number of new molecules produced per absorbed eV in the X-ray experiments has been compared to those obtained with electron and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation experiments.

  12. A semianalytic model to extract differential linear scattering coefficients of breast tissue from energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeClair, Robert J.; Boileau, Michel M.; Wang Yinkun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada) and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this work is to develop a technique to measure the x-ray diffraction signals of breast biopsy specimens. A biomedical x-ray diffraction technology capable of measuring such signals may prove to be of diagnostic use to the medical field. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements coupled with a semianalytical model were used to extract the differential linear scattering coefficients [{mu}{sub s}(x)] of breast tissues on absolute scales. The coefficients describe the probabilities of scatter events occurring per unit length of tissue per unit solid angle of detection. They are a function of the momentum transfer argument, x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}, where {theta}=scatter angle and {lambda}=incident wavelength. The technique was validated by using a 3 mm diameter 50 kV polychromatic x-ray beam incident on a 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick sample of water. Water was used because good x-ray diffraction data are available in the literature. The scatter profiles from 6 deg. to 15 deg. in increments of 1 deg. were measured with a 3 mmx3 mmx2 mm thick cadmium zinc telluride detector. A 2 mm diameter Pb aperture was placed on top of the detector. The target to detector distance was 29 cm and the duration of each measurement was 10 min. Ensemble averages of the results compare well with the gold standard data of A. H. Narten [''X-ray diffraction data on liquid water in the temperature range 4 deg. C-200 deg. C, ORNL Report No. 4578 (1970)]. An average 7.68% difference for which most of the discrepancies can be attributed to the background noise at low angles was obtained. The preliminary measurements of breast tissue are also encouraging.

  13. On the variation of solar flare coronal X-ray source sizes with energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Emslie, A. Gordon, E-mail: n.jeffrey@physics.gla.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Observations with RHESSI have enabled the detailed study of the structure of dense hard X-ray coronal sources in solar flares. The variation of source extent with electron energy has been discussed in the context of streaming of non-thermal particles in a one-dimensional cold target model and the results used to constrain both the physical extent of, and density within, the electron acceleration region. Here, we extend this investigation to a more physically realistic model of electron transport that takes into account the finite temperature of the ambient plasma, the initial pitch angle distribution of the accelerated electrons, and the effects of collisional pitch angle scattering. The finite temperature results in the thermal diffusion of electrons, which leads to the observationally inferred value of the acceleration region volume being an overestimate of its true value. The different directions of the electron trajectories, a consequence of both the non-zero injection pitch angle and scattering within the target, cause the projected propagation distance parallel to the guiding magnetic field to be reduced, so that a one-dimensional interpretation can overestimate the actual density by a factor of up to ?6. The implications of these results for the determination of acceleration region properties (specific acceleration rate, filling factor, etc.) are discussed.

  14. An analytic model for the response of a CZT detector in diagnostic energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeClair, Robert J.; Wang Yinkun; Zhao Peiying; Boileau, Michel; Wang, Lilie; Fleurot, Fabrice [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada) and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    A CdZnTe detector (CZTD) can be very useful for measuring diagnostic x-ray spectra. The semiconductor detector does, however, exhibit poor hole transport properties and fluorescence generation upon atomic de-excitations. This article describes an analytic model to characterize these two phenomena that occur when a CZTD is exposed to diagnostic x rays. The analytical detector response functions compare well with those obtained via Monte Carlo calculations. The response functions were applied to 50, 80, and 110 kV x-ray spectra. Two 50 kV spectra were measured; one with no filtration and the other with 1.35 mm Al filtration. The unfiltered spectrum was numerically filtered with 1.35 mm of Al in order to see whether the recovered spectrum resembled the filtered spectrum actually measured. A deviation curve was obtained by subtracting one curve from the other on an energy bin by bin basis. The deviation pattern fluctuated around the zero line when corrections were applied to both spectra. Significant deviations from zero towards the lower energies were observed when the uncorrected spectra were used. Beside visual observations, the exposure obtained using the numerically attenuated unfiltered beam was compared to the exposure calculated with the actual filtered beam. The percent differences were 0.8% when corrections were applied and 25% for no corrections. The model can be used to correct diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with a CdZnTe detector.

  15. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  16. LM Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2015 LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2015 PDF icon LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2015 More Documents & Publications LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2016

    6 LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2016 LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2016 PDF icon LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2016 More Documents & Publications LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2015

    Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project LM Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project January 7, 2013 -

  17. Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-Ray) Devices

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 February 2002 ___________________ Reaffirmation with Errata July 2002 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR RADIATION-PRODUCING (X-RAY) DEVICES U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800)

  18. THE SAP3 COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR QUANTITATIVE MULTIELEMENT ANALYSIS BY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, K. K.; Sanders, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    SAP3 is a dual-function FORTRAN computer program which performs peak analysis of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra and then quantitatively interprets the results of the multielement analysis. It was written for mono- or bi-chromatic excitation as from an isotopic or secondary excitation source, and uses the separate incoherent and coherent backscatter intensities to define the bulk sample matrix composition. This composition is used in performing fundamental-parameter matrix corrections for self-absorption, enhancement, and particle-size effects, obviating the need for specific calibrations for a given sample matrix. The generalized calibration is based on a set of thin-film sensitivities, which are stored in a library disk file and used for all sample matrices and thicknesses. Peak overlap factors are also determined from the thin-film standards, and are stored in the library for calculating peak overlap corrections. A detailed description is given of the algorithms and program logic, and the program listing and flow charts are also provided. An auxiliary program, SPCAL, is also given for use in calibrating the backscatter intensities. SAP3 provides numerous analysis options via seventeen control switches which give flexibility in performing the calculations best suited to the sample and the user needs. User input may be limited to the name of the library, the analysis livetime, and the spectrum filename and location. Output includes all peak analysis information, matrix correction factors, and element concentrations, uncertainties and detection limits. Twenty-four elements are typically determined from a 1024-channel spectrum in one-to-two minutes using a PDP-11/34 computer operating under RSX-11M.

  19. High Energy X-Ray System Specification for the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the NNSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, David A.

    2012-08-10

    This specification establishes requirements for an X-Ray System to be used at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) to support radiography of experimental assemblies for Laboratory (LANL, LLNL, SNL) programs conducting work at the NNSS.

  20. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  1. Low-energy X-ray dosimetry studies (6 to 16 keV) at SSRL beamline 1-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ipe, N.E.; Chatterji, S.; Fasso, A.; Kase, K.R.; Seefred, R.; Olko, P.; Bilski, P.; Soares, C.

    1997-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation facilities provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) are described. Polish lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs), MTS-N(LiF:Mg, Ti-0.4 mm thick), MCP-N(LiF:Mg, Cu, P-0.4 mm thick) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (6--16 keV). These exposures were monitored with an SSRL ionization chamber. The responses (counts/Gy) of MTS-N and MCP-N were generally found to increase with increasing energy. The response at 16 keV is about 3 and 4 times higher than the response at 6 keV for MTS-N and MCP-N, respectively. Irradiation at 6 keV indicates a fairly linear dose response for both types of TLDs over a dose range of 0.01 to 0.4 Gy. In addition there appears to be no significant difference in responses between irradiating the TLDs from the front and the back sides. The energy response of the PTW ionization chamber type 23342 relative to the SSRL ionization chamber is within {+-}4.5% between 6 and 16 keV. Both the TLDs and the PTW ionization chamber can also be used for beam dosimetry.

  2. Low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies (6 to 16 keV) at SSRL beamline 1-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ipe, N. E.; Chatterji, S.; Fasso, A.; Kase, K. R.; Seefred, R.; Olko, P.; Bilski, P.; Soares, C.

    1997-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation facilities provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) are described. Polish lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs), MTS-N(LiF:Mg, Ti- 0.4 mm thick), MCP-N (LiF:Mg, Cu, P - 0.4 mm thick) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (6-16 keV). These exposures were monitored with an SSRL ionization chamber. The responses (counts/Gy) of MTS-N and MCP-N were generally found to increase with increasing energy. The response at 16 keV is about 3 and 4 times higher than the response at 6 keV for MTS-N and MCP-N, respectively. Irradiation at 6 keV indicates a fairly linear dose response for both type of TLDs over a dose range of 0.01 to 0.4 Gy. In addition there appears to be no significant difference in responses between irradiating the TLDs from the front and the back sides. The energy response of the PTW ionization chamber type 23342 relative to the SSRL ionization chamber is within {+-}4.5% between 6 and 16 keV. Both the TLDs and the PTW ionization chamber can also be used for beam dosimetry.

  3. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chica, U.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Vilches, M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  4. A comparative analysis of OTF, NPS, and DQE in energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: One of the benefits of photon counting (PC) detectors over energy integrating (EI) detectors is the absence of many additive noise sources, such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that thresholding voltage gains to detect individual x rays actually generates an unexpected source of white noise in photon counters. Methods: To distinguish the two detector types, their point spread function (PSF) is interpreted differently. The PSF of the energy integrating detector is treated as a weighting function for counting x rays, while the PSF of the photon counting detector is interpreted as a probability. Although this model ignores some subtleties of real imaging systems, such as scatter and the energy-dependent amplification of secondary quanta in indirect-converting detectors, it is useful for demonstrating fundamental differences between the two detector types. From first principles, the optical transfer function (OTF) is calculated as the continuous Fourier transform of the PSF, the noise power spectra (NPS) is determined by the discrete space Fourier transform (DSFT) of the autocovariance of signal intensity, and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is found from combined knowledge of the OTF and NPS. To illustrate the calculation of the transfer functions, the PSF is modeled as the convolution of a Gaussian with the product of rect functions. The Gaussian reflects the blurring of the x-ray converter, while the rect functions model the sampling of the detector. Results: The transfer functions are first calculated assuming outside noise sources such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise are negligible. It is demonstrated that while OTF is the same for two detector types possessing an equivalent PSF, a frequency-independent (i.e., ''white'') difference in their NPS exists such that NPS{sub PC}{>=}NPS{sub EI} and hence DQE{sub PC}{<=}DQE{sub EI}. The necessary and sufficient condition for equality is that the PSF is a binary function given as zero or unity everywhere. In analyzing the model detector with Gaussian blurring, the difference in NPS and DQE between the two detector types is found to increase with the blurring of the x-ray converter. Ultimately, the expression for the additive white noise of the photon counter is compared against the expression for electronic noise and secondary quantum noise in an energy integrator. Thus, a method is provided to determine the average secondary quanta that the energy integrator must produce for each x ray to have superior DQE to a photon counter with the same PSF. Conclusions: This article develops analytical models of OTF, NPS, and DQE for energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors. While many subtleties of real imaging systems have not been modeled, this work is illustrative in demonstrating an additive source of white noise in photon counting detectors which has not yet been described in the literature. One benefit of this analysis is a framework for determining the average secondary quanta that an energy integrating detector must produce for each x ray to have superior DQE to competing photon counting technology.

  5. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  6. Ionization energy shift of characteristic K x-ray lines from high-Z materials for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S?abkowska, K.; Szyma?ska, E.; Polasik, M.; Pereira, N. R.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Seely, J. F.; Weber, B. V.; Schumer, J. W.

    2014-03-15

    The energy of the characteristic x-rays emitted by high atomic number atoms in a plasma that contains energetic electrons depends on the atom's ionization. For tungsten, the ionization energy shift of the L-lines has recently been used to diagnose the plasma's ionization; the change in energy of a K-line has been measured for iridium and observed for ytterbium. Here, we present detailed computations of the ionization energy shift to K-lines of these and an additional element, dysprosium; for these atoms, some K-lines nearly coincide in energy with K-edges of slightly lower Z atoms so that a change in transmission behind a K-edge filter betrays a change in energy. The ionization energy shift of such high-energy K-lines may enable a unique diagnostic when the plasma is inside an otherwise opaque enclosure such as hohlraums used on the National Ignition Facility.

  7. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  8. High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A.

    1997-08-26

    Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view.

  9. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  10. Simulations of Microchannel Plate Sensitivity to <20 keV X-rays as a Function of Energy and Incident Angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruschwitz, Craig; Wu, M.; Rochau, G. A.

    2013-06-13

    We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP) response to x-rays in the 250 eV to 20 keV energy range as a function of both x-ray energy and impact angle. The model is based on the model presented in Rochau et al. (2006). However, while the Rochau et al. (2006) model was two-dimensional, and their results only went to 5 keV, our results have been expanded to 20 keV, and our model has been incorporated into a three-dimensional Monte Carlo MCP model that we have developed over the past several years (Kruschwitz et al. 2011). X-ray penetration through multiple MCP pore walls is increasingly important above 5 keV. The effect of x-ray penetration through multiple pores on MCP performance was studied and is presented.

  11. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  12. A stochastic approach to quantifying the blur with uncertainty estimation for high-energy X-ray imaging systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fowler, Michael J.; Howard, Marylesa; Luttman, Aaron; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Webb, Timothy J.

    2015-06-03

    One of the primary causes of blur in a high-energy X-ray imaging system is the shape and extent of the radiation source, or ‘spot’. It is important to be able to quantify the size of the spot as it provides a lower bound on the recoverable resolution for a radiograph, and penumbral imaging methods – which involve the analysis of blur caused by a structured aperture – can be used to obtain the spot’s spatial profile. We present a Bayesian approach for estimating the spot shape that, unlike variational methods, is robust to the initial choice of parameters. The posteriormore » is obtained from a normal likelihood, which was constructed from a weighted least squares approximation to a Poisson noise model, and prior assumptions that enforce both smoothness and non-negativity constraints. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to obtain samples from the target posterior, and the reconstruction and uncertainty estimates are the computed mean and variance of the samples, respectively. Lastly, synthetic data-sets are used to demonstrate accurate reconstruction, while real data taken with high-energy X-ray imaging systems are used to demonstrate applicability and feasibility.« less

  13. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braicovich, L. Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Le Tacon, M.; Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B.; Supruangnet, R.

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  14. A stochastic approach to quantifying the blur with uncertainty estimation for high-energy X-ray imaging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Michael J.; Howard, Marylesa; Luttman, Aaron; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Webb, Timothy J.

    2015-06-03

    One of the primary causes of blur in a high-energy X-ray imaging system is the shape and extent of the radiation source, or ‘spot’. It is important to be able to quantify the size of the spot as it provides a lower bound on the recoverable resolution for a radiograph, and penumbral imaging methods – which involve the analysis of blur caused by a structured aperture – can be used to obtain the spot’s spatial profile. We present a Bayesian approach for estimating the spot shape that, unlike variational methods, is robust to the initial choice of parameters. The posterior is obtained from a normal likelihood, which was constructed from a weighted least squares approximation to a Poisson noise model, and prior assumptions that enforce both smoothness and non-negativity constraints. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to obtain samples from the target posterior, and the reconstruction and uncertainty estimates are the computed mean and variance of the samples, respectively. Lastly, synthetic data-sets are used to demonstrate accurate reconstruction, while real data taken with high-energy X-ray imaging systems are used to demonstrate applicability and feasibility.

  15. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including film developing and scanning, and image plate scanning. Related images X-ray framing camera being loaded into the TIM in the Trident North Target Area. X-ray framing...

  16. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  17. X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, Mordecai D.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10), and related methodology, are disclosed wherein an X-ray laser target (12) is illuminated with a first pulse of optical laser radiation (14) of relatively long duration having scarcely enough energy to produce a narrow and linear cool plasma of uniform composition (38). A second, relatively short pulse of optical laser radiation (18) is uniformly swept across the length, from end to end, of the plasma (38), at about the speed of light, to consecutively illuminate continuously succeeding portions of the plasma (38) with optical laser radiation having scarcely enough energy to heat, ionize, and invert them into the continuously succeeding portions of an X-ray gain medium. This inventive double pulse technique results in a saving of more than two orders of magnitude in driving optical laser energy, when compared to the conventional single pulse approach.

  18. Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-RAY) Devices

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Change Notice No. 2 with Reaffirmation January 2007 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR RADIATION-PRODUCING (X-RAY) DEVICES U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1109-97 ii Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/ DOE-HDBK-1109-97 iii Note: The page numbers refer to Change Notice 1 of the

  19. New Constraints on Dark Energy from Chandra X-rayObservations of the Largest Relaxed Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, S.W.; Rapetti, D.A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Schmidt, R.W.; /Heidelberg, Astron. Rechen Inst.; Ebeling, H.; /Inst. Astron., Honolulu; Morris, G.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2007-06-06

    We present constraints on the mean matter density, {Omega}{sub m}, dark energy density, {Omega}{sub DE}, and the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, using Chandra measurements of the X-ray gas mass fraction (fgas) in 42 hot (kT > 5keV), X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters spanning the redshift range 0.05 < z < 1.1. Using only the fgas data for the 6 lowest redshift clusters at z < 0.15, for which dark energy has a negligible effect on the measurements, we measure {Omega}{sub m}=0.28{+-}0.06 (68% confidence, using standard priors on the Hubble Constant, H{sub 0}, and mean baryon density, {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2}). Analyzing the data for all 42 clusters, employing only weak priors on H{sub 0} and {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2}, we obtain a similar result on {Omega}{sub m} and detect the effects of dark energy on the distances to the clusters at {approx}99.99% confidence, with {Omega}{sub DE}=0.86{+-}0.21 for a non-flat LCDM model. The detection of dark energy is comparable in significance to recent SNIa studies and represents strong, independent evidence for cosmic acceleration. Systematic scatter remains undetected in the f{sub gas} data, despite a weighted mean statistical scatter in the distance measurements of only {approx}5%. For a flat cosmology with constant w, we measure {Omega}{sub m}=0.28{+-}0.06 and w=-1.14{+-}0.31. Combining the fgas data with independent constraints from CMB and SNIa studies removes the need for priors on {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2} and H{sub 0} and leads to tighter constraints: {Omega}{sub m}=0.253{+-}0.021 and w=-0.98{+-}0.07 for the same constant-w model. More general analyses in which we relax the assumption of flatness and/or allow evolution in w remain consistent with the cosmological constant paradigm. Our analysis includes conservative allowances for systematic uncertainties. The small systematic scatter and tight constraints bode well for future dark energy studies using the f{sub gas} method.

  20. Internal energy dissipation of gamma-ray bursts observed with Swift: Precursors, prompt gamma-rays, extended emission, and late X-ray flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing E-mail: Zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-10

    We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

  1. Electron energy partition in the ‘above-the-looptop’ solar hard X-ray sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Guo, Fan

    2015-07-21

    The presentation begins by considering the non-thermal fraction of electron energies (Rε) in 'above-the-looptop' (ALT). Several spectral models area considered: isothermal model, power-law, and the newly derived kappa distribution. Technically, all 3 non-thermal models can fit the data. In the discussion of flare scenario, energy partition, energization mechanism, and collisionality are considered. It is concluded that the kappa distribution works (Rε ≲ 50%), magnetic reconnection scenario works, and Coulomb collisions may reduce the non-thermal fraction of electron energies.

  2. A theoretical comparison of x-ray angiographic image quality using energy-dependent and conventional subtraction methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely used for vascular imaging. However, the need to subtract a mask image can result in motion artifacts and compromised image quality. The current interest in energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors offers the promise of eliminating motion artifacts and other advanced applications using a single exposure. The authors describe a method of assessing the iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that may be achieved with energy-resolved angiography (ERA) to enable a direct comparison with other approaches including DSA and dual-energy angiography for the same patient exposure. Methods: A linearized noise-propagation approach, combined with linear expressions of dual-energy and energy-resolved imaging, is used to describe the iodine SNR. The results were validated by a Monte Carlo calculation for all three approaches and compared visually for dual-energy and DSA imaging using a simple angiographic phantom with a CsI-based flat-panel detector. Results: The linearized SNR calculations show excellent agreement with Monte Carlo results. While dual-energy methods require an increased tube heat load of 2x to 4x compared to DSA, and photon-counting detectors are not yet ready for angiographic imaging, the available iodine SNR for both methods as tested is within 10% of that of conventional DSA for the same patient exposure over a wide range of patient thicknesses and iodine concentrations. Conclusions: While the energy-based methods are not necessarily optimized and further improvements are likely, the linearized noise-propagation analysis provides the theoretical framework of a level playing field for optimization studies and comparison with conventional DSA. It is concluded that both dual-energy and photon-counting approaches have the potential to provide similar angiographic image quality to DSA.

  3. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  4. Absolute Calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS Film Response to X Rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F.J.; Knauer, J.P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B.L.

    2006-09-28

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory e-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations.

  5. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  6. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  7. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  8. High-energy X-rays give industry affordable way to optimize cast iron |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report) | SciTech Connect High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of over 500 Wh/l and 325 Wh/kg. Seeo would leverage the work already achieved with its unique proprietary solid polymer DryLyteTM technology in cells which had a specific energy density of 220

  9. Biomedical nuclear and X-ray imager using high-energy grazing incidence mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Craig, William W.; Hasegawa, Bruce; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2005-09-27

    Imaging of radiation sources located in a subject is explored for medical applications. The approach involves using grazing-incidence optics to form images of the location of radiopharmaceuticals administered to a subject. The optics are "true focusing" optics, meaning that they project a real and inverted image of the radiation source onto a detector possessing spatial and energy resolution.

  10. X-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  11. SPATIALLY RESOLVING A STARBURST GALAXY AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC253

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Yukita, M.; Ptak, A.; Venters, T.; Zhang, W. W.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Argo, M. K.; Bechtol, K.; Boggs, S.; Craig, W.; Krivonos, R.; Christensen, F.; Hailey, C.; Harrison, F.; Maccarone, T. J.; Stern, D.

    2014-12-20

    Prior to the launch of NuSTAR, it was not feasible to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) emission from galaxies beyond the Local Group. The combined NuSTAR data set, comprised of three ?165 ks observations, allows spatial characterization of the hard X-ray emission in the galaxy NGC253 for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC253. Above ?10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within 100'' of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxydominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, which are also likely ULXsfalls steeply (photon index ? 3) above 10 keV, consistent with other NuSTAR-observed ULXs, and no significant excess above the background is detected at E > 40 keV. We report upper limits on diffuse inverse Compton emission for a range of spatial models. For the most extended morphologies considered, these hard X-ray constraints disfavor a dominant inverse Compton component to explain the ?-ray emission detected with Fermi and H.E.S.S. If NGC253 is typical of starburst galaxies at higher redshift, their contribution to the E > 10 keV cosmic X-ray background is <1%.

  12. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  13. Revisiting the blocking force test on ferroelectric ceramics using high energy x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, L.; Hall, D. A.; Withers, P. J.; Koruza, J.; Webber, K. G.; King, A.

    2015-05-07

    The blocking force test is a standard test to characterise the properties of piezoelectric actuators. The aim of this study is to understand the various contributions to the macroscopic behaviour observed during this experiment that involves the intrinsic piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric domain switching, and internal stress development. For this purpose, a high energy diffraction experiment is performed in-situ during a blocking force test on a tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic (Pb{sub 0.98}Ba{sub 0.01}(Zr{sub 0.51}Ti{sub 0.49}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3}). It is shown that the usual macroscopic linear interpretation of the test can also be performed at the single crystal scale, allowing the identification of local apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is also shown that despite this apparent linearity, the blocking force test involves significant non-linear behaviour mostly due to domain switching under electric field and stress. Although affecting a limited volume fraction of the material, domain switching is responsible for a large part of the macroscopic strain and explains the high level of inter- and intra-granular stresses observed during the course of the experiment. The study shows that if apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties can be identified for PZT single crystals from blocking stress curves, they may be very different from the actual properties of polycrystalline materials due to the multiplicity of the physical mechanisms involved. These apparent properties can be used for macroscopic modelling purposes but should be considered with caution if a local analysis is aimed at.

  14. Characterization of Cr poisoning in a solid oxide fuel cell cathode using a high-energy x-ray microbeam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D. J.; Almer, J.; Cruse, T.

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is the feasibility of using metallic interconnects made of high temperature ferritic stainless steels, which reduce system cost while providing excellent electric conductivity. Such interconnects, however, contain high levels of chromium, which has been found to be associated with SOFC cathode performance degradation at SOFC operating temperatures; a phenomenon known as Cr poisoning. Here, we demonstrate an accurate measurement of the phase and concentration distributions of Cr species in a degraded SOFC, as well as related properties including deviatoric strain, integrated porosity, and lattice parameter variation, using high energy microbeam X-ray diffraction and radiography. We unambiguously identify (MnCr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the two main contaminant phases and find that their concentrations correlate strongly with the cathode layer composition. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition within the active cathode region reduces porosity and produces compressive residual strains, which hinders the reactant gas percolation and can cause structural breakdown of the SOFC cathode. The information obtained through this study can be used to better understand the Cr-poisoning mechanism and improve SOFC design.

  15. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  16. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  17. X-Ray Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ratio, I I on I off , recorded with plus (+, blue) and minus (-, red) x-ray helicities. This measurement was taken at -5 mA, which corresponds to a current...

  18. X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: X-ray Fluorescence Mapping Of increasing scientific interest is the detection, quantification and mapping of elemental content of samples, often down...

  19. Modeling energy dependence of the inner-shell x-ray emission produced by femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of xenon clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgan, James P

    2008-01-01

    We employ the Los Alamos suite of atomic physics codes to model the inner-shell x-ray emission spectrum of xenon and compare results with those obtained via high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of xenon clusters irradiated by 30 fs Ti:Sa laser pulses. We find that the commonly employed configuration average approximation breaks down and significant spin-orbit splitting necessitates a detailed level accounting. Additionally, we reproduce an interesting spectral trend for a series of experimental spectra taken with varying pulse energy for fixed pulse duration. To simulate the experimental measurements at increasing beam energies, we find that spectral modeling requires an increased hot electron fraction, but decreased atomic density and bulk electron temperature. We believe these latter conditions to be a result of partial cluster destruction due to the increased energy in the laser prepulse.

  20. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  1. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  2. X-ray microscopy at CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray microscopy at CNM X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline 1 of 5 X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline Jörg Maser (left) and Robert Winarski, of Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials, X-Ray Microscopy Group, at the hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline on Advanced Photon Source (APS) Sector 26. The nanoprobe uses brilliant X-rays with photon energies from 3 to 30 keV to probe the properties of nanoscale materials with a spatial resolution of 30 nm. The system provides a combination of scanning-probe and full-field

  3. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  4. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey data. I. Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since z ~ 1.2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; R. Perfecto; Song, J.; Desai, S.; Mohr, J.; et al

    2016-01-14

    Here, using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift.

  5. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, Eric N.; Keane, Denis T.

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  6. X-ray beam finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  7. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L

    2006-10-15

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3 keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3 keV ({approx}50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  8. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  9. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boone, John M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1998-01-27

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  10. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  11. TAILORING X-RAY BEAM ENERGY SPECTRUM TO ENHANCE IMAGE QUALITY OF NEW RADIOGRAPHY CONTRAST AGENTS BASED ON GD OR OTHER LANTHANIDES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DILMANIAN,F.A.; WEINMANN,H.J.; ZHONG,Z.; BACARIAN,T.; RIGON,L.; BUTTON,T.M.; REN,B.; WU,X.Y.; ZHONG,N.; ATKINS,H.L.

    2001-02-17

    Gadovist, a 1.0-molar Gd contrast agent from Schering AG, Berlin Germany, in use in clinical MPI in Europe, was evaluated as a radiography contrast agent. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Schering AG is developing several such lanthanide-based contrast agents, while BNL evaluates them using different x-my beam energy spectra. These energy spectra include a ''truly'' monochromatic beam (0.2 keV energy bandwidth) from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), BNL, tuned above the Gd K-edge, and x-ray-tube beams from different kVp settings and beam filtrations. Radiographs of rabbits' kidneys were obtained with Gadovist at the NSLS. Furthermore, a clinical radiography system was used for imaging rabbits' kidneys comparing Gadovist and Conray, an iodinated contrast agent. The study, using 74 kVp and standard Al beam filter for Conray and 66 kVp and an additional 1.5 mm Cu beam filter for Gadovist, produced comparable images for Gadovist and Conray; the injection volumes were the same, while the radiation absorbed dose for Gadovist was slightly smaller. A bent-crystal silicon monochromator operating in the Laue diffraction mode was developed and tested with a conventional x-ray tube beam; it narrows the energy spectrum to about 4 keV around the anode tungsten's Ku line. Preliminary beam-flux results indicate that the method could be implemented in clinical CT if x-ray tubes with {approximately} twice higher output become available.

  12. Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.

    2010-12-15

    We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.

  13. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    96 PPPL- 4296 Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas February 2008 K.W. HILL, M.L. BITTER, Ch. BROENNIMANN, E.F. EIKENBERRY, A. Ince-CUSHMAN, S.G. LEE, J.E. RICE, S. SCOTT and R. BARNSLEY Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report Disclaimers Full Legal Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government.

  14. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7:45 am, May 27, 2014 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. C. Fulton President and Chief Executive Officer April 2014 CHPRC-2014-04, Rev. 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2014-04, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report April 2014 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  15. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  16. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  17. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  18. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics and light source experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically

  19. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc ... Sponsoring Org: DOE - BASIC ENERGY SCIENCESUNIVERSITY Country of Publication: United ...

  20. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme...

  1. Staff Research Physicist (X-Ray Spectroscopy) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of X-ray spectrometers for high energy density plasma at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Livermore, California). In...

  2. Bandpass x-ray diode and x-ray multiplier detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-09-27

    An absorption-edge of an x-ray absorption filter and a quantum jump of a photocathode determine the bandpass characteristics of an x-ray diode detector. An anode, which collects the photoelectrons emitted by the photocathode, has enhanced amplification provided by photoelectron-multiplying means which include dynodes or a microchannel-plate electron-multiplier. Suppression of undesired high frequency response for a bandpass x-ray diode is provided by subtracting a signal representative of energies above the passband from a signal representative of the overall response of the bandpass diode.

  3. PROPX: An X-ray Manipulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, G.A.

    1992-05-01

    An interactive micro-computer program that performs some manipulations on an input x-ray spectrum is introduced and described. The program is used to calculate the effect of absorption of filters, transmission through fibers, responsivity of photocathodes, responsivity of absorptive detectors, folding of responses, plotting of cross sections, and calculation, as a function of electron temperature, of the response due to a bremsstrahlung spectrum. Fluorescence from the targets is not included. Two different x-ray libraries are offered, one covers the x-ray range 30--10,000 eV with 288 energy points, and the other covers the energy range 10 eV to 1 MeV with 250 energy points per decade. 7 refs.

  4. MAXI INVESTIGATION INTO THE LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY FROM THE VERY-HIGH-ENERGY ?-RAY BLAZAR Mrk 421

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isobe, Naoki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Sato, Ryosuke; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hayashida, Masaaki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Kawamuro, Taiki [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ueno, Shiro; Matsuoka, Masaru [ISS Science Project Office, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro [MAXI team, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Negoro, Hitoshi, E-mail: n-isobe@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    The archetypical very-high-energy ?-ray blazar Mrk 421 was monitored for more than three years with the Gas Slit Camera on board Monitor of All Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and its long-term X-ray variability was investigated. The MAXI light curve in the 3-10 keV range was transformed into the periodogram in the frequency range f = 1 10{sup 8}-2 10{sup 6} Hz. The artifacts on the periodogram, resulting from data gaps in the observed light curve, were extensively simulated for variations with a power-law-like power spectrum density (PSD). By comparing the observed and simulated periodograms, the PSD index was evaluated as ? = 1.60 0.25. This index is smaller than that obtained in the higher-frequency range (f ? 1 10{sup 5} Hz), namely, ? = 2.14 0.06 in the 1998 ASCA observation of the object. The MAXI data impose a lower limit on the PSD break at f {sub b} = 5 10{sup 6} Hz, consistent with the break of f {sub b} = 9.5 10{sup 6} Hz suggested from the ASCA data. The low-frequency PSD index of Mrk 421 derived with MAXI falls well within the range of typical values among nearby Seyfert galaxies (? = 1-2). The physical implications from these results are briefly discussed.

  5. High-energy magnetic excitations in overdoped La 2 - x Sr x CuO 4 studied by neutron and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakimoto, S.; Ishii, K.; Kimura, H.; Fujita, M.; Dellea, G.; Kummer, K.; Braicovich, L.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Debeer-Schmitt, L. M.; Granroth, G. E.

    2015-05-21

    We have performed neutron inelastic scattering and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu-L₃ edge to study high-energy magnetic excitations at energy transfers of more than 100 meV for overdoped La2-xSrxCuO₄ with x=0.25 (Tc=15 K) and x=0.30 (nonsuperconducting) using identical single-crystal samples for the two techniques. From constant-energy slices of neutron-scattering cross sections, we have identified magnetic excitations up to ~250 meV for x=0.25. Although the width in the momentum direction is large, the peak positions along the (π,π) direction agree with the dispersion relation of the spin wave in the nondoped La₂CuO₄ (LCO), which is consistent with themore » previous RIXS results of cuprate superconductors. Using RIXS at the Cu-L₃ edge, we have measured the dispersion relations of the so-called paramagnon mode along both (π,π) and (π,0) directions. Although in both directions the neutron and RIXS data connect with each other and the paramagnon along (π,0) agrees well with the LCO spin-wave dispersion, the paramagnon in the (π,π) direction probed by RIXS appears to be less dispersive and the excitation energy is lower than the spin wave of LCO near (π/2,π/2). Thus, our results indicate consistency between neutron inelastic scattering and RIXS, and elucidate the entire magnetic excitation in the (π,π) direction by the complementary use of two probes. The polarization dependence of the RIXS profiles indicates that appreciable charge excitations exist in the same energy range of magnetic excitations, reflecting the itinerant character of the overdoped sample. A possible anisotropy in the charge excitation intensity might explain the apparent differences in the paramagnon dispersion in the (π,π) direction as detected by the x-ray scattering.« less

  6. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  7. X-Ray Science Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TV Network external link DNA Interactive external link Reciprocal Net external link X-ray Science Courses and Programs Various educational efforts are closely related to the...

  8. SU-E-T-537: Comparison of Intra-Operative Soft X-Rays to Low Energy Electron Beams for Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinsky, B; Diak, A; Gros, S; Sethi

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Superficial soft x-ray applicators have recently been designed for use with existing intra-operative radiotherapy systems. These applicators may be used in treating superficial lesions which are conventionally treated with electron beams. The purpose of this abstract is to compare dose distributions of an intra-operative 50kV x-ray unit with low energy electrons for the treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: Dosimetric parameters for 1 and 3-cm diameter Intrabeam superficial x-ray applicators were measured with EBT3 Gafchromic film in a solid water phantom. Depth dose distributions and profiles (d=2, 5, 10 and 15mm) were obtained by prescribing a dose of 400cGy at 5mm depth below the phantom surface. Corresponding dose profiles for 6-MeV electrons were acquired from a Varian Clinac 21EX at 100 SSD. H and D calibration curves were generated for each modality for 0-800cGy. Results: Dose coverage, penumbra, dose uniformity, surface dose, and dose fall-off were examined. Compared to electrons, Intrabeam lateral dose coverage at 5mm depth was 70% larger with a much sharper (1/4) penumbra. Electron isodose levels bulged with depth, whereas Intrabeam isodose levels exhibited a convex cone shape. The Intrabeam dose profiles demonstrated horns in the dose distribution up to a 5mm depth and an exponential dose fall-off. Relative surface dose was higher for the Intrabeam applicators. Treatment times were comparable for both modalities. Conclusions: The very small penumbra of Intrabeam at shallow depths could be useful in treating superficial lesions adjacent to critical structures. The exponential dose fall-off of Intrabeam makes it appealing in the sparing of structures beyond the lesion. However, for lesions past a depth of 5mm, electrons would be desirable as they penetrate farther and provide skin sparing. Intrabeam may be preferable for sites that are difficult to treat with electrons due to mechanical and physical limitations.

  9. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  10. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  11. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Skulina, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  12. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  13. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  14. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited By Janis D. Aardal at 10:20 am, Apr 26, 2016 March 2016 CHPRC-2016-03, Revision 0 U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer Monthly Performance Report 1 CHPRC-2016-03, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report March 2016 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  15. X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grush, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

  16. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) Title: X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) The primary interactions of ...

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  18. X-Ray Microscopy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy X-Ray Microscopy This group exploits the unique capabilities of hard X-ray microscopy to visualize and understand the structure and behavior of hybrid,...

  19. HIGH-ENERGY X-RAYS FROM J174545.5-285829, THE CANNONBALL: A CANDIDATE PULSAR WIND NEBULA ASSOCIATED WITH SgrA EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Zhang, Shuo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Perez, Kerstin M.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2013-12-01

    We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few-arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball is a high-velocity (v {sub proj} ? 500kms{sup 1}) pulsar candidate with a cometary pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located ?2' north-east from SgrA*, just outside the radio shell of the supernova remnant Sagittarius A (Sgr A) East. Its non-thermal X-ray spectrum, measured up to 30 keV, is well characterized by a ? ? 1.6 power law, typical of a PWN, and has an X-ray luminosity of L(3-30 keV) = 1.3 10{sup 34} erg s{sup 1}. The spectral and spatial results derived from X-ray and radio data strongly suggest a runaway neutron star born in the SgrA East supernova event. We do not find any pulsed signal from the Cannonball. The NuSTAR observations allow us to deduce the PWN magnetic field and show that it is consistent with the lower limit obtained from radio observations.

  20. Suppressing Thermal Energy Drift In The LLNL Flash X-Ray Accelerator Using Linear Disk Resistor Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreitzer, B R; Houck, T L; Luchterhand, O C

    2011-07-19

    This paper addresses thermal drift in sodium thiosulfate liquid resistors and their replacement with linear disk resistors from HVR Advanced Power Components. Sodium thiosulfate resistors in the FXR induction linear accelerator application have a temperature coefficient of {approx}1.8%/C. The FXR Marx banks send an 8kJ pulse through eight 524 cm{sup 3} liquid resistors at a repetition rate of up to 1 every 45 seconds. Every pulse increases the temperature of the solution by {approx}0.4 C which produces a 0.7% change in resistance. The typical cooling rate is {approx}0.4 C per minute which results in {approx}0.1% energy drop per pulse during continuous pulsed operations. A radiographic accelerator is extraordinarily sensitive to energy variations. Changes in beam energy produce movement in beam transport, changes in spot size, and large dose variations. If self-heating were the only problem, we could predict the increase in input voltage required to compensate for the energy loss. However, there are other variables that influence the temperature of the resistors such as focus magnet heating, changes in room temperature, changes in cooling water, where the cell is located, etc. Additionally not all of the resistors have equivalent cooling rates and as many as 32 resistors are driven from a single power source. The FXR accelerator group elected to replace the sodium thiosulfate resistors with HVR Linear Disk Resistors in a stack type configuration. With data limited for these resistors when used in oil and at low resistance values, a full characterization needed to be performed. High currents (up to 15kA), high voltages (up to 400kV), and Fast Rise times (<10ns) made a resistor choice difficult. Other solid resistors have been tried and had problems at the connection points and with the fact that the resistivity changed as they absorbed oil. The selected HVR resistors have the advantage of being manufactured with the oil impregnated in to them so this characteristic is minimized while still offering the desired low temperature coefficient of resistance compared to sodium thiosulfate. The characterization experiments and comparison with the sodium thiosulfate liquid resistors will be fully discussed and the final design described.

  1. Predicting Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 using Phase Properties Characterized by In-Situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2010-05-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is a typical representative of 1st generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to its multiphase microstructure. In this paper, we study the crack propagation behavior and fracture resistance of a TRIP 800 steel using a microstructure-based finite element method with the various phase properties characterized by in-situ high energy Xray diffraction (HEXRD) technique. Uniaxial tensile tests on the notched TRIP 800 sheet specimens were also conducted, and the experimentally measured tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were used to calibrate the modeling parameters and to validate the overall modeling results. The comparison between the simulated and experimentally measured results suggests that the micromechanics based modeling procedure can well capture the overall complex crack propagation behaviors and the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. The methodology adopted here may be used to estimate the fracture resistance of various multiphase materials.

  2. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

  3. In-situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction study of the growth of CuO nanowires by annealing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Himanshu; Ganguli, Tapas; Deb, S. K.; Sant, Tushar; Poswal, H. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2013-10-14

    The in-situ growth of CuO nanowires was studied by Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to observe the mechanism of growth. The study was carried out for comparison at two temperaturesat 500 C, the optimum temperature of the nanowires growth, and at 300 C just below the temperature range of the growth. The in situ observation revealed the successive oxidation of Cu foil to Cu{sub 2}O layer and finally to CuO layer. Further analysis showed the presence of a compressive stress in CuO layer due to interface at CuO and Cu{sub 2}O layers. The compressive stress was found to increase with the growth of the nanowires at 500 C while it relaxed with the growth of CuO layer at 300 C. The present results do not support the existing model of stress relaxation induced growth of nanowires. Based on the detailed Transmission Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, and EDXRD results, a microstructure based growth model has been suggested.

  4. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer ...

  5. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal ...

  6. Making the Old New Again: Measuring Ultrashort X-ray Laser Pulses...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Making the Old New Again: Measuring Ultrashort X-ray Laser Pulses Basic Energy Sciences ... Making the Old New Again: Measuring Ultrashort X-ray Laser Pulses Researchers have ...

  7. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  8. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  9. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Jonathan I.; Morris, Christopher L.

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  10. High energy X-ray diffraction study of a dental ceramics–titanium functional gradient material prepared by field assisted sintering technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, K.; Bodnar, W.; Schell, N.; Lang, H.; Burkel, E.

    2014-09-15

    A functional gradient material with eleven layers composed of a dental ceramics and titanium was successfully consolidated using field assisted sintering technique in a two-step sintering process. High energy X-ray diffraction studies on the gradient were performed at High Energy Material Science beamline at Desy in Hamburg. Phase composition, crystal unit edges and lattice mismatch along the gradient were determined applying Rietveld refinement procedure. Phase analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase present in the gradient is α-Ti. Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient with a decreasing increment between every next layer, following rather the weight fraction of titanium. The crystal unit edge a of titanium remains approximately constant with a value of 2.9686(1) Å, while c is reduced with increasing amount of titanium. In the layer with pure titanium the crystal unit edge c is constant with a value of 4.7174(2) Å. The lattice mismatch leading to an internal stress was calculated over the whole gradient. It was found that the maximal internal stress in titanium embedded in the studied gradient is significantly smaller than its yield strength, which implies that the structure of titanium along the whole gradient is mechanically stable. - Highlights: • High energy XRD studies of dental ceramics–Ti gradient material consolidated by FAST. • Phase composition, crystallinity and lattice parameters are determined. • Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient following weight fraction of Ti. • Lattice mismatch leading to internal stress is calculated over the whole gradient. • Internal stress in α-Ti embedded in the gradient is smaller than its yield strength.

  11. High-energy X-ray imaging of the pulsar wind nebula MSH 1552: constraints on particle acceleration and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Hongjun; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 1552 in the hard X-ray band (?8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. The hard-band maps show a relative deficit of counts in the northern region toward the RCW 89 thermal remnant, with significant asymmetry. We find that the integrated PWN spectra measured with NuSTAR and Chandra suggest that there is a spectral break at 6 keV, which may be explained by a break in the synchrotron-emitting electron distribution at ?200 TeV and/or imperfect cross calibration. We also measure spatially resolved spectra, showing that the spectrum of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B150958, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models. We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50'' of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the N {sub H} map. We discuss possible origins of the shell-like structure and their implications.

  12. SAND2011-9305 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-9305 Unlimited Release Printed November 2011 Reference Model MHK Turbine Array Optimization Study within a Generic River System Erick Johnson, Janet Barco, Scott James, and Jesse Roberts Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1124 Abstract Increasing interest in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy has spurred to significant research on optimal placement of emerging technologies to maximize energy conversion and minimize potential effects on the environment.

  13. Approved for Public Release Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8823 Revision 0 Approved for Public Release Further Dissemination Unlimited Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Redd Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2014 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management Contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 P.O. Box 650 Richland, Washington 99352 HNF-58823 Revision 0 TRADEMARK DISCLAIMER Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

  14. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals ...

  15. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  16. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  17. UNDERSTANDING THE UNUSUAL X-RAY EMISSION PROPERTIES OF THE MASSIVE, CLOSE BINARY WR 20a: A HIGH ENERGY WINDOW INTO THE STELLAR WIND INITIATION REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-11-10

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  18. Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photon Source | Department of Energy 3 DEER Conference Presentation: Argonne National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_powell.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics

  19. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322 Zhi Liu The synchrotron based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) endstation[1] pioneered at ALS based on differentially pumped electron energy analyzer has been recognized by scientific communities as

  20. Characterization of X-ray generator beam profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Parmeter, John Ethan; Thompson, Kyle Richard

    2013-07-01

    T to compute the radiography properties of various materials, the flux profiles of X-ray sources must be characterized. This report describes the characterization of X-ray beam profiles from a Kimtron industrial 450 kVp radiography system with a Comet MXC-45 HP/11 bipolar oil-cooled X-ray tube. The empirical method described here uses a detector response function to derive photon flux profiles based on data collected with a small cadmium telluride detector. The flux profiles are then reduced to a simple parametric form that enables computation of beam profiles for arbitrary accelerator energies.

  1. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  2. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering in holmium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.

    1991-01-01

    We review the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on the rare earth metal holmium. When the incident incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L{sub III} absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering and resonant integer harmonics are observed. These results are analyzed within the theory of x-ray resonance exchange scattering assuming electric dipole (2p {yields} 5d) and quadrupole (2p {yields} 4f) transitions among atomic orbitals. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10:05 am, Jun 25, 2014 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. C. Fulton President and Chief Executive Officer May 2014 CHPRC-2014-05, Rev. 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2014-05, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report May 2014 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2 TARGET ZERO

  4. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    50 am, Aug 26, 2014 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. C. Fulton President and Chief Executive Officer July 2014 CHPRC-2014-07, Rev. 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2014-07, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report July 2014 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2 TARGET ZERO

  5. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 am, Sep 30, 2014 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. C. Fulton President and Chief Executive Officer August 2014 CHPRC-2014-08, Rev. 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2014-08, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report August 2014 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2 TARGET

  6. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shauna E. Adams at 10:45 am, Jul 26, 2012 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. G. Lehew President and Chief Executive Officer June 2012 CHPRC-2012-06, Rev. 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2012-06, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report June 2012 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  7. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2:51 pm, Jul 24, 2014 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. C. Fulton President and Chief Executive Officer June 2014 CHPRC-2014-06, Rev. 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2014-06, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report June 2014 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2 TARGET

  8. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6:46 am, Oct 28, 2014 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer September 2014 CHPRC-2014-09, Rev. 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2014-09, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report September 2014 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2

  9. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10:35 am, May 26, 2015 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited April 2015 CHPRC-2015-04, Revision 0 U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer Monthly Performance Report 1 CHPRC-2015-04, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report April 2015 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2

  10. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8:22 am, Feb 24, 2015 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer January 2015 CHPRC-2015-01, Revision 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2015-01, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report January 2015 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2

  11. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9:09 am, Jan 06, 2015 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer November 2014 CHPRC-2014-11, Revision 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2014-11, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report November 2014 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  12. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3:35 pm, Nov 24, 2014 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer October 2014 CHPRC-2014-10, Revision 0 Monthly Performance Report U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 1 CHPRC-2014-10, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report October 2014 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2

  13. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    39 pm, Jan 25, 2016 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited December 2015 CHPRC-2015-12, Revision 0 U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer Monthly Performance Report 1 CHPRC-2015-12, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report December 2015 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2

  14. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2:35 pm, Mar 28, 2016 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited February 2016 CHPRC-2016-02, Revision 0 U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer Monthly Performance Report 1 CHPRC-2016-02, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report February 2016 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  15. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    05 pm, Feb 22, 2016 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited January 2016 CHPRC-2016-01, Revision 0 U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer Monthly Performance Report 1 CHPRC-2016-01, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report January 2016 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2

  16. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2:23 pm, Nov 19, 2015 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited October 2015 CHPRC-2015-10, Revision 0 U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer Monthly Performance Report 1 CHPRC-2015-10, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report October 2015 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................2

  17. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  18. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2012-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  19. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray emission...

  20. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser: Application to Spin Crossover Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray...

  1. Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump-probe experiments at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard x-ray delay line for...

  2. Microionization chamber air-kerma calibration coefficients as a function of photon energy for x-ray spectra in the range of 20-250 kVp relative to {sup 60}Co

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, J. R.; Micka, J. A.; DeWerd, L. A.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of a wide range of microionization chambers for reference dosimetry measurements in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams. Methods: Measurements were performed with six cylindrical microchamber models, as well as one scanning chamber and two Farmer-type chambers for comparison purposes. Air-kerma calibration coefficients were determined at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory for each chamber for a range of low- and medium-energy x-ray beams (20-250 kVp), with effective energies ranging from 11.5 keV to 145 keV, and a {sup 60}Co beam. A low-Z proof-of-concept microchamber was developed and calibrated with and without a high-Z silver epoxy on the collecting electrode. Results: All chambers composed of low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13), including the Farmer-type chambers, the scanning chamber, and the PTW TN31014 and the proof-of-concept microchambers, exhibited air-kerma calibration coefficients with little dependence on the quality of the beam. These chambers typically exhibited variations in calibration coefficients of less than 3% with the beam quality, for medium energy beams. However, variations in air-kerma calibration coefficients of greater than 50% were measured over the range of medium-energy x-ray beams for each of the microchambers containing high-Z collecting electrodes (Z > 13). For these high-Z chambers, which include the Exradin A14SL and A16 chambers, the PTW TN31006 chamber, the IBA CC01 chamber, and the proof-of-concept chamber containing silver, the average variation in air-kerma calibration coefficients between any two calibration beams was nearly 25% over the entire range of beam qualities investigated. Conclusions: Due to the strong energy dependence observed with microchambers containing high-Z components, these chambers may not be suitable dosimeters for kilovoltage x-ray applications, as they do not meet the TG-61 requirements. It is recommended that only microchambers containing low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13) be considered for air-kerma calibrations for reference dosimetry in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams.

  3. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  4. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  5. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - X-Ray and UV Photoelectron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy X-Ray and UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy Example of graph made with cluster tool; plots counts (Y-axis) vs. binding energy (X-axis) for PET Carbon 1S. High-resolution XPS spectra of carbon 1s from polyethylene terephthalate backsheet material, showing excellent quantitative agreement between measured and predicted peak area ratios. Subtle differences in polymer functionality are assessed by deviations from stoichiometry. In photoemission techniques, we use either X-rays or

  6. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  7. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  8. 15.05.29 RH Operando X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Lichterman , M. F. et al. Direct Observation of the Energetics at a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Energy Environ. Sci ., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01014D (2015). Scientific Achievement We demonstrated that the operando XPS technique, applied to a semiconductor/liquid junction, can directly measure the positions of the electronic states of the

  9. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  10. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  11. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  12. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  13. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab

  14. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission

  15. Normal incidence X-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Martin J.; Romig, Jr., Alton D.

    1990-01-01

    A non-planar, focusing mirror, to be utilized in both electron column instruments and micro-x-ray fluorescence instruments for performing chemical microanalysis on a sample, comprises a concave, generally spherical base substrate and a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on the base substrate. The thickness of each layer is an integral multiple of the wavelength being reflected and may vary non-uniformly according to a predetermined design. The chemical analytical instruments in which the mirror is used also include a predetermined energy source for directing energy onto the sample and a detector for receiving and detecting the x-rays emitted from the sample; the non-planar mirror is located between the sample and detector and collects the x-rays emitted from the sample at a large solid angle and focuses the collected x-rays to the sample. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5 nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2 nm. Also, x-ray fluorescence instruments include an additional non-planar focusing mirror, formed in the same manner as the previously described m The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under contract with the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789, and the United States Government has rights in the invention pursuant to this contract.

  16. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  18. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  19. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods Print To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  20. SMB, X-ray Fluorescence Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam line 14-3b is a bending magnet side station dedicated to X-ray imaging and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biological, biomedical, materials, and geological samples. ...

  1. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  2. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-1199P Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1199P Unlimited Release Printed March 2007 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report Fiscal Year 2006 Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94A185000 Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited Contributing Authors: Franz Lauffer, Tim Jackson, Tim Goering,

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  4. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  5. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  6. The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line in the 0.9-10

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    keV range: The high energy x-ray source and some applications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line in the 0.9-10 keV range: The high energy x-ray source and some applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line in the 0.9-10 keV range: The high energy x-ray source and some applications The laser integration line (LIL) located at CEA-CESTA is equipped with x-ray

  7. X-rays from a microsecond X-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appartaim, R. K.

    2013-08-28

    The characteristics of x-rays emitted by X-pinches driven by discharging a current of ∼320 kA with a quarter period of 1 μs in crossed 25 μm wires have been investigated. The x-ray emissions are studied using filtered silicon photodiodes, diamond radiation detectors, and pinhole cameras. The results show that predominantly x-rays from the microsecond X-pinch tend to be emitted in two distinct sets of bursts. The first is predominantly “soft,” i.e., with photon energy hν < 5 keV, followed by a second set of bursts beginning up to 100 ns following the initial bursts, and usually consisting of higher photon energies. Our results show, however, that the x-ray emissions do not contain a significant component with hν > 10 keV as might be expected from electron beam activity within the plasma or from the X-pinch diode. High-resolution images obtained with the observed x-rays suggest a well-defined small source of soft x-rays that demonstrates the potential of the microsecond X-pinch.

  8. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  9. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayser, Y.; B?achucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-15

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibers.

  10. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  11. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  12. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA)more » laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.« less

  13. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  14. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  15. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojima, Sadaoki Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Ryukou

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is 0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  16. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  17. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015-06 ARJ 7/27/15 Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited 2015-06 ARJ 7/27/15 By Ashley R Jenkins at 1:53 pm, Jul 27, 2015 2015-06 ARJ 7/27/15 June 2015 CHPRC-2015-06, Revision 0 U.S. Department of Energy Contract, DE-AC06-08RL14788 Deliverable C.3.1.3.1 - 1 J. A. Ciucci President and Chief Executive Officer Monthly Performance Report 1 CHPRC-2015-06, Rev. 0 * Overview CHPRC Monthly Performance Report June 2015 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  18. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori; Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  19. Sulfur K{beta} x-ray emission from carbonyl sulfide: Variations with polarization and excitation energy at the S K threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyano, K.E. [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Arp, U. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Southworth, S.H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Meehan, T.E.; Walsh, T.R.; Larkins, F.P. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, (Australia) 3052] [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, (Australia) 3052

    1998-04-01

    Sulfur K{beta} x-ray-emission spectra from carbonyl sulfide have been measured with resonant excitation at the sulfur K absorption threshold and compared with results of self-consistent field and singles-doubles configuration-interaction calculations. For excitation to the strong 4{pi} absorption resonance, a splitting of the main emission peak is interpreted in terms of influence of the 4{pi} electron on the final valence-hole states. The polarization selectivity of the emission spectrometer was used to distinguish emission polarized parallel versus perpendicular with respect to the polarization of the excitation radiation. The observed polarization dependence is consistent with the molecular symmetries of the calculated intermediate and final states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry Monday, August 1, 2011 - 2:00pm SSRL Bldg. 137 Conference Room 137-322 Matthias Müller, Scientist at Physikalisch-Technischn, Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany Advanced research on novel semiconductor, energy-storage and energy-conversion devices relies on the reliability of the characterization

  1. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, David Peter; Johnson, Erik D.; Guckel, Henry; Klein, Jonathan L.

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

  2. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

  3. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  4. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  5. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  6. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-01-01

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  7. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  10. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrate for the first time a lensless x-ray imaging technique involving holographic principles and carried out in reflection (as opposed to transmission) geometry. The...

  12. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  13. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-9880 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unlimited Release Printed November 2013 Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter ... Unlimited Release Printed November 2013 Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter ...

  14. The Structure of Interfacial Water on Gold Electrodes Studied by X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 23, 2014, Research Highlights The Structure of Interfacial Water on Gold Electrodes Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Schematic representation of X-ray absorption measurements at the biased gold water interface. X-rays arrive from the left and transmit through a thin silicon nitride window plated with gold. Fluorescence provides information far from the interface while it was discovered that electron yield is

  15. Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers Gated x-ray intensifiers are often primary imaging diagnostics in high-energy-density-physics and inertial confinement fusion experiments. Improvements in resolution and background suppression can be achieved by electron focusing and improved phosphor screens. Efforts have been directed at improving luminosity, resolution, and decreased

  16. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fluences (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Authors: Schreck, Simon ; Beye, Martin ; Sellberg, Jonas A. ; McQueen, Trevor ; Laksmono, Hartawan ; Kennedy, Brian ; Eckert, Sebastian ; Schlesinger, Daniel ; Nordlund, Dennis ; Ogasawara, Hirohito ; Sierra, Raymond G. ; Segtnan,

  17. I Unlimited Release UC-70

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unlimited Release UC-70 Proceedings of the Fifth Annual NEA-Seabed Working Group Meeting Bristol, England March 3 - 5, 1980 D. Richard Anderson, Editor *md by $wrdia W - I Labcratmks, A l b u q w - New Mmka '71@s - a d L - Cal&mla SrFSBDfm tfm Unitad S l w m D - 1 ird E W @ ~ : ya& CpFaJS Q & d - 7 - ~~&rS&emhw I B ~ D -a,J - . r , ~ : :>5:, ~ ~ 5 - r 1 - e . - - Q Sandia National Laboratories L - I . DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by

  18. Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varshney, S. K.; Jakhar, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Barnsley, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); O'Mullane, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

  19. The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galayda, John; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

  20. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  1. Response Model for Kodak Biomax-MS Film to X Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Yaakobi, B.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B.A.; Chandler, K.M.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Mitchell, M.D.; Hammer, D.A.

    2007-01-24

    X-raysensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. New film becomes available as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a T-grain class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF film. A model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, SEM micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check of the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to T-grain type film.

  2. Response model for Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Yaakobi, B.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. A.; Chandler, K. M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Mitchell, M. D.; Hammer, D. A.

    2006-10-15

    X-ray-sensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. Replacement film must be found as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a 'T-grain' class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF and a model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, scanning electron microscopy micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check of the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to T-grain-type film.

  3. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  4. X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on Unconventional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconductivity | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on Unconventional Superconductivity Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594

  5. Transition-Edge Sensor X-Ray Fluorescence (TES-XRF) for High Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Identification | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Transition-Edge Sensor X-Ray Fluorescence (TES-XRF) for High Resolution Material Identification X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a technique for material identification. A low energy electron gun bombards a thin foil anode to produce a spectrum of x-rays that irradiate a material sample. The interaction of the x-rays through the photoelectric effect induce a cascade of atomic transitions in the sample material that re-emit characteristic

  6. Spectral brilliance of parametric X-rays at the FAST facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Tanaji; Seiss, Todd

    2015-06-22

    We discuss the generation of parametric X-rays in the new photoinjector at the FAST (Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology) facility in Fermilab. These experiments will be conducted in addition to channeling X-ray radiation experiments. The low emittance electron beam makes this facility a promising source for creating brilliant X-rays. We discuss the theoretical model and present detailed calculations of the intensity spectrum, energy and angular widths and spectral brilliance under different conditions. Furthermore, we report on expected results with parametric X-rays generated while under channeling conditions.

  7. The Soft X-ray research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Soft X-ray research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Soft X-ray research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source The Soft X-ray Research instrument provides intense ultrashort X-ray pulses in the energy range 280-2000 eV. A diverse set of experimental stations may be installed to investigate a broad range of scientific topics such as ultrafast chemistry, highly correlated materials,

  8. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Public, See below. Approved for Public Release; Further Dissemination Unlimited By Janis D. Aardal at 8:25 am, Oct 15, 2015 10/15/2015

  9. The cool component and the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of solar X-ray jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ? 10{sup 5} K) taken in the He II 304 band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 movies show a cool (T ? 10{sup 5} K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

  10. In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Dominguez, D. D.; Qadri, S. B.; Hubler, G. K.; Violante, V.; Hu, J. Z.; He, J. H.

    2012-10-15

    Time resolved, in-situ, energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was performed in an electrolysis cell during electrochemical loading of palladium foil cathodes with hydrogen and deuterium. Concentrations of H:Pd (D:Pd) up to 1:1 in 0.1 M LiOH (LiOD) in H{sub 2}O (D{sub 2}O) electrolyte were obtained, as determined by both the Pd lattice parameter and cathode resistivity. In addition, some indications on the kinetics of loading and deloading of hydrogen from the Pd surface were obtained. The alpha-beta phase transformations were clearly delineated but no new phases at high concentration were determined.

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be reconstructed by a single Fourier transform; this is known as Fourier transform holography. The problem of getting sufficiently coherent x-rays onto and off of the sample in a...

  12. X-ray image intensifier phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-12-01

    Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

  13. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography Authors: Chapman, H.N., Fromme, P., Barty, A., White, T.A., Kirian, R.A., Aquila, A., Hunter, M.S., Schulz, J., DePonte, D.P.,...

  14. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  15. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  16. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

  17. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

  18. Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow...

  19. Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

  20. X-rays at Solid-Liquid Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosch, Helmut (Max Planck Institute for Metals Research) [Max Planck Institute for Metals Research

    2007-05-02

    Solid-liquid interfaces play an important role in many areas of current and future technologies, and in our biosphere. They play a key role in the development of nanofluidics and nanotribology, which sensitively depend on our knowledge of the microscopic structures and phenomena at the solid-liquid interface. The detailed understanding of how a fluid meets a wall is also a theoretical challenge. In particular, the phenomena at repulsive walls are of interest, since they affect many different phenomena, such as water-repellent surfaces or the role of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding. Recent x-ray reflectivity studies of various solid-liquid interfaces have disclosed rather intriguiing phenomena, which will be discussed in this lecture: premelting of ice in contact with silica; liquid Pb in contact with Si; water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. These experiments, carried out with high-energy x-ray microbeams, reveal detailed insight into the liquid density profile closest to the wall. A detailed insight into atomistic phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is also a prerequisite in the microscopic control of electrochemical reactions at interfaces. Recent x-ray studies show the enormous future potential of such non-destructive analytical tools for the in situ observation of (electro-)chemical surface reactions. This lecture will review recent x-ray experiments on solid-liquid interfaces.

  1. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, United States

    2010-01-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  2. Operational properties of fluctuation X-ray scattering data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malmerberg, Erik; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Zwart, Petrus H.

    2015-03-20

    X-ray scattering images collected on timescales shorter than rotation diffusion times using a (partially) coherent beam result in a significant increase in information content in the scattered data. These measurements, named fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS), are typically performed on an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and can provide fundamental insights into the structure of biological molecules, engineered nanoparticles or energy-related mesoscopic materials beyond what can be obtained with standard X-ray scattering techniques. In order to understand, use and validate experimental FXS data, the availability of basic data characteristics and operational properties is essential, but has been absent up to this point.more » In this communication, an intuitive view of the nature of FXS data and their properties is provided, the effect of FXS data on the derived structural models is highlighted, and generalizations of the Guinier and Porod laws that can ultimately be used to plan experiments and assess the quality of experimental data are presented.« less

  3. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths ({approx} micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation.

  4. Optimal focusing for a linac-based hard x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Krafft, G.; Talman, R.

    2011-03-28

    In spite of having a small average beam current limit, a linac can have features that make it attractive as an x-ray source: high energy, ultralow emittance and energy spread, and flexible beamline optics. Unlike a storage ring, in which an (undulator) radiation source is necessarily short and positioned at an electron beam waist, in a linac the undulator can be long and the electron beam can be adjusted to have a (virtual) waist far downstream toward the x-ray target. Using a planned CEBAF beamline as an example, this paper shows that a factor of 2000 in beam current can be overcome to produce a monochromatic hard x-ray source comparable with, or even exceeding, the performance of an x-ray line at a third generation storage ring. Optimal electron beam focusing conditions for x-ray flux density and brilliance are derived, and are verified by simulations using the SRW code.

  5. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R.; Koo, Y.-M.

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  6. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas ...

  7. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression ...

  8. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ... September 3, 2016 Title: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ...

  9. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko ...

  10. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ...

  11. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  12. Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Biological Systems Title: Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of ...

  13. Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicros...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray ...

  14. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient ...

  15. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae Prev Next Title: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence ...

  16. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  17. Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, L.N.

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

  18. Secretary Chu Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser Secretary Chu Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser August 16, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today dedicated the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first and most powerful X-ray laser, at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The LCLS will play an essential role in addressing the scientific needs of the 21st century by exploring new ways to create

  19. Compound refractive lenses as prefocusing optics for X-ray FEL radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heimann, Philip; MacDonald, Michael; Nagler, Bob; Lee, Hae Ja; Galtier, Eric; Arnold, Brice; Xing, Zhou

    2016-01-27

    The performance of X-ray free-electron laser beamlines may be limited by the angular aperture. Compound refractive lenses (CRLs) can be employed to prefocus the X-ray beam, thereby increasing the beamline transmission. A prefocusing CRL was implemented in the X-ray transport of the Matter under Extreme Conditions Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source. A significant improvement in the beamline transmission was calculated over the 3–10 keV photon energy range. At 5 keV, the relative X-ray intensity was measured and a factor of four increase was seen in the beamline transmission. As a result, the X-ray focus was also determined bymore » the ablation imprint method.« less

  20. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  1. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  2. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm S.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

  3. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hailey, Charles J.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    1992-01-01

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

  4. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.

    1992-06-02

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation. 6 figs.

  5. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-1535 Unlimited Release

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-1535 Unlimited Release Printed March 2014 The Advanced Microgrid Integration and Interoperability Ward Bower, Ward Bower Innovations LLC Dan Ton, U.S. Department of Energy; Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Ross Guttromson, Sandia National Laboratories Steve Glover, Sandia National Laboratories Jason Stamp, Sandia National Laboratories Dhruv Bhatnagar, Sandia National Laboratories Jim Reilly, Reilly Associates Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories

  6. SANDIA REPORT SAND95-2049 UC-700 Unlimited Release

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -2049 UC-700 Unlimited Release Printed August 1995 c CHAPARRAL: A Library for Solving Large Enclosure Radiation Heat Transfer Problems Micheal W. Glass Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 for the United S t a t e s Department of Energy under Contract DE-Am-94AL85000 , I , - Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOnCE: This report was prepared as an

  7. X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

    The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

  8. Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter (SLAC, January 23-24, 1997) During the last five years studies have been conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg concerning the feasibility of driving an Angstrom-wavelength Free-Electron Laser (FEL) with a high energy rf linac. Recent promising advances in linac, rf gun, and insertion device technologies make it seem likely

  9. X-Ray Measurements Of A Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, C. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Caffrey, A. J.; Simpson, J.; Lemchak, M.

    2011-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X rays are a normal byproduct from neutron generators, but depending on their intensity and energy, x rays can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60 deg. between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and its x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric. A thin lead shield, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick, reduced the 70-keV generator x rays to negligible levels.

  10. Investigations of high-energy electrons of the microwave discharge plasma at configuration of the 'Magnetor' Bi-dipole magnetic confinement system by X-ray radiation analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krashevskaya, G. V. Kurnaev, V. A.; Salakhutdinov, G. Kh.; Tsventoukh, M. M.

    2011-12-15

    The results of the investigations of a group of fast electrons in a microwave discharge plasma in the 'Magnetor' magnetic trap are presented. The data on the presence and location of this group of electrons is important for estimating the total plasma pressure taking the previous probe measurements into account. Fast electrons are found to be localized within the magnetic separatrix in the region of confinement of the main plasma. The maximal energy of fast electrons is higher than 25 keV.

  11. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Rosser, Roy

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  12. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  13. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  14. X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links: May 2005 Headlines TIP Article Press Release Walters Art Museum SSRL Home Page SLAC Home Page Stanford Home Page Tuesday, 31 May 2005 X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text (contact: Uwe Bergmann, bergmann@slac.stanford.edu) Archimedes Figure Image provided by Will Noel, The Walters Art Museum An early transcription of Archimedes' mathematical theories has been brought to light through the probing of high-intensity x-rays at SSRL's BL6-2. The text contains part of the Method of

  15. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  16. Phase-contrast imaging using ultrafast x-rays in laser-shocked materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Workman, Jonathan B; Cobble, James A; Flippo, Kirk; Gautier, Donald C; Montgomery, David S; Offermann, Dustin T

    2010-01-01

    High-energy x-rays, > 10-keV, can be efficiently produced from ultrafast laser target interactions with many applications to dense target materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High-Energy Density Physics (HEDP). These same x-rays can also be applied to measurements of low-density materials inside high-density hohlraum environments. In the experiments presented, high-energy x-ray images of laser-shocked polystyrene are produced through phase contrast imaging. The plastic targets are nominally transparent to traditional x-ray absorption but show detailed features in regions of high density gradients due to refractive effects often called phase contrast imaging. The 200-TW Trident laser is used both to produce the x-ray source and to shock the polystyrene target. X-rays at 17-keV produced from 2-ps, 100-J laser interactions with a 12-micron molybdenum wire are used to produce a small source size, required for optimizing refractive effects. Shocks are driven in the 1-mm thick polystyrene target using 2-ns, 250-J, 532-nm laser drive with phase plates. X-ray images of shocks compare well to 1-D hydro calculations, HELIOS-CR.

  17. Anomalous lattice expansion in yttria stabilized zirconia under simultaneous applied electric and thermal fields: A time-resolved in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry study with an ultrahigh energy synchrotron probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Savkl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, I.; Bicer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Tsakalakos, T.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-06-21

    Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 Degree-Sign C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 Degree-Sign C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 Degree-Sign C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm{sup 3}. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 Degree-Sign C and 905 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 Degree-Sign C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains ({epsilon}) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are {epsilon}{sub (112)} = 0.05% and {epsilon}{sub (211)} = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths ({beta}) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 Degree-Sign C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {l_brace} {beta}{sub (112)}/{beta}{sub (211)}{r_brace} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 Degree-Sign C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the superposition of mass fluxes due to Fickian diffusion, thermodiffusion (Soret effect), and electromigration, which in turn are a consequence of a superposition of chemical, temperature, and electrical potential gradients. On the other hand, we propose defect pile-up at particle-particle contacts and subsequent tunneling as a mechanism creating the 'burst-mode' discontinuous densification at the singularities observed at 847 and 905 Degree-Sign C.

  18. X-ray calibration of Kodak Direct Exposure film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.B.; Burkhalter, P.G.; Rockett, P.D.; Bird, C.R.; Hailey, C.J.; Sullivan, D.

    1985-08-15

    Kodak Direct Exposure film (DEF) has replaced Kodak No-Screen film for use in x-ray diffraction analysis and in autoradiography. DEF is a double-emulsion film which has been found to have improved radio-graphic characteristics over No-Screen. A set of H-D curves has been generated for DEF at five photon energies: 0.930, 1.49, 1.74, 4.51/4.93, and 6.93 keV. The KMSF x-ray calibration facility was utilized to study the absolute sensitivity of this film over its full dynamic range. Physical examination of the film was followed by theoretical modeling, which adequately reproduced the measured curves.

  19. Chandra X-ray Observations of WZ Sge in Superoutburst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, P J; Mauche, C W

    2004-10-13

    We present seven separate Chandra observations of the 2001 superoutburst of WZ Sge. The high-energy outburst was dominated by intense EUV emission lines, which we interpret as boundary layer emission scattered into our line of sight in an accretion disc wind. The direct boundary layer emission was hidden from view, presumably by the accretion disc. The optical outburst orbital hump was detected in the EUV, but the common superhump was not, indicating a geometric mechanism in the former and a dissipative mechanism in the latter. X-rays detected during outburst were not consistent with boundary layer emission and we argue that there must be a second source of X-rays in dwarf novae in outburst.

  20. Two-color X-rays Give Scientists 3-D View of the Unknown | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    with a pair of precisely tuned X-ray laser pulses of different colors, or photon energies. ... photocathode with a train of two laser pulses separated in time by a few picoseconds. ...

  1. Scientist Take First X-Ray Portraits of Living Cyanobacteria at the LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-02-11

    Researchers from Uppsala University working at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have captured the first X-ray portraits of living bacteria, detecting signals from features as small as 4 nanometers, or 4 billionths of a meter.

  2. New x-ray technique to study molecular orientation through non-crystalline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin films | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome New x-ray technique to study molecular orientation through non-crystalline thin films

  3. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  4. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  5. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  6. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  7. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  8. DISCOVERY OF AN EXTENDED X-RAY JET IN AP LIBRAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufmann, S.; Wagner, S. J.; Tibolla, O.

    2013-10-20

    Chandra observations of the low-energy-peaked BL Lac object (LBL) AP Librae (AP Lib) revealed the clear discovery of a non-thermal X-ray jet. AP Lib is the first LBL with an extended non-thermal X-ray jet that shows emission into the very high energy range. The X-ray jet has an extension of ?15''(? 14 kpc). The X-ray jet morphology is similar to the radio jet observed with Very Large Array at 1.36 GHz emerging in the southeast direction and bends by 50 at a distance of 12'' toward the northeast. The intensity profiles of the X-ray emission studied are consistent with those found in the radio range. The spectral analysis reveals that the X-ray spectra of the core and jet region are both inverse-Compton-(IC)-dominated. This adds to a still small sample of BL Lac objects whose X-ray jets are IC-dominated and thus more similar to the high-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley II sources than to the low-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley I objects, which are usually considered to be the parent population of BL Lac objects.

  9. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    algae (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Accepted Manuscript: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae « Prev Next » Title: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science (PAGES). This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-4352P Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    352P Unlimited Release Printed September 2007 Calendar Year 2006 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Matthew Sneddon, Susan Koss, Rebecca Sanchez and Charlene Cunningham Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94Al85000.

  11. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-4407P Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    407P Unlimited Release Printed September 2007 Calendar Year 2006 Annual Site Environmental Report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii Matthew Sneddon, Susan Koss, Rebecca Sanchez, and Charlene Cunningham Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract

  12. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-0687 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-0687 Unlimited Release Printed January 2014 The Water, Energy, and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim(tm)): A User's Manual Peter H. Kobos, Jesse D. Roach, Geoffrey T. Klise, Jason E. Heath, Thomas A. Dewers, Karen A. Gutierrez, Leonard A. Malczynski, David J. Borns and Andrea McNemar. Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by

  13. SAND REPORT SAND2005-7937 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    937 Unlimited Release Printed January 2006 Agent-Based Control of Distributed Infrastructure Resources Laurence Phillips, Hamilton Link, Randy Smith, and Laura Weiland Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for

  14. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-3779 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3779 Unlimited Release Printed June 2011 The Sandia 100-meter All-glass Baseline Wind Turbine Blade: SNL100-00 D. Todd Griffith and Thomas D. Ashwill Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under

  15. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-9305 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-9305 Unlimited Release Printed November 2011 Reference Model MHK Turbine Array Optimization Study within a Generic River System Erick Johnson, Janet Barco, Scott James, and Jesse Roberts Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National

  16. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-9306 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-9306 Unlimited Release Printed November 2011 Reference Model 2: "Rev 0" Rotor Design Matt Barone, Todd Griffith, and Jonathan Berg Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-0304 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0304 Unlimited Release Printed January 2012 A Retrospective of VAWT Technology Herbert J. Sutherland, Dale E. Berg, and Thomas D. Ashwill Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  18. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-2090 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    090 Unlimited Release Printed March 2013 Literature Review: Reducing Soft Costs of Rooftop Solar Installations Attributed to Structural Considerations Stephen F. Dwyer, PhD, PE Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear

  19. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-19199 Unlimited Release Printed October,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-19199 Unlimited Release Printed October, 2014 A Handbook on Artificial Soils for Indoor Photovoltaic Soiling Tests Patrick D. Burton, Bruce H. King Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under

  20. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-20601 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01 Unlimited Release Printed December 2014 Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations Stephen F. Dwyer, PhD, PE Brian P. Dwyer Alfred Sanchez Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  1. HNF-53759 Revision 0 Approved for Public Release Further Dissemination Unlimited

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    759 Revision 0 Approved for Public Release Further Dissemination Unlimited Summer Bat Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2012 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management Contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 P.O. Box 650 Richland, Washington 99352 HNF-53759 Revision 0 This page intentionally left blank. HNF-53759 Revision 0 Approved for Public Release Further Dissemination Unlimited Summer Bat Monitoring

  2. Lab Breakthrough: X-ray Laser Captures Atoms and Molecules in Action |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy X-ray Laser Captures Atoms and Molecules in Action Lab Breakthrough: X-ray Laser Captures Atoms and Molecules in Action July 18, 2012 - 12:51pm Addthis The Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC is the world's most powerful X-ray laser, which helps researchers understand the extreme conditions found in the hearts of stars and giant planets guiding research into nuclear fusion, the mechanism that powers the sun. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. Michael Hess Michael

  3. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    concentration of Ti (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Low-density foams irradiated by a 20 kJ laser at the Omega laser facility (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY, USA) are shown to convert more than 5% of the laser energy into 4.6 to 6.0 keV x rays. This record

  4. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-05-22

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis.

  5. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraenkel, Ben; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, A. Lane; Stodiek, Wolfgang; von Goeler, Schweickhard E.

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  6. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-20

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  7. Absolute x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped low-density aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Satcher, J. H.; May, M. J.; Poco, J. F.; Sorce, C. M.; Colvin, J. D.; Hansen, S. B.; MacLaren, S. A.; Moon, S. J.; Davis, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Primout, M.; Babonneau, D. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Direction des Application Militaires (CEA/DAM), Ile-de-France, F91297 Arpajon (France); Coverdale, C. A.; Beutler, D. E. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped ultra-low-density aerogel plasmas have been measured in the energy range from sub-keV to {approx_equal}15 keV at the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The targets' x-ray yields have been studied for variation in target size, aerogel density, laser pulse length, and laser intensity. For targets that result in plasmas with electron densities in the range of {approx_equal}10% of the critical density for 3{omega} light, one can expect 10-11 J/sr of x rays with energies above 9 keV, and 600-800 J/sr for energies below 3.5 keV. In addition to the x-ray spectral yields, the x-ray temporal waveforms have been measured and it is observed that the emitted x rays generally follow the delivered laser power, with late-time enhancements of emitted x-ray power correlated with hydrodynamic compression of the hot plasma. Further, the laser energy reflected from the target by plasma instabilities is found to be 2%-7% of the incident energy for individual beam intensities {approx_equal}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The propagation of the laser heating in the target volume has been characterized with two-dimensional imaging. Source-region heating is seen to be correlated with the temporal profile of the emitted x-ray power.

  8. X-ray position detector and implementation in a mirror pointing servo system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabedeau, Thomas A.; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Stefan, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    An X-ray beam position and stability detector is provided having a first metal blade collinear with a second metal blade, where an edge of the first metal blade is opposite an edge of the second metal blade, where the first metal blade edge and the second metal blade edge are disposed along a centerline with respect to each other, where the metal blades are capable of photoelectron emission when exposed to an x-ray beam, a metal coating on the metal blades that is capable of enhancing the photoelectron emission, or suppressing energy-resonant contaminants, or enhancing the photoelectron emission and suppressing energy-resonant contaminants, a background shielding element having an electrode capable of suppressing photoelectron emission from spurious x-rays not contained in an x-ray beam of interest, and a photoelectron emission detector having an amplifier capable of detecting the photoelectron emission as a current signal.

  9. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  10. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  11. SIMULTANEOUS X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE SW SEXTANTIS STAR DW URSAE MAJORIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.; Lu, Ting-Ni; Knigge, Christian; Homer, Lee; Szkody, Paula; Still, M.; Long, Knox S.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2010-11-15

    We present the first pointed X-ray observation of DW Ursae Majoris, a novalike cataclysmic variable (CV) and one of the archetype members of the SW Sextantis class, obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite. These data provide the first detailed look at an SW Sex star in the X-ray regime (with previous X-ray knowledge of the SW Sex stars limited primarily to weak or non-detections in the ROSAT All Sky Survey). It is also one of only a few XMM-Newton observations (to date) of any high mass transfer rate novalike CV, and the only one in the evolutionarily important 3-4 hr orbital period range. The observed X-ray spectrum of DW UMa is very soft, with {approx}95% of the detected X-ray photons at energies <2 keV. The spectrum can be fit equally well by a one-component cooling flow model, with a temperature range of 0.2-3.5 keV, or a two-component, two-temperature thermal plasma model, containing hard ({approx}5-6 keV) and soft ({approx}0.8 keV) components. The X-ray light curve of DW UMa shows a likely partial eclipse, implying X-ray reprocessing in a vertically extended region, and an orbital modulation, implying a structural asymmetry in the X-ray reprocessing site (e.g., it cannot be a uniform corona). We also obtained a simultaneous near-ultraviolet light curve of DW UMa using the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. This light curve is similar in appearance to published optical-UV light curves of DW UMa and shows a prominent deep eclipse. Regardless of the exact nature of the X-ray reprocessing site in DW UMa, the lack of a prominent hard X-ray total eclipse and very low fraction of high energy X-rays point to the presence of an optically and geometrically thick accretion disk that obscures the boundary layer and modifies the X-ray spectrum emitted near the white dwarf.

  12. Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption study

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption study × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  13. How to Turn Carbon into A Magnet? X-rays and Protons Give the Answer!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Turn Carbon into A Magnet? X-rays and Protons Give the Answer! Since antiquity, magnetism has appeared to be a trick performed only by iron, nickel, cobalt and a handful of rare alloys. But now the exclusive club of magnetic elements officially has a new member: carbon. Using a proton beam and advanced x-ray techniques, researchers at the Department of Energy's Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Leipzig and Lawrence Berkeley

  14. The Soft X-ray research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dakovski, Georgi L.; Heimann, Philip; Holmes, Michael; Krupin, Oleg; European XFEL, Hamburg; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Rowen, Michael; Schlotter, William F.; et al

    2015-04-02

    The Soft X-ray Research instrument provides intense ultrashort X-ray pulses in the energy range 280–2000 eV. A diverse set of experimental stations may be installed to investigate a broad range of scientific topics such as ultrafast chemistry, highly correlated materials, magnetism, surface science, and matter under extreme conditions. A brief description of the main instrument components will be given, followed by some selected scientific highlights.

  15. Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Co microdot magnetic arrays (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is

  16. Sample holder for X-ray diffractometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hesch, Victor L.

    1992-01-01

    A sample holder for use with X-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

  17. Proposed new accelerator design for homeland security x-ray applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, James; Shedlock, Daniel; Langeveld, Willem G.J.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Nosochkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Two goals for security scanning of cargo and freight are the ability to determine the type of material that is being imaged, and to do so at low radiation dose. One commonly used technique to determine the effective Z of the cargo is dual-energy imaging, i.e. imaging with different x-ray energy spectra. Another technique uses the fact that the transmitted x-ray spectrum itself also depends on the effective Z. Spectroscopy is difficult because the energy of individual x rays needs to be measured in a very high count-rate environment. Typical accelerators for security applications offer large but short bursts of x-rays, suitable for current-mode integrated imaging. In order to perform x-ray spectroscopy, a new accelerator design is desired that has the following features: 1) increased duty factor in order to spread out the arrival of x-rays at the detector array over time; 2) x-ray intensity modulation from one delivered pulse to the next by adjusting the accelerator electron beam instantaneous current so as to deliver adequate signal without saturating the spectroscopic detector; and 3) the capability to direct the (forward peaked) x-ray intensity towards high-attenuation areas in the cargo (fan-beam-steering). Current sources are capable of 0.1% duty factor, although usually they are operated at significantly lower duty factors (~0.04%), but duty factors in the range 0.4-1.0% are desired. The higher duty factor can be accomplished, e.g., by moving from 300 pulses per second (pps) to 1000 pps and/or increasing the pulse duration from a typical 4 ?s to 10 ?s. This paper describes initial R&D to examine cost effective modifications that could be performed on a typical accelerator for these purposes, as well as R&D for fan-beam steering.

  18. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  19. X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex Core Motion in Circular Permalloy Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging of ...

  20. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322...

  1. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

  2. Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD-IXN XSD-IXN Home Staff Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group operates beamlines at APS Sectors 3, 9 and 30....

  3. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that can be controlled by varying the properties of the optical control beam. Problems arise, however, when the probe pulse lies in the x-ray regime because x rays interact...

  4. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

  5. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

  6. X-ray Science Division (XSD) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD Groups XSD Safety and Training XSD Strategic Plan XSD Visitor Program XSD Intranet X-ray Science Division (XSD) XSD enables world-class research using x-rays by developing...

  7. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in...

  8. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray ...

  9. X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray crystallographic ...

  10. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Abstract not provided. Authors: Fournier, K. B. 1 + ...

  11. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  12. Characteristic x-ray emission from undermines plasmas irradiated by ultra-intense lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, Christoph

    2012-05-05

    Between FY09 and FY11 we have conducted more than a dozen three-week experimental campaigns at high-power laser facilities around the world to investigate laser-channeling through x-ray and optical imaging and the conversion from laser-energy to xrays. We have performed simultaneous two-wavelength x-ray imaging (K-alpha and He-alpha) to distinguish the hot-plasma region (hot-spot) from the laser-produced electrons (K-alpha). In addition, we have initiated a new collaboration with SNL and have performed first shots on the 100 TW beamlet chamber to commission a fast x-ray streak camera to be used to investigate the temporal evolution of our K-alpha sources. We also collaborated on campaigns at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and the LANL Trident laser to employ laser produced x-ray sources for Thomson scattering off dense matter.

  13. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  14. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  15. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  16. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  17. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  18. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  19. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  20. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  1. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  2. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  3. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  4. Best Practices for Operando Battery Experiments: Influences of X-ray Experiment Design on Observed Electrochemical Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkiewicz, O. J.; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2015-06-04

    Dynamic properties and multiscale complexities governing electrochemical energy storage in batteries are most ideally interrogated under simulated operating conditions within an electrochemical cell. We assess how electrochemical reactivity can be impacted by experiment design, including the X-ray measurements or by common features or adaptations of electrochemical cells that enable X-ray measurements.

  5. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staudenmann, Jean-Louis; Liedl, Gerald L.

    1987-07-07

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5.degree. to 86.5.degree., and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive work.

  6. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staudenmann, J.L.; Liedl, G.L.

    1983-12-02

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5/sup 0/ to 86.5/sup 0/, and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive.

  7. Growing Cutting-edge X-ray Optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ray Conley

    2013-07-17

    Ever imagined that an Xbox controller could help open a window into a world spanning just one billionth of a meter? Brookhaven Lab's Ray Conley grows cutting-edge optics called multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) one atomic layer at a time to focus high-energy x-rays to within a single nanometer. To achieve this focusing feat, Ray uses a massive, custom-built atomic deposition device, an array of computers, and a trusty Xbox controller. These lenses will be deployed at the Lab's National Synchrotron Light Source II, due to begin shining super-bright light on pressing scientific puzzles in 2015

  8. Argonne X-rays validate quantum magnetism model | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory X-rays validate quantum magnetism model May 20, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany have validated a theorized model of quantum magnetism by observing it firsthand in a honeycomb lattice. The research is featured in an article titled "Direct evidence for dominant bond-directional interactions in a honeycomb lattice iridate Na2IrO3" published

  9. MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

    2010-11-04

    The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

  10. HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

  11. Installation of soft X-ray array diagnostics and its application to tomography reconstruction using synthetic KSTAR X-ray images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Juhyeok; Hong, Joohwan; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Kim, Junghee

    2014-11-15

    Four-array system of soft X-ray diagnostics was installed on KSTAR tokamak. Each array has 32 viewing chords of two photo-diode array detectors with spatial resolution of 2 cm. To estimate signals from the soft X-ray radiation power, typical n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and argon impurity line radiation profiles in KSTAR are chosen. The photo-diodes were absolutely calibrated as a function of the incident photon energy in 240 keV range with a portable X-ray tube. Two-dimensional T{sub e} image properties by multi-energy method were simulated and visualized with six combinations of beryllium filter sets within the dynamic range of signal ratio.

  12. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  13. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-9040 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-9040 Unlimited Release Printed March 2014 Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies Vincent S. Neary 1 , Mirko Previsic 2 , Richard A. Jepsen 1 , Michael J. Lawson 3 , Yi-Hsiang Yu 3 , Andrea E. Copping 4 , Arnold A. Fontaine 5 , Kathleen C. Hallett 3 , Dianne K. Murray 1 1 Sandia National Laboratories Water Power Technologies Department P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1124 2 Re Vision Consulting, LLC 3 National Renewable Energy

  14. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  15. Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-10-29

    The Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector software requires a digital x-ray image of a pipe as input to the program, such as the image in Attachment A Figure 1. The image may be in a variety of software formats such as bitmap, jpeg, tiff, DICOM or DICONDE. The software allows the user to interactively select a region of interest from the image for analysis. This software is used to analyze digital x-ray images of pipes tomore » evaluate loss of wall thickness. The software specifically provides tools to analyze the image in (a) the pipe walls, (b) between the pipe walls. Traditional software uses only the information at the pipe wall while this new software also evaluates the image between the pipewalls. This makes the inspection process faster, more thorough, more efficient, and reduces expensive reshots. Attachment A Figure 2 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user around an anomaly in the pipe wall. This area is automatically analyzed by the external pipe wall tool with the result shown in Attachment A Figure 3. The edges of the pipe wall are detected and highlighted in yellow and areas where the wall thickness in less the the minimum wall threshold are shown in red. These measurements are typically made manually in other software programs, which lead to errors and inconsistency because the location of the edges are estimated by the user. Attachment A Figure 4 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user between the pipe walls. As can be seen there are intensity anomalies that correspond to wall defects. However, this information is not used directly by other software programs. In order to fully investigate these anomalies, the pipe would be reinspected in a different orientation to attempt to obtain a view of the anomaly in the pipe wall rather than the interior of the pipe. The pipe may need to be x-rayed a number of times to obtain the correct orientation. This is very costly and time consuming. The new software can perform the analysis directly on the intensity information in the original image. Figures 5 through 9 in Attachment A show wall defects in red for various percents of wall thickness loss. For example, Figure 5 show defects (in red) where the wall thickness is 95% or less than the nominal wall thickness (or a 5% or greater wall thickness loss). Wall thicknesses can be given in absolute terms as well.« less

  16. Holographic Methods in X-ray Crystallography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-28

    The holographic method makes use of partially modeled electron density and experimentally-measured structure factor amplitudes to recover electron density corresponding to the unmodeled part of a crystal structure. This paper describes a fast algorithm that makes it possible to apply the holographic method to sizable crystallographic problems. The algorithm uses positivity constraints on the electron density, and can incorporate a target electron density, making it similar to solvent flattening. Using both synthetic and experimental data,more » we assess the potential for applying the holographic method to macromolecular x-ray crystallography.« less

  17. Subject: Ames Blue Alert - X-ray Shutter Maintenance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert - X-ray Shutter Maintenance Statement: This lesson learned involves an Ames Laboratory x-ray system. Prior to starting x- ray experiments checking the operability of safety interlocks and x-ray shutter systems will decrease the likelihood of an unplanned exposure incident. Discussion: At the end of a sample run the shutter for an x-ray system at the Ames Laboratory did not close automatically as expected. The researcher followed the approved safety procedures and did not access

  18. Low-level determination of plutonium by gamma and L x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitsche, H.; Gatti, R.C.; Lee, S.C.

    1991-04-01

    we have developed an analytical method for detection of {sup 239}Pu in aqueous samples at concentrations as low as 10{sup {minus}10} M. This nuclear counting technique utilizes the uranium L X-rays, which follow the alpha decay of plutonium. Because L X-rays are specific for the element and not for the individual isotopes, the isotopic composition of the plutonium sample must be known. The counting efficiency in the 11--23 keV range is determined from a plutonium standard, and the concentration of the sample is then calculated from the L X-ray count and the isotopic composition. The total L X-ray count is corrected for possible contributions from other radionuclides present as impurities by measuring the low-energy gamma spectrum for each contaminant to establish specific photon/X-ray ratios. The ratios are important when {sup 241}Pu and {sup 242}Pu are measured, because the respective decay chain members produce non-U L X-rays. This new method can replace the use of labor-intensive radiochemical separation techniques and elaborate activation methods for analysis of {sup 239}Pu in aqueous samples. It is also applicable for assaying plutonium in liquid wastes that pose possible hazards to the environment.

  19. Development of a Novel Tunable X-Ray Source for the RPI-LINAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Danon; R.C. Block

    2004-11-30

    This document summarizes the results of a three year effort to develop a parametric x-ray (PXR) source. The emphasis of this research was to demonstrate production of high yield monoenergetic x-rays. Production of PXR is accomplished by placing a crystal in a relativistic electron beam. The process was first demonstrated in 1985 in Russia. Numerous papers were written about the characteristics of PXR from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The advantage of PXR over other monoenergetic x-ray sources is that it is produced at large angle relative to the electron beam and at high intensity. None of the previous work described in the literature capitalized on this effect to study what is required in order to generate an effective monoenergetic x-ray source that can be used for practical applications. The work summarized here describes the process done in order to optimize the PXR production process by selecting an appropriate crystal and the optimal conditions. The research focused on production of 18 keV x-rays which are suitable for mammography however the results are not limited to this application or energy range. We are the first group to demonstrate x-ray imaging using PXR. Such sources can improve current medical imaging modalities. More research is required in order to design a prototype of a compact source.

  20. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for minitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

  1. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

  2. Periodicities in the X-ray emission from the solar corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Jain, Rajmal; Awasthi, Arun K. E-mail: parthares@gmail.com E-mail: awasthi@prl.res.in

    2013-11-20

    We have studied the time series of full disk integrated soft and hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during 2004 January to 2008 December, covering the entire descending phase of solar cycle 23 from a global point of view. We employ the daily X-ray index derived from 1 s cadence X-ray observations from the Si and CZT detectors of the 'Solar X-ray Spectrometer' mission in seven different energy bands ranging between 6 and 56 keV. X-ray data in the energy bands 6-7, 7-10, 10-20, and 4-25 keV from the Si detector are considered, while 10-20, 20-30, and 30-56 keV high energy observations are taken from the CZT detector. The daily time series is subjected to power spectrum analysis after appropriate correction for noise. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique has shown prominent periods of ?13.5 days, ?27 days, and a near-Rieger period of ?181 days and ?1.24 yr in all energy bands. In addition to this, other periods like ?31, ?48, ?57, ?76, ?96, ?130, ?227, and ?303 days are also detected in different energy bands. We discuss our results in light of previous observations and existing numerical models.

  3. High efficiency, high quality x-ray optic based on ellipsoidally bent highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal for ultrafast x-ray diffraction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uschmann, I.; Nothelle, U.; Foerster, E.; Arkadiev, V.; Langhoff, N.; Antonov, A.; Grigorieva, I.; Steinkopf, R.; Gebhardt, A

    2005-08-20

    By the use of a thin highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal (HOPG) bent to a high-performance ellipsoidal shape it was possible to focus monochromatic x-rays of 4.5 keV photon energy with an efficiency of 0.0033, which is 30 times larger than for previously used bent crystals. Isotropic TiK{sub a}lpha radiation of a 150 {mu}m source was focused onto a 450 {mu}m spot. The size of the focal spot can be explained by broadening due to the mosaic crystal rocking curve. The rocking curve width (FWHM) of the thin graphite foil was determined to 0.11 deg. . The estimated temporal broadening of an ultrashort Kalpha pulse by the crystal is not larger than 300 fs. These properties make the x-ray optic very attractive for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray measurements.

  4. Feasibility of x ray fluorescence for spent fuel safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey Ross; Mozin, Vladimir; Tobin, Stephen J; Fensin, Michael L; White, Julia M; Croft, Stephen; Stafford, Alissa; Charlton, William

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel is necessary for many reasons, in particular to verify that diversion or other illicit activities have not occurred. Therefore, safeguarding the world's nuclear fuel is paramount to responsible nuclear regulation and public acceptance, but achieving this goal presents many difficulties from both a technical and economic perspective. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of NA-24 is funding a large collaborative effort between multiple laboratories and universities to improve spent nuclear fuel safeguards methods and equipment. This effort involves the current work of modeling several different nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Several are being researched, because no single NDA technique, in isolation, has the potential to properly characterize fuel assemblies and offer a robust safeguards measure. The insights gained from this research, will be used to down-select from the original set a few of the most promising techniques that complement each other. The goal is to integrate the selected instruments to create an accurate measurement system for fuel verification that is also robust enough to detect diversions. These instruments will be fabricated and tested under realistic conditions. This work examines one of the NDA techniques; the feasibility of using x ray emission peaks from Pu and U to gather information about their relative quantities in the spent fuel. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF), is unique compared to the investigated techniques in that it is the only one able to give the elemental ratio of Pu to U, allowing the possibility of a Pu gram quantity for the assembly to be calculated. XRF also presents many challenges, mainly its low penetration, since the low energy x rays of interest are effectively shielded by the first few millimeters of a fuel pin. This paper will explore the results of Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code calculations of spent fuel x ray peaks. The MCNPX simulations will be benchmarked against measurements taken at Oak Ridge. Analysis of the feasibility of XRFs role in spent nuclear fuel safeguards efforts, particularly in the context of the overall NGSI effort will be discussed.

  5. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  6. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  7. Gray scale x-ray mask

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Gonzales, Marcela

    2006-03-07

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

  8. Gated monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.; Clark, L.

    1995-09-01

    We have recently developed a gated monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for the national Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This new imaging system will be one of the primary diagnostics to be utilized on University of Rochester`s Omega laser fusion facility. The new diagnostic is based upon a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope dispersed by diffraction crystals, as first described by Marshall and Su. The dispersed images are gated by four individual proximity focused microchannel plates and recorded on film. Spectral coverage is tunable up to 8 keV, spectral resolution has been measured at 20 eV, temporal resolution is 80 ps, and spatial resolution is better than 10 {mu}m.

  9. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Edward M.; Rosen, Mordecai D.

    1989-01-01

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  10. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  11. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  12. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  13. X-ray tests of a two-dimensional stigmatic imaging scheme with variable magnifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, J.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Caughey, T. A.; Brunner, J.

    2014-11-15

    A two-dimensional stigmatic x-ray imaging scheme, consisting of two spherically bent crystals, one concave and one convex, was recently proposed [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E527 (2012)]. The Bragg angles and the radii of curvature of the two crystals of this imaging scheme are matched to eliminate the astigmatism and to satisfy the Bragg condition across both crystal surfaces for a given x-ray energy. In this paper, we consider more general configurations of this imaging scheme, which allow us to vary the magnification for a given pair of crystals and x-ray energy. The stigmatic imaging scheme has been validated for the first time by imaging x-rays generated by a micro-focus x-ray source with source size of 8.4 ?m validated by knife-edge measurements. Results are presented from imaging the tungsten L?1 emission at 8.3976 keV, using a convex Si-422 crystal and a concave Si-533 crystal with 2d-spacings of 2.21707 and 1.65635 and radii of curvature of 500 1 mm and 823 1 mm, respectively, showing a spatial resolution of 54.9 ?m. This imaging scheme is expected to be of interest for the two-dimensional imaging of laser produced plasmas.

  14. The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; et al

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 4–24 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  15. Analysis of Off-Nuclear X-Ray Sources in Galaxy NGC 4945 (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Analysis of Off-Nuclear X-Ray Sources in Galaxy NGC 4945 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of Off-Nuclear X-Ray Sources in Galaxy NGC 4945 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A

  16. The X-ray PumpProbe instrument at the LinacCoherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; Ramsey, Kelley; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Stefanescu, Daniel; Srinivasan, Venkat; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray PumpProbe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 424 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  17. High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue Chaofan; Wang Yong; Guo Zhi; Wu Yanqing; Zhen Xiangjun; Chen Min; Chen Jiahua; Xue Song; Tai Renzhong; Peng Zhongqi; Lu Qipeng

    2010-10-15

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is the first third-generation synchrotron facility in China and operated at an electron energy of 3.5 GeV. One of the seven beamlines in the first construction phase is devoted to soft x-ray spectromicroscopy and is equipped with an elliptically polarized undulator light source, a plane grating monochromator, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope end station. Initial results reveal the high performance of this beamline, with an energy resolving power estimated to be over 10 000 at the argon L-edge and a spatial resolution better than 30 nm.

  18. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemoreexcitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.less

  19. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  20. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald; He, Fei; Lau, Yue-Ying

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  1. X-ray transmission movies of spontaneous dynamic events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Holmes, M.; Novak, A.; Oschwald, D.; Dolgonos, P.; Qualls, B.

    2014-11-15

    We describe a new x-ray radiographic imaging system which allows for continuous x-ray transmission imaging of spontaneous dynamic events. We demonstrate this method on thermal explosions in three plastic bonded formulations of the energetic material octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. We describe the x-ray imaging system and triggering developed to enable the continuous imaging of a thermal explosion.

  2. X-ray interferometry with spherically bent crystals (abstract)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in manufacturing high-quality spherically bent crystals allows highly monochromatic x-ray beams to be produced, and allows efficient x-ray imaging with {mu}m-scale resolution. This article explores some of the constraints for x-ray interferometry utilizing spherically bent crystals and laser-produced plasma sources, and discusses several shearing interferometer concepts that might be experimentally investigated.

  3. 14.05.14 RH Synchrotron X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Throughput Synchrotron X-Ray Experimentation for Combinatorial Phase Matching Gregoire, J. M. et al. High-throughput synchrotron X-ray diffraction for combinatorial phase mapping. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 21, 1262-1268, DOI: 10.1107/s1600577514016488 (2014). Scientific Achievement Development of new synchrotron X-ray diffraction and fluorescence methods for rapid characterization of material libraries. Significance & impact First demonstration of prototype facility capable of

  4. Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering Monday, September 10, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems. Resonant scattering with x-rays allow elemental specificity with magnetic contrast, and coherent light leads to speckle in the scattered pattern due to interference from waves exiting the sample.

  5. ANL CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Utilizing Digital X-ray

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-01

    Reconstructs X-ray computed tomographic images from large data sets known as 16-bit binary sinograms when using a massively parallelized computer architecture such as a Beowuif cluster by parallelizing the X-ray CT reconstruction routine. The algorithm uses the concept of generation of an image from carefully obtained multiple 1-D or 2-D X-ray projections. The individual projections are filtered using a digital Fast Fourier Transform. The literature refers to this as filtered back projection.

  6. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic

  7. Development of all-solid-state flash x-ray generator with photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xun, Ma; Jianjun, Deng; Hongwei, Liu; Jianqiang, Yuan; Jinfeng, Liu; Bing, Wei; Yanling, Qing; Wenhui, Han; Lingyun, Wang; Pin, Jiang; Hongtao, Li

    2014-09-15

    A compact, low-jitter, and high repetitive rate all-solid-state flash x-ray generator making use of photo conductive semiconductor switches was developed recently for the diagnostic purpose of some hydrokinetical experiments. The generator consisted of twelve stages of Blumlein pulse forming networks, and an industrial cold cathode diode was used to generate intense x-ray radiations with photon energy up to 220 keV. Test experiments showed that the generator could produce >1 kA electron beam currents and x-ray pulses with ?40 ns duration under 100 Hz repetitive rates at least (limited by the triggering laser on hand), also found was that the delay time of the cathode explosive emission is crucial to the energy transfer efficiency of the whole system. In addition, factors affecting the diode impedance, how the switching synchronization and diode impedance determining the allowable operation voltage were discussed.

  8. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  9. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prev Next Title: X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Authors: Turner, Joshua J. ; Huang, Xiaojing ; Krupin, Oleg ; Seu, Keoki A. ; Parks, Daniel ; Kevan,...

  10. XRMS: X-Ray Spectroscopy of Magnetic Solids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XRMS: X-Ray Spectroscopy of Magnetic Solids October 22-23, 2011 SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA More information...

  11. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes

  12. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods (see previous highlight, "Demonstration of Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging"). Experimental diffraction data used as input to the difference map algorithm....

  13. X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marchesini, Stefano

    2015-03-16

    X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample of 50 nm colloidal gold particles, recorded at a wavelength of 2.1 nm.

  14. X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial...

  15. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were able to directly observe redox processes in thin-film iron and cobalt perovskite oxide electrocatalysts using surface-sensitive, x-ray absorption spectroscopy while...

  16. Stimulated X-Ray Emission for Spectroscopy | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room 108A Speaker: Clemens Weninger, Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems Program Description The recent advance of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs)...

  17. Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authors: Fromme, P., and Spence, J. C. H. Title: Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane protein structure determination Source: Current Opinion in ...

  18. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the microscopic world, can have unwanted consequences for the materials they probe. Radiation damage due to x-ray absorption is, for instance, an unwanted consequence of using...

  19. Diagnostics Implemented on NIF - X-ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diagnostics Diagnostic acronym Diangostic Port location Built and commisioned by Description of function Published references ARIANE Active Readout in a Neutron Environment (gated x-ray imager) 90-89 (but uses DIM) LLNL ARIANE is a gated x-ray detector measuring x-ray output at yields up to ~1E16 neutrons from TCC. ARIANE uses gated MCP technology adapted to operate in this neutron regime by moving the detector to a position just outside of the target chamber wall. ARIANE is typically used

  20. X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vortex Core Motion in Circular Permalloy Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex Core Motion in ...

  1. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Authors: ...

  2. Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray Beamlines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable ...

  3. Normal incidence x-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, M.J.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1987-08-05

    An x-ray mirror for both electron column instruments and micro x-ray fluorescence instruments for making chemical, microanalysis comprises a non-planar mirror having, for example, a spherical reflecting surface for x-rays comprised of a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on a substrate and whose layers have a thickness which is a multiple of the wavelength being reflected. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2nm. 4 figs.

  4. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; Stone, Gary F.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

  5. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

    1999-06-15

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

  6. Advances in X-Ray Diagnostics of Diesel Fuel Sprays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recent advances in high-speed X-ray imaging has shown several distinct behaviors of commercial fuel injectors that cannot be seen with more conventional techniques.

  7. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  8. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    one of the most promising methods to accomplish this. In the hard x-ray regime with high- energy electrons, this method requires a large magnetic chicane to match the path length...

  9. X-ray laser system, x-ray laser and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    London, Richard A.; Rosen, Mordecai D.; Strauss, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is an x-ray laser system comprising a laser containing generating means for emitting short wave length radiation, and means external to said laser for energizing said generating means, wherein when the laser is in an operative mode emitting radiation, the radiation has a transverse coherence length to width ratio of from about 0.05 to 1. Also disclosed is a method of adjusting the parameters of the laser to achieve the desired coherence length to laser width ratio.

  10. Sandia Energy Ashley Otero

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction http:energy.sandia.govdetecting-rare-abnormally-large-grains-by-x-ray-diffraction http:energy.sandia.gov...

  11. SAND2011-9306 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAND2011-9306 Unlimited Release Printed November 2011 Reference Model 2: "Rev 0" Rotor Design Matt Barone, Todd Griffith, and Jonathan Berg Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1124 Abstract The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as

  12. Relativistic klystron driven compact high gradient accelerator as an injector to an X-ray synchrotron radiation ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U. L. (1912 MacArthur St., Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90732)

    1990-01-01

    A compact high gradient accelerator driven by a relativistic klystron is utilized to inject high energy electrons into an X-ray synchrotron radiation ring. The high gradients provided by the relativistic klystron enables accelerator structure to be much shorter (typically 3 meters) than conventional injectors. This in turn enables manufacturers which utilize high energy, high intensity X-rays to produce various devices, such as computer chips, to do so on a cost effective basis.

  13. Titanium and germanium lined hohlraums and halfraums as multi-keV x-ray radiators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girard, F.; Primout, M.; Villette, B.; Stemmler, Ph.; Jacquet, L.; Babonneau, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    As multi-keV x-ray radiators, hohlraums and halfraums with inner walls coated with metallic materials (called liner) have been tested for the first time with laser as the energy drive. For titanium, conversion efficiencies (CEs) are up to {approx}14% for emission into 4{pi}, integrating between 4.6 and 6.5 keV when a large diameter hohlraum is used. Germanium CE is {approx}0.8% into 4{pi} between 9 and 13 keV. The highest CEs have been obtained with a 1 ns squared pulse and phase plates giving laser absorption near 99%. These high CEs are due to long-lasting, good plasma conditions for multi-keV x-ray production maintained by plasma confinement inside the plastic cylinder and plasma collision leading to a burst of x rays at a time that depends on target size. As photon emitters at 4.7 keV, titanium-lined hohlraums are the most efficient solid targets and data are close to CEs for gas targets, which are considered as the upper limit for x-ray yields since their low density allows good laser absorption and low kinetics losses. As 10.3 keV x-ray emitters, exploded germanium foils give best results one order of magnitude more efficient than thick targets; doped aerogels and lined hohlraums give similar yields, about three times lower than those from exploded foils.

  14. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF X-RAY FLARES FROM BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Yi, S. X.; Xi, S. Q. E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    X-ray flares have been discovered in black hole systems such as gamma-ray bursts, the tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of our Galaxy, and some active galactic nuclei. Occurrences of X-ray flares are always accompanied by relativistic jets. However, it is still unknown whether or not there is a physical analogy among such X-ray flares produced in black hole systems spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass. Here, we report observed data of X-ray flares and show that they have three statistical properties similar to solar flares, including power-law distributions of their energies, durations, and waiting times, which can be explained by a fractal-diffusive, self-organized criticality model. These statistical similarities, together with the fact that solar flares are triggered by a magnetic reconnection process, suggest that all of the X-ray flares are consistent with magnetic reconnection events, implying that their concomitant relativistic jets may be magnetically dominated.

  15. X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, M. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hohlfelder, R.; Jennings, C. A.; Johnson, D. W.; Jones, B.; Lopez, M. R.; MacArthur, J.; Mills, J. A.; et al

    2014-08-04

    Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch loads at the Z Machine with high accuracy. The Z-accelerator is capable of outputting 2MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power, and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics, improvements to existing diagnostics, and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments were conducted on the Z machine where the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series,more » it was observed that total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power, Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the Total Power and Energy diagnostic gave 450 TW and 327 TW respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly, the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring xray powers from z-pinch sources.« less

  16. X-RAY EMISSION FROM SN 2004dj: A TALE OF TWO SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Smith, Randall; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David

    2012-12-20

    Type IIP (Plateau) supernovae are the most commonly observed variety of core-collapse events. They have been detected in a wide range of wavelengths from radio, through optical to X-rays. The standard picture of a Type IIP supernova has the blastwave interacting with the progenitor's circumstellar matter to produce a hot region bounded by a forward and a reverse shock. This region is thought to be responsible for most of the X-ray and radio emission from these objects. Yet the origin of X-rays from these supernovae is not well understood quantitatively. The relative contributions of particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification in generating the X-ray and radio emission need to be determined. In this work, we analyze archival Chandra observations of SN 2004dj, one of the nearest supernovae since SN 1987A, along with published radio and optical information. We determine the pre-explosion mass-loss rate, blastwave velocity, electron acceleration, and magnetic field amplification efficiencies. We find that a greater fraction of the thermal energy goes into accelerating electrons than into amplifying magnetic fields. We conclude that the X-ray emission arises out of a combination of inverse Compton scattering by non-thermal electrons accelerated in the forward shock and thermal emission from supernova ejecta heated by the reverse shock.

  17. Recollimation boundary layers as X-ray sources in young stellar jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnther, Hans Moritz; Li, Zhi-Yun; Schneider, P. C.

    2014-11-01

    Young stars accrete mass from circumstellar disks and, in many cases, the accretion coincides with a phase of massive outflows, which can be highly collimated. Those jets emit predominantly in the optical and IR wavelength range. However, in several cases, X-ray and UV observations reveal a weak but highly energetic component in those jets. X-rays are observed both from stationary regions close to the star and from knots in the jet several hundred AU from the star. In this article, we show semianalytically that a fast stellar wind that is recollimated by the pressure from a slower, more massive disk wind can have the right properties to power stationary X-ray emission. The size of the shocked regions is compatible with observational constraints. Our calculations support a wind-wind interaction scenario for the high-energy emission near the base of young stellar object jets. For the specific case of DG Tau, a stellar wind with a mass-loss rate of 5 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} and a wind speed of 800 km s{sup 1} reproduces the observed X-ray spectrum. We conclude that a stellar wind recollimation shock is a viable scenario to power stationary X-ray emission close to the jet launching point.

  18. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for x-ray fluorescence tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grsoy, Do?a; Bier, Tekin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew G.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A penalized maximum-likelihood estimation is proposed to perform hyperspectral (spatio-spectral) image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography. The approach minimizes a Poisson-based negative log-likelihood of the observed photon counts, and uses a penalty term that has the effect of encouraging local continuity of model parameter estimates in both spatial and spectral dimensions simultaneously. The performance of the reconstruction method is demonstrated with experimental data acquired from a seed of arabidopsis thaliana collected at the 13-ID-E microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The resulting element distribution estimates with the proposed approach show significantly better reconstruction quality than the conventional analytical inversionmoreapproaches, and allows for a high data compression factor which can reduce data acquisition times remarkably. In particular, this technique provides the capability to tomographically reconstruct full energy dispersive spectra without compromising reconstruction artifacts that impact the interpretation of results.less

  19. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for x-ray fluorescence tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grsoy, Do?a; Bier, Tekin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew G.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A penalized maximum-likelihood estimation is proposed to perform hyperspectral (spatio-spectral) image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography. The approach minimizes a Poisson-based negative log-likelihood of the observed photon counts, and uses a penalty term that has the effect of encouraging local continuity of model parameter estimates in both spatial and spectral dimensions simultaneously. The performance of the reconstruction method is demonstrated with experimental data acquired from a seed of arabidopsis thaliana collected at the 13-ID-E microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The resulting element distribution estimates with the proposed approach show significantly better reconstruction quality than the conventional analytical inversion approaches, and allows for a high data compression factor which can reduce data acquisition times remarkably. In particular, this technique provides the capability to tomographically reconstruct full energy dispersive spectra without compromising reconstruction artifacts that impact the interpretation of results.

  20. Soft x-ray undulator for the Siam Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugmai, S.; Dasri, T.; Prawanta, S.; Siriwattanapaitoon, S.; Kwankasem, A.; Sooksrimuang, V.; Chachai, W.; Suradet, N.; Juthong, N.; Tancharakorn, S.

    2007-01-19

    An undulator for production of intense soft x-rays has been designed for the Siam Photon Source. The construction of the undulator has been completed. It is now being characterized and prepared for installation. The device, named U60, is a pure permanent magnet planar undulator, consisting of 41 magnetic periods, with 60 mm period length. Utilization of the undulator radiation in the photon energy range of 30 - 900 eV is expected. The design studies of the magnetic structure, including investigation of perturbations arising from the magnetic field of the device, their effects on the SPS storage ring and compensation schemes are described. A magnetic measurement system has been constructed for magnetic characterization of the device. Partial results of magnetic measurements are presented.

  1. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itl, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the CC{sub ?} bond and the presence of the CNH{sub 2}{sup +} fragment.

  2. DISCOVERY OF EXTENDED X-RAY EMISSION AROUND THE HIGHLY MAGNETIC RRAT J1819-1458

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rea, N.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Slane, P. O.; Stella, L.; Israel, G. L.; Reynolds, S. P.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Chatterjee, S.

    2009-09-20

    We report on the discovery of extended X-ray emission around the high magnetic field rotating radio transient J1819-1458. Using a 30 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation, we found significant evidence for extended X-ray emission with a peculiar shape: a compact region out to {approx}5.''5, and more diffuse emission extending out to {approx}13'' from the source. The most plausible interpretation is a nebula somehow powered by the pulsar, although the small number of counts prevents a conclusive answer on the nature of this emission. RRAT J1819-1458's spin-down energy loss rate (E-dot{sub rot}{approx}3 x 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}) is much lower than that of other pulsars with observed spin-down-powered pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), and implies a rather high X-ray efficiency of eta{sub X}ident toL{sub pwn:0.5-8keV}/E-dot{sub rot}{approx}0.2 at converting spin-down power into the PWN X-ray emission. This suggests the need of an additional source of energy rather than the spin-down power alone, such as the high magnetic energy of this source. Furthermore, this Chandra observation allowed us to refine the positional accuracy of RRAT J1819-1458 to a radius of {approx}0.''3, and confirms the presence of X-ray pulsations and the {approx}1 keV absorption line, previously observed in the X-ray emission of this source.

  3. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Stephen P

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.

  4. IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: IMPULSIVE PHASE CORONAL HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN AN X3.9 CLASS SOLAR FLARE We present the analysis of a pair of unusually energetic coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources detected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager during the impulsive phase of an X3.9 class solar flare on 2003 November 3, which simultaneously shows two intense

  5. Nonlinear delayed symmetry breaking in a solid excited by hard x-ray free electron laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, A.; Johnson, J. A. Mariager, S. O.; Grbel, S.; Staub, U.; Huber, T.; Trant, M.; Johnson, S. L.; Zhu, D.; Chollet, M.; Robinson, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Ingold, G.; Beaud, P.; Milne, C.

    2015-04-13

    We have studied the ultrafast changes of electronic states in bulk ZnO upon intense hard x-ray excitation from a free electron laser. By monitoring the transient anisotropy induced in an optical probe beam, we observe a delayed breaking of the initial c-plane symmetry of the crystal that lasts for several picoseconds. Interaction with the intense x-ray pulses modifies the electronic state filling in a manner inconsistent with a simple increase in electronic temperature. These results may indicate a way to use intense ultrashort x-ray pulses to investigate high-energy carrier dynamics and to control certain properties of solid-state materials.

  6. In Situ X-Ray Probing Reveals Fingerprints of Surface Platinum Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friebel, Daniel

    2011-08-24

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L{sub 3} edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard x-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code and complementary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  7. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraljic, David; Rummel, Markus; Conlon, Joseph P. E-mail: Markus.Rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived.

  8. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Whole Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T.; Kalirai, Sam; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-02

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to combine multiple fields of view, computed tomography was performed to visualize the macropore structure of the catalyst and its availability for mass transport. We mapped the relative spatial distributions of Ni and Fe using multiple-energy tomography at the respective X-ray absorption K-edges and correlated these distributions with porosity and permeability of an equilibrated catalyst (E-cat) particle.more » Both metals were found to accumulate in outer layers of the particle, effectively decreasing porosity by clogging of pores and eventually restricting access into the FCC particle.« less

  9. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Whole Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T.; Kalirai, Sam; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-02

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to combine multiple fields of view, computed tomography was performed to visualize the macropore structure of the catalyst and its availability for mass transport. We mapped the relative spatial distributions of Ni and Fe using multiple-energy tomography at the respective X-ray absorption K-edges and correlated these distributions with porosity and permeability of an equilibrated catalyst (E-cat) particle. Both metals were found to accumulate in outer layers of the particle, effectively decreasing porosity by clogging of pores and eventually restricting access into the FCC particle.

  10. ISMabs: A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY ABSORPTION MODEL FOR THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Gorczyca, T. W. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2015-02-10

    We present an X-ray absorption model for the interstellar medium, to be referred to as ISMabs, that takes into account both neutral and ionized species of cosmically abundant elements, and includes the most accurate atomic data available. Using high-resolution spectra from eight X-ray binaries obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we proceed to benchmark the atomic data in the model particularly in the neon K-edge region. Compared with previous photoabsorption models, which solely rely on neutral species, the inclusion of ions leads to improved spectral fits. Fit parameters comprise the column densities of abundant contributors that allow direct estimates of the ionization states. ISMabs is provided in the appropriate format to be implemented in widely used X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC, ISIS, and SHERPA.

  11. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  12. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 25 February 2015 00:00 Plastic solar cells that can be printed on flexible sheets with an ink-like solution show a lot of potential as a source of lightweight, inexpensive renewable energy. However, much of the power-conversion efficiency of such cells gets lost in the translation from small-scale lab studies to large-scale manufacturing processes. To help gain

  13. Hard X-ray spatial array diagnostics on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, D. W.; Chen, Z. Y. Luo, Y. H.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Jin, W.; Zhuang, G.

    2014-11-15

    A spatially distributed hard X-ray detection array has been developed to diagnose the loss of runaway electron with toroidal and poloidal resolution. The hard X-ray radiation in the energy ranges of 0.31 MeV resulted from runaway electrons can be measured. The detection array consists of 12 CdTe detectors which are arranged surrounding the tokamak. It is found that most runaway electrons which transport to plasma boundary tend to loss on limiters. The application of electrode biasing probe resulted in enhancement of local runaway loss. Resonant magnetic perturbations enhanced the runaway electrons diffusion and showed an asymmetric poloidal loss rate.

  14. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on yttria, zirconia, and yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, D. ); Chatterjee, D. )

    1991-07-15

    Surfaces of yttria, zirconia, and yttria-stabilized zirconia were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An almost threefold increase in the surface yttrium concentration was observed in the yttria-stabilized zirconia samples. The core level binding energies of yttrium, zirconium, and oxygen ions in yttria-stabilized zirconia showed chemical shifts. Valence bands and Auger parameters were monitored for the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases of zirconia. Characteristic differences were observed for the two phases due to their different oxygen coordination. The results were used to identify surface phase transitions which were difficult to detect by x-ray diffraction.

  16. PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GAMMA-RAY BURSTS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS A fraction of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit distinct spectral features in their prompt emission below few tens of keV that exceed simple extrapolations of the low-energy power-law portion of the Band spectral model. This is also true

  17. X-ray scientist Haidan Wen wins DOE Early Career Award | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory X-ray scientist Haidan Wen wins DOE Early Career Award By Louise Lerner * May 3, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint X-ray physicist Haidan Wen of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has received a DOE Early Career Award, a prestigious research grant for $2.5 million over five years. The effort, now in its seventh year, is designed to bolster the nation's scientific workforce by providing support to exceptional researchers during the crucial early career years,

  18. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ratner, D.; Abela, R.; Amann, J.; Behrens, C.; Bohler, D.; Bouchard, G.; Bostedt, C.; Boyes, M.; Chow, K.; Cocco, D.; et al

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

  19. The X-ray correlation spectroscopy instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Caronna, Chiara; Chollet, Matthieu; Curtis, Robin; Damiani, Daniel S.; Defever, Jim; Feng, Yiping; Flath, Daniel L.; Glownia, James M.; Lee, Sooheyong; et al

    2015-03-03

    The X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy instrument is dedicated to the study of dynamics in condensed matter systems using the unique coherence properties of free-electron lasers. It covers a photon energy range of 4–25 keV. The intrinsic temporal characteristics of the Linac Coherent Light Source, in particular the 120 Hz repetition rate, allow for the investigation of slow dynamics (milliseconds) by means of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Double-pulse schemes could probe dynamics on the picosecond timescale. In addition, a description of the instrument capabilities and recent achievements is presented.

  20. Proposed new accelerator design for homeland security x-ray applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clayton, James; Shedlock, Daniel; Langeveld, Willem G.J.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Nosochkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Two goals for security scanning of cargo and freight are the ability to determine the type of material that is being imaged, and to do so at low radiation dose. One commonly used technique to determine the effective Z of the cargo is dual-energy imaging, i.e. imaging with different x-ray energy spectra. Another technique uses the fact that the transmitted x-ray spectrum itself also depends on the effective Z. Spectroscopy is difficult because the energy of individual x rays needs to be measured in a very high count-rate environment. Typical accelerators for security applications offer large but short bursts ofmore » x-rays, suitable for current-mode integrated imaging. In order to perform x-ray spectroscopy, a new accelerator design is desired that has the following features: 1) increased duty factor in order to spread out the arrival of x-rays at the detector array over time; 2) x-ray intensity modulation from one delivered pulse to the next by adjusting the accelerator electron beam instantaneous current so as to deliver adequate signal without saturating the spectroscopic detector; and 3) the capability to direct the (forward peaked) x-ray intensity towards high-attenuation areas in the cargo (“fan-beam-steering”). Current sources are capable of 0.1% duty factor, although usually they are operated at significantly lower duty factors (~0.04%), but duty factors in the range 0.4-1.0% are desired. The higher duty factor can be accomplished, e.g., by moving from 300 pulses per second (pps) to 1000 pps and/or increasing the pulse duration from a typical 4 μs to 10 μs. This paper describes initial R&D to examine cost effective modifications that could be performed on a typical accelerator for these purposes, as well as R&D for fan-beam steering.« less

  1. Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevelev, A.; Chugunov, I.; Khilkevitch, E.; Gin, D.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Kiptily, V.; Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2014-08-21

    Hard-X-ray spectrometry is a tool widely used for diagnostic of runaway electrons in existing tokamaks. In future machines, ITER and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam current and its profile during disruption.

  2. Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Damage for DPFs | Department of Energy New commercially avaliable non-destructive x-ray techniques are used to make measurements on diesel particulate filters. PDF icon deer08_toops.pdf More Documents & Publications Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters

  3. Simulations of Inertial Confinement Fusion Driven by a Novel Synchrotron Radiation-Based X-Ray Igniter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlyaptsev, V; Tatchyn, R

    2004-01-13

    The advantages and challenges of using a powerful x-ray source for the fast ignition of compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets have been considered. The requirements for such a source together with the optics to focus the x-rays onto compressed DT cores lead to a conceptual design based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and long wigglers to produce x-ray pulses with the appropriate phase space properties. A comparative assessment of the parameters of the igniter system indicates that the technologies for building it, although expensive, are physically achievable. Our x-ray fast ignition (XFI) scheme requires substantially smaller energy for the initiation of nuclear fusion reactions than other methods.

  4. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B. )

    1992-02-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths.

  5. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, C.K.; Boyer, K.; Solem, J.C.; Haddad, W.S.

    1990-09-11

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs.

  6. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith; Solem, Johndale C.; Haddad, Waleed S.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

  7. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methodsray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modelingto investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  8. Three-dimensional x-ray fluorescence mapping of a gold nanoparticle-loaded phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Wang, Ge; Wu, Xizeng

    2014-03-15

    Purpose : X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a promising technique with sufficient specificity and sensitivity for identifying and quantifying features in small samples containing high atomic number (Z) materials such as iodine, gadolinium, and gold. In this study, the feasibility of applying XRF to early breast cancer diagnosis and treatment is studied using a novel approach for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-loaded objects in a physical phantom at the technical level. Methods : All the theoretical analysis and experiments are conducted under the condition of using x-ray pencil beam and a compactly integrated x-ray spectrometer. The penetrability of the fluorescence x-rays from GNPs is first investigated by adopting a combination of BR12 with 70 mm/50 mm in thickness on the excitation/emission path to mimic the possible position of tumor goldin vivo. Then, a physical phantom made of BR12 is designed to translate in 3D space with three precise linear stages and subsequently the step by step XFM scanning is performed. The experimental technique named as background subtraction is applied to isolate the gold fluorescence from each spectrum obtained by the spectrometer. Afterwards, the attenuations of both the incident primary x-ray beam with energies beyond the gold K-edge energy (80.725 keV) and the isolated gold K{sub α} fluorescence x-rays (65.99 –69.80 keV) acquired after background subtraction are well calibrated, and finally the unattenuated K{sub α} fluorescence counts are used to realize mapping reconstruction and to describe the linear relationship between gold fluorescence counts and corresponding concentration of gold solutions. Results : The penetration results show that the goldK{sub α} fluorescence x-rays have sufficient penetrability for this phantom study, and the reconstructed mapping results indicate that both the spatial distribution and relative concentration of GNPs within the designed BR12 phantom can be well identified and quantified. Conclusions : Although the XFM method in this investigation is still studied at the technical level and is not yet practical for routinein vivo mapping tasks with GNPs, the current penetrability measurements and phantom study strongly suggest the feasibility to establish and develop a 3D XFM system.

  9. X-ray irradiation induced changes in electron transport in stabilized a-Se photoconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walornyj, M.; Kasap, S. O.

    2013-12-07

    We have examined the effect of high-dose x-ray irradiation on electron transport in stabilized amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray photoconductive films (of the type used in x-ray image detectors) by measuring the electron lifetime ?{sub e} through interrupted-field time-of-flight experiments. X-ray induced effects have been examined through two types of experiments. In recovery experiments, the a-Se was preirradiated with and without an applied field (5 V/?m) during irradiation with sufficient dose (typically ?20 Gy at 21 C) to significantly reduce the electron lifetime by ?50%, and then the recovery of the lifetime was monitored as a function of time at three different temperatures, 10 C, 21 C, and 35 C. The lifetime recovery kinetics was exponential with a relaxation time ?{sub r} that is thermally activated with an activation energy of 1.66 eV. ?{sub r} is a few hours at 21 C and only a few minutes at 35 C. In experiments examining the irradiation induced effects, the a-Se film was repeatedly exposed to x-ray radiation and the changes in the drift mobility and lifetime were monitored as a function of accumulated dose D. There was no observable change in the drift mobility. At 21 C, the concentration of x-ray induced deep traps (or capture centers), N{sub d}, increases linearly with D (N{sub d} ? D) whereas at 35 C, the recovery process prevents a linear increase in N{sub d} with D, and N{sub d} saturates. In all cases, even under high dose irradiation (?50 Gy), the lifetime was recoverable to its original equilibrium (pre-exposure) value within a few relaxation times.

  10. ON RELATIVISTIC DISK SPECTROSCOPY IN COMPACT OBJECTS WITH X-RAY CCD CAMERAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D'Ai, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Bautz, M. W.; Nowak, M. A. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bhattacharyya, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, College Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fabian, A. C.; Reis, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Freyberg, M. J.; Haberl, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Strohmayer, T. E. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tsujimoto, M., E-mail: jonmm@umich.ed [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronomical Sciences, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2010-12-01

    X-ray charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are the workhorse detectors of modern X-ray astronomy. Typically covering the 0.3-10.0 keV energy range, CCDs are able to detect photoelectric absorption edges and K shell lines from most abundant metals. New CCDs also offer resolutions of 30-50 (E/{Delta}E), which is sufficient to detect lines in hot plasmas and to resolve many lines shaped by dynamical processes in accretion flows. The spectral capabilities of X-ray CCDs have been particularly important in detecting relativistic emission lines from the inner disks around accreting neutron stars and black holes. One drawback of X-ray CCDs is that spectra can be distorted by photon 'pile-up', wherein two or more photons may be registered as a single event during one frame time. We have conducted a large number of simulations using a statistical model of photon pile-up to assess its impacts on relativistic disk line and continuum spectra from stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars. The simulations cover the range of current X-ray CCD spectrometers and operational modes typically used to observe neutron stars and black holes in X-ray binaries. Our results suggest that severe photon pile-up acts to falsely narrow emission lines, leading to falsely large disk radii and falsely low spin values. In contrast, our simulations suggest that disk continua affected by severe pile-up are measured to have falsely low flux values, leading to falsely small radii and falsely high spin values. The results of these simulations and existing data appear to suggest that relativistic disk spectroscopy is generally robust against pile-up when this effect is modest.

  11. Cross calibration of new x-ray films against direct exposure film from 1 to 8 keV using the X-pinch x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.M.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Mitchell, M.D.; Hammer, D.A.; Knauer, J.P.

    2005-11-15

    A cross calibration of readily available x-ray sensitive films has been carried out against the calibrated direct exposure film (DEF) which is no longer being manufactured by Kodak. Four-wire X pinches made from various metal wires were used as x-ray sources for this purpose. Tests were carried out for the Kodak films Biomax MS, Biomax XAR, M100, Technical Pan, and T-Max over the energy range of 1-8 keV (12.4-1.5 A wavelength). The same hand-development procedures as described by Henke et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1540 (1986)] were followed for all films in every test. Sensitivity curves as a function of wavelength for these films relative DEF are presented. These relative calibrations show that Biomax MS is likely to be the best replacement film for DEF for most purposes over the energy range tested here.

  12. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A., E-mail: a-physics2001@yahoo.com; Tibai, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary)] [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary) [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, Pecs-7624 (Hungary); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-03-15

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  13. Laser-Produced Coherent X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Umstadter

    2007-01-31

    We study the generation of x-rays from the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-intense laser pulse either directly or via laser generated ion channels. The laser pulse acts as the accelerator and wiggler leading to an all-optical synchrotron-like x-ray source. The mm sized accelerator and micron-sized wiggler leads to a compact source of high brightness, ultrafast x-rays with applications in relativistic nonlinear optics, ultrafast chemistry, biology, inner-shell electronic processes and phase transitions.

  14. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ioni Beam-scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Nelson; W Harris; J Lombardo; J Izzo Jr.; W Chiu; P Tanasini; M Cantoni; J Van herle; C Comninellis; et al.

    2011-12-31

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB-SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB-SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  15. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William H.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Tanasini, Pietro; Cantoni, Marco; Van herle, Jan; Comninellis, Christos; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Chu, Yong

    2011-03-24

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIBSEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIBSEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  16. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 {mu}m, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu K{alpha}. At higher energies such as Ag K{alpha}, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection.

  17. X-ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography of ICF and HEDP Materials, Subassemblies and Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W D; Martz Jr., H E

    2006-05-31

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density physics (HEDP) research are being conducted at large laser facilities, such as the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). At such facilities, millimeter-sized targets with micrometer structures are studied in a variety of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, equation-of-state, inertial confinement fusion and high-energy density experiments. The extreme temperatures and pressures achieved in these experiments make the results susceptible to imperfections in the fabricated targets. Targets include materials varying widely in composition ({approx}3 < Z < {approx}82), density ({approx}0.03 to {approx}20 g/cm{sup 3}), geometry (planar to spherical) and embedded structures (joints to subassemblies). Fabricating these targets with structures to the tolerances required is a challenging engineering problem the ICF and HEDP community are currently undertaking. Nondestructive characterization (NDC) provides a valuable tool in material selection, component inspection, and the final pre-shot assemblies inspection. X-rays are a key method used to NDC these targets. In this paper we discuss X-ray attenuation, X-ray phase effects, and the X-ray system used, its performance and application to characterize low-temperature Raleigh-Taylor and non-cryogenic double-shell targets.

  18. X-RAY ECLIPSE DIAGNOSIS OF THE EVOLVING MASS LOSS IN THE RECURRENT NOVA U SCORPII 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takei, D.; Drake, J. J.; Tsujimoto, M.; Ness, J.-U.; Osborne, J. P.; Starrfield, S.; Kitamoto, S.

    2013-05-20

    We report the Suzaku detection of the earliest X-ray eclipse seen in the recurrent nova U Scorpii 2010. A target-of-opportunity observation 15 days after the outburst found a 27% {+-} 5% dimming in the 0.2-1.0 keV energy band at the predicted center of an eclipse. In comparison with the X-ray eclipse depths seen at two later epochs by XMM-Newton, the source region shrank by about 10%-20% between days 15 and 35 after the outburst. The X-ray eclipses appear to be deeper than or similar to contemporaneous optical eclipses, suggesting the X-ray and optical source region extents are comparable on day 15. We raise the possibility of the energy dependency in the photon escape regions, and that this would be a result of the supersoft X-ray opacity being higher than the Thomson scattering opacity at the photosphere due to bound-free transitions in abundant metals that are not fully ionized. Assuming a spherically symmetric model, we constrain the mass-loss rate as a function of time. For a ratio of actual to Thomson opacity of 10-100 in supersoft X-rays, we find an ejecta mass of about 10{sup -7}-10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }.

  19. X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Techniques (Wiley, 2002). 14. Als-Nielsen, J. & McMorrow, D. Elements of Modern X-ray Physics 2nd Ed. 207-237 (Wiley, 2011). 15. Kubby, J. A. (Ed) Adaptive Optics for ...

  20. Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: X-ray Adaptive Optics, San Diego, CA, United States, Aug 14 - Aug 14, 2012 ...