Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Multiple Crystal Cavities for Unlimited X-ray Energy Resolution and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An Intriguing Twist in the Structure of a Cobalt Oxide Catalyst An Intriguing Twist in the Structure of a Cobalt Oxide Catalyst Breaking Records in Neurological Microradiology Exposing Valence-Bond Model Inadequacies Plants' Rapid Response System Revealed Rewriting the Organofluorine Playbook Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Multiple Crystal Cavities for Unlimited X-ray Energy Resolution and Coherence AUGUST 21, 2012 Bookmark and Share Fabry-Perot resonance spectra (right) of a single-cavity resonator, two cascaded resonators, and a monolithic two-cavity resonator, respectively. Note the significant background of T1 as the Bragg reflectivity from a 10-μm diamond plate is only 59%. By comparison, spectra T2 and T3 are very

2

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (TES) Project Team: S. Bare 1,2 , J. Brandes 3 , T. Buonassisi 4 , J. Chen 5,2 , M. Croft 6 , E. DiMasi 7 , A. Frenkel 8,2 , D. Hesterberg 9 , S. Hulbert 7,2 , S. Khalid 7 , S. Myneni 10 , P. Northrup 7,11 , E.T. Rasbury 11 , B. Ravel 12 , R. Reeder 11 , J. Rodriguez 7,2 , D. Sparks 5,13 , V. Stojanoff 7 , G. Waychunas 14 1 UOP LLC, 2 Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium, 3 Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, 4 MIT Laboratory for Photovoltaics Research, 5 Univ. of Delaware, 6 Rutgers Univ., 7 Brookhaven National Lab, 8 Yeshiva Univ., 9 North Carolina State Univ., 10 Princeton Univ., 11 Stony Brook Univ., 12 NIST, 13 Delaware Environmental Inst., 14 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab TECHNIQUES: High performance and in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially-resolved XAS of

3

Chest x-Rays | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chest x-Rays Chest x-Rays Chest x-Rays Chest X-ray B-Reading The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica. The B-reading is considered a special reading because doctors who are certified by NIOSH to perform B-readings use a specific protocol to read and record the findings as developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The ILO's protocol provides rules for systematically examining the x-ray in a step-by-step method and recording certain abnormalities or changes on the chest x-ray that can be attributable to

4

Solar Unlimited USA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Logo: Solar Unlimited USA Name Solar Unlimited USA Address 2353 Park Ave. Place Cedar City, Utah Zip 84721 Sector Solar Product Solar energy systems Year founded 1998 Phone number 435-867-9876 Website http://solarunlimited.net/ Coordinates 37.6944762°, -113.0937928° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.6944762,"lon":-113.0937928,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

5

Unlimited Energy GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Unlimited Energy GmbH Unlimited Energy GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name Unlimited Energy GmbH Place Berlin, Germany Zip 12435 Sector Solar, Wind energy Product Unlimited Energy is a German-based project developer, specialising in wind and solar projects. Coordinates 52.516074°, 13.376987° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":52.516074,"lon":13.376987,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

6

Ris-M-2751 X-Ray Energy Dispersive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(PHOT) k«V 50 Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark October 1988 #12;Ris*-M-2751 X-ray energy is impinging on the sample (Fig. lb). Its wavelength (photon energy) is in the course of measurements changedm ii. S Risø-M-2751 X-Ray Energy Dispersive Diffraction Lecture Notes Bronislaw Buras BaKo 30 40 E

7

Polarization Entangled Photons at X-Ray Energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that polarization entangled photons at x-ray energies can be generated via spontaneous parametric down conversion. Each of the four Bell states can be generated by choosing the angle of incidence and polarization of the pumping beam.

S. Shwartz; S. E. Harris

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

8

Energy Unlimited Wind Farm II | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

II II Facility Energy Unlimited Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Energy Unlimited Developer Energy Unlimited Energy Purchaser Southern California Edison Co Location San Gorgonio CA Coordinates 33.9095°, -116.734° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.9095,"lon":-116.734,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

9

Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L. [Nion, 1102 8th St., Kirkland, Washington 98033 (United States); Ramasse, Q. M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R. [Bruker Nano GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Zan, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

10

High-Energy Diffraction-Enhanced X-ray Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to apply the diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging (DEI) method for much wider variety of samples, we have developed the high-energy DEI system. The energy of X-ray was increased up to 70 keV to achieve high permeability for heavy elements. The diffraction of Si(440) was used to keep large field of view. Demonstrative observation of an electrical cable was performed using the X-ray emitted from the vertical wiggler. The obtained images visualized not only the core and ground wire made of copper but also the isolator and outer jacket made of polymer clearly. The comparison of images obtained by the DEI and the absorption-contrast imaging showed that the sensitivity of DEI is about 10 times higher than that of the absorption method for light elements, and 3 times for heavy elements.

Yoneyama, Akio; Ueda, Kazuhiro [Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 2520, Akanuma, Hatoyama, Saitama, 350-0395 (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Yamazaki, Takanori [Research and Development Laboratory, Hitachi Cable, Ltd., 5-1-1, Hidakacho, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 319-1414 (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

11

Energy Unlimited Wind Farm I | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

I I Facility Energy Unlimited Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Developer Energy Unlimited Energy Purchaser Southern California Edison Co Location San Gorgonio CA Coordinates 33.9095°, -116.734° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.9095,"lon":-116.734,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

12

Triple-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Determination of the Bone Mineral Content in Vivo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a ... method for the determination of the bone mineral content in vivo. It has a high precision ... bone. The present work describes a triple-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

Janos Szcs; Ragnar Jonson; Tommy Hansson

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Detection limits of high temperature superconducting materials on various substrates by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and proton induced X-ray emission methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods has been demonstrated for determining the elemental composition of thin film superconducting materia...

M Lal; H N Bajpai; D Joseph; R K Choudhury

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

An Exact Modeling of Signal Statistics in Energy-integrating X-ray Computed Tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assumption was made that the number of x-ray quanta within an energy interval in the spectrum followsAn Exact Modeling of Signal Statistics in Energy-integrating X-ray Computed Tomography Yi Fan1 School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 ABSTRACT Energy-integrating detection of x-ray sources is widely

15

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Bulk and trace element analysis of rocks, minerals, and sediments. Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): X-Ray Fluorescence is a lab-based technique used for bulk chemical analysis of rock, mineral, sediment, and fluid samples. The technique depends on the fundamental principles of x-ray interactions with solid materials, similar

16

Definition: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a laboratory-based technique commonly used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. One of two primary types of XRD analysis (X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal XRD) is commonly applied to samples to obtain specific information about the crystalline material under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances (typically in less than 20 minutes). A pure, finely ground, and homogenized sample is required for determination of the bulk composition. Additional uses include detailed

17

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a laboratory-based technique commonly used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. One of two primary types of XRD analysis (X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal XRD) is commonly applied to samples to

18

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Data Collection and Mapping Parent Exploration Technique: Data Collection and Mapping Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a field-based technique that can be used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. Portable XRD analysis is similar to X-ray powder diffraction,

19

LM Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project LM Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project January 7, 2013 - 12:02pm Addthis Nearly 400,000 x-rays of former DOE contractor employees have been digitized to support LM records retention requirements. Nearly 400,000 x-rays of former DOE contractor employees have been digitized to support LM records retention requirements. What does this project do? Goal 2. Preserve, protect, and share records and information The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) has successfully completed a project to digitize nearly 400,000 medical x-rays of former DOE contractor employees. The x-rays, from the Rocky Flats and Grand Junction, Colorado; Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula, Ohio; and Pinellas, Florida; sites, are needed to

20

Combined energy dispersive EXAFS and x?ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An in situ experiment to measure both x?ray absorption spectroscopy and x?ray diffraction of aurichalcite is described. The experiment uses position sensitive detectors to enable both data sets to be collected while the sample is slowly decomposed in air and then reduced in hydrogen. ?

A. J. Dent; M. P. Wells; R. C. Farrow; C. A. Ramsdale; G. E. Derbyshire; G. N. Greaves; J. W. Couves; J. M. Thomas

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A Combinational Approach to the Fusion, De-noising and Enhancement of Dual-Energy X-Ray Luggage Images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

density materials such as metal are dark in both low and high-energy X-ray images, but areas of lighter of materials in luggage. They fuse a low-energy X-ray image and a high-energy X-ray image into a single image buildings. These systems utilize X-rays of two different energies. The high-energy X-ray is generated

Abidi, Mongi A.

22

X-Ray Spectra for Bone Quality Assessment Using Energy Dispersive Counting and Imaging Detectors with Dual Energy Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present study was the optimization of dual energy x-ray spectra through the estimation of ... monoenergetic x-ray beams provides the optimum dual energy pairs minimizing the CV. Single and double ....

P. Sotiropoulou; G. Fountos; N. Martini

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Innovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC (InSolves) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solutions Unlimited, LLC (InSolves) Solutions Unlimited, LLC (InSolves) Jump to: navigation, search Name Innovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC (InSolves) Address 1862 Shyville Road Place Piketon, Ohio Zip 45661 Sector Renewable Energy Product Consulting; Engineering/architectural/design; Maintenance and repair;Manufacturing; Retail product sales and distribution;Trainining and education;Other:Access Control / Security: Nuclear Phone number 740-289-3282 Website http://www.insolves.com Coordinates 39.0510662°, -82.9957658° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.0510662,"lon":-82.9957658,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

24

Probing dark energy with the next generation X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Papers Probing dark energy with the next generation X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters...optical [e.g. Dark Energy Survey (DES),3 EUCLID...X-ray cluster surveys for the class of...called early dark energy (EDE; Wetterich......

B. Sartoris; S. Borgani; P. Rosati; J. Weller

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Microcalorimeter-type energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Microscopy (1986) New York: Plenum Press. 4...Garratt-Reed A J , Bell D C. Energy-Dispersive X-ray...Microscopy (1996) New York: Plenum Press. 19...Microcalorimeter-type energy dispersive X-ray...electron microscope. | A new energy dispersive......

Toru Hara; Keiichi Tanaka; Keisuke Maehata; Kazuhisa Mitsuda; Noriko Y. Yamasaki; Mitsuaki Ohsaki; Katsuaki Watanabe; Xiuzhen Yu; Takuji Ito; Yoshihiro Yamanaka

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Interferometric phase detection at x-ray energies via Fano resonance control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modern x-ray light sources promise access to structure and dynamics of matter in largely unexplored spectral regions. However, the desired information is encoded in the light intensity and phase, whereas detectors register only the intensity. This phase problem is ubiquitous in crystallography and imaging, and impedes the exploration of quantum effects at x-ray energies. Here, we demonstrate phase-sensitive measurements characterizing the quantum state of a nuclear two-level system at hard x-ray energies. The nuclei are initially prepared in a superposition state. Subsequently, the relative phase of this superposition is interferometrically reconstructed from the emitted x-rays. Our results form a first step towards x-ray quantum state tomography, and provide new avenues for structure determination and precision metrology via x-ray Fano interference.

K. P. Heeg; C. Ott; D. Schumacher; H. -C. Wille; R. Rhlsberger; T. Pfeifer; J. Evers

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

27

Definition: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a field-based technique that can be used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. Portable XRD analysis is similar to X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances. Portable XRD analysis allows for simpler sample preparation, faster analytical times than traditional methods (less than 2 minutes), and can be performed at the sampling site in the field. A pure, finely ground

28

Energy weighted x-ray dark-field imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size...

Pelzer, Georg; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Kraus, Manuel; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, Andre; Wandner, Johannes; Weber, Thomas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Wong, Winnie S; Campbell, Michael; Meiser, Jan; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jrgen; Michel, Thilo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Mullens, James A. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

30

Energy Spectra and Normalized Power Spectral Densities of X-Ray Nova GS 2000+25  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Papers 2020 8320 Energy Spectra and Normalized...224-0817 The X-ray energy spectra and Normalized...Conf. Proc. 115, High Energy Transients in Astrophysics, ed. Woosley S. E. (New York: AIP), 31. White N......

Kentaro Terada; Shunji Kitamoto; Hitoshi Negoro; Sayuri Iga

2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

31

The suppression of fluorescence peaks in energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown experimentally that diffraction peaks which are normally obscured by fluorescence peaks in energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction can be revealed by tuning of the X-ray tube excitation voltage in order to suppress the fluorescence peaks.

Hansford, G.M.

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

32

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kirk Atkinson, Kevin M Prise, Barry D Michael Institutions: Gray Cancer Institute, PO BO Box100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK The Gray Cancer Institute (GCI) has pioneered the use of X-ray focussing techniques to develop systems for micro-irradiating individual cells and sub-cellular targets. Our prototype X-ray microprobe was developed alongside our existing charged-particle microbeam to address problems specific to low LET radiations, or where very precise targeting accuracy and dose delivery are required. This facility was optimised for focusing 278 eV CK X-rays; however there are a number of reasons for extending the

33

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation -Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kirk Atkinson, Kevin M Prise, Barry D Michael Institutes: Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK For over a decade, the Gray Cancer Institute (GCI) has been actively engaged in the development and use of micro-irradiation techniques applied to radiobiological research. Our initial investigations made use of a charged-particle microbeam capable of irradiating individual cells with collimated energetic protons or 3He ions. By the end of the 1990's, a second facility had been constructed, which uses diffractive X-ray optics to focus ultrasoft X-rays to a sub-micron spot. The X-ray microprobe was

34

The response of the chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane dosimeter to medium energy X-rays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy dependence of the radiation chemical yield of hydrochloric acid, G(HCl), of chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) dosimetry system was investigated to medium energy X-rays (210, 150 and 120 kV maxim...

S. Miljani?; D. Raem

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Breast Density Assessment in Adolescent Girls Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry: A Feasibility Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Assessment in Adolescent Girls Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry: A Feasibility...explored a commercially available dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DXA) system...Prev 2008;17(7):1709-13) Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry|breast density...

John A. Shepherd; Serghei Malkov; Bo Fan; Aurelie Laidevant; Rachel Novotny; Gertraud Maskarinec

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Nano structure of low crystallinity carbon materials analyzed by using high energy X-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we tried to characterize a kind of low crystallinity carbon materials. The structure of polyparaphenylene(PPP)-based carbon was analyzed by means of high energy X-ray diffraction using the apparatu...

Kyoichi Oshida; Tatsuo Nakazawa; Kozo Osawa

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 10{sup 14} to 1.8 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data.

Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using a diffraction-based iterative method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA 2 DepartmentAbsolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using a diffraction-based iterative;REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 063901 (2012) Absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy

Duffy, Thomas S.

39

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable Energy Soft X-ray  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Melvyn Folkard Gray Cancer Institute Why This Project The aim of this project is to determine the effects of low radiation doses using a machine that makes it possible to radiate one cell at a time. Our soft X-ray microprobe can irradiate individual cells, or locations within cells with defined doses and with sub-micron precision. We can use low doses approaching that of a single electron track, which is of relevance to environmental level exposures. Much of our work is concentrating on irradiating specified individual cells within cell populations to identify "bystander responses" where non-radiated cells respond to signals from nearby radiated cells. Higher energy x-rays are being generated to extend

40

Scintillator Evaluation for High-Energy X-Ray Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents results derived from a digital radiography study performed using x-rays from a 2.3 MeV, rod-pinch diode. Detailed is a parameter study of cerium-doped lutetium ortho-silicate (LSO) scintillator thickness, as it relates to system resolution and detection quantum efficiency (DQE). Additionally, the detection statistics of LSO were compared with that of CsI(Tl). As a result of this study we found the LSO scintillator with a thickness of 3 mm to yield the highest system DQE over the range of spatial frequencies from 0.75 to 2.5 mm{sup -1}.

S. S. Lutz; S. A. Baker

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable Energy Soft X-ray  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise and Barry D Michael. Institutions: Gray Cancer Institute. We are currently engaged on two projects in the Low-dose Program: "Low dose studies with focused X-rays in cell and tissue models: mechanisms of bystander and genomic instability responses" (DE-FG07-99ER62877) and "Mechanistic modeling of bystander effects: An integrated theoretical and experimental approach" (DE-FG02-02ER63305). Central to both of these studies is a unique micro irradiation facility that uses ultrasoft X-rays focused to a sub micron beam for individual cell and sub cellular targeting. This facility allows us to selectively irradiate individual

42

MeV-Energy X Rays from Inverse Compton Scattering with Laser-Wakefield Accelerated Electrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the generation of MeV x rays using an undulator and accelerator that are both driven by the same 100-terawatt laser system. The laser pulse driving the accelerator and the scattering laser pulse are independently optimized to generate a high energy electron beam (>200??MeV) and maximize the output x-ray brightness. The total x-ray photon number was measured to be ?1107, the source size was 5???m, and the beam divergence angle was ?10??mrad. The x-ray photon energy, peaked at 1MeV (reaching up to 4MeV), exceeds the thresholds of fundamental nuclear processes (e.g., pair production and photodisintegration).

S. Chen; N. D. Powers; I. Ghebregziabher; C. M. Maharjan; C. Liu; G. Golovin; S. Banerjee; J. Zhang; N. Cunningham; A. Moorti; S. Clarke; S. Pozzi; D. P. Umstadter

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

43

Model-based image reconstruction for dual-energy X-ray CT with fast KVP switching  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most recent generation of X-ray CT systems can collect dual energy (DE) sinograms by rapidly switching the X-ray tube voltage between two levels for alternate projection views. This reduces motion artifacts in DE imaging, but yields sinograms that ... Keywords: dualenergy X-ray computed tomography, model-based image reconstruction, penalized likelihood

Wonseok Huh; Jeffrey A. Fessler

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Runaway electron energy measurement using hard x-ray spectroscopy in 'Damavand' tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in ''Damavand'' tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Farahbod, A. H.; Rasouli, H.; Lamehi, M. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iraji, D. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 (Switzerland); Akhtari, K. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Modarresi, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Joule Unlimited previously Joule Biotechnologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Joule Unlimited previously Joule Biotechnologies Joule Unlimited previously Joule Biotechnologies Jump to: navigation, search Name Joule Unlimited (previously Joule Biotechnologies) Place Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip 2142 Product Massachusetts-based industrial biotechnology company developing transformative systems to enable highly efficient, low-cost cell-based biodiesel production. Coordinates 43.003745°, -89.017499° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.003745,"lon":-89.017499,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

46

Plasma Diagnostic Calibration and Characterizations with High Energy X-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

National Security Technologies High Energy X-ray (HEX) Facility is unique in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The HEX provides fluorescent X-rays of 5 keV to 100 keV with fluence of 10^510^6 photons/cm^2/second at the desired line energy. Low energy lines can be filtered, and both filters and fluorescers can be changed rapidly. We present results of calibrating image plates (sensitivity and modulation transfer function), a Bremsstrahlung spectrometer (stacked filters and image plates), and the National Ignition Facilitys Filter- Fluorescer Experiment (FFLEX) high energy X-ray spectrometer. We also show results of a scintillator light yield and alignment study for a neutron imaging system.

Zaheer Ali

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

47

Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kurosawa, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Richter, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Sorokin, A. A. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tiedtke, K. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Tono, K. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

48

Low-energy X-ray fluorescence microscopy opening new opportunities for bio-related research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and (g) zinc. Photon energy: 1467 eV. Dwell time...magnesium. Excitation photon energy 1686 eV. Dwell time per...Development of a low-energy X-ray fluorescence system...Spence), pp. 835-926. New York, NY: Springer. ( doi...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials | Stanford  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials Tuesday, July 9, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Johanna Nelson, Stanford Postdoctoral Scholar, SSRL MSD Hard X-ray Department A key factor in the global move towards clean, renewable energy is the electrification of the automobile. Current battery technology limits EV (electric vehicles) to a short travel range, slow recharge, and costly price tag. Li-ion batteries promise the high specific capacity required for EVs to travel 300+ miles on a single charge with a number of possible earth abundant anode and cathode materials; however, set backs such as capacity fading hinder the full capability of these rechargeable batteries. In order to accurately characterize the dynamic electrochemical processes at the

50

X-ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars, II: Optical and Radio Properties of Quasars with Low Energy X-ray Cut-offs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Two other cut-off quasars show reddening associated with the quasar. We conclude that absorption is highly likely to be the cause of the X-ray cut-offs, and that the absorbing material associated with the quasars, not intervening along the line-of-sight. The suggestion that Gigahertz Peaked Sources are associated with X-ray cut-offs remains unclear with this expanded sample.

Martin Elvis; Fabrizio Fiore; Paolo Giommi; Paolo Padovani

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

51

Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 {mu}m and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Inubushi, Yuichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Sulfur in Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy method was developed to analyze low ppm level sulfur (S) in biomass feedstocks and in subsequent residues from pretreatment reactions. ... Representative biomass feedstocks and pretreatment residues were analyzed for S. ... The goal of this project was to determine whether an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy method is effective in conducting sulfur analysis of woody biomass feedstocks at an appropriately useful sensitivity, especially when used to effectively monitor the extent of sulfur removal after biomass pretreatment reactions. ...

J. Michael Robinson; Staci R. Barrett; Kevin Nhoy; Rajesh K. Pandey; Joseph Phillips; Oscar M. Ramirez; Richard I. Rodriguez

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

53

Technical note Energy response of the new EBT2 radiochromic film to x-ray radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5% from 50 kVp to 10 MV. This produces a slightly smaller and thus even more energy independent film thanTechnical note Energy response of the new EBT2 radiochromic film to x-ray radiation Martin J Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong b Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Department

Yu, K.N.

54

An X-ray Galaxy Cluster Survey for Investigations of Dark Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The amount and nature of dark energy (DE) can be tightly constrained by measuring the spatial correlation features and evolution of a sample of ~ 100,000 galaxy clusters over the redshift range 0X-ray survey will discover all collapsed structures with mass above 3.5e14 solar masss at redshifts z<2 (i.e. the full range where such objects are expected) in the high Galactic latitude sky. Above this mass threshold the tight correlations between X-ray observables and mass allow direct interpretation of the data. We describe the constraints on Dark Energy that can be inferred from such a survey, using powerful self-calibration techniques to relate the X-ray observables (luminosity and temperature) to the underlying mass.

Z. Haiman; S. Allen; N. Bahcall; M. Bautz; H. Boehringer; S. Borgani; G. Bryan; B. Cabrera; C. Canizares; O. Citterio; A. Evrard; A. Finoguenov; R. Griffiths; G. Hasinger; P. Henry; K. Jahoda; G. Jernigan; S. Kahn; D. Lamb; S. Majumdar; J. Mohr; S. Molendi; R. Mushotzky; G. Pareschi; J. Peterson; R. Petre; P. Predehl; A. Rasmussen; G. Ricker; P. Ricker; P. Rosati; A. Sanderson; A. Stanford; M. Voit; S. Wang; N. White; S. White

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Structural and dynamical studies of superacids and superacidic solutions using neutron and high energy X-ray scattering.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The diffusive motions of the Brnsted superacid, hydrogen fluoride, have been studied using quasielastic neutron scattering. Neutron and high energy X-ray diffraction measurements on (more)

Molaison, Jamie John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The energy dependence of lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To perform a systematic investigation of the energy dependence of alanine and lilthium formate EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays. Methods: Lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters were exposed to eight different x-ray beam qualities, with nominal potentials ranging from 50 to 200 kV. Following ionometry based on standards of absorbed dose to water, the dosimeters were given two different doses of approximately 3 and 6 Gy for each radiation quality, with three dosimeters for each dose. A reference series was also irradiated to three different dose levels at a {sup 60}Co unit. The dose to water energy response, that is, the dosimeter reading per absorbed dose to water relative to that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, was estimated for each beam quality. In addition, the energy response was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations and compared to the experimental energy response. Results: The experimental energy response estimates ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 and from 0.68 to 0.90 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. The uncertainties in the experimental energy response estimates were typically 3%. The relative effectiveness, that is, the ratio of the experimental energy response to that following Monte Carlo simulations was, on average, 0.96 and 0.94 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that lithium formate dosimeters are less dependent on x-ray energy than alanine. Furthermore, as the relative effectiveness for both lithium formate and alanine were systematically less than unity, the yield of radiation-induced radicals is decreased following x-irradiation compared to irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

Waldeland, Einar; Hole, Eli Olaug; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik [Department of Medical Physics, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, N-0310 Oslo (Norway) and Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Medical Physics, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, N-0310 Oslo (Norway) and Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

High-energy x-ray diffractometer for nondestructive strain depth profile measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a lab-based high-energy x-ray diffraction system and a new approach to nondestructively measuring strain profiles in polycrystalline samples. This technique utilizes the tungsten K{sub ?1} characteristic radiation from a standard industrial x-ray tube. We introduce a simulation model that is used to determine strain values from data collected with this system. Examples of depth profiling are shown for shot peened aluminum and titanium samples. Profiles to 1 mm depth in aluminum and 300 ?m depth in titanium with a depth resolution of 20 ?m are presented.

Al-Shorman, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, 21163 Irbid (Jordan)] [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, 21163 Irbid (Jordan); Jensen, T. C.; Gray, J. N. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thermal Acoustic Sensor for High Pulse Energy X-ray FEL Beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulse energy density of X-ray FELs will saturate or destroy conventional X-ray diagnostics, and the use of large beam attenuation will result in a beam that is dominated by harmonics. We present preliminary results at the LCLS from a pulse energy detector based on the thermal acoustic effect. In this type of detector an X-ray resistant material (boron carbide in this system) intercepts the beam. The pulse heating of the target material produces an acoustic pulse that can be detected with high frequency microphones to produce a signal that is linear in the absorbed energy. The thermal acoustic detector is designed to provide first- and second-order calorimetric measurement of X-ray FEL pulse energy. The first-order calorimetry is a direct temperature measurement of a target designed to absorb all or most of the FEL pulse power with minimal heat leak. The second-order measurement detects the vibration caused by the rapid thermoelastic expansion of the target material each time it absorbs a photon pulse. Both the temperature change and the amplitude of the acoustic signal are directly related to the photon pulse energy.

Smith, T.J.; Frisch, J.C.; Kraft, E.M.; Loos, J.; /SLAC; Bentsen, G.S.; /Rochester U.

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

59

Production and application of a novel energy-tunable X-ray source at the RPI LINAC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and application of a novel energy-tunable X-ray source at the RPI LINAC Bryndol Sones energy linewidth for example, Si(400) FWHM of 134 eV at 9.0 keV (2%). Per electron, the photon production-monochromatic, energy-tunable, and polarized X-ray source derived from the interaction of relativistic electrons

Danon, Yaron

60

In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials |...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the global move towards clean, renewable energy is the electrification of the automobile. Current battery technology limits EV (electric vehicles) to a short travel range,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High-energy x-ray production with pyroelectric crystals Jeffrey A. Geuthera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New, preventing the change in the polarization from reaching levels useful for x-ray production. In a vacuum surface2 and their acceleration to energies of nearly 200 keV. If these en- ergetic electrons strike

Danon, Yaron

62

Energy sources for X-ray cluster emission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Instead it would envelop them. Abell clusters 399 and 401 may be examples of the overheating case6. Conversely, if the heat input was too small then the clusterwould not be ... thin to optically thick material13. Consequently the spectrum is expec-ted to consist of a thermal bremsstrahlung low energy part fromthe optically thick region and a high energy inverse Compton part ...

P. D. MORLEY; R. W. TUCKER

1979-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Variation of Q with energy in mosaic analyzers for inelastic x-ray measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Curved mosaic graphite analyzers have been used for many years for inelastic scattering measurements with both conventional x-ray sources as well as synchrotron sources (1). The trend in recent years has been to use spherically bent perfect crystal analyzers to collect large solid angles with high energy resolution. Although, these spherical analyzers achieve excellent energy resolution, the large solid angle limits the Q resolution. For cylindrically bent mosaic graphite, it is possible to obtain good energy and Q resolution simultaneously, while maintaining a large solid angle by collecting a range of energies dispersed along a linear position detector. However, if the mosaic spread of the crystal is less than the acceptance angle subtended in the scattering plane, the energy spectrum from a mosaic analyzer as collected in a linear detector will have Q varying with energy. The resolution and the variation in Q with energy along a linear detector are discussed in relation to inelastic x-ray scattering measurements.

Tischler, J. Z.; Larson, B. C. [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6030 (United States); Zschack, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, UNICAT, Bldg. 438D, Argonne National Lab., Argonne, Illinois 60439-4863 (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Feasibility of using intermediate x-ray energies for highly conformal extracranial radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using intermediate energy 2 MV x-rays for extracranial robotic intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: Two megavolts flattening filter free x-rays were simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP (v4c). A convolution/superposition dose calculation program was tuned to match the Monte Carlo calculation. The modeled 2 MV x-rays and actual 6 MV flattened x-rays from existing Varian Linacs were used in integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization for a head and neck, a liver, a lung, and a partial breast treatment. A column generation algorithm was used for the intensity modulation and beam orientation optimization. Identical optimization parameters were applied in three different planning modes for each site: 2, 6 MV, and dual energy 2/6 MV. Results: Excellent agreement was observed between the convolution/superposition and the Monte Carlo calculated percent depth dose profiles. For the patient plans, overall, the 2/6 MV x-ray plans had the best dosimetry followed by 2 MV only and 6 MV only plans. Between the two single energy plans, the PTV coverage was equivalent but 2 MV x-rays improved organs-at-risk sparing. For the head and neck case, the 2MV plan reduced lips, mandible, tongue, oral cavity, brain, larynx, left and right parotid gland mean doses by 14%, 8%, 4%, 14%, 24%, 6%, 30% and 16%, respectively. For the liver case, the 2 MV plan reduced the liver and body mean doses by 17% and 18%, respectively. For the lung case, lung V20, V10, and V5 were reduced by 13%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. V10 of heart with 2 MV plan was reduced by 59%. For the partial breast treatment, the 2 MV plan reduced the mean dose to the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs by 27% and 47%, respectively. The mean body dose was reduced by 16%. Conclusions: The authors showed the feasibility of using flattening filter free 2 MV x-rays for extracranial treatments as evidenced by equivalent or superior dosimetry compared to 6 MV plans using the same inverse noncoplanar intensity modulated planning method.

Dong, Peng; Yu, Victoria; Nguyen, Dan; Demarco, John; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Woods, Kaley; Boucher, Salime [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, California 90404 (United States)] [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, California 90404 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Does the optical-to-X-ray energy distribution of quasars depend on optical luminosity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a detailed analysis of the correlation between the optical-UV (Lo) and X-ray (Lx) luminosities of quasars by means of Monte Carlo simulations, using a realistic luminosity function. We find, for a quasar population with an intrinsically constant, mean X-ray loudness alpha_ox, that the simulated alpha_ox - Lo relation can exhibit various `apparent' properties, including an increasing alpha_ox with Lo, similar to what has been found from observations. The determining factor for this behavior turns out to be the relative strength of the dispersions of the luminosities, i.e. their deviations from the mean spectral energy distribution at the optical and X-ray bands, such that a dispersion larger for the optical luminosity than for the X-ray luminosity tends to result in an apparent correlation. We suggest that the observed alpha_ox - Lo correlation can be attributed, at least to some extent, to such an effect, and is thus not an underlying physical property. The consequences of taking into account the luminosity dispersions in an analysis of the observed luminosity correlations is briefly discussed. We note that similar considerations might also apply for the Baldwin effect.

W. Yuan; J. Siebert; W. Brinkmann

1998-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

66

Monte Carlo estimation of photoneutrons contamination from high-energy X-ray medical accelerators in treatment room and maze: a simplified model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......contamination from high-energy X-ray medical accelerators...Neutron measurements around high energy X-ray radiotherapy machines. (1986) New York: American Institute of Physics...Elsalim M. Neutron fluence and energy spectra around the Varian......

Mansour Zabihzadeh; Mohammad Reza Ay; Mahmoud Allahverdi; Asghar Mesbahi; Seyed Rabee Mahdavi; Majid Shahriari

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Photon interference effect in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range Y. Nishino and T. Ishikawa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Therefore the atomic absorption coeffi- cient a is given by a a PI a ES a Incoh , 1 where a PI , a ESPhoton interference effect in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range Y. Nishino and T Received 3 July 2002; published 12 September 2002 We consider fundamental structures in x-ray absorption

Korecki, Pawe³

68

Unlimited Release  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Unlimited Release Unlimited Release Printed November 1987 Proceedings of The Wellbore Sampling Workshop Richard K. Traeger, Barry W. Harding Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 9 4 5 5 0 f o r the United States Department of Energy . under Contract DE-AC04-76DP00789 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

69

High-Energy X-ray Diffraction Study of Internal Stresses in Metal Matrix  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High-Energy X-ray Diffraction Study of Internal Stresses in Metal Matrix High-Energy X-ray Diffraction Study of Internal Stresses in Metal Matrix Composites Metal matrix composites (MMCs) comprise an intriguing new class of materials coming to prominence in the aerospace, electronics, and automotive industries. Internal stresses play an important role in the behavior and successful application of MMCs and multi-phase alloys. These stresses form during processing and service due to transformation or thermal expansion mismatch, as well as elastic and plastic mismatch during deformation. In order to develop a deeper understanding of the thermo-mechanical behavior of these materials, it is of key interest to examine the development of mean stresses in the phases of the composite as a function of time upon changes of temperature and/or external load.

70

High-energy X-rays shine light on mystery of Picasso's paints | Argonne  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy X-rays shine light on mystery of Picasso's paints energy X-rays shine light on mystery of Picasso's paints By Tona Kunz * February 6, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The Art Institute of Chicago teamed up with Argonne National Laboratory to help unravel a decades-long debate among art scholars about what kind of paint Picasso used to create his masterpieces. The results published last month in the journal Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing add significant weight to the widely held theory that Picasso was one of the first master painters to use common house paint rather than traditional artists' paint. That switch in painting material gave birth to a new style of art marked by canvasses covered in glossy images with marbling, muted edges, and occasional errant paint drips, but devoid of brush marks. Fast-drying enamel house paint enabled

71

Development of a dual MCP framing camera for high energy x-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently developed diagnostic techniques at LLNL require recording backlit images of extremely dense imploded plasmas using hard x-rays, and demand the detector to be sensitive to photons with energies higher than 50 keV [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011); G. N. Hall et al., AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using ARC on the NIF, Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)]. To increase the sensitivity in the high energy region, we propose to use a combination of two MCPs. The first MCP is operated in a low gain regime and works as a thick photocathode, and the second MCP works as a high gain electron multiplier. We tested the concept of this dual MCP configuration and succeeded in obtaining a detective quantum efficiency of 4.5% for 59 keV x-rays, 3 times larger than with a single plate of the thickness typically used in NIF framing cameras.

Izumi, N., E-mail: izumi2@llnl.gov; Hall, G. N.; Carpenter, A. C.; Allen, F. V.; Cruz, J. G.; Felker, B.; Hargrove, D.; Holder, J.; Lumbard, A.; Montesanti, R.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K.; Stone, G.; Thao, M.; Vern, R.; Zacharias, R.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Absorption of High Energy X-Rays in Various Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effective absorption cross sections of the x-rays exciting the well-known Cu63(?,n)Cu62 reaction have been measured in a number of elements. In agreement with other workers, the experimental cross sections have been found to be lower than those predicted by theory by a fraction roughly proportional to Z2, which amounts to about 10 percent for Pb. By using the results of these measurements as a standard, the effective energies, with Pb absorbers, of the x-rays exciting the Cu12(?,n)C11, Mo92(?,n)Mo91, and Ag107(?,n)Ag106 reactions have been found to be 26.01.4, 17.01.0, and 16.10.9 Mev, respectively, in good agreement with resonance peak energies obtained by more elaborate methods.

H. Janzen

1952-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Regularized energy-dependent solar flare hard x-ray spectral index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The deduction from solar flare X-ray photon spectroscopic data of the energy dependent model-independent spectral index is considered as an inverse problem. Using the well developed regularization approach we analyze the energy dependency of spectral index for a high resolution energy spectrum provided by Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The regularization technique produces much smoother derivatives while avoiding additional errors typical of finite differences. It is shown that observations imply a spectral index varying significantly with energy, in a way that also varies with time as the flare progresses. The implications of these findings are discussed in the solar flare context.

Eduard P. Kontar; Alexander L. MacKinnon

2005-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

74

Assessment of the possibilities of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of multicomponent samples with variable content  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Possibility of the employment of a linear coupling equation of mass attenuation coefficients for two energies for the density determination by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of multicomponent samples with varia...

N. A. Antropov; D. A. Karpov; Yu. Yu. Kryuchkov

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Microdosimetric predictions of RBE for low-energy X-rays and low-energy fast neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MICRODOSIMETRIC PREDICTIONS OF RBE FOR LOW-ENERGY X-RAYS AND LOW-ENERGY FAST NEUTRONS A Thesis by EUGENE WAYNE POTTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering MICRODOSIMETRIC PREDICTIONS OF RSE FOR LOW-ENERGY X-RAYS AND LOW-ENERGY FAST NEUTRONS A Thesis by EUGENE WAYNE POTTER Approved as to style and c tent by: a an of 'ttee Head p...

Potter, Eugene Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

76

Time resolved studies on X-rays and charged particles emission from a low energy plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The time resolved studies on soft X-ray, hard X-ray, electron beam and ion beam emissions from a low energy plasma focus device are carried out simultaneously by employing a photodiode X-ray spectrometer, a scintillator photomultiplier tube, a combination of Faraday cup and Rogowski coil assembly and a biased Faraday cup, respectively. The soft X-ray is seen to be emitted in short multiple pulses corresponding to different pinch stages where as it is a single for hard X-ray, which corresponds to only maximum pinch stage. Similarly, multiple pulses of electron beam is found, which also corresponds to different pinch stages and these pulses are analogous with the soft X-ray pulses. The effective hard X-ray photon energy is estimated by foil absorption technique and found to be around 110 keV, which is consistent with the observed electron beam energy distribution. The simultaneous investigation of the electron and ion beam shows that both are accelerated by the same local field generated during the pinching process. The detailed results of time resolved studies on various radiations are incorporated in this Letter.

N.K. Neog; S.R. Mohanty; T.K. Borthakur

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

A new method for nondestructive evaluation of solid wood moisture content based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a new method to determine the moisture content of solid wood based on the principle of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The study investigates the ... obtained equation is proposed to calcula...

Takashi Tanaka; Yasuo Kawai

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Accuracy and precision of lumbar bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in live female monkeys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used...in vivo bone mineral content (BMC) of lumbar vertebrae in 20...Macaca fascicularis). The ash weight of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) was compared to the measured...

M. J. Jayo; S. E. Rankin; D. S. Weaver; C. S. Carlson

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Tunable X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

80

Energy distribution measurement of narrow-band ultrashort x-ray beams via K-edge filters subtraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characterization of novel x-ray sources includes the measurement of the photon flux and the energy distribution of the produced beam. The aim of BEATS2 experiment at the SPARC-LAB facility of the INFN National Laboratories of Frascati (Rome, Italy) is to investigate possible medical applications of an x-ray source based on Thomson relativistic back-scattering. This source is expected to produce a pulsed quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam with an instantaneous flux of 10{sup 20} ph/s in pulses 10 ps long and with an average energy of about 20 keV. A direct measurement of energy distribution of this beam is very difficult with traditional detectors because of the extremely high photon flux. In this paper, we present a method for the evaluation of the energy distribution of quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams based on beam filtration with K-edge absorbing foils in the energy range of interest (16-22 keV). The technique was tested measuring the energy distribution of an x-ray beam having a spectrum similar to the expected one (SPARC-LAB Thomson source) by using a tungsten anode x-ray tube properly filtered and powered. The energy distribution obtained has been compared with the one measured with a HPGe detector showing very good agreement.

Cardarelli, Paolo; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Marziani, Michele; Mucollari, Irena; Pupillo, Gaia; Sisini, Francesco; Taibi, Angelo; Gambaccini, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara and INFN - Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Polarization Dependent High Energy Resolution X-ray Absorption Study of Dicesium Uranyl Tetrachloride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tonya Vitova *, Jennifer C. Green , Robert G. Denning , Matthias Lble , Kristina Kvashnina , Joshua J. Kas ?, Kevin Jorissen ?, John J. Rehr ?, Thomas Malcherek ?, and Melissa A. Denecke ... This study confirms theoretically predicted electronic transitions to U 6dxy (6d?) orbital and measures relative energies of U 5f?, 5f?, 5f?, and 5f? orbitals of oriented uranyl (UVIO22+) in the same spectrum with remarkable energy resolution. ... We have obtained angle-resolved electronic structure information for oriented Cs2UO2Cl4 crystal, specifically relative energies of 5f and 6d valence orbitals probed with extraordinary energy resolution by polarization dependent high energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure (PD-HR-XANES) and compare these with predictions from quantum chemical Amsterdam density functional theory (ADF) and ab initio real space multiple-scattering Greens function based FEFF codes. ...

Tonya Vitova; Jennifer C. Green; Robert G. Denning; Matthias Lble; Kristina Kvashnina; Joshua J. Kas; Kevin Jorissen; John J. Rehr; Thomas Malcherek; Melissa A. Denecke

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

82

A Suzaku Search for Nonthermal Emission at Hard X-Ray Energies in the Coma Cluster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the intracluster medium (ICM) at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial. We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its nonthermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and nonthermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field. We fail to find statistically significant evidence for nonthermal emission in the spectra which are better described by only a single- or multitemperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on the flux of nonthermal emission of 6.0 ? 1012 erg s1 cm2 (20-80 keV, for ? = 2.0), which implies a lower limit on the cluster-averaged magnetic field of B>0.15 ?G. Our flux upper limit is 2.5 times lower than the detected nonthermal flux from RXTE and BeppoSAX. However, if the nonthermal hard X-ray emission in Coma is more spatially extended than the observed radio halo, the Suzaku HXD-PIN may miss some fraction of the emission. A detailed investigation indicates that ~50%-67% of the emission might go undetected, which could make our limit consistent with that of Rephaeli & Gruber and Fusco-Femiano et al. The thermal interpretation of the hard Coma spectrum is consistent with recent analyses of INTEGRAL and Swift data.

Daniel R. Wik; Craig L. Sarazin; Alexis Finoguenov; Kyoko Matsushita; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Tracy E. Clarke

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Boundary displacement measurements using multi-energy soft x-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Multi-Energy Soft X-ray (ME-SXR) system on NSTX provides radial profiles of soft X-ray emission, measured through a set of filters with varying thickness, which have been used to reconstruct the electron temperature on fast time scales (?10?kHz). In addition to this functionality, here we show that the ME-SXR system can be used to measure the boundary displacement of the NSTX plasma with a few mm spatial resolution during magnetohydrodyamic (MHD) activity. Boundary displacement measurements can serve to inform theoretical predictions of neoclassical toroidal viscosity, and will be used to investigate other edge phenomena on NSTX-U. For example, boundary measurements using filtered SXR measurements can provide information on pedestal steepness and dynamic evolution leading up to and during edge localized modes (ELMs). Future applications include an assessment of a simplified, filtered SXR edge detection system as well as its suitability for real-time non-magnetic boundary feedback for ELMs, MHD, and equilibrium position control.

Tritz, K., E-mail: ktritz@pppl.gov; Stutman, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Sabbagh, S. [Department of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Columbia University, New York City, New York 10027 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

The Prospects for Constraining Dark Energy withFuture X-ray Cluster Gas Mass Fraction Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the ability of a future X-ray observatory, with capabilities similar to those planned for the Constellation-X mission, to constrain dark energy via measurements of the cluster X-ray gas mass fraction, fgas. We find that fgas measurements for a sample of {approx}500 hot (kT{approx}> 5keV), X-ray bright, dynamically relaxed clusters, to a precision of {approx}5 percent, can be used to constrain dark energy with a Dark Energy Task Force (DETF; Albrecht et al. 2006) figure of merit of 20-50. Such constraints are comparable to those predicted by the DETF for other leading, planned 'Stage IV' dark energy experiments. A future fgas experiment will be preceded by a large X-ray or SZ survey that will find hot, X-ray luminous clusters out to high redshifts. Short 'snapshot' observations with the new X-ray observatory should then be able to identify a sample of {approx}500 suitably relaxed systems. The redshift, temperature and X-ray luminosity range of interest has already been partially probed by existing X-ray cluster surveys which allow reasonable estimates of the fraction of clusters that will be suitably relaxed for fgas work to be made; these surveys also show that X-ray flux contamination from point sources is likely to be small for the majority of the targets of interest. Our analysis uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method which fully captures the relevant degeneracies between parameters and facilities the incorporation of priors and systematic uncertainties in the analysis. We explore the effects of such uncertainties, for scenarios ranging from optimistic to pessimistic. We conclude that the fgas experiment offers a competitive and complementary approach to the best other large, planned dark energy experiments. In particular, the fgas experiment will provide tight constraints on the mean matter and dark energy densities, with a peak sensitivity for dark energy work at redshifts midway between those of supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation/weak lensing/cluster number counts experiments. In combination, these experiments should enable a precise measurement of the evolution of dark energy.

Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds June 30, 2011 - 2:56pm Addthis A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather. Bottom: x-ray images showing the distribution of copper (red) in the same organisms. | Photo Courtesy of Gregory Stewart, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather. Bottom: x-ray images showing the distribution of copper (red) in the same organisms. | Photo Courtesy of Gregory Stewart, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Through x-ray fluorescent imaging techniques developed at the

86

Low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies (7 to 17.5 keV) with synchroton radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unique properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as its high intensity, brightness, polarization, and broad spectral distribution (extending from x-ray to infra-red wavelengths) make it an attractive light source for numerous experiments. As SR facilities are rapidly being built all over the world, they introduce the need for low-energy x-ray dosemeters because of the potential radiation exposure to experimenters. However, they also provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory are described. Lithium fluoride TLDs (TLD-100) of varying thicknesses (0.015 to 0.08 cm) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (7 to 17.5 keV). These exposures were monitored with ionization chambers. The response (nC/Gy) was found to increase with increasing TLD thickness and with increasing beam energy. A steeper increase in response with increasing energy was observed with the thicker TLDs. The responses at 7 and 17.5 keV were within a factor of 2.3 and 5.2 for the 0.015 and 0.08 cm-thick TLDs, respectively. The effects of narrow (beam size smaller than the dosemeter) and broad (beam size larger than the dosemeter) beams on the response of the TLDs are also reported.

Ipe, N.E.; Bellamy, H.; Flood, J.R. [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

High altitude balloon flights of position sensitive CdZnTe detectors for high energy X-ray astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) is a semiconductor detector well suited for high energy X-ray astronomy. The High-Energy X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HEXIS) program is developing this technology for use in a hard X-ray all-sky survey and as a focal plane imager for missions such as FAR_XITE and Constellation X. We have designed a novel electrode geometry that improves interaction localization and depth of interaction determination. The HEXIS program has flown two high altitude balloon payloads from Ft. Summer NM to investigate background properties and shielding effects on a position sensitive CZT detector in the energy range of 20350 keV.

Kimberly R. Slavis; Paul Dowkontt; Fred Duttweiler; John Epstein; Paul L. Hink; George L. Huszar; Philippe C. Leblanc; James L. Matteson; Robert T. Skelton; Ed Stephan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Fitting X-ray Afterglow Light curves of Gamma-ray Bursts by Using the Magnetar Energy Injection Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The central compact object for some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may be a strongly magnetized millisecond pulsar. It can inject energy to the outer shock of the GRB by through the magnetic dipole radiation, and therefore causes the shallow decay of the early afterglow. Recently, from a large number of GRB X-ray afterglows observed by Swift/XRT(X-ray telescope), it is revealed that many of them exhibit the shallow decay about 102?104 s after the burst prompt emission. We have fitted the X-ray afterglow light curves of 11 \\{GRBs\\} by using the energy injection model of a magnetar with the rotation period in the millisecond order of magnitude. The obtained result shows the validity and universality of the magnetar energy injection model in explaining the shallow decay of afterglows, and simultaneously provides some constraints on the magnetic field strength and rotation period of the central magnetar.

Fang-Hao Hu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Atomic-scale chemical quantification of oxide interfaces using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic-scale quantification of chemical composition across oxide interfaces is important for understanding physical properties of epitaxial oxide nanostructures. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope was used to quantify chemical composition across the interface of ferromagnetic La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} and antiferromagnetic BiFeO{sub 3} quantum structure. This research demonstrates that chemical composition at atomic columns can be quantified by Gaussian peak-fitting of EDS compositional profiles across the interface. Cation diffusion was observed at both A- and B-sublattice sites; and asymmetric chemical profiles exist across the interface, consistent with the previous studies.

Lu, Ping; Van Benthem, Mark [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1411, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1411 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1411, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1411 (United States); Xiong, Jie; Jia, Quanxi [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

Note: Characterization of a high-photon-energy X-ray imager  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bragg angle, rocking curve, and reflection efficiency of a quartz crystal x-ray imager (Miller indices 234) were measured at photon energy of 15.6909 keV, corresponding to the K{sub ?2} line of Zr, using the X15A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One flat and three spherically curved samples were tested. The peak reflectivity of the best-performing crystal was determined to be (3.6 0.7) 10{sup ?4} with a rocking-curve full width at half maximum of 0.09. The Zr K{sub ?2} emission was imaged from a hot Zr plasma generated by a 10-J multiterawatt laser.

Storm, M.; Schiebel, P.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. U. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Eichman, B.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Fiksel, G. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Zhong, Z. [The National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)] [The National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121-1200 (United States)] [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121-1200 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Data Collection and Mapping Parent Exploration Technique: Data Collection and Mapping Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Bulk and trace element analysis of rocks, minerals, and sediments. Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence is a portable analytical technique derived from the instrumentation used in traditional lab-based XRF analysis. The technique is used for bulk chemical analysis of rock, mineral, and sediment

92

Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes March 13, 2013 - 3:57pm Addthis Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes Anne M. Stark Senior Public Information Officer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory "We know that black holes have a strong link to their host galaxy." Astrophysicist Bill Craig, a member of the LLNL team An international team including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists has definitively measured the spin rate of a supermassive black hole for the first time. The findings, made by the two X-ray space observatories, NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton, solve a long-standing debate about similar measurements in

93

The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

First Free-Electron X-ray Laser First Free-Electron X-ray Laser The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser August 17, 2010 - 6:19pm Addthis The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu participated in the dedication of the world's first free-electron and most powerful X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). In light of this occasion (pun intended), we posted an in-depth look at the innovative nature of this new instrument and its potential to tackle some of life's biggest mysteries. The Secretary seemed just as geeked about the possibilities of the LCLS, stating that "this is a new instrument that will enable us to see the structure of materials that we could not determine by any other means ... Knowing those

94

Learning to Apply Metrology Principles to the Measurement of X-ray Intensities in the 500 eV to 110 keV Energy Range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratories Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which is the accrediting body of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTecs starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories. This paper will serve as a teaching tool, by way of this example using the NSTec X-ray sources, for the process and methods used in developing an accredited traceable metrology.

Haugh, M. J.; Pond, T.; Silbernagel, C.; Torres, P.; Marlett, K.; Goldin, F.; Cyr, S.

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 58, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2011 2961 Low-Energy X-ray and Ozone-Exposure Induced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 58, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2011 2961 Low-Energy X-ray and Ozone principles calculations of the relevant binding energies, and reaction and diffusion barriers for oxygen) has not been evaluated in a low-energy X-ray radiation environment [15], a case in which displacement

Weiss, Sharon

96

A new method of observing weak extended x-ray sources with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new method of observing weak extended x-ray sources with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar, for observing weak extended x-ray sources with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager RHESSI. INTRODUCTION The Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, RHESSI,1 is a space-based solar x

California at Berkeley, University of

97

Three-dimensional plastic response in polycrystalline copper via near-field high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The evolution of the crystallographic orientation field in a polycrystalline sample of copper is mapped in three dimensions as tensile strain is applied. Using forward-modeling analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy data, the ability to track intragranular orientation variations is demonstrated.

Li, S.F.

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

98

X-ray Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These provide excellent energy resolution for a wide range of X-ray energies, from the optical range up to several kiloelectronvolts. ... The Astro-E2 launched in 2005 was the first mission that contained a low-temperature microcalorimeter-based observatory, and three more low-temperature detector-based observatories are being developed (NeXT, Constellation-X, ZEUS). ...

Imre Szalki; Jnos Osn; Ren E. Van Grieken

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

99

On the variation of solar flare coronal x-ray source sizes with energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations with {\\em RHESSI} have enabled the detailed study of the structure of dense hard X-ray coronal sources in solar flares. The variation of source extent with electron energy has been discussed in the context of streaming of non-thermal particles in a one-dimensional cold-target model, and the results used to constrain both the physical extent of, and density within, the electron acceleration region. Here we extend this investigation to a more physically realistic model of electron transport that takes into account the finite temperature of the ambient plasma, the initial pitch-angle distribution of the accelerated electrons, and the effects of collisional pitch-angle scattering. The finite temperature results in the thermal diffusion of electrons, that leads to the observationally-inferred value of the acceleration region volume being an overestimate of its true value. The different directions of the electron trajectories, a consequence of both the non-zero injection pitch-angle and scattering with...

Jeffrey, Natasha L S; Bian, Nicolas H; Emslie, A Gordon

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Facilities and techniques for x-ray diagnostic calibration in the 100-eV to 100-keV energy range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a pioneer in the field of x-ray diagnostic calibration for more than 20 years. We have built steady state x-ray sources capable of supplying fluorescent lines of high spectral purity in the 100-eV to 100-keV energy range, and these sources have been used in the calibration of x-ray detectors, mirrors, crystals, filters, and film. This paper discusses our calibration philosophy and techniques, and describes some of our x-ray sources. Examples of actual calibration data are presented as well.

Gaines, J.L.; Wittmayer, F.J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gray Cancer Institute has pioneered the use of X ray focussing techniques to develop systems for micro irradiating individual cells and sub cellular targets in vitro. Cellular micro irradiation is now recognised as a highly versatile technique for understanding how ionising radiation interacts with living cells and tissues. The strength of the technique lies in its ability to deliver precise doses of radiation to selected individual cells (or sub cellular targets). The application of this technique in the field of radiation biology continues to be of great interest for investigating a number of phenomena currently of concern to the radiobiological community. One important phenomenon is the so called bystander effect where it is observed that unirradiated cells can also respond to signals transmitted by irradiated neighbours. Clearly, the ability of a microbeam to irradiate just a single cell or selected cells within a population is well suited to studying this effect. Our prototype tabletop X-ray microprobe was optimised for focusing 278 eV C-K X rays and has been used successfully for a number of years. However, we have sought to develop a new variable energy soft X-ray microprobe capable of delivering focused CK (0.28 keV), Al-K (1.48 keV) and notably, Ti-K (4.5 keV) X rays. Ti-K X rays are capable of penetrating several cell layers and are therefore much better suited to studies involving tissues and multi cellular layers. In our new design, X-rays are generated by the focussed electron bombardment of a material whose characteristic-K radiation is required. The source is mounted on a 1.5 x 1.0 metre optical table. Electrons are generated by a custom built gun, designed to operate up to 15 kV. The electrons are focused using a permanent neodymium iron boron magnet assembly. Focusing is achieved by adjusting the accelerating voltage and by fine tuning the target position via a vacuum position feedthrough. To analyze the electron beam properties, a custom built microscope is used to image the focussed beam on the target, through a vacuum window. The X-rays are focussed by a zone plate optical assembly mounted to the end of a hollow vertical tube that can be precisely positioned above the X ray source. The cell finding and positioning stage comprises an epi-fluorescence microscope and a feedback controlled 3 axis cell positioning stage, also mounted on the optical table. Independent vertical micro positioning of the microscope objective turret allows the focus of the microscope and the X ray focus to coincide in space (i.e. at the point where the cell should be positioned for exposure). The whole microscope stage assembly can be precisely raised or lowered, to cater for large differences in the focal length of the X ray zone plates. The facility is controlled by PC and the software provides full status and control of the source and makes use of a dual-screen for control and display during the automated cell finding and irradiation procedures.

Folkard, Melvyn; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Schettino, Giuseppe; Atkinson, Kirk; Prise, Kevin, M.; Michael, Barry, D.

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

102

E-Print Network 3.0 - alxga1-xas high-energy x-ray Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

All rights reserved. X-ray Diffraction Activity... Background Information The X-ray powder Diffractometer uses different ... Source: Cohen, Itai - Department of Physics, Cornell...

103

Compact x-ray source and panel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

104

High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals.

Macrander, A.T.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

THE SAP3 COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR QUANTITATIVE MULTIELEMENT ANALYSIS BY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SAP3 is a dual-function FORTRAN computer program which performs peak analysis of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra and then quantitatively interprets the results of the multielement analysis. It was written for mono- or bi-chromatic excitation as from an isotopic or secondary excitation source, and uses the separate incoherent and coherent backscatter intensities to define the bulk sample matrix composition. This composition is used in performing fundamental-parameter matrix corrections for self-absorption, enhancement, and particle-size effects, obviating the need for specific calibrations for a given sample matrix. The generalized calibration is based on a set of thin-film sensitivities, which are stored in a library disk file and used for all sample matrices and thicknesses. Peak overlap factors are also determined from the thin-film standards, and are stored in the library for calculating peak overlap corrections. A detailed description is given of the algorithms and program logic, and the program listing and flow charts are also provided. An auxiliary program, SPCAL, is also given for use in calibrating the backscatter intensities. SAP3 provides numerous analysis options via seventeen control switches which give flexibility in performing the calculations best suited to the sample and the user needs. User input may be limited to the name of the library, the analysis livetime, and the spectrum filename and location. Output includes all peak analysis information, matrix correction factors, and element concentrations, uncertainties and detection limits. Twenty-four elements are typically determined from a 1024-channel spectrum in one-to-two minutes using a PDP-11/34 computer operating under RSX-11M.

Nielson,, K. K.; Sanders,, R. W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Radiological Worker Training - Radiological Safety Training for Radiation Producing (X-Ray) Devices  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

C C December 2008 DOE HANDBOOK Radiological Worker Training Radiological Safety Training for Radiation Producing (X-Ray) Devices U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE Radiological Worker Training - Appendix C Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-Ray) Devices DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 Program Management ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ Radiological Worker Training - Appendix C Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-Ray) Devices DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 Program Management

107

Short-range and long-range order of phyllomanganate nanoparticles determined using high-energy X-ray scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-energy X-ray scattering data from turbostratic phyllomanganate nanosheets are analyzed in real-space by pair distribution function analysis and in reciprocal space by the Bragg-rod method and the Debye equation. The elastic deformation of the two-dimensional nanocrystals is modeled with (1) a new empirical strain function in Bragg-rod calculations and (2) explicit spherical and cylindrical mandrels implemented in the Debye equation.

Manceau, A.

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

108

On forbidden high-energy electrons as a source of background in X-ray and gamma-ray observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study is devoted to a problem of electron-induced contaminant to X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysical measurements on board low-orbiting satellites. We analyzed enhancements of electron fluxes in energy range 100 - 300 keV observed at equatorial and low latitudes by a fleet of NOAA/POES low-orbiting satellites over the time period from 2003 to 2005. It was found that 100-300 keV electron fluxes in the forbidden zone below the inner radiation belt enhanced by several orders of magnitude during geomagnetic storms and/or under strong compressions of the magnetosphere. The enhancements are related to high substorm activity and occurred at any local time. Intense fluxes of the energetic electrons in the forbidden zone can be considered as an essential contaminant to X-ray and gamma-ray measurements at low-latitude and low-altitude orbits.

Suvorova, Alla V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Calibration of X-ray detectors in the 8 to 115 keV energy range and their application to diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The calibration of X-ray diagnostics is of paramount importance to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) fills this need by providing a wide variety of calibration and diagnostic development services in support of the ongoing research efforts at NIF. The X-ray source in the High Energy X-ray lab utilizes induced fluorescence in a variety of metal foils to produce a beam of characteristic X rays ranging from 8 to 111 keV. Presented are the methods used for calibrating a High Purity Germanium detector, which has been absolutely calibrated using radioactive check sources, compared against a silicon photodiode calibrated at Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Also included is a limited presentation of results from the recent calibration of the upgraded Filter Fluorescer X ray Spectrometer.

J. J. Lee, M. J. Haugh, G. LaCaille, and P. Torres

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Hybrid diamond-silicon angular-dispersive x-ray monochromator with 0.25-meV energy bandwidth and high spectral efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on the design, implementation, and performance of an x-ray monochromator with ultra-high energy resolution (?E/E ? 2.7 10?8) and...

Stoupin, S; Shvydko, Y V; Shu, D; Blank, V D; Terentyev, S A; Polyakov, S N; Kuznetsov, M S; Lemesh, I; Mundboth, K; Collins, S P; Sutter, J P; Tolkiehn, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis of the mineral content of corn bran treated in vitro and by passage through the pig Gastrointestinal tract  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis was ... a method for examining the mineral contents of corn bran loaded in vitro or passed through ... tract of pigs. Particles of dry-milled corn pericarp treated in vitro ...

Frederick R. Dintzis; Frederick L. Baker

112

An Improved Method to Derive the Lower Energy Cutoff of non-Thermal Electrons From Hard x-Rays of Solar Flares  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By changing a dimensionless calculation to a dimensional one, introducing a more accurate bremsstrahlung cross section, and using a more reasonable fitting energy range, we have recalculated the hard X-ray bre...

W.Q. Gan; Y.P. Li; J. Chang; James M. Tiernan

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Spectrum bandwidth narrowing of Thomson scattering X-rays with energy chirped electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study incoherent Thomson scattering between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam accelerated from a laser wakefield. The energy chirp effects of the accelerated electron beam on the final radiation spectrum bandwidth are investigated. It is found that the scattered X-ray radiation has the minimum spectrum width and highest intensity as electrons are accelerated up to around the dephasing point. Furthermore, it is proposed that the electron acceleration process inside the wakefield can be studied by use of 90 Thomson scattering. The dephasing position and beam energy chirp can be deduced from the intensity and bandwidth of the scattered radiation.

Xu, Tong; Chen, Min, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Fei-Yu; Yu, Lu-Le [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming, E-mail: zmsheng@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

114

All-laser-driven, MeV-energy X-ray source for detection of SNM Sudeep Banerjee, Nathan Powers, Vidya Ramanathan, Nathaniel Cunningham, Nate Chandler-Smith, Shouyuan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All-laser-driven, MeV-energy X-ray source for detection of SNM Sudeep Banerjee, Nathan Powers, MI 48109. A quasi-monoenergetic MeV x-ray source based on laser-driven electron acceleration per laser shot. Characterization of such a high-flux high energy x-ray beam is in progress. Quasi

Umstadter, Donald

115

High energy x-ray scattering studies of the local order in liquid Al  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The x-ray structure factors and densities for liquid aluminum from 1123 K to 1273 K have been measured using the beamline electrostatic levitator. Atomic structures as a function of temperature have been constructed from the diffraction data with reverse Monte Carlo simulations. An analysis of the local atomic structures in terms of the Honeycutt-Andersen indices indicates a high degree of icosahedral and distorted icosahedral order, a modest amount of body-centered cubic order, and marginal amounts of face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed order.

Mauro, N.A.; Bendert, J.C.; Vogt, A.J.; Gewin, J.M.; Kelton, K.F. (WU)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

116

X-ray Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The segmented STJ operated at total count rates of above 105 counts/s, and the best-achieved energy resolution of their single STJ was found to be 10 eV for X-ray energies below 1 keV. ... The Mo?Au TES, with an operating temperature of 230 mK, was developed for the Constellation-X mission and the energy resolution of the spectrometer is ?28 eV at 3.3 keV. ...

Imre Szalki; Szabina B. Trk; Jasna Injuk; Ren E. Van Grieken

2002-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

117

Mass and energy of erupting solar plasma observed with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light CME features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the XRT temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ~3x10 13 - 5x10 14 g, are smaller in their upper limit than total masse...

Lee, Jin-Yi; Reeves, Katharine K; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Simulations of Microchannel Plate Sensitivity to <20 keV X-rays as a Function of Energy and Incident Angle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP) response to x-rays in the 250 eV to 20 keV energy range as a function of both x-ray energy and impact angle. The model is based on the model presented in Rochau et al. (2006). However, while the Rochau et al. (2006) model was two-dimensional, and their results only went to 5 keV, our results have been expanded to 20 keV, and our model has been incorporated into a three-dimensional Monte Carlo MCP model that we have developed over the past several years (Kruschwitz et al. 2011). X-ray penetration through multiple MCP pore walls is increasingly important above 5 keV. The effect of x-ray penetration through multiple pores on MCP performance was studied and is presented.

Kruschwitz, Craig [NSTec; Wu, M. [SNL; Rochau, G. A. [SNL

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

119

High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view.

Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A. [and others

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

120

Lowering the background level and the energy threshold of Micromegas x-ray detectors for axion searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Axion helioscopes search for solar axions by their conversion in x-rays in the presence of high magnetic fields. The use of low background x-ray detectors is an essential component contributing to the sensitivity of these searches. In this work, we review the recent advances on Micromegas detectors used in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and proposed for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The actual setup in CAST has achieved background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. This reduction is based on active and passive shielding techniques, the selection of radiopure materials, offline discrimination techniques and the high granularity of the readout. We describe in detail the background model of the detector, based on its operation at CAST site and at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), as well as on Geant4 simulations. The best levels currently achieved at LSC are low than 10$^{-7}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and show good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. Finally, we present some ideas and results for reducing the energy threshold of these detectors below 1 keV, using high-transparent windows, autotrigger electronics and studying the cluster shape at different energies. As a high flux of axion-like-particles is expected in this energy range, a sub-keV threshold detector could enlarge the physics case of axion helioscopes.

F. J. Iguaz; S. Aune; F. Aznar; J. F. Castel; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galan; J. A. Garcia; J. G. Garza; I. Giomataris; I. G. Irastorza; T. Papaevangelou; A. Rodriguez; A. Tomas; T. Vafeiadis; S. C. Yildiz

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

High-Energy X-ray Studies of Real Materials Under Real Conditions and in Real Time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-energy x-rays from 3rd generation synchrotron sources, including the APS, possess a unique combination of high penetration power and high spatial, reciprocal space, and temporal resolution. These characteristics can be exploited to non-destructively measure phase, texture and strain distributions under extreme environments including thermo-mechanical loading, high-pressure, irradiation and supercritical environments. Over the past several years, the 1-ID beamline has developed a number of programs for these purposes, namely (i) high-energy diffraction microscopy, in which grain and sub-grain volumes are mapped in polycrystalline aggregates, and (ii) combined small-and wide-angle x-ray scattering which permits information over a broad range of length scales to be collected from the same (micron-level) volume. These programs have been increasingly used to test and extend predictive simulations of materials behavior over size scales ranging from nm to mm. Select studies will be presented including nucleation and growth of nanomaterials, void and structural evolution in complex composites under thermo-mechanical and irradiated environments, and microstructural changes in layered systems including thermal-barrier coatings, batteries and fuel cells. Finally, extension of these programs, through the planned APS upgrade, to higher spatio-temporal resolution will be described.

Almer, Jonathan (ANL) [ANL

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

123

Constraining H{sub 0} in general dark energy models from Sunyaev-Zeldovich/X-ray technique and complementary probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In accelerating dark energy models, the estimates of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters may depend on the matter content (?{sub M}), the curvature (?{sub K}) and the equation of state parameter (?). In this article, by using a sample of 25 angular diameter distances of galaxy clusters described by the elliptical ? model obtained through the SZE/X-ray technique, we constrain H{sub 0} in the framework of a general ?CDM model (arbitrary curvature) and a flat XCDM model with a constant equation of state parameter ? = p{sub x}/?{sub x}. In order to avoid the use of priors in the cosmological parameters, we apply a joint analysis involving the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the CMB Shift Parameter signature. By taking into account the statistical and systematic errors of the SZE/X-ray technique we obtain for nonflat ?CDM model H{sub 0} = 74{sup +5.0}{sub ?4.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?) whereas for a flat universe with constant equation of state parameter we find H{sub 0} = 72{sup +5.5}{sub ?4.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?). By assuming that galaxy clusters are described by a spherical ? model these results change to H{sub 0} = 62{sup +8.0}{sub ?7.0} and H{sub 0} = 59{sup +9.0}{sub ?6.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?), respectively. The results from elliptical description are in good agreement with independent studies from the Hubble Space Telescope key project and recent estimates based on the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, thereby suggesting that the combination of these three independent phenomena provides an interesting method to constrain the Hubble constant. As an extra bonus, the adoption of the elliptical description is revealed to be a quite realistic assumption. Finally, by comparing these results with a recent determination for a flat ?CDM model using only the SZE/X-ray technique and BAO, we see that the geometry has a very weak influence on H{sub 0} estimates for this combination of data.

Holanda, R.F.L.; Lima, J.A.S. [Departamento de Astronomia (IAGUSP), Universidade de So Paulo, Rua do Mato 1226, 05508-900, So Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cunha, J.V. [Centro de Cincias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adlia 166, 09210-170, Santo Andr, SP (Brazil); Marassi, L., E-mail: holanda@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: jvcunha@ufpa.br, E-mail: luciomarassi@ect.ufrn.br, E-mail: limajas@astro.iag.usp.br [Escola de Cincia e Tecnologia, UFRN, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

High-quality quartz single crystals for high-energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering analyzers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-quality quartz (-SiO2) crystals are characterized, and their use for inelastic X-ray scattering analyzers is presented and discussed.

H?nnicke, M.G.

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

125

Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38?50-keV energy range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.; de Jonge, M.D.; Tran, C.Q.; Wang, J.; Chantler, C.T. (Melbourne)

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

126

X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray laser (10), and related methodology, are disclosed wherein an X-ray laser target (12) is illuminated with a first pulse of optical laser radiation (14) of relatively long duration having scarcely enough energy to produce a narrow and linear cool plasma of uniform composition (38). A second, relatively short pulse of optical laser radiation (18) is uniformly swept across the length, from end to end, of the plasma (38), at about the speed of light, to consecutively illuminate continuously succeeding portions of the plasma (38) with optical laser radiation having scarcely enough energy to heat, ionize, and invert them into the continuously succeeding portions of an X-ray gain medium. This inventive double pulse technique results in a saving of more than two orders of magnitude in driving optical laser energy, when compared to the conventional single pulse approach.

Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Neutrons from high?energy x?ray medical accelerators: An estimate of risk to the radiotherapy patient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of neutrons produced by many of the high?energy x?ray therapy machines (10 MV and above) is reviewed and the possible risk their presence poses to radiotherapy patients is estimated. A review of the regulatory background containing a summary of the recommendations of the U. S. Council of State Governments (USCSG) and of the International Electro?Technical Commission (IEC) as well as an indication that recommendations will be forthcoming from the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) is presented. The neutrons in question are produced by high?energy photons(x rays) incident on the various materials of the target flattening filter collimators and other essential components of the equipment. The neutron yield (per treatmentdose) increases rapidly as the megavoltage is increased from 10 to 20 MV but remains approximately constant above this. Measurements and calculations of the quantity quality and spatial distribution of these neutrons and their concomitant dose are summarized. Values of the neutrondose are presented as entrance dose midline dose (10?cm depth) and integral dose both within and outside of the treatment volume. These values are much less than the unavoidable photondoses which are largely responsible for treatment side effects. For typical equipment the average neutron integral dose from accelerator?produced neutrons is about 47 g?cGy (per treatment cGy) depending on the treatment plan. This translates into an average dose of neutrons [averaged over the body of a typical 70?kg (154 1b) patient] of 0.060.10 cGy for a treatment of 1000 cGy. Using these neutrondoses and the best available neutron risk coefficients it is estimated that 5010? 6 fatal malignancies per year due to the neutrons may follow a typical treatment course of 5000 rads of 25?MV x rays. This is only about 1/60th of the average incidence of malignancies for the general population. Thus the cancer risk to the radiotherapy patient from accelerator?produced neutrons poses an additional risk to the patient that is negligible in comparison.

Ravinder Nath; Edward R. Epp; John S. Laughlin; William P. Swanson; Victor P. Bond

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Reduction in the intensity of solar X-ray emission in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range and heating of the solar corona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The time profiles of the energy spectra of low-intensity flares and the structure of the thermal background of the soft X-ray component of solar corona emission over the period of January-February, 2003, are investigated using the data of the RHESSI project. A reduction in the intensity of X-ray emission of the solar flares and the corona thermal background in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range is revealed. The RHESSI data are compared with the data from the Interball-Geotail project. A new mechanism of solar corona heating is proposed on the basis of the results obtained.

Mirzoeva, I. K., E-mail: colombo2006@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Quantitative Evaluation of Radiation Damage to Polyethylene Terephthalate by Soft X-rays and High-energy Electrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantitative Evaluation of Radiation Damage to Polyethylene Terephthalate by Soft X-rays and High to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) caused by soft X-rays and energetic electrons have been measured using to polyethylene terephalate (PET) by TEM-EELS versus nonspatially resolved NEXAFS.5 That study also reported

Hitchcock, Adam P.

130

X-ray Observations of Mrk 231  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents new X-ray observations of Mrk 231, an active galaxy of particular interest due to its large infrared luminosity and the presence of several blueshifted broad absorption line (BAL) systems, a phenomenon observed in a small fraction of QSOs. A ROSAT HRI image of Mrk 231 is presented, this shows an extended region of soft X-ray emission, covering several tens of kpc, consistent with the extent of the host galaxy. An ASCA observation of Mrk 231 is also presented. Hard X-rays are detected but the data show no significant variability in X-ray flux. The hard X-ray continuum is heavily attenuated and X-ray column estimates range from ~ 2 x 10^{22} - 10^{23} cm^{-2} depending on whether the material is assumed to be neutral or ionized, and on the model assumed for the extended X-ray component. These ASCA data provide only the second hard X-ray spectrum of a BAL AGN presented to date. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution of the source is discussed. While Mrk 231 is X-ray weak compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, it has an optical-to-X-ray spectrum typical of a QSO.

T. J. Turner

1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

131

Thermal gradient crystals as tuneable monochromator for high energy X-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the high energy synchrotron radiation beamline BW5 at DORIS III at DESY a new monochromator providing broad energy bandwidth and high reflectivity is in use. On a small 10x10x5 mm{sup 3} silicon crystal scattering at the (311) reflection a thermal gradient is applied, which tunes the scattered energy bandwidth. The (311) reflection strongly suppresses the higher harmonics allowing the use of an image plate detector for crystallography. The monochromator can be used at photon energies above 60 keV.

Ruett, U.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Heuer, J.; Zimmermann, M. von [Hamburger Synchrotron Strahlungslabor (HASYLAB), at Deutsches Elektronensychrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

132

Chest x-Rays  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

133

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

1987-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

134

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the nuclear astrophysics aspects of accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries. We summarize open astrophysical questions in light of recent observations and their relation to the underlying nuclear physics. Recent progress in the understanding of the nuclear physics, especially of X-ray bursts, is also discussed.

H. Schatz; K. E. Rehm

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Bis(4-methylanilinium) and bis(4-iodoanilinium) pentamolybdates from laboratory X-ray powder data and total energy minimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal structures of bis(4-methylanilinium) and bis(4-iodoanilinium) pentamolybdates were determined using laboratory X-ray data and refined by total energy minimization methods. The obtained structures present alternating organic cation and inorganic polyanion layers bound by weak bonding (apart from ionic interactions).

Oszajca, M.

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Changes in Bone Mineral, Lean Body Mass and Fat Content as Measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry: A Longitudinal Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bone mineral density (BMD) and soft tissue composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) 34 years apart in 273 men and women aged 2390. We found different rates of BMD loss in differen...

M. K. Karlsson; K. J. Obrant; B. E. Nilsson; O. Johnell

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Soft X-Ray Emission in the Water Window Region with Nitrogen Filling in a Low Energy Plasma Focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For operation of the plasma focus in nitrogen, a focus pinch compression temperature...62נ106...K) is found to be suitable for good yield of nitrogen soft X-rays in the water window region. Using this temperat...

M. Akel; S. Lee

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

X-ray laser microscope apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

Llorens, Isabelle [CEA/DSM/INAC/SP2M/NRS, F-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL - MARS beamline, L'Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier [Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble, UMS 832 CNRS Universite Joseph Fourier, F-38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); BM30B/FAME beamline, ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Braillard, Aurelien; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Prat, Alain; Testemale, Denis [BM30B/FAME beamline, ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR 7590, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Bardou, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR 20 CNRS, Route de Nozay, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Ulrich, Olivier [CEA/DSM/INAC/SP2M/NRS, F-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); BM32/IF beamline, ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Arnaud, Stephan; Berar, Jean-Francois; Boudet, Nathalie; Caillot, Bernard [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); BM02/D2AM beamline, ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jerome [Centre Europeen de Recherche et d'Enseignement des Geosciences de l'Environnement, UMR 7730, F-13545 Aix en Provence (France); and others

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Aneta Siemiginowska Chandra X-ray Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ray and gamma-ray · High Energy Sky · Chandra X-ray Observatory · examples of typical X-ray data, · an example of a data analysis process · statistical challenges · what do we learn from the data? #12;What is Astronomy and phenomena do we study and how? Solar System: Sun and sollar wind, planets, moons, asteroids, comets Our

Wolfe, Patrick J.

142

SOFT X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PLANETS, MOONS, AND COMETS A. Bhardwaj(1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOFT X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PLANETS, MOONS, AND COMETS A. Bhardwaj(1) , G. R. Gladstone(2) , R. F to radiate in the soft x-ray energy ( the generation of soft x-rays from these objects, whereas in the hard x-ray energy range (>10 keV) x-rays mainly

Johnson, Robert E.

143

TheChandraViewofRadiativeandKineticEnergyDissipationin The X-rayView of Radiative and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Dissipation in AGN Dan Evans (MIT Kavli Institute), Herman Marshall (MIT), Stefano Bianchi (Roma Tre), Patrick Ogle (Caltech), James Reeves (Keele) Mike Nowak (MIT), Norbert Schulz (MIT), Anna Lia Effect of AGN? #12;[OIII] arcs [OIII] knots Radio ejecta Chandra 0.3-2 keV 3'' = 1 kpc Bianchi, Evans, et

Evans, Dan

144

X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics.

Price, R.H.

1981-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

X-ray laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Constraining the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy from an X-ray bursting neutron star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrons stars lighter than the Sun are basically composed of nuclear matter of density up to around twice normal nuclear density. In our recent analyses, we showed that possible simultaneous observations of masses and radii of such neutron stars could constrain $\\eta\\equiv(K_0L^2)^{1/3}$, a combination of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter $K_0$ and the density derivative of the nuclear symmetry energy $L$ that characterizes the theoretical mass-radius relation. In this paper, we focus on the mass-radius constraint of the X-ray burster 4U 1724-307 given by Suleimanov et al. (2011). We therefrom obtain the constraint that $\\eta$ should be larger than around 130 MeV, which in turn leads to $L$ larger than around 110, 98, 89, and 78 MeV for $K_0=180$, 230, 280, and 360 MeV. Such a constraint on $L$ is more or less consistent with that obtained from the frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations in giant flares observed in soft-gamma repeaters.

Sotani, Hajime; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

High energy resolution hard X-ray and gamma-ray imagers using CdTe diode devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed CdTe double-sided strip detectors (DSDs or cross strip detectors) and evaluated their spectral and imaging performance for hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Though the double-sided strip configuration is suitable for imagers with a fine position resolution and a large detection area, CdTe diode DSDs with indium (In) anodes have yet to be realized due to the difficulty posed by the segmented In anodes. CdTe diode devices with aluminum (Al) anodes were recently established, followed by a CdTe device in which the Al anodes could be segmented into strips. We developed CdTe double-sided strip devices having Pt cathode strips and Al anode strips, and assembled prototype CdTe DSDs. These prototypes have a strip pitch of 400 micrometer. Signals from the strips are processed with analog ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). We have successfully performed gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with a position resolution of 400 micrometer. Energy resolution of 1.8 keV (FWHM: full width at half maximum) was ob...

Watanabe, Shin; Aono, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Constraining the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy from an X-ray bursting neutron star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrons stars lighter than the Sun are basically composed of nuclear matter of density up to around twice normal nuclear density. In our recent analyses, we showed that possible simultaneous observations of masses and radii of such neutron stars could constrain $\\eta\\equiv(K_0L^2)^{1/3}$, a combination of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter $K_0$ and the density derivative of the nuclear symmetry energy $L$ that characterizes the theoretical mass-radius relation. In this paper, we focus on the mass-radius constraint of the X-ray burster 4U 1724-307 given by Suleimanov et al. (2011). We therefrom obtain the constraint that $\\eta$ should be larger than around 130 MeV, which in turn leads to $L$ larger than around 110, 98, 89, and 78 MeV for $K_0=180$, 230, 280, and 360 MeV. Such a constraint on $L$ is more or less consistent with that obtained from the frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations in giant flares observed in soft-gamma repeaters.

Hajime Sotani; Kei Iida; Kazuhiro Oyamatsu

2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

149

X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

009-9473-8 REVIEW X-ray absorption spectroscopy Junko Yano and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, bothX-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type: Review X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Junko Yano andPhotosystem II; XAS, X-ray absorption spectroscopy; EXAFS,X-ray absorption fine structure; EPR, electron paramagnetic

Yano, Junko

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study of the Effect of Doping on the Low Energy Electronic Structure of PrFeAsO1-[delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study of theusing soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. The2. (a) Oxygen 1s x-ray absorption spectra of PrFeAsO 1-? (?

Freelon, Byron

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

X-Ray Generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are many types of X-ray generators sold commercially. The following are some of ... that should be considered when selecting a particular generator for a particular purpose. All the companies listed below s...

Reuben Rudman

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Spatially Resolving a Starburst Galaxy at Hard X-ray Energies: NuSTAR, Chandra, AND VLBA Observations of NGC 253  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prior to the launch of NuSTAR, it was not feasible to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) emission from galaxies beyond the Local Group. The combined NuSTAR dataset, comprised of three ~165 ks observations, allows spatial characterization of the hard X-ray emission in the galaxy NGC 253 for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and VLBA monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ~10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within 100" of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxy - dominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, whic...

Wik, Daniel R; Hornschemeier, Ann E; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Zezas, Andreas; Antoniou, Vallia; Argo, Megan K; Bechtol, Keith; Boggs, Steven; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William; Hailey, Charles; Harrison, Fiona; Krivanos, Roman; Maccarone, Thomas J; Stern, Daniel; Venters, Tonia; Zhang, William W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

High energy resolution hard X-ray and gamma-ray imagers using CdTe diode devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed CdTe double-sided strip detectors (DSDs or cross strip detectors) and evaluated their spectral and imaging performance for hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Though the double-sided strip configuration is suitable for imagers with a fine position resolution and a large detection area, CdTe diode DSDs with indium (In) anodes have yet to be realized due to the difficulty posed by the segmented In anodes. CdTe diode devices with aluminum (Al) anodes were recently established, followed by a CdTe device in which the Al anodes could be segmented into strips. We developed CdTe double-sided strip devices having Pt cathode strips and Al anode strips, and assembled prototype CdTe DSDs. These prototypes have a strip pitch of 400 micrometer. Signals from the strips are processed with analog ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). We have successfully performed gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with a position resolution of 400 micrometer. Energy resolution of 1.8 keV (FWHM: full width at half maximum) was obtained at 59.54 keV. Moreover, the possibility of improved spectral performance by utilizing the energy information of both side strips was demonstrated. We designed and fabricated a new analog ASIC, VA32TA6, for the readout of semiconductor detectors, which is also suitable for DSDs. A new feature of the ASIC is its internal ADC function. We confirmed this function and good noise performance that reaches an equivalent noise charge of 110 e- under the condition of 3-4 pF input capacitance.

Shin Watanabe; Shin-nosuke Ishikawa; Hiroyuki Aono; Shin'ichiro Takeda; Hirokazu Odaka; Motohide Kokubun; Tadayuki Takahashi; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Hiroyasu Tajima; Mitsunobu Onishi; Yoshikatsu Kuroda

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

156

Modeling energy dependence of the inner-shell x-ray emission produced by femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of xenon clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We employ the Los Alamos suite of atomic physics codes to model the inner-shell x-ray emission spectrum of xenon and compare results with those obtained via high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of xenon clusters irradiated by 30fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulses. We find that the commonly employed configuration-average approximation breaks down and significant spin-orbit splitting necessitates a detailed level accounting. We reproduce an interesting spectral trend for a series of experimental spectra taken with varying pulse energy for fixed pulse duration. To simulate the experimental measurements at increasing beam energies, we find that spectral modeling requires an increased hot electron fraction, but decreased atomic density and bulk electron temperature. We believe these latter conditions to be a result of partial cluster destruction due to the increased energy in the laser prepulse.

Timothy C. Berkelbach; James Colgan; Joseph Abdallah; Jr.; Anatoly Ya. Faenov; Tatiana A. Pikuz; Yuji Fukuda; Koichi Yamakawa

2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

157

Modeling energy dependence of the inner-shell x-ray emission produced by femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of xenon clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We employ the Los Alamos suite of atomic physics codes to model the inner-shell x-ray emission spectrum of xenon and compare results with those obtained via high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of xenon clusters irradiated by 30 fs Ti:Sa laser pulses. We find that the commonly employed configuration average approximation breaks down and significant spin-orbit splitting necessitates a detailed level accounting. Additionally, we reproduce an interesting spectral trend for a series of experimental spectra taken with varying pulse energy for fixed pulse duration. To simulate the experimental measurements at increasing beam energies, we find that spectral modeling requires an increased hot electron fraction, but decreased atomic density and bulk electron temperature. We believe these latter conditions to be a result of partial cluster destruction due to the increased energy in the laser prepulse.

Colgan, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

X-ray views of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A neutron star low-mass X-ray binary is a binary stellar system with a neutron star and a low-mass companion star rotating around each other. In this system the neutron star accretes mass from the companion, and as this matter falls into the deep potential well of the neutron star, the gravitational potential energy is released primarily in the X-ray wavelengths. Such a source was first discovered in X-rays in 1962, and this discovery formally gave birth to the "X-ray astronomy". In the subsequent decades, our knowledge of these sources has increased enormously by the observations with several X-ray space missions. Here we give a brief overview of our current understanding of the X-ray observational aspects of these systems.

Sudip Bhattacharyya

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

159

A System for Conducting Sophisticated Mechanical Tests in Situ with High Energy Synchrotron X-Rays Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report for the SBIR Phase I project titled 'A System for Conducting Sophisticated Mechanical Tests in Situ with High Energy Synchrotron X-Rays.' Experiments using diffraction of synchrotron radiation that help scientists understand engineering material failure modes, such as fracture and fatigue, require specialized machinery. This machinery must be able to induce these failure modes in a material specimen while adhering to strict size, weight, and geometric limitations prescribed by diffraction measurement techniques. During this Phase I project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) developed one such machine capable of applying uniaxial mechanical loading to a material specimen in both tension and compression, with zero backlash while transitioning between the two. Engineers currently compensate for a lack of understanding of fracture and fatigue by employing factors of safety in crucial system components. Thus, mechanical and structural parts are several times bigger, thicker, and heavier than they need to be. The scientific discoveries that result from diffraction experiments which utilize sophisticated mechanical loading devices will allow for broad material, weight, fuel, and cost savings in engineering design across all industries, while reducing the number of catastrophic failures in transportation, power generation, infrastructure, and all other engineering systems. With an existing load frame as the starting point, the research focused on two main areas: (1) the design of a specimen alignment and gripping system that enables pure uniaxial tension and compression loading (and no bending, shear, or torsion), and (2) development of a feedback control system that is adaptive and thus can maintain a load set point despite changing specimen material properties (e.g. a decreasing stiffness during yield).

Jeremy Weiss

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

160

Low-energy x-ray and electron physics and applications to diagnostics development for laser-produced plasma research. Final report, April 30, 1980-April 29, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes a collaborative extension of an ongoing research program in low-energy x-ray and electron physics into particular areas of immediate need for the diagnostics of plasmas as involved in laser-produced fusion research. It has been for the continued support for one year of a post-doctoral research associate and for three student research assistants who have been applied to the following specific efforts: (1) the continuation of our research on the absolute characterization of x-ray photocathode systems for the 0.1 to 10 keV photon energy region. The research results were applied collaboratively to the design, construction and calibration of photocathodes for time-resolved detection with the XRD and the streak and framing cameras; (2) the design, construction and absolute calibration of optimized, bolt-on spectrographs for the absolute measurement of laser-produced plasma spectra.

Henke, B.L.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS Mark Engelhard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS Mark Engelhard 1 #12;EMSL XPS Instrumentation 2 Physical Electronics Quantera XPS High Energy Resolution Focused X-ray Beam Capability Catalysis reaction and processing chamber with inert atmosphere glove box connected to a PHI Quantera Scanning X-ray Microprobe

162

X-ray beam finder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

Gilbert, H.W.

1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

High-energy radiation visualizer (HERV): A new system for imaging in x-ray and gamma-ray emission regions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present a description and results of the operation for {gamma}-ray and X-ray objects for the compact visualization system high-energy radiation visualizer (HERV). The imaging in this system is based on use of a conical collimator, scintillator plate, and image intensifier as a detector and CCD matrix as a readout device. The use of HERV as a two-dimensional X-ray image visualizer for the Compton scatter inspection system was considered and first results are discussed. The possibility of using different hexagonal-coded apertures imaging for HERV is discussed and results of Monte Carlo simulation and experiments with optical analog of coded aperture are presented.

Sudarkin, A.N.; Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Volkovich, A.G.; Turin, A.S.; Danilovich, A.S.; Rybakov, D.D.; Urutskoev, L.I. [RECOM Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [RECOM Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Predicted X-ray backgrounds for the International X-ray Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The background that will be observed by IXO's X-ray detectors naturally separates into two components: (1) a Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB), primarily due to unresolved point sources at high energies (E>2 keV), along with ...

Bautz, Marshall W.

165

Imaging of high-energy x-ray emission from cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide broadband time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered implosions. This diagnostic measures the temperature- and density-sensitive bremsstrahlung emission and provides estimates of hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure.

Ma, T.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dixit, S.; Doeppner, T.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Springer, P. T.; Suter, L.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

X-ray source for mammography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

X-ray source for mammography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

Logan, C.M.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

168

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: 2-BM  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BM BM Introduction The 2-BM beamline offers measurement capabilities for x-ray microtomography, x-ray topography and x-ray microdiffraction. X-ray microtomography and x-ray diffraction instruments are installed on separate optical tables for independent operation with fast switch over time. Optically-coupled high-resolution CCD system is used for microtomography and topography with up to 1 micron spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction setup consists of KB microfocussing mirrors (~3 micron minimum spot), four-circle Huber diffractometer, high-precision translation sample stage, two orthogonally-mounted video cameras for viewing sample, fluorescence detector (Si-drift diode) and diffraction detector (a scintillation detector or a CCD). Three different levels of monochromaticity are available. Conventional monochromatic x-rays from a double-bounced Si (111) crystal monochromator (DCM, D E/E=1E-4), wide band-pass monochromatic x-rays from a double multilayer monochromator (DMM, D E/E=1~4E-2) and pink beam. The available x-ray range is from 5 keV to 30 keV. The lower limit is due to the x-ray windows and the upper limit is due to the critical angle of the x-ray mirror. Two different coatings (Cr and Pt) for the x-ray mirror allow either 20 keV or 30 keV energy cutoff.

169

Lowering the background level and the energy threshold of Micromegas x-ray detectors for axion searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Axion helioscopes search for solar axions by their conversion in x-rays in the presence of high magnetic fields. The use of low background x-ray detectors is an essential component contributing to the sensitivity of these searches. In this work, we review the recent advances on Micromegas detectors used in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and proposed for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The actual setup in CAST has achieved background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. This reduction is based on active and passive shielding techniques, the selection of radiopure materials, offline discrimination techniques and the high granularity of the readout. We describe in detail the background model of the detector, based on its operation at CAST site and at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), as well as on Geant4 simulations. The best levels currently achieved at LSC are low than 10$^{-7}$ keV$^{-1}$ ...

Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Garza, J G; Giomataris, I; Irastorza, I G; Papaevangelou, T; Rodriguez, A; Tomas, A; Vafeiadis, T; Yildiz, S C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

HIGH-ENERGY X-RAYS FROM J174545.5-285829, THE CANNONBALL: A CANDIDATE PULSAR WIND NEBULA ASSOCIATED WITH Sgr A EAST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few-arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball ...

Nynka, Melania

171

The Constellation X-ray mission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Constellation-X mission is a large collecting area X-ray facility, emphasizing observations at high spectral resolution (E/?E?3003000) while covering a broad energy band (0.2540 keV). By increasing the telescope aperture and utilizing efficient spectrometers the mission will achieve a factor of 100 increased sensitivity over current high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy missions. The use of focussing optics across the 1040 keV band will provide a similar factor of 100 increased sensitivity in this band. Key technologies under development for the mission include lightweight high throughput X-ray optics, multilayer coatings to enhance the hard X-ray performance of X-ray optics, micro-calorimeter spectrometer arrays with 2 eV resolution, low-power and low-weight CCD arrays, lightweight gratings and hard X-ray detectors. When observations commence towards the end of the next decade, Constellation-X will address many pressing questions concerning the extremes of gravity and the evolution of the Universe.

N.E White; H Tananbaum

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

X-Ray Observations of Radio Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review some of the ways that X-ray observations provide unique information on radio galaxies. Thermal bremsstrahlung X-ray emission provides detailed data on ambient densities and temperatures. These parameters in turn can be used for pressure balance calculations and can demonstrate how the ambient gas affects radio source structure. Additionally, many signatures of the interaction of radio jets and lobes with the hot gas are found in high resolution X-ray maps. Non-thermal X-ray emission from knots and hotspots of radio jets can give us constraints on the relativistic electron population for energies greater that that normally sampled in the radio (in the case of synchrotron emission) or can give us an independent estimate of the average magnetic field strength (if inverse Compton emission is the origin of the X-rays). From recent ROSAT HRI observations of 3C 390.3 and 3C 120, we show evidence that X-ray emission from knots and hotspots appears to be associated with regions of large gradients in the radio surface brightness; i.e. at the location of powerful shocks.

D. E. Harris

1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

174

Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-RAY) Devices  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Change Notice No. 2 Change Notice No. 2 with Reaffirmation January 2007 DOE HANDBOOK RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR RADIATION-PRODUCING (X-RAY) DEVICES U.S. Department of Energy FSC 6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1109-97 ii Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/ DOE-HDBK-1109-97 iii Note: The page numbers refer to Change Notice 1 of the standard which was issued in February 2002. The changes have been incorporated in the Adobe PDF file posted on the DOE Technical Standards Web Site. Change Notice No. 1. RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR RADIATION-

177

Relationship between dislocations and residual stresses in cold-drawn pearlitic steel analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyzed the dislocation distribution of cold-drawn pearlitic-steel wire by using the line-profile analysis based on the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXD). Although this line-profile analysis requires a high resolution in reciprocal space, the resolution for EDXD is generally poor due to the energy resolution of the detector. Our analysis demonstrated that the resolution in the reciprocal space can be maximized at small scattering angles. Using the line-profile analysis based on the EDXD, the microstructural parameters such as the crystallite size and the dislocation density of the ferrite phase in the pearlitic steel were successfully analyzed. In addition, the distribution of the residual stress of the ferrite phase of a pearlitic steel wire was also analyzed using the EDXD measurement. - Highlights: Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction is applied to the line-profile analysis. Distribution of dislocations in ferrite in the pearlitic steel wire is analyzed. Relationship between dislocations and residual stress is discussed.

Sato, Shigeo, E-mail: s.sato@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Wagatsuma, Kazuaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Suzuki, Shigeru [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kumagai, Masayoshi; Imafuku, Muneyuki [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo City University, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Tashiro, Hitoshi [Gyoda 361-0011 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kentaro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo 679-5198 (Japan); Shobu, Takahiasa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo 679-5184 (Japan)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Impact of Mg concentration on energy-band-depth profile of Mg-doped InN epilayers analyzed by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structures of Mg-doped InN (Mg-InN) epilayers with the Mg concentration, [Mg], ranging from 1 10{sup 19} to 5 10{sup 19} cm{sup ?3} were systematically investigated by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The angle-resolved results on the core-level and valence band photoelectron spectra as a function of [Mg] revealed that the energy band of Mg-InN showed downward bending due to the n{sup +} surface electron accumulation and p type layers formed in the bulk. With an increase in [Mg], the energy-band changed from monotonic to two-step n{sup +}p homojunction structures. The oxygen concentration rapidly increased at the middle-bulk region (?4.5 to ?7.5 nm) from the surface, which was one of the reasons of the transformation of two-step energy band.

Imura, M.; Tsuda, S.; Nagata, T.; Takeda, H.; Liao, M. Y.; Koide, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Yang, A. L.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K. [NIMS/SPring-8, NIMS, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [NIMS/SPring-8, NIMS, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yamaguchi, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano-machi, Hachiouji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan) [Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano-machi, Hachiouji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu 525-8577 (Japan); Kaneko, M.; Uematsu, N.; Wang, K.; Araki, T. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu 525-8577 (Japan)] [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu 525-8577 (Japan); Nanishi, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu 525-8577 (Japan) [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

Chain-length dependent growth dynamics of n-alkanes on silica investigated by energy-dispersive x-ray reflectivity in situ and in real-time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare the growth dynamics of the three n-alkanes C{sub 36}H{sub 74}, C{sub 40}H{sub 82}, and C{sub 44}H{sub 90} on SiO{sub 2} using real-time and in situ energy-dispersive x-ray reflectivity. All molecules investigated align in an upright-standing orientation on the substrate and exhibit a transition from layer-by-layer growth to island growth after about 4 monolayers under the conditions employed. Simultaneous fits of the reflected intensity at five distinct points in reciprocal space show that films formed by longer n-alkanes roughen faster during growth. This behavior can be explained by a chain-length dependent height of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. Further x-ray diffraction measurements after growth indicate that films consisting of longer n-alkanes also incorporate more lying-down molecules in the top region. While the results reveal behavior typical for chain-like molecules, the findings can also be useful for the optimization of organic field effect transistors where smooth interlayers of n-alkanes without coexistence of two or more molecular orientations are required.

Weber, C.; Rukat, T.; Schaefer, P.; Kowarik, S. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Frank, C.; Schreiber, F. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Bommel, S. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Leitenberger, W. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25,14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

180

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Many hot topics related to the high frequency dynamics of condensed matter require both a narrower and steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than what are currently available. This represents a sort of "no man's land" that falls right in the dynamic gap lying between the high frequency spectroscopies, such as inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), and the low frequency ones. New IXS spectrometers with improved energy and momentum resolutions would be required to fill this gap. To achieve this goal, a new x-ray optics concept for both the monochromatization and energy analysis of x-rays will be implemented at the NSLS-II Inelastic X-ray Scattering beamline. This solution exploits the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous x-ray diffraction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

National Laboratory Superconducting wiggler 7. Low-energy Anomalous X-ray... 1. High-energy x-ray micro-mapping of materials for advanced energy and structural engineering......

182

The first X-ray diffraction measurements on Mars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence instrument CheMin on the Curiosity rover is a shoebox-sized device using transmission geometry and an energy-discriminating CCD detector. The instrument has returned the first X-ray diffraction data for soil and drilled samples from Mars outcrops, revealing a suite of primary basaltic minerals, amorphous components and varied hydrous alteration products including phyllosilicates.

Bish, D.

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

183

Beyond hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Simultaneous combination with x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful and novel emerging technique for the nondestructive determination of electronic properties and chemical composition of bulk, buried interfaces and surfaces. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons, increasing the information depth up to several tens of nanometers. Complementing HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique (such as x-ray diffraction) opens a new research field with major applications for materials science. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have developed a novel experimental set-up that combines HAXPES and x-ray diffraction (x-ray reflectivity, surface x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space maps). Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a robust 2S + 3D diffractometer hosting a ultrahigh vacuum chamber equipped with a unique photoelectron spectrometer (few eV < electron kinetic energy < 15 keV), x-ray tube (Mg/Ti), 15 keV electron gun, and auxiliary standard surface facilities (molecular beam epitaxy evaporator, ion gun, low energy electron diffraction, sample heating/cooling system, leak valves, load-lock sample transfer, etc.). This end-station offers the unique possibility of performing simultaneous HAXPES + x-ray diffraction studies. In the present work, we describe the experimental set-up together with two experimental examples that emphasize its outstanding capabilities: (i) nondestructive characterization of the Si/Ge and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interfaces on Ge-based CMOS devices, and (ii) strain study on La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} ultrathin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrate.

Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France) and ICMM-CSIC Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Nonlinear X-ray Compton Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray scattering is a weak linear probe of matter. It is primarily sensitive to the position of electrons and their momentum distribution. Elastic X-ray scattering forms the basis of atomic structural determination while inelastic Compton scattering is often used as a spectroscopic probe of both single-particle excitations and collective modes. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are unique tools for studying matter on its natural time and length scales due to their bright and coherent ultrashort pulses. However, in the focus of an XFEL the assumption of a weak linear probe breaks down, and nonlinear light-matter interactions can become ubiquitous. The field can be sufficiently high that even non-resonant multiphoton interactions at hard X-rays wavelengths become relevant. Here we report the observation of one of the most fundamental nonlinear X-ray-matter interactions, the simultaneous Compton scattering of two identical photons producing a single photon at nearly twice the photon energy. We measure scattered...

Fuchs, Matthias; Chen, Jian; Ghimire, Shambhu; Shwartz, Sharon; Kozina, Michael; Jiang, Mason; Henighan, Thomas; Bray, Crystal; Ndabashimiye, Georges; Bucksbaum, P H; Feng, Yiping; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Kenney, Christopher; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin; Moeller, Stefan; Hastings, Jerome B; Reis, David A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

186

X-ray fluorescence mapping  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biololgical cells, over the measurement of impurities in solar cells, to the rare earth content of geological materials. A somewhat 'typical' layout for a X-ray fluorescence...

187

APS 7-BM Beamline: X-Ray Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Useful Websites Useful Websites X-Ray Interactions with Matter from CRXO at LBNL. Intuitive interface for x-ray transmission and reflectivity for a wide range of materials. X-Ray Data Booklet from LBNL. Slightly outdated in places, but many useful tables of edge energies, fluorescence lines, and crystal lattice spacings. NIST XCOM Database. Powerful database of photoelectric absorption, elastic scattering, and Compton scattering cross-sections for a wide range of materials. X-Ray Server. Maintained by Sergey Stepanov at GMCA at the APS, this website has several powerful calculators for simulating x-ray reflection and diffraction. Software X-Ray Oriented Programs (XOP). This program, written by scientists at the ESRF and APS, is widely used in the synchrotron research community.

188

Displaced Vertices from X-ray Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a simple model of weak-scale thermal dark matter that gives rise to X-ray lines. Dark matter consists of two nearly degenerate states near the weak scale, which are populated thermally in the early universe via co-annihilation with slightly heavier states that are charged under the Standard Model. The X-ray line arises from the decay of the heavier dark matter component into the lighter one via a radiative dipole transition, at a rate that is slow compared to the age of the universe. The model predicts observable signatures at the LHC in the form of exotic events with missing energy and displaced leptons and jets. As an application, we show how this model can explain the recently observed 3.55 keV X-ray line.

Adam Falkowski; Yonit Hochberg; Joshua T. Ruderman

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

189

A low-cost X-ray-transparent experimental cell for synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography studies under geological reservoir conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An X-ray-transparent experimental environment that allows time-resolved studies of porous rocks under geological reservoir conditions using high-energy synchrotron X-ray microtomography is presented.

Fusseis, F.

2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Cosmology with X-ray Cluster Baryons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray cluster measurements interpreted with a universal baryon/gas mass fraction can theoretically serve as a cosmological distance probe. We examine issues of cosmological sensitivity for current (e.g., Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton) and next generation (e.g., Con-X, XEUS) observations, along with systematic uncertainties and biases. To give competitive next generation constraints on dark energy, we find that systematics will need to be controlled to better than 1percent and any evolution in f_gas (and other cluster gas properties) must be calibrated so the residual uncertainty is weaker than (1+z)0.03.

Linder, Eric V.

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

191

Dynamic screening x-ray energy shifts and collisional line broadening of 2p-1s transitions in 2 MeV/AMU H- and He-like Ne, Mg, and S ions traveling in solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Na)or Sub)ect: Chemistry DYNAMIC SCREENING X-RAY ENERGY SHIFTS AND COLLISIONAL LINE BROADENING OF 2p-1s TRANSITIONS IN 2 Mev/AMU H- AND HE-LIKE NE...) December 1983 ABSTRACT Dynamic Screening X-Ray Energy Shifts and Collisional Line Broadening of 2p-1s Transitions in 2 Mev/AMU H- and He-like Ne, Mg, and S Tons Traveling in Solids (December 1983) Richard Jay Maurer, B. S. College of Charleston...

Maurer, Richard Jay

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

192

X-ray shearing interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

Koch, Jeffrey A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

193

X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

Henke, B.L.; Gullikson, E.M.; Davis, J.C.

194

Breast Density Assessment in Adolescent Girls Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry: A Feasibility Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...four measures of dietary quality (total energy, % energy from fat, FV...servings). Overall, dietary quality was poor, with mean...differences in dietary quality by drinking status; mean daily total energy intake was higher among...

John A. Shepherd; Serghei Malkov; Bo Fan; Aurelie Laidevant; Rachel Novotny; and Gertraud Maskarinec

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Burning plasmas with ultrashort soft-x-ray flashing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast ignition with narrow-band coherent x-ray pulses has been revisited for cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma conditions achieved on the OMEGA Laser System. In contrast to using hard-x-rays (hv = 3-6 keV) proposed in the original x-ray fast-ignition proposal, we find that soft-x-ray sources with hv Almost-Equal-To 500 eV photons can be suitable for igniting the dense DT-plasmas achieved on OMEGA. Two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations have identified the break-even conditions for realizing such a 'hybrid' ignition scheme (direct-drive compression with soft-x-ray heating) with 50-{mu}m-offset targets: {approx}10 ps soft-x-ray pulse (hv Almost-Equal-To 500 eV) with a total energy of 500-1000 J to be focused into a 10 {mu}m spot-size. A variety of x-ray pulse parameters have also been investigated for optimization. It is noted that an order of magnitude increase in neutron yield has been predicted even with x-ray energy as low as {approx}50 J. Scaling this idea to a 1 MJ large-scale target, a gain above {approx}30 can be reached with the same soft-x-ray pulse at 1.65 kJ energy. Even though such energetic x-ray sources do not currently exist, we hope that the proposed ignition scheme may stimulate efforts on generating powerful soft-x-ray sources in the near future.

Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a revolutionary development of X-ray imaging over the past few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The advanced X-ray Optics along with novel methodology has made it possible to extract information that is related to different interactions between the X-rays and the specimen at very fine spatial resolution. The energy tunability of the X-rays has made it possible to combine the energy scan with imaging technique. And the brilliance of the X-ray source has made it practical for many sophisticated

198

Columbia University X-Ray Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V-720 keV · NaI 2x2x2" detector views an energy range of 1 keV-3 MeV Store signal in the tree. computer configuration. Plasmas were created using multi-frequency ECRH, and we find that most of the plasma energy is stored in the fast electrons. The energy spectrum of the x-ray emission below 740 keV is measured

199

Measuring the power spectrum of density fluctuations at intermediate redshift with X-ray background observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......arguments at soft X-ray energies (see, e.g., Car- rera, Fabian...telescopes working up to energies #10 keV. This is...flux downwards. An alternative way of using an X-ray...ROSAT at soft X-ray energies (Voges 1993) and......

X. Barcons; A. C. Fabian; F. J. Carrera

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

Grush, M.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

X-Ray Source Based on the Parametric X-Rays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prospects of parametric x-rays (PXR) application for the development of a tuneable quasi-monochromatic x-ray source for medical imaging are discussed. Analysis of basic requirements for electron accelerator shows that it must be relatively low-energy and high-current linac. In comparison with known ultra-relativistic cases, at low energies PXR properties will be modified to a great extent by multiple scattering of the electrons. PXR intensity dependence on target thickness and beam energy are calculated taking multiple scattering into account. It is concluded that PXR source based on real medical accelerators is feasible and can provide x-ray flux needful for obtaining high quality medical images.

Alexander Lobko; Olga Lugovskaya

2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

202

High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an X-ray Absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy rangeHigh energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

Optics for X-Ray Laser and Laser Plasma Soft X-Ray Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Focusing X-ray grazing incidence optics for X-ray laser and laser plasma soft X-ray radiation has been studied. ... computer code. Parabolic axisymmetric mirror for focusing Princeton X-ray laser beam and ellipso...

L. Pina; A. Inneman; R. Hudec

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

SMB, X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging SSRL has five hard X-ray Spectroscopy beamlines and three Microfocus Imaging beamlines dedicated to Biological and...

205

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

206

Coal Combustion Fly Ash Characterization: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface and bulk properties of five samples of fly ash have been examined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy...

Rothenberg, S J; Denee, P; Holloway, P

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays FROM: Physics News Update Number 773 #1, April 12, 2006, by Phil Schewe and Ben Stein Note: This text has been slightly modified from the original. Sharper focusing of hard x-rays has been achieved with a device developed at Argonne National Lab. Because of their high energy, x-rays are hard to focus: they can be reflected from a surface but only at a glancing angle (less than a tenth of a degree); they can be refracted but the index of refraction is very close to 1, so that making efficient lenses becomes a problem; and they can be diffracted, but the relatively thick, variable pitch grating required for focusing is tricky to achieve. The Argonne device is of the diffraction type, and it consists of a stack of alternating layers of metal and silicon, made by depositing progressively thicker layers. When the x-rays fall on such a structure, nearly edge-on, what they see is a grating (called a linear zone plate) consisting of a sort of bar-code pattern.

208

Generation of first hard X-ray pulse at Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source (TTX) is the first-of-its-kind dedicated hard X-ray source in China based on the Thomson scattering between a terawatt ultrashort laser and relativistic electron beams. In this paper, we report the experimental generation and characterization of the first hard X-ray pulses (51.7 keV) via head-on collision of an 800 nm laser and 46.7 MeV electron beams. The measured yield is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} per pulse with an electron bunch charge of 200 pC and laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. The angular intensity distribution and energy spectra of the X-ray pulse are measured with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device using a CsI scintillator and silicon attenuators. These measurements agree well with theoretical and simulation predictions. An imaging test using the X-ray pulse at the TTX is also presented.

Du Yingchao; Yan Lixin; Hua Jianfei; Du Qiang; Zhang Zhen; Li Renkai; Qian Houjun; Huang Wenhui; Chen Huaibi; Tang Chuanxiang [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Radiation Imaging Fundamental Science for National Defense, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

X-ray Imaging Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), coherent diffraction imaging, x-ray microscopy, micro-tomography, holographic imaging, and x-ray micro-probe. Twelve invited speakers discussed the important scientific applications of these techniques, and also predicted the future scientific directions with the advance of instrumentation and x-ray sources. The workshop was well attended with over fifty registered attendees.

210

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha tagged x-ray Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-X-ray pinhole camera -Fast electron beam spatial distribution 5m... ? Fusion Energy Fast Ignition Optimisation high power laser-driven ion -Cu K-alpha imaging system -X-ray... and...

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous x-ray fluorescence Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the emission of a fluorescent X-ray. As a rule of thumb 15... Optimization of X-ray energy resolution from a horizontally focused ... Source: Hendrickson, Wayne A. -...

212

Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22 Astrostats X-ray Stacking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22 Astrostats X-ray Stacking Tom Aldcroft SAO/CXC #12;X-ray Stacking 2008 analysis for a sample Stacking ­ mean properties of sample Chandra X-ray data (faint point sources) are photon-limited with low background => stacking in X-rays is very effective #12;X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22

Wolfe, Patrick J.

214

X-RAYING THE BEATING HEART OF A NEWBORN STAR: ROTATIONAL MODULATION OF HIGH-ENERGY RADIATION FROM V1647 Ori  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a periodicity of {approx}1 day in the highly elevated X-ray emission from the protostar V1647 Ori during its two recent multiple-year outbursts of mass accretion. This periodicity is indicative of protostellar rotation at near-break-up speed. Modeling of the phased X-ray light curve indicates that the high-temperature ({approx}50 MK), X-ray-emitting plasma, which is most likely heated by accretion-induced magnetic reconnection, resides in dense ({approx}> 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}), pancake-shaped magnetic footprints where the accretion stream feeds the newborn star. The sustained X-ray periodicity of V1647 Ori demonstrates that such protostellar magnetospheric accretion configurations can be stable over timescales of years.

Hamaguchi, Kenji [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Grosso, Nicolas [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Universite, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Principe, David [Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Weintraub, David A.; Teets, William K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Petre, Robert, E-mail: Kenji.Hamaguchi@nasa.gov [X-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

215

Center for X-Ray Optics, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses: Soft-X-Ray imaging with zone-plate lenses; multilayer reflective optics; and spectroscopy with x-rays.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

217

Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Current Problems for X-ray Emission from Radio Jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A list is presented of known extragalactic radio jets which also have associated X-ray emission. The canonical emission processes for the production of X-rays are reviewed and the sources are categorized on the basis of our current understanding. Although it seems clear that the X-ray emission is non-thermal, the two competing processes, synchrotron and inverse Compton emissions, arise from extremely high energy (synchrotron) or extremely low energy (beaming models with IC emission), relativistic electrons. Only synchrotron self-Compton emission from a few hotspots provides information on the `normal' energy range of the electrons responsible for the observed radio emission.

D. E. Harris

2000-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

219

A highly modular beamline electrostatic levitation facility, optimized for in situ high-energy x-ray scattering studies of equilibrium and supercooled liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-energy x-ray diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about structural evolution on the atomic length scale, leading to insights into the origin of the nucleation barrier and the processes of supercooling and glass formation. The containerless processing of the beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL) facility allows coordinated thermophysical and structural studies of equilibrium and supercooled liquids to be made in a contamination-free, high-vacuum ({approx}10{sup -8} Torr) environment. To date, the incorporation of electrostatic levitation facilities into synchrotron beamlines has been difficult due to the large footprint of the apparatus and the difficulties associated with its transportation and implementation. Here, we describe a modular levitation facility that is optimized for diffraction studies of high-temperature liquids at high-energy synchrotron beamlines. The modular approach used in the apparatus design allows it to be easily transported and quickly setup. Unlike most previous electrostatic levitation facilities, BESL can be operated by a single user instead of a user team.

Mauro, N.A.; Kelton, K.F. (WU)

2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

220

High energy X-ray diffraction study of a dental ceramicstitanium functional gradient material prepared by field assisted sintering technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A functional gradient material with eleven layers composed of a dental ceramics and titanium was successfully consolidated using field assisted sintering technique in a two-step sintering process. High energy X-ray diffraction studies on the gradient were performed at High Energy Material Science beamline at Desy in Hamburg. Phase composition, crystal unit edges and lattice mismatch along the gradient were determined applying Rietveld refinement procedure. Phase analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase present in the gradient is ?-Ti. Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient with a decreasing increment between every next layer, following rather the weight fraction of titanium. The crystal unit edge a of titanium remains approximately constant with a value of 2.9686(1), while c is reduced with increasing amount of titanium. In the layer with pure titanium the crystal unit edge c is constant with a value of 4.7174(2). The lattice mismatch leading to an internal stress was calculated over the whole gradient. It was found that the maximal internal stress in titanium embedded in the studied gradient is significantly smaller than its yield strength, which implies that the structure of titanium along the whole gradient is mechanically stable.

K. Witte; W. Bodnar; N. Schell; H. Lang; E. Burkel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fresnel and refractive lenses for X-rays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a Gaussian beam analysis of X-ray refractive and Fresnel lenses. The X-ray refractive lens is featured by an intrinsic soft (Gaussian) aperture due to strong absorption of X-rays by materials. We defined a parameter N0, the critical Fresnel number (CFN), to describe this optical property. The values of N0 for all practical materials are below 1000 for photon energies exceeding 30 eV, still lower for high-Z materials. The maximum effective Fresnel number of a lens is determined by its material to be 2N0 and its maximum enhancement of X-ray intensity is limited to (2?N0)2, independent of its shape. We found that the refractive lens is likely to be useful for manipulating nearly diffraction limited beam in the hard X-ray region and its application is severely restricted by available fabrication capabilities today. X-ray Fresnel lenses, both in cylindrical and linear forms, are proposed as superior focusing elements for hard X-rays. Their high efficiency, up to 100% in optimal construction, will enable us to manipulate beams with multiple lenses and obtain higher performance optics. Their design and fabrication are discussed in reference to those of X-ray Fresnel zone plates and micro Fresnel lenses for optoelectronics.

B.X. Yang

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hard X-ray tails and cyclotron features in X-ray pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the physical processes occurring in the magnetosphere of accreting X-ray pulsars, with emphasis on those processes that give rise to observable effects in their high (E>10 keV) energy spectra. In the second part we compare the empirical spectral laws used to fit the observed spectra with theoretical models, at the light of the BeppoSAX results on the broad-band characterization of the X-ray pulsar continuum, and the discovery of new (multiple) cyclotron resonance features.

Mauro Orlandini; Daniele Dal Fiume

2001-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

223

X-ray radiography for container inspection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

Katz, Jonathan I. (Clayton, MO); Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

224

Theory of low energy excitations in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for rare-earth systems: Yb compounds as typical examples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Theoretical predictions are given for low energy excitations, such as crystal field excitations and Kondo resonance excitations, to be detected by high-resolution measurements of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) of rare-earth materials with Yb compounds as typical examples. Crystal field excitations in the Yb 3d RIXS of a Yb3+ ion in the cubic crystal field are formulated, and the calculation of RIXS spectra for YbN is done. Kondo resonance excitations revealed in the Yb 3d RIXS spectra are calculated for mixed-valence Yb compounds, Yb1-xLuxAl3, in the leading term approximation of the 1/Nf expansion method with a single impurity Anderson model. It is emphasized that the high-resolution RIXS with polarization dependence is a powerful tool to study the crystal field levels together with their symmetry and also the Kondo bound state in rare-earth compounds. Some in-depth discussions are given on the polarization effects of RIXS, including 4d and 2p RIXS spectra, the coherence effect of the Kondo bound states, and the importance of the high-resolution RIXS spectra for condensed matter physics under extreme conditions.

A. Kotani

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

225

Elemental relationships in rock varnish as seen with SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray) elemental line profiling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heterogeneous nature of rock varnish requires a thorough survey of elemental and mineralogic compositions before relating chemical variability of rock varnish to past geochemical environments. Elemental relationships in rock varnish can be examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with an elemental line profiling routine using semi-quantitative, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Results of SEM/EDX analysis suggest: variations in cation concentrations used in varnish cation ratio dating relate more specifically to variations in detritus within the varnish than to element mobility as defined by weathering indices; Mn concentration rather than Mn:Fe ratios may be a more appropriate indicator of paleoclimatic fluctuations; and the Mn-oxide phase existing in varnish is most likely a Ba-enriched phase rather than birnessite. Element line profiling offers great potential for gaining insights into geochemical processes affecting the deposition and diagenesis of rock varnish and for testing hypotheses relating to its chemical variability. 27 refs., 9 figs.

Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Harrington, C.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore be related to the production of X-rays on massive stars. If so, massive stars' X-rays are much different than those found our own Sun and other cooler stars like the Sun that produce X-rays via magnetic activity

Cohen, David

227

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore #12;What is the mechanism by which massive stars produce x-rays? New results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory ­ high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy: measuring Doppler broadening in emission lines Testing

Cohen, David

228

Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The subjects of discussion included: VUV photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Synchrotron-radiation-based photoelectron spectroscopy, Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy, Inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy, Low energy IPES, Resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy.

Tobin, J G

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

229

Integral and temporal characteristics of soft X-rays of the PF-4 plasma focus setup  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soft X-rays of a setup with a power from 1.5 to 5 kJ, operating with argon, were measured using X-ray pinhole cameras and SPPD 11-04 detectors. Integral measurements of X-rays in energy ranges above 1.2, 1.5, ...

S. P. Eliseev; V. Ya. Nikulin; P. V. Silin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Ultrashort x-ray backlighters and applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previously, using ultrashort laser pulses focused onto solid targets, we have experimentally studied a controllable ultrafast broadband radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet for time-resolved dynamical studies in ultrafast science [J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Llu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, C.-Y. Chien, and D. Umstadter, ``Control of Bright Picosecond X-Ray Emission from Intense Sub- Picosecond Laser-Plasma Interactions,`` Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2324 (1995)]. Once armed with a bright ultrafast broadband continuum x-ray source and appropriate detectors, we used the source as a backlighter to study a remotely produced plasma. The application of the source to a problem relevant to high-density matter completes the triad: creating and controlling, efficiently detecting, and applying the source. This work represented the first use of an ultrafast laser- produced x-ray source as a time-resolving probe in an application relevant to atomic, plasma and high-energy-density matter physics. Using the x-ray source as a backlighter, we adopted a pump-probe geometry to investigate the dynamic changes in electronic structure of a thin metallic film as it is perturbed by an ultrashort laser pulse. Because the laser deposits its energy in a skin depth of about 100 {Angstrom} before expansion occurs, up to gigabar pressure shock waves lasting picosecond in duration have been predicted to form in these novel plasmas. This raises the possibility of studying high- energy-density matter relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysics in small-scale laboratory experiments. In the past, time-resolved measurements of K-edge shifts in plasmas driven by nanosecond pulses have been used to infer conditions in highly compressed materials. In this study, we used 100-fs laser pulses to impulsively drive shocks into a sample (an untamped 1000 {Angstrom} aluminum film on 2000 {Angstrom} of parylene-n), measuring L-edge shifts.

Umstadter, D., University of Michigan

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

HIGH BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR LIFE SCIENCES (LIX) Group Leader: Lin Yang Proposal Team: O. Bilsel 1 , B. Hsiao 2 , H. Huang 3 , T. Irving 4 , A. Menzel 5 , L. Pollack 6 , C. Riekel 7 , J. Rubert 8 , H. Tsuruta 9 , L. Yang 10 1 University of Massachusetts, 2 Stony Brook University, 3 Rice University, 4 IIT, 5SLS, 6 Cornell University, 7 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 8 NEU, 9 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 10 Brookhaven National Laboratory TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * Energy range 2-20keV using undulator source. Simultaneous SAXS/WAXS to cover 0.003-3Å -1 at 12keV with 1 micron spot size * Time-resolved solution scattering with resolution of (1) microseconds to milliseconds using continuous-flow mixing (5µm x 10µm spot size) and (2) milliseconds using stopped-

232

Modeling the high resolution X-ray spectra from the relativistic jets of the X-ray binary SS 433  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We test the physical model of the relativistic jets in the galactic X-ray binary SS 433 that was proposed by Marshall et al. 2002 (Paper I) using additional observations from the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating ...

Lopez, Laura Ann, 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

Dynamic model of anisotropic x-ray refraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

General mechanisms of anisotropic x-ray refraction at the resonance energy are investigated on the basis of dynamic-scattering theory. The deductions show that x rays within the crystals that have anisotropic susceptibility are completely polarized and have two elliptical polarization states. Analytical expressions of the elliptical axes, refractive indices, and absorption coefficients for these two types of polarized waves are obtained in terms of the anisotropic components of the susceptibility tensor. Anisotropic birefringence and dichroism effects associated with the polarization properties of the x-ray waves are also illustrated theoretically.

X. R. Huang, Yong Li, W. J. Liu, and S. S. Jiang

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Characterization of X-ray generator beam profiles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

T to compute the radiography properties of various materials, the flux profiles of X-ray sources must be characterized. This report describes the characterization of X-ray beam profiles from a Kimtron industrial 450 kVp radiography system with a Comet MXC-45 HP/11 bipolar oil-cooled X-ray tube. The empirical method described here uses a detector response function to derive photon flux profiles based on data collected with a small cadmium telluride detector. The flux profiles are then reduced to a simple parametric form that enables computation of beam profiles for arbitrary accelerator energies.

Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Parmeter, John Ethan; Thompson, Kyle Richard

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Ultrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ultrafast x-rays, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, terawatt lasers, ultrafast reaction dynamics, atomic motion atomic motion by scrutinizing the changes in x- ray absorption spectra during reactions. FirstUltrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS) Guangjun

Guo, Ting

237

Focused X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

238

Study of the electrode material and insulator length effect on high-energy X-rays emitted by a 4-kJ plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, behavior of hard X-ray (HXR) anisotropy and its intensity along the anode bar of the APF plasma focus device (16 kV, 36 ?F, 115...Z anode insert materials not only increases the intensity of HXR si...

M. Habibi

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Inner-Shell Excitation Spectroscopy of Fused-Ring Aromatic Molecules by Electron Energy Loss and X-ray Raman Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Versity, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1, Canada, Department of Chemistry, Utrecht UniVersity, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands, Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877, Department of Applied Science, Uni that could be applied without modifying the hydrocarbon material. Inelastic X-ray Raman scattering (XRS)2

Hitchcock, Adam P.

240

National Ignition Facility core x-ray streak camera  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) core x-ray streak camera will be used for laser performance verification experiments as well as a wide range of physics experiments in the areas of high-energy-density science, inertial confinement fusion, and basic science. The x-ray streak camera system is being designed to record time-dependent x-ray emission from NIF targets using an interchangeable family of snouts for measurements such as one-dimensional (1D) spatial imaging or spectroscopy. the NIF core x-ray streak camera will consist of an x-ray-sensitive photocathode that detects x rays with 1D spatial resolution coupled to an electron streak tube to detect a continuous time history of the x rays incident on the photocathode over selected time periods. A charge-coupled-device (CCD) readout will record the signal from the streak tube. The streak tube, CCD, and associated electronics will reside in an electromagnetic interference, and electromagnetic pulse protected, hermetically sealed, temperature-controlled box whose internal pressure is approximately 1 atm. The streak tube itself will penetrate through the wall of the box into the target chamber vacuum. We are working with a goal of a spatial resolution of 15 lp/mm with 50% contrast transfer function at the photocathode and adjustment sweep intervals of 1--50 ns. The camera spectral sensitivity extends from soft x rays to 20 keV x rays, with varying quantum efficiency based on photocathode selection. The system will have remote control, monitoring, and Ethernet communications through an embedded controller. The core streak camera will be compatible with the instrument manipulators at the OMEGA (University of Rochester) and NIF facilities.

Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Christianson, G. B.; Lee, F. D.; Kalantar, D. H.; Perry, T. S.; Sewall, N. R.; Wootton, A. J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

Gehrels, Neil [NASA/GSFC/ASD/Code 661, Greenbelt, Md 20071 (United States); Cannizzo, John K. [CRESST/UMBC/NASA/GSFC/ASD/Code 661, Greenbelt, Md 20071 (United States)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

242

Sapphire analyzers for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) analyzer for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with 31-meV energy resolution. The analyzer is designed for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements at the CuK{sub a} absorption edge near 8990 eV. The performance of the analyzer is demonstrated by measuring phonon excitations in beryllium because of its known dynamical structure and high counting rates.

Yavas, H.; Alp, E.; Sinn, H.; Alatas, A.; Said, A.; Shvydko, Y.; Toellner, T.; Khachatryan, R.; Billinge, S.; Hasan, Z.; Sturhahn, W.; Michigan State Univ.; Princeton Univ.; DESY

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Laboratory-based Hard X-ray Monochromator for High-Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low poer x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically-bent crystal analyzer (SBCA), and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of 5 keV to 10 keV while also dmeonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) comparable to those achived at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-powered line-foc...

Seidler, G T; Remesnik, A J; Pacold, J I; Ball, N A; Barry, N; Styczinski, M; Hoidn, O R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 ? 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

J Treis; R Andritschke; R Hartmann; S Herrmann; P Holl; T Lauf; P Lechner; G Lutz; N Meidinger; M Porro; R H Richter; F Schopper; H Soltau; L Strder

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Magnetic fields of neutron stars in X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A substantial fraction of the known neutron stars resides in X-ray binaries -- systems in which one compact object accretes matter from a companion star. Neutron stars in X-ray binaries have magnetic fields among the highest found in the Universe, spanning at least the range from $\\sim10^8$ to several 10$^{13}$ G. The magnetospheres around these neutron stars have a strong influence on the accretion process, which powers most of their emission. The magnetic field intensity and geometry, are among the main factors responsible for the large variety of spectral and timing properties observed in the X-ray energy range, making these objects unique laboratories to study the matter behavior and the radiation processes in magnetic fields unaccessible on Earth. In this paper we review the main observational aspects related to the presence of magnetic fields in neutron star X-ray binaries and some methods that are used to estimate their strength.

Revnivtsev, Mikhail

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Spectroscopic imaging, diffraction, and holography with x-ray photoemission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray probes are capable of determining the spatial structure of an atom in a specific chemical state, over length scales from about a micron all the way down to atomic resolution. Examples of these probes include photoemission microscopy, energy-dependent photoemission diffraction, photoelectron holography, and X-ray absorption microspectroscopy. Although the method of image formation, chemical-state sensitivity, and length scales can be very different, these X-ray techniques share a common goal of combining a capability for structure determination with chemical-state specificity. This workshop will address recent advances in holographic, diffraction, and direct imaging techniques using X-ray photoemission on both theoretical and experimental fronts. A particular emphasis will be on novel structure determinations with atomic resolution using photoelectrons.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Optical and X-ray Variability of AGNs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present new comparisons of AGN optical, UV, and X-ray variations. These reveal complex relationships between the different passbands that can change with time in a given object. While there is evidence from several objects that X-ray and optical activity levels are correlated on long timescales, variations on shorter timescales can occur independently. It is proposed that the combination of correlated and uncorrelated short-timescale variability is a consequence of anisotropic high-energy emission. It is also argued that the correlation between X-ray and optical variability on long timescales must be due to a common underlying factor and not to reprocessing of X-ray radiation.

C. Martin Gaskell

2006-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

248

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Scientific communities such as environmental sciences, life sciences, and material sciences have identified the need to develop analytical resources to advance the understanding of complex natural and engineered systems that are heterogeneous on the micron to nanometer scale. These needs for high intensity x-ray nanoprobes resulted in the commitment of the NSLS-II Project to build the Submicron Resolution X-ray (SRX) Spectroscopy beamline showing a unique combination of high spectral resolution over a very broad energy range and very high beam intensity in a sub-micrometer spot. NSLS-II will provide one of the best sources in the world for such an instrument.

249

Quantitative x-ray imager (abstract)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on development of a quantitative x-ray imager (QXI) for the national Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. Included in this development is a study of photocathode response as a function of photon energy, 2--17.5 keV, which is related to diagnostic development on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The QXI is defined as being a quantative imager due to the repeated characterization. This instrument is systematically checked out, electronically as well as its photocathode x-ray response, both on a direct current and pulsed x-ray sources, before and after its use on a shot campaign. The QXI is a gated x-ray imager1 used for a variety of experiments conducted in the Inertial Confinement Fusion and Radiation Physics Program. The camera was assembled in Los Alamos and has been under development since 1997 and has now become the workhorse framing camera by the program. The electronics were built by Grant Applied Physics of San Fransisco, CA.2 The QXI has been used at the LANL Trident, LLNL Nova, and University of Rochester Laboratory OMEGA laser facilities. The camera consists of a grated microchannel plate (MCP), a phosphor coated fiberoptic faceplate coupled to film for data readout, along with high speed electronic pulsers to drive the x-ray detector. The QXI has both a two-strip and a four-strip detection head and has the ability to individually bias the gain of each of the strips. The timing of the QXI was done at the Trident short pulse laboratory, using 211 nm light. Single strip jitter was looked at as well and determined to be <25 ps. Flatfielding of the photocathode across the MCP was done with the Trident main laser with 150 J on a gold disk with a 1 ns. Spatial resolution was determined to be <5 {mu}m by using the same laser conditions as before and a backlit 1000 lp/in. grid. The QXI has been used on cylindrical implosion work at the Nova Laser Facility, and on direct-drive cylinder mix and indirect-drive high convergence implosion experiments at OMEGA. Its two-strip module has provided the capability to look at point backlighters, as part of technique development for experiments on the NIF. Its next use will be in March 2000 with its off axis viewer nose at Omega, providing a perpendicular view of Rayleigh--Taylor spike dissipation.

Evans, Scott C.; Archuleta, Tom N.; Oertel, John A.; Walsh, Peter J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 1020 keV (?E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan) [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)] [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa [Department of Applied Chemistry and Office for University-Industry Collaboration, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry and Office for University-Industry Collaboration, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yagi, Naoto [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan) [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

253

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities...

254

Producing X-rays at the APS  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

None

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

255

SMB, X-ray Fluorescence Imaging  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fluorescence Imaging X-ray Fluorescence Imaging X-ray fluorescence imaging utilizes the high brightness of SPEAR3 and focused beam generated by the uses of K-B optics, capillaries...

256

Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1 MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and uclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

257

The constellation X-ray mission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Constellation-X mission is a large collecting area X-ray facility emphasizing observations at high spectral resolution (E/?E?3003000) while covering a broad energy band (0.2540 keV). This mission will achieve a factor of 100 increased sensitivity over current capabilities and is optimized to observe the effects of extreme gravity close to black holes and test models for the formation of large scale structure in the Universe. It is apart of NASAs strategic plan for launch towards the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

N. E. White; H. Tananbaum

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

RYLLA. [X-ray transport code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a computer code, RYLLA, which models the deposition of x-rays into thin metal slabs, and transports the resulting photoelectrons, finding the distribution of electrons leaving the slab from both the front and back surfaces. The slab must be homogeneous, but can contain a mixture of up to 5 different elements. Due to the short electron mean free path at low electron energies, RYLLA should be used only for studying thin slabs, roughly < 100 mg/cm/sup 2/ for low Z metals, and < 10 mg/cm/sup 2/ for high Z metals. X-ray energies should be in the range of 1 to 150 keV, as they are deposited only via photoionization and Compton scattering processes. Following photoionization, a hole exists in the electron cloud of the absorbing atom. This fills either by Auger or fluoresence, resulting in lower energy holes which are also filled. Fluoresence photons are transported and absorbed in the same manner as the primary photons, except that they are isotropically produced. Once all photons have been transported and absorbed, and all holes have been filled, a space- and energy-dependent electron source spectrum has been obtained. This is used in a discrete ordinate expansion solution of the 1-D transport equation, which gives the output electron spectra at the two slab surfaces. This paper discusses both the physics and coding of RYLLA. Examples of user input are given, as are some comparisons with other codes.

Hyde, R.A.

1983-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

259

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St in hot gas about 250 million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/E.Bulbul, et al-Newton has revealed a mysterious X-ray signal in the data. This signal is represented in the circled data

260

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2/9/07 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 9, 07] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Wesleyan Univ./R.Kilgard, et al; Optical: NASA with optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (red, green, and blue). The X-ray data reveal hundreds

262

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cool Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has addressed not only various topics in coronal physics of stars, but has also uncovered important features relevant for our understanding of stellar evolution and the stellar environment. I summarize recent progress in coronal X-ray spectroscopy and in particular also discuss new results from studies of X-rays from pre-main sequence stars.

M. Guedel

2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

263

X-Ray Physics Evan Berkowitz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Physics Evan Berkowitz Junior, MIT Department of Physics (Dated: October 25, 2006) We measure a variety of phenomena related to X-Ray absorption and production. We present data which conforms within, as are 22 Na electron-positron annhilation lines. The importance of understanding x-rays is demonstrated

264

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St 200 million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UAH/M.Sun et al; Optical: NASA, ESA, & the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Caption: This composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue

265

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9/6/09 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 6, 09] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

266

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA 02138 USA http://chandra.harvard.edu Four Supernova Remnants: NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory's Chandra X-ray Observatory, four newly processed images of supernova remnants dramatically illustrate

267

High-Speed X-ray Phase Imaging with Grating Interferometer and White Synchrotron Light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Taking advantage of the fact that an X-ray Talbot interferometer functions with X-rays of a broad energy band width, high-speed X-ray phase imaging and tomography have been achieved by using white synchrotron light. An X-ray phase tomogram could be measured with a 0.25 s exposure. Furthermore, a series of X-ray phase tomograms, in other words, a four-dimensional X-ray phase tomogram, could be reconstructed with a tomogram frame rate of 25.5 fps. This achievement advances X-ray phase imaging/tomography from a technique for static imaging to one for dynamic imaging of weakly absorbing objects.

Momose, Atsushi; Yashiro, Wataru; Huang, Shaohua; Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Kawabata, Katsuyuki [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoka, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

268

Availability Statements for Unclassified Unlimited STI Products |  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Availability Statements for Unclassified Unlimited STI Products Availability Statements for Unclassified Unlimited STI Products Print page Print page Email page Email page DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Online Access: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reports produced after 1991 and a growing number of pre-1991 documents are available free via DOE's SciTech Connect (http://www.osti.gov/scitech) Reports not in digital format may be purchased by the public from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS): U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Rd Alexandra, VA 22312 www.ntis.gov Phone: (800) 553-NTIS (6847) or (703) 605-6000 Fax: (703) 605-6900 Email: orders@ntis.gov Reports not in digital format are available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI):

269

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy. ALS femtosecond spectroscopy beamline layout. Femtosecond x-ray and laser pulses derive from a single 800-nm laser oscillator. Femtosecond x rays...

270

X-RAY SPECTROMETRY X-Ray Spectrom. 2007; 36: 336342  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-RAY SPECTROMETRY X-Ray Spectrom. 2007; 36: 336­342 Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/xrs.980 Fish otolith trace element maps: new approaches with synchrotron microbeam x-ray of elements as they accrete through a fish's life. We apply synchrotron microbeam x-ray fluorescence methods

Limburg, Karin E.

271

X-ray Pulsations in the Supersoft X-ray Binary CAL 83  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray data reveal that the supersoft X-ray binary CAL 83 exhibits 38.4 minute pulsations at some epochs. These X-ray variations are similar to those found in some novae and are likely to be caused by nonradial pulsations the white dwarf. This is the first detection of pulsations in a classical supersoft X-ray binary.

P. C. Schmidtke; A. P. Cowley

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

272

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopie Electronique, Summary: of an X-ray source from measurements of the kinetic energy and intensity of the photoelectrons emitted... applications in electron probe...

273

Convection in X-ray Bursts Michael Zingale Stony Brook University  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

many stellar systems dominated by convective transport of energy - Supernovae (both thermonuclear and gravitational) - X-ray bursts and novae (thermonuclear explosion of accreted...

274

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

275

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, R.B.

1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

276

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

J. R. Peterson; A. C. Fabian

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

277

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

Howells, Malcolm R. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Development of heavy mineral and heavy element database of soil sediments in Japan using synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction and high-energy (116keV) X-ray fluorescence analysis: 1. Case study of Kofu and Chiba region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have started the construction of a nationwide forensic soil sediment database for Japan based on the heavy mineral and trace heavy element compositions of stream sediments collected at 3024 points all over Japan obtained by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRD) and high-energy synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis (HE-SR-XRF). In this study, the performance of both techniques was demonstrated by analyzing soil sediments from two different geological regions, the Kofu and Chiba regions in Kanto province, to construct database that can be applied in the future to provenance analysis of soil evidence from a crime scene. The sediments from the quaternary volcanic lithology of the Chiba region were found to be dominated by heavy minerals of volcanic origin orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and amphibole, and the \\{REEs\\} (rare earth elements) within the region showed similar geochemical behavior. On the other hand, four distinct heavy mineral groups were identified in the sediments of the Kofu region, where there is a great variety of underlying bedrock, and the geochemical behavior of the \\{REEs\\} in the sediments also varied accordingly to their geological origins. As such, our study shows that high-resolution SR-XRD data can provide information on the spatial distribution patterns of heavy minerals in stream sediments, playing an important role in determining their likely geographical origin. Meanwhile, the highly sensitive HE-SR-XRF data allow us to study the geochemical behavior of trace heavy elements, especially the \\{REEs\\} in the sediments, providing additional support to further constrain the likely geographical origin of the sediments determined by heavy minerals.

Willy Shun Kai Bong; Izumi Nakai; Shunsuke Furuya; Hiroko Suzuki; Yoshinari Abe; Keiichi Osaka; Takuya Matsumoto; Masayoshi Itou; Noboru Imai; Toshio Ninomiya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Probing buried layers by photoelectron spectromicroscopy with hard x-ray excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report about a proof-of-principle experiment which explores the perspectives of performing hard x-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy with high lateral resolution. Our results obtained with an energy-filtered photoemission microscope at the PETRA III storage ring facility using hard x-ray excitation up to 6.5 keV photon energy demonstrate that it is possible to obtain selected-area x-ray photoemission spectra from regions less than 500 nm in diameter.

Wiemann, C.; Patt, M.; Cramm, S. [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Escher, M.; Merkel, M. [FOCUS GmbH, D-65510 Huenstetten (Germany); Gloskovskii, A. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Thiess, S.; Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Fakultaet f. Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

13 - X-ray and Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter describes the use of neutrons and X-rays as probes in the study of structural and dynamic properties of metallic materials. Crystalline materials are characterized by their diffraction peaks related to their average crystallographic structure. In real crystals, locally displaced atoms and chemically (or isotopically for neutrons) different species may lead not only to changes of peak shapes and positions, but also to additional (diffuse) scattering between Bragg peak, including scattering around the primary beam (small-angle scattering). All these features can be used to extract information about the state of a sample, its compositional and structural variations on a scale depending on the scattering, in static and time-resolved kinetic studies. Energy-resolved scattering also offers an insight into solid-state dynamics on a microscopic scale. Some of the most important methods will be described and illustrated by instructive examples. The presentation offers a combined view of neutron and X-ray scattering, with the necessary simplifications dictated by space limitations. The special properties of thermal neutrons and of hard X-rays (now widely available at synchrotron radiation sources), their mutual combination, and combinations with other methods, in particular electron microscopy, offer ample opportunity to better understand and control materials properties. After a brief introduction to scattering from real crystals and some general ideas about long-range strains and Bragg peaks, the vicinity of Bragg peaks (displacement scattering at large scattering angles), the scattering far away from Bragg peaks (chemical heterogeneities, short-range order), and, in greater detail, small-angle scattering (which is not sensitive to the extent of crystallinity, but to nanoscale variations of chemical composition and of magnetization, precipitation) will be described, along with classical and more recent applications related to short-range ordering and precipitation in bulk and nanostructured alloys. Some other fields are only briefly addressed (grazing-incidence studies of surfaces, radiography, absorption spectroscopies, coherent X-rays). The final section offers some information on the influence of defects on lattice dynamics and on (slow) diffusive motion in materials.

Gernot Kostorz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Neutron and X-Ray Scattering - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home Home Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering Science Recent advances in neutron and x-ray scattering instrumentation at major DOE facilities such as the Spallation Neutron Source and Advanced Photon Source provide unprecedented insights into complex phenomena in bulk and interfacial materials. The vision of our group is to harness the complementarity of neutrons and x-rays to study how materials respond on a range of length and time scales to phase competition, so that we can learn to control emergent behavior and generate functional properties in energy-related materials. We use neutrons and x-rays to investigate the structure and dynamics of bulk and interfacial materials with properties that are useful for energy applications, such as superconductivity, magnetism and thermoelectricity. Phase competition can generate or enhance such properties, but it is extremely challenging to characterize fluctuations in the competing order, whether in bulk disordered materials, or artificial heterostructures. Our goal is to utilize efficient techniques that we have been developing for measuring nanoscale phase fluctuations, both static and dynamic, to enable the rational design of new materials for energy within MSD.

283

Implications of the X-Ray Properties of Pulsar Nebulae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A plausible model for the Crab Nebula is one in which a particle dominated, highly relativistic wind from the pulsar passes through a shock front in which the particles attain a power law energy distribution. The electrons and positrons lose energy radiating synchrotron emission. Here, a one zone version of the model is developed and applied to observations of X-ray pulsar nebulae. Efficient conversion of pulsar spin-down power to X-ray luminosity is expected if the observed electrons are in the synchrotron cooling regime and their energy spectrum is similar to that in the Crab Nebula. In this case, the relation between X-ray luminosity and pulsar spin-down power depends only weakly on the model parameters. The dependence is stronger for a steeper particle spectrum, as appears to be present in N157B, and the efficiency of X-ray production can be lower. If the electrons are not in the cooling regime, the X-ray luminosity can be low, as appears to be the case for the compact nebula around the Vela pulsar. Slow cooling is likely to be caused by a sub-equipartition magnetic field in the radiating region. Observations can place constraints on the uncertain physics of relativistic MHD shocks. The model is related to those developed for gamma-ray burst afterglows.

Roger A. Chevalier

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Secretary Chu Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser Secretary Chu Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser August 16, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today dedicated the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first and most powerful X-ray laser, at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The LCLS will play an essential role in addressing the scientific needs of the 21st century by exploring new ways to create better energy sources and enabling advances in a range of scientific fields. The LCLS produces pulses of X-rays more than a billion times brighter than the most powerful existing sources. The ultrafast X-ray pulses are used much like flashes from a high-speed strobe light, enabling scientists to take

285

Lessening X-ray damage is healthy for protein discovery data too | Argonne  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The brightness and energy of X-ray beams are critical properties for The brightness and energy of X-ray beams are critical properties for research. The APS Upgrade will make our X-ray beams brighter, meaning more X-rays can be focused onto a smaller, laser-like spot, allowing researchers to gather more data in greater detail in less time. Lessening X-ray damage is healthy for protein discovery data too December 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint New recommendations for using X-rays promise to speed investigations aimed at understanding the structure and function of biologically important proteins - information critical to the development of new drugs. Scientists from two U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories, Argonne and Brookhaven, and the University of Washington, Seattle, evaluated options to remedy problems affecting data collection in their new

286

Using X-ray observations to explore the binary interaction in Eta Carinae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Mo. The available energy is at most E aG M...X-ray component. An alternative is discussed in Section...most of its kinetic energy is converted to X-ray...polar outflow in Car, before and during...beyond present day Car. During the 1837-1856...The gravitational energy released by the accreted......

Amit Kashi; Noam Soker

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

287

Identification of X-ray Point Sources and Study on the Nature of 62 X-ray Globular Cluster Candidates in M31  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper includes two parts. The first is to present the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 49 globular cluster (GC) X-ray sources in the BATC 13 intermediate-band filters from 3800 to 10000 A, and identify 8 unidentified X-ray sources in M31. Using the X-ray data of Einstein observation from 1979 to 1980, ROSAT HRI observation in 1990, Chandra HRC and ACIS-I observations from 1999 to 2001, and the BATC optical survey from 1995 to 1999, we find 49 GC X-ray sources and 8 new unidentified X-ray sources in the BATC M31 field. By analyzing SEDs and FWHMs, 4 of the 8 X-ray sources may be GC candidates. The second is to present some statistical relationships about 62 GC X-ray sources, of which 58 are already known, and 4 are identified in this paper. The distribution of M31 GC X-ray sources' V mags is bimodal, with peaks at m_v = 15.65 and m_v = 17.89, which is different from the distribution of GC candidates. The distribution of B-V color shows that,the GC X-ray sources seem to be associated preferentially ...

Fan, Z; Zhou, X; Chen, J; Jiang, Z; Wu, Z; Fan, Zhou; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Xu; Chen, Jiansheng; Jiang, Zhaoji; Wu, Zhenyu

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Isotropic star in low-mass X-ray binaries and X-ray pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a model for compact stars in the low mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) and X-ray pulsars using a metric given by John J. Matese and Patrick G. Whitman \\citep{Matese and Whitman1980}. Here the field equations are reduced to a system of two algebraic equations considering the isotropic pressure. Compact star candidates 4U 1820-30(radius=10km) in LMXBs, and Her X-1(radius=7.7km), SAX J 1808.4-3658(SS1)(radius=7.07km) and SAX J 1808.4-3658(SS2)(radius=6.35km) in X-ray pulsars satisfy all the energy conditions, TOV-equation and stability condition. From our model, we have derived mass($M$), central density($\\rho_{0}$), suface density($\\rho_{b}$), central pressure($p_{0}$), surface pressure($p_{b}$) and surface red-shift($Z_{s}$) of the above mentioned stars, which are very much consistant with the observed/reported datas\\citep{N. K. Glendenning1997,Gondek2000}. We have also observe the adiabatic index($\\gamma$>4/3) of the above steller objects.

Mehedi Kalam; Sk. Monowar Hossein; Sajahan Molla

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (?E/E ? 5 10{sup ?3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ?3 10{sup ?3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ogi, Yoshihiro [Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)] [Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshinori [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan) [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

290

Structural consequences of hen egg-white lysozyme orthorhombic crystal growth in a high magnetic field: validation of X-ray diffraction intensity, conformational energy searching and quantitative analysis of B factors and mosaicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been shown that a high magnetic field of 10 T improves the quality of lysozyme crystals as quantified by comparison of the X-ray diffraction of crystals grown in the presence and absence of a magnetic field of 10 T, from structure comparisons and from molecular-modelling studies with conformational energy searching, from analysis of the anisotropic B factors and finally from analysis of the mosaicity. It is concluded that magnetic enhancement in protein crystal perfection is an important material engineering tool in the study of protein structure and function.

Saijo, S.

2005-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

291

SANDIA REPORT Unlimited Release  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Bloemen Waanders (SNL) Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185;Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia

Heinkenschloss, Matthias

292

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

293

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

Siddons, David Peter (Shoreham, NY); Johnson, Erik D. (Ridge, NY); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); Klein, Jonathan L. (Madison, WI)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

294

Theory of angular dispersive imaging hard x-ray spectrographs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spectrograph is an optical instrument that disperses photons of different energies into distinct directions and space locations, and images photon spectra on a position-sensitive detector. Spectrographs consist of collimating, angular dispersive, and focusing optical elements. Bragg reflecting crystals arranged in an asymmetric scattering geometry are used as the dispersing elements. A ray-transfer matrix technique is applied to propagate x-rays through the optical elements. Several optical designs of hard x-ray spectrographs are proposed and their performance is analyzed. Spectrographs with an energy resolution of 0.1 meV and a spectral window of imaging up to a few tens of meVs are shown to be feasible for inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy applications. In another example, a spectrograph with a 1-meV spectral resolution and 85-meV spectral window of imaging is considered for Cu K-edge resonant IXS (RIXS).

Shvyd'ko, Yuri

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

X-ray diffraction experiments with femtosecond time D. VON DER LINDE and K. SOKOLOWSKI-TINTEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray diffraction experiments with femtosecond time resolution D. VON DER LINDE and K. SOKOLOWSKI-essen.de (Received 4 March 2002) Abstract. Intense ultrashort laser pulses enable the generation of subpico- second X-ray pulses in the multi-kilovolt range of photon energies. These X- ray pulses have opened the door

von der Linde, D.

296

The X-ray attenuation characteristics and density of human calcaneal marrow do not change significantly during adulthood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The X-ray attenuation characteristics and density of human calcaneal marrow do not change be a significant source of error in measurements of bone density when using X-ray and ultrasound imaging modalities calcanei (28 males, 6 females, ages 17­65 years). The density and energy-dependent linear X-ray attenuation

Stanford University

297

Hard x-ray imaging from explorer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coded aperture X-ray detectors were applied to obtain large increases in sensitivity as well as angular resolution. A hard X-ray coded aperture detector concept is described which enables very high sensitivity studies persistent hard X-ray sources and gamma ray bursts. Coded aperture imaging is employed so that approx. 2 min source locations can be derived within a 3 deg field of view. Gamma bursts were located initially to within approx. 2 deg and X-ray/hard X-ray spectra and timing, as well as precise locations, derived for possible burst afterglow emission. It is suggested that hard X-ray imaging should be conducted from an Explorer mission where long exposure times are possible.

Grindlay, J.E.; Murray, S.S.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Development of x-ray photoelectron microscope with an x-ray laser source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have constructed an x-ray photoelectron microscopic system with an x-ray laser as an x-ray source. The lasing line is the Li-like Al 3d-4f transition at 15.47 nm where the recombining Al plasma is used as the x-ray laser medium. The beam from the x-ray laser cavity was then focused by using a Schwarzschild mirror coated with Mo/Si multilayers. The x-ray beam size with a diameter less than 0.5 ?m and the estimated photon number of about 210 6 ? photons/shot into the spot were achieved.

Tadayuki Ohchi; Naohiro Yamaguchi; Chiemi Fujikawa; Tamio Hara; Katsumi Watanabe; Ibuki Tanaka; Masami Taguchi

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Standoff detection of hidden objects using backscattered ultra-intense laser-produced x-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra-intense laser-produced sub-ps X-ray pulses can detect backscattered signals from objects hidden in aluminium containers. Coincident measurements using primary X-rays enable differentiation among acrylic, copper, and lead blocks inside the container. Backscattering reveals the shapes of the objects, while their material composition can be identified from the modification methods of the energy spectra of backscattered X-ray beams. This achievement is an important step toward more effective homeland security.

Kuwabara, H. [IHI Corporation, 1, Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)] [IHI Corporation, 1, Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Mori, Y.; Kitagawa, Y. [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsucho, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)] [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsucho, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

300

Applications of soft x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

Skinner, C.H.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

High speed x-ray beam chopper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

McPherson, Armon (Oswego, IL); Mills, Dennis M. (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

X-ray laser frequency near-doubling and generation of tunable coherent x rays in plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray laser frequency near-doubling and generation of tunable coherent x rays in plasma P. L plasmas in which efficient x-ray laser frequency near-doubling is expected for a number of available x-ray of coherent x rays and tunable optical radiation may result in tunable coherent x-ray radiation powerful

Kaplan, Alexander

303

Colloid Coalescence with Focused X Rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show direct evidence that focused x rays enable us to merge polymer colloidal particles at room temperature. This phenomenon is ascribed to the photochemical scission of colloids with x rays, reducing the molecular weight, glass transition temperature, surface tension, and viscosity of colloids. The observation of the neck bridge growth with time shows that the x-ray-induced colloid coalescence is analogous to viscoelastic coalescence. This finding suggests a feasible protocol of photonic nanofabrication by sintering or welding of polymers, without thermal damage, using x-ray photonics.

Weon, B. M.; Kim, J. T.; Je, J. H. [X-ray Imaging Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, J. M. [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, S.; Lee, W.-K. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

X-RAY MICROBEAM SPEECH PRODUCTION DATABASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-RAY MICROBEAM SPEECH PRODUCTION DATABASE USER'S HANDBOOK Version 1.0 (June 1994) prepared by John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter Two: XRMB History

305

Automation in X-Ray Crystallography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automation in X-Ray Crystallography ... But in the past few years, automation procedures have been applied to intrinsically superior experimental methods. ...

S.C. ABRAHAMS

1963-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

306

X-Ray Laser Sources for Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Progress and prospects in soft X-ray laser development at Princeton are presented. A comparison to plasma and synchrotron sources is made with a...

C. H. Skinner; D. E. Kim; A. Wouters; D. Voorhees; S. Suckewer

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Compound refractive X-ray lens  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA); Cahn, Robert (Walnut Creek, CA); Cederstrom, Bjorn (Traellborg, SE); Danielsson, Mats (Stocksund, SE); Vestlund, Jonas (Stockholm, SE)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

X-Ray Science Division (XSD)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Science Division (XSD) Search Button About Welcome Overview Visiting the APS Mission & Goals Find People Organization Charts Committees Job Openings User Information...

309

X-ray Image Bank Open for Business - NERSC Center News, Feb 22, 2011  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-ray Image Bank Open X-ray Image Bank Open for Business X-ray Image Bank Open for Business February 22, 2011 Filipe Maia is building a data bank where scientists from around the world can deposit and share images generated by coherent x-ray light sources. A post-doctoral researcher with the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Maia hopes the Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank, or CXIDB (http://www.cxidb.org) can help researchers make the most of their valuable data. Scientists use light sources to shoot intense x-ray beams into molecules, such as proteins, in order to understand their shapes and structures. The resulting diffraction patterns are painstakingly reconstructed to deduce an image. "It kind of works like a microscope, but it has no lens," Maia says.

310

Experimental study on hard X-rays emitted from metre-scale negative discharges in air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the development of meter long negative discharges and focus on their X-ray emissions. We describe appearance, timing and spatial distribution of the X-rays. They appear in bursts of nanosecond duration mostly in the cathode area. The spectrum can be characterized by an exponential function with 200 keV characteristic photon energy. With nanosecond-fast photography we took detailed images of the pre-breakdown phenomena during the time when X-rays were registered. We found bipolar discharge structures, also called "pilot systems", in the vicinity of the cathode. As in our previous study of X-rays from positive discharges, we correlate the X-ray emission with encounters between positive and negative streamers. We suggest that a similar process is responsible for X-rays generated by lightning leaders.

Kochkin, P O; Ebert, Ute

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

X-ray movies reveal insect flight, muscle motion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BioCAT BioCAT X-ray movies reveal insect flight, muscle motion Photo credit: Michael Dickinson Watching flies fly may not seem like high-tech science, but for researchers using the Western Hemisphere's most brilliant X-rays, from the Advanced Photon Source located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, it not only helps explain how insects fly but also may someday aid in understanding human heart function. The researchers, from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Caltech and the University of Vermont, merged two distinct technologies, intense X-ray beams and electronic flight simulators, to study how insect muscles can generate such extraordinary levels of power. The results are published in the the January 20,. 2005, issue of the journal Nature.

312

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope XPD is a tunable facility with the ability to collect diffraction data at high x-ray energies (40keV-80keV), offering rapid acquisition (millisecond) and high angular resolution capabilities on the same instrument. XPD addresses future scientific challenges in, for example, hydrogen storage, CO2 sequestration, advanced structural ceramics, catalysis, and materials processing. Such materials of high technological value often are complex, nanostructured and heterogeneous. The scientific grand challenge is to obtain robust and quantitative (micro)structural information, not only in the ground state at ambient conditions, but also in situ or in operando with varying temperature, pressure, magnetic/electric/stress

313

The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing: LOFT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LOFT, the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing, is a new space mission concept devoted to observations of Galactic and extra-Galactic sources in the X-ray domain with the main goals of probing gravity theory in the very strong field environment of black holes and other compact objects, and investigating the state of matter at supra-nuclear densities in neutron stars. The instruments on-board LOFT, the Large area detector and the Wide Field Monitor combine for the first time an unprecedented large effective area (~10 m2 at 8 keV) sensitive to X-ray photons mainly in the 2-30 keV energy range and a spectral resolution approaching that of CCD-based telescopes (down to 200 eV at 6 keV). LOFT is currently competing for a launch of opportunity in 2022 together with the other M3 mission candidates of the ESA Cosmic Vision Program.

Bozzo, E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of short lived plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, we have discussed in detail the diagnosis of many pulse power machine properties, including their electrical behavior, grounding and shielding, and related data acquisition techniques. The purpose for many of these machines is to create high temperature/high density plasmas and, therefore, the subsequent behavior of these plasmas is of critical concern. The energy density of these plasmas is such that they will naturally radiate in the x-ray regime and thus the diagnosis of their x-ray emission is a crucial measurement of the entire system performance. In this lecture, I describe the general techniques used to perform nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of these short lived plasmas.

Day, R.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Measurements of the hard-x-ray reflectivity of iridium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In connection with the design of a hard-x-ray telescope for the Constellation X-Ray Observatory we measured the reflectivity of an iridium-coated zerodur substrate as a function of angle at 55, 60, 70, and 80 keV at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The optical constants were derived from the reflectivity data. The real component of the index of refraction is in excellent agreement with theoretical values at all four energies. However, the imaginary component, which is related to the mass attenuation coefficient, is 50% to 70% larger at 55, 60, and 70 keV than theoretical values.

Romaine, S.; Bruni, R.; Gorenstein, P.; Zhong, Z

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

316

A New Measurement of the Cosmic X-ray Background  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I present a new analytical description of the cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) spectrum in the 1.5-200 keV energy band, obtained by combining the new measurement performed by the Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) with the recently published Swift burst alert telescope (BAT) measurement. A study of the cosmic variance in the XRT band (1.5-7 keV) is also presented. I find that the expected cosmic variance (expected from LogN-LogS) scales as {omega}{sup -0.3}(where {omega} is the surveyed area) in very good agreement with XRT data.

Moretti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera v. E. Bianchi 46 23807 Merate (Italy)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

317

Confusion of Diffuse Objects in the X-ray Sky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most of the baryons in the present-day universe are thought to reside in intergalactic space at temperatures of 10^5-10^7 K. X-ray emission from these baryons contributes a modest (~10%) fraction of the ~ 1 keV background whose prominence within the large-scale cosmic web depends on the amount of non-gravitational energy injected into intergalactic space by supernovae and AGNs. Here we show that the virialized regions of groups and clusters cover over a third of the sky, creating a source-confusion problem that may hinder X-ray searches for individual intercluster filaments and contaminate observations of distant groups.

G. Mark Voit; August E. Evrard; Greg L. Bryan

2000-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

318

X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

Krauss, Miriam Ilana

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Calibration of X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems using NIST traceable sources. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is the key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 eV to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources have included the quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, the camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. X-ray energies ranged from 720 eV to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back illuminated and front illuminated CCD (charge coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injection device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of X-ray intensity measurements. All cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of quantum efficiency variation with X-ray energy are compared to models for the sensor structure. Cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.

Haugh, M. J., Charest, M., Ross, P., Lee, J. Schneider, M., Palmer, N., Teruya,

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Tunable sub-luminal propagation of narrowband x-ray pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Group velocity control is demonstrated for x-ray photons of 14.4 keV energy via a direct measurement of the temporal delay imposed on spectrally narrow x-ray pulses. Sub-luminal light propagation is achieved by inducing a steep positive linear dispersion in the optical response of ${}^{57}$Fe M\\"ossbauer nuclei embedded in a thin film planar x-ray cavity. The direct detection of the temporal pulse delay is enabled by generating frequency-tunable spectrally narrow x-ray pulses from broadband pulsed synchrotron radiation. Our theoretical model is in good agreement with the experimental data.

K. P. Heeg; J. Haber; D. Schumacher; L. Bocklage; H. -C. Wille; K. S. Schulze; R. Loetzsch; I. Uschmann; G. G. Paulus; R. Rffer; R. Rhlsberger; J. Evers

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Ultraluminous X-ray Sources: The most extreme X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Ultraluminous X-ray Sources: The most extreme X-ray binaries Luca Zampieri INAF ULXs ­ Lubiana ­ May 11, 2012- LZ #12;6 · X-ray observations of nearby galaxies show a population of pointlike, off-nuclear sources with L >> Ledd for 1 Msun (L>1.0e39 erg/s) UltraLuminous X-ray Sources (e

?umer, Slobodan

322

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) · 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction · 2.0 Basics of Crystallography · 3.0 Production of X-rays · 4.0 Applications of XRD · 5.0 Instrumental Sources of Error · 6.0 Conclusions #12 why the cleavage faces of crystals appear to reflect X-ray beams at certain angles of incidence (theta

Moeck, Peter

323

A Hard X-ray View of Accreting X-ray Binary Pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of the hard (E>10 keV) energy spectra of X-ray binary pulsars can give a wealth of information on the physical processes that occur close to the neutron star surface. Extreme matter regimes are probed, and precious information on how matter and radiation behave and interact in critical conditions can be obtained. We will give an overview on the most recent results obtained by RXTE and BeppoSAX on this class of objects, in order to pass the baton onto just launched experiments, like INTEGRAL, or soon to be launched, like AGILE and ASTRO-E2.

Mauro Orlandini

2004-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

324

DEDUCING ELECTRON PROPERTIES FROM HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the accelerated electron distribution. Keywords: Sun: flares; Sun: X-rays; Sun: acceleration; Sun: energetic distribution 31 4.5 Low-energy cutoffs in the electron distribution 32 4.6 Temperature distribution of thermal-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function

Piana, Michele

325

Modification of the TASMIP x-ray spectral model for the simulation of microfocus x-ray sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The availability of accurate and simple models for the estimation of x-ray spectra is of great importance for system simulation, optimization, or inclusion of photon energy information into data processing. There is a variety of publicly available tools for estimation of x-ray spectra in radiology and mammography. However, most of these models cannot be used directly for modeling microfocus x-ray sources due to differences in inherent filtration, energy range and/or anode material. For this reason the authors propose in this work a new model for the simulation of microfocus spectra based on existing models for mammography and radiology, modified to compensate for the effects of inherent filtration and energy range. Methods: The authors used the radiology and mammography versions of an existing empirical model [tungsten anode spectral model interpolating polynomials (TASMIP)] as the basis of the microfocus model. First, the authors estimated the inherent filtration included in the radiology model by comparing the shape of the spectra with spectra from the mammography model. Afterwards, the authors built a unified spectra dataset by combining both models and, finally, they estimated the parameters of the new version of TASMIP for microfocus sources by calibrating against experimental exposure data from a microfocus x-ray source. The model was validated by comparing estimated and experimental exposure and attenuation data for different attenuating materials and x-ray beam peak energy values, using two different x-ray tubes. Results: Inherent filtration for the radiology spectra from TASMIP was found to be equivalent to 1.68mm Al, as compared to spectra obtained from the mammography model. To match the experimentally measured exposure data the combined dataset required to apply a negative filtration of about 0.21 mm Al and an anode roughness of 0.003 mm W. The validation of the model against real acquired data showed errors in exposure and attenuation in line with those reported for other models for radiology or mammography. Conclusions: A new version of the TASMIP model for the estimation of x-ray spectra in microfocus x-ray sources has been developed and validated experimentally. Similarly to other versions of TASMIP, the estimation of spectra is very simple, involving only the evaluation of polynomial expressions.

Sisniega, A.; Vaquero, J. J., E-mail: juanjose.vaquero@uc3m.es [Departamento de Bioingeniera e Ingeniera Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain); Instituto de Investigacin Sanitaria Gregorio Maran, Madrid ES28007 (Spain); Desco, M. [Departamento de Bioingeniera e Ingeniera Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain) [Departamento de Bioingeniera e Ingeniera Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain); Instituto de Investigacin Sanitaria Gregorio Maran, Madrid ES28007 (Spain); Centro de Investigacin Biomdica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid ES28029 (Spain)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam.

Sun, Cheng-Jun, E-mail: cjsun@aps.anl.gov; Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zhang, Bangmin [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore); NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore); Venkatesan, T. [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore) [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Watershed in X-ray Astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... extent the article on page 96 of this issue of Nature from the X-ray astronomy group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a record of disappointments. That is ... near the galactic centre. Now that the first satellite to be devoted to X-ray astronomy has been launched, and is apparently working successfully, the MIT article and another from ...

1971-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

328

X-Ray Identification of Element 104  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The daughter x-ray identification technique has been applied to the identification of element 104. The characteristic K-series x rays from the ?-decay daughter isotope, nobelium (Z=102), have been observed in coincidence with ? particles from the decay of 4.5-sec 104257, thus providing an unequivocal determination of the parent atomic number, Z=104.

C. E. Bemis; Jr.; R. J. Silva; D. C. Hensley; O. L. Keller; Jr.; J. R. Tarrant; L. D. Hunt; P. F. Dittner; R. L. Hahn; C. D. Goodman

1973-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

329

Class H Oil Well Cement Hydration at Elevated Temperatures in the Presence of Retarding Agents: An In Situ High-Energy X-ray Diffraction Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ powder X-ray diffraction was used to examine the hydration of API Class H cement slurries, with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.394, at 66, 93, 121, and 177 C under autogenous pressure in the presence of varying amounts of the additives tartaric acid, modified lignosulfonate, and AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) copolymer. All of these retarding agents inhibited the hydration of crystalline C{sub 3}S (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), but other modes of action were also apparent. The formation of ettringite was suppressed when tartaric acid was used by itself or in combination with other additives. Changes in the hydration of C{sub 3}S vs time could not be correlated in a simple way with the observed pumping times for the cement slurries. The largest changes in pumping time as a function of temperature occurred in a temperature interval where ettringite/monosulfate decomposes and crystalline hydrogarnet starts to be formed.

Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Luke, Karen; Funkhouser, Gary P. (Halliburton); (GIT)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

330

Sure, a textbook can tell you about Bragg's Law and the x-ray absorption energies for any element in the periodic table, but it can't tell you how to plan and carry out an x-ray scattering experiment at one of the 50 or so synchrotron radiation facilitie  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Report Report SSRL 6 th Annual School on Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences: Theory and Application SSRL SR-XRS participants. Synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (SR-XRS) techniques offer the ability to probe nano- and atomic-scale structure that dictates the properties of advanced technological and environmental materials. Important materials studied at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) include organic and inorganic thin films and interfaces, nanoparticles, complex oxides, solutions, polymers, minerals and poorly crystalline materials. Good planning and a good working knowledge of beam lines and techniques are required to successfully conduct SR-XRS measurements. This sixth annual School at SSRL on Synchrotron X-ray

331

Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope Segmented Optic Assembly and Alignment Implementation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. ABSTRACT The Constellation-X mission will perform X-Ray science with improvements in energy resolutionConstellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope Segmented Optic Assembly and Alignment Implementation and effective area over its predecessor missions. The primary instrument on each of the four Constellation

332

An experimental measurement of metal multilayer x-ray reflectivity degradation due to intense x-ray flux  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degradation of the x-ray reflection characteristics of metal multilayer Bragg diffractors due to intense x-ray flux was investigated. The Z-pinch plasma produced by PROTO II of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was used as the source. The plasma generated total x-ray yields of as much as 40 kJ with up to 15 kJ in the neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines in nominal 20-ns pulses. Molybdenum-carbon, palladium-carbon, and tungsten-carbon metal multilayers were placed at 15 and 150 cm from the plasma center. The multilayers were at nominal angles of 5/sup 0/ and 10/sup 0/ to diffract the neon resonance lines. The time-integrated x-ray reflection of the metal multilayers was monitored by x-ray film. A fluorescer-fiber optic-visible streak camera detector system was then used to monitor the time-resolved x-ray reflection characteristics of 135 A- 2d tungsten-carbon multilayers. A large specular component in the reflectivity prevented determination of the rocking curve of the multilayer. For a neon implosion onto a vanadium-doped polyacrylic acid foam target shot, detailed modeling was attempted. The spectral flux was determined with data from 5 XRD channels and deconvolved using the code SHAZAM. The observed decay in reflectivity was assumed to correspond to the melting of the first tungsten layer. A ''conduction factor'' of 82 was required to manipulate the heat loading of the first tungsten layer such that the time of melting corresponded to the observed decay. The power at destruction was 141 MW/cm/sup 2/ and the integrated energy at destruction was 2.0 J/cm/sup 2/. 82 refs., 66 figs., 10 tabs.

Hockaday, M.Y.P.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

X-ray Practicals Series 1 Advanced Data Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Practicals Series 1 Advanced Data Reduction Instructor J. Reibenspies, Ph. D. Nattamai Bhuvanesh, Ph.D. Version 1.0.0 #12;X-ray Practicals Series 2 #12;X-ray Practicals Series 3 #12;X-ray is good. The y direction is shifting the most, but the shift is ok #12;X-ray Practicals Series 5 Other

Meagher, Mary

334

Soft x-ray resist characterization: Studies with a laser plasma x-ray source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Little work has been performed to characterize the exposure sensitivity, contrast, and tone of candidate resists for photon energies between 100--300 eV, the range in which projection soft x-ray lithography will be developed. We report here the characterization of near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra, exposure sensitivity, contrast, and post-exposure processing of selected polysilane resists at photon energies close to the Si L{sub 2,3} absorption edge (100 eV). We find absorption resonance features in the NEXAFS spectra which we assign to excitation into Si--Si and Si--C {sigma}* orbitals. Using monochromatized XUV exposures on the Si--Si {sigma}* resonance at 105 eV, followed by solvent dissolution development, we have measured the exposure sensitivity curves of these resists. We find sensitivities in the range of 600--3000 mJ/cm{sup 2} and contrasts in the range from 0.5--1.4, depending on the polysilane side chain. We have also performed exposure sensitivity measurements at 92 eV, below the edge. Sensitivity decreases slightly compared to 105 eV exposures and the saturation depth and contrast both increase, as expected. We find also that exposing resist films to oxygen after XUV exposure, but before development increases the sensitivity markedly. 7 figs.

Kubiak, G.D.; Outka, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Zeigler, J.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Vacuum breakdown mechanisms, and X-ray pulses in accelerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the conditioning of evacuated accelerator tubes, groups of discrete X-ray signals with apparent energies of greater than 300 keV are observed. A mechanism to explain the X-ray emission is proposed in terms of a series of transient vacuum arc discharges. A review is given of vacuum breakdown mechanisms, and of the most likely processes occurring in accelerator tubes during the conditioning process. In the case of the vacuum accelerator tube, there is initially no gaseous medium, but the applied voltage of 30 kV between the tube electrodes is sufficient to lead to the formation of a vacuum arc if there are fine whiskers, impurities, or accelerated dust particles present. Such a vacuum discharge will have a very short life (?1 ?s), as the current of the arc will cause the collapse of the electrode voltage which is maintained by a small current through 600 M? resistors. During the discharge, electrons will escape into the accelerator tube, and fall through several sections to be finally arrested, producing the discrete X-ray signals. The vacuum arc will release charged molten droplets of anode material into the high-field region; after some delay, these droplets will trigger further arcs in different sections of the tube. The triggered arcs will be at the inner edges of the electrode where the droplets hit the electrode, and where electrons are most readily released into the accelerator tube. Thus a whole series of high energy X-ray signals are observed.

R Morrow; D.C Weisser

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

337

Models for X-Ray Emission from Isolated Pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model is proposed for the observed combination of power-law and thermal emission of keV X-rays from rotationally powered pulsars. For gamma-ray pulsars with accelerators very many stellar radii above the neutron star surface, 100 MeV curvature gamma-rays from $e^{-}$ or $e^{+}$ flowing starward out of such accelerators are converted to electron-positron pairs on closed field lines all around the star. These pairs strongly affect X-ray emission from near the star in two ways. (1) The pairs are a source of synchrotron emission immediately following their creation in regions where $B \\sim 10^{10}$ G. This emission, in the photon energy range 0.1 keV $\\lesssim E_{X} \\lesssim$ 5 MeV, has a power-law spectrum with energy index 0.5 and X-ray luminosity that depends on the backflow current, and is typically $\\sim 10^{33}$ \\lum. (2) The pairs ultimately form a cyclotron resonance ``blanket'' surrounding the star except for two holes along the open field line bundles which pass through it. In such a blanket the gravitational pull on electron-positron pairs toward the star is balanced by the hugely amplified push of outflowing surface emitted X-rays wherever cyclotron resonance occurs. Because of it the neutron star is surrounded by a leaky ``hohlraum'' of hot blackbody radiation with two small holes, which prevents direct X-ray observation of a heated polar cap of a gamma-ray pulsar. Weakly spin-modulated radiation from the blanket together with more strongly spin-modulated radiation from the holes through it would then dominate observed low energy (0.1--10 keV) emission. For non-gamma-ray pulsars, in which no such accelerators with their accompanying extreme relativistic backflow toward the star are ...

F. Y. -H. Wang; M. Ruderman; J. P. Halpern; T. Zhu

1997-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

338

X-ray sources in globular clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The twelve bright (Lx>10(36) erg/s) X-ray sources in the globular clusters have lower luminosities than the brightest sources in the bulge of our galaxy. The dim (Lx<10(35) erg/s) X-ray sources in globular clusters reach higher luminosities than the cataclysmic variables in the disk of our galaxy. The first difference is a statistical fluke, as comparison with M31 indicates. The second difference is explained because the brightest of the dim sources are not cataclysmic variables, but soft X-ray transients in quiescence. This article describes the BeppoSAX, ROSAT and first Chandra observations leading to these conclusions.

Frank Verbunt

2001-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

339

X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the occurrence of solar X-ray flare, when light travel time delay is accounted, suggesting that X-rays fromX-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND ANIL BHARDWAJ Flight center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA Scattering of solar X-ray radiation mainly produces the non

?stgaard, Nikolai

340

X-Ray Diffraction The X-Ray Diffraction facility is equipped with state-of-the-art  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Diffraction The X-Ray Diffraction facility is equipped with state-of-the-art diffractometers offering both single crystal and powder X-Ray diffraction. Powder X-Ray Diffraction High resolution data For more details on powder X-Ray analysis contact Dr J Hriljac on 0121 414 4458 or email: j

Birmingham, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Novel X-Ray Imaging Opportunities for the RPI Linear Accelerator's Tunable, Quasi-monochromatic X-ray Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel X-Ray Imaging Opportunities for the RPI Linear Accelerator's Tunable, Quasi-monochromatic X-ray of an intense, tunable, polarized, and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source has been ongoing at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute since 2001 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. This X-ray source, known as Parametric X-rays (PXR

Danon, Yaron

342

In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time resolved, in-situ, energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was performed in an electrolysis cell during electrochemical loading of palladium foil cathodes with hydrogen and deuterium. Concentrations of H:Pd (D:Pd) up to 1:1 in 0.1 M LiOH (LiOD) in H{sub 2}O (D{sub 2}O) electrolyte were obtained, as determined by both the Pd lattice parameter and cathode resistivity. In addition, some indications on the kinetics of loading and deloading of hydrogen from the Pd surface were obtained. The alpha-beta phase transformations were clearly delineated but no new phases at high concentration were determined.

Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Dominguez, D. D.; Qadri, S. B.; Hubler, G. K. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Violante, V. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy); Hu, J. Z. [NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven, New York 11973 (United States); He, J. H. [Nova Research, Alexandria, Virginia 22308 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biologically Relevant Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

308, Messer, B. M. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of AqueousSarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy 5.1 Introductionwith Carboxylate by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquid

Uejio, Janel Sunayo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Compact X-Ray Light Source Workshop | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Compact X-Ray Light Source Workshop Compact X-Ray Light Source Workshop Teller R, Terminello L, Thevuthasan T, Moncton D. 2012. "Compact X-Ray Light Source Workshop Report."...

345

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

346

THE SWIFT/BAT HARD X-RAY TRANSIENT MONITOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Romano, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Kennea, J. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Ukwatta, T. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Palmer, D. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, B244, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sakamoto, T. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Stamatikos, M. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

X-rays at Solid-Liquid Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-liquid interfaces play an important role in many areas of current and future technologies, and in our biosphere. They play a key role in the development of nanofluidics and nanotribology, which sensitively depend on our knowledge of the microscopic structures and phenomena at the solid-liquid interface. The detailed understanding of how a fluid meets a wall is also a theoretical challenge. In particular, the phenomena at repulsive walls are of interest, since they affect many different phenomena, such as water-repellent surfaces or the role of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding. Recent x-ray reflectivity studies of various solid-liquid interfaces have disclosed rather intriguiing phenomena, which will be discussed in this lecture: premelting of ice in contact with silica; liquid Pb in contact with Si; water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. These experiments, carried out with high-energy x-ray microbeams, reveal detailed insight into the liquid density profile closest to the wall. A detailed insight into atomistic phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is also a prerequisite in the microscopic control of electrochemical reactions at interfaces. Recent x-ray studies show the enormous future potential of such non-destructive analytical tools for the in situ observation of (electro-)chemical surface reactions. This lecture will review recent x-ray experiments on solid-liquid interfaces.

Dosch, Helmut (Max Planck Institute for Metals Research) [Max Planck Institute for Metals Research

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

348

X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences. Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons. This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning. This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes. During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields. These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air. Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away. As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited.

Joseph Dwyer

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

349

High-Resolution X-ray Imaging of the Colliding Wind Shock in WR147  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze new high-resolution Chandra X-ray images of the Wolf-Rayet binary system WR147. This system contains a WN8 star with an early-type companion located 0.6'' to its north, and is the only known early-type binary with a separation on the sky large enough for the wind-wind collision between the stars to currently be resolved at X-ray energies. The 5 ksec Chandra HRC-I image provides the first direct evidence for spatially extended X-ray emission in an early-type binary system. The X-ray emission peaks close to the position of the radio bow shock and north of the WN8 star. A deeper X-ray image is needed to accurately determine the degree of spatial extension, to exactly align the X-ray and optical/radio frames, and to determine whether part of the detected X-ray emission arises in the individual stellar winds. Simulated X-ray images of the wind-wind collision have a FWHM consistent with the data, and maximum likelihood fits suggest that a deeper observation may also constrain the inclination and wind momentum ratio of this system. However, as the WR wind dominates the colliding wind X-ray emission it appears unlikely that the mass-loss rate and the terminal velocity of the companion wind can be separately determined from X-ray observations. We also note an inconsistency between numerical and analytical estimates of the X-ray luminosity ratio of the stronger and weaker wind components, and conclude that the analytical results are in error.

J. M. Pittard; I. R. Stevens; P. M. Williams; A. M. T. Pollock; S. L. Skinner; M. F. Corcoran; A. F. J. Moffat

2002-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

350

APS Bending Magnet X-rays and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with APS Bending Magnet X-rays and 60 Co γ-rays J. Alderman and P.K. Job APS Operations Division Advanced Photon Source J. Puhl Ionizing Radiation Division National Institute of Standards and Technology June 2000 Table of Contents Introduction Radiation-Induced Demagnetization of Permanent Magnets Resources Required γ-ray Irradiation Results and Analysis of γ-ray Irradiation X-ray Irradiation Results and Analysis of X-ray Irradiation Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgements References Tables and Figures Introduction The Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as other third-generation synchrotron light sources, uses permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific

351

Ultrafast X-Ray Sources and Science  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray science is entering the ultrafast and ultraintense era - spurred by developments in coherent, short-wavelength sources that range from tabletop to accelerator-based. These...

Young, Linda

352

X-ray induced optical reflectivity  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity.Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4), a semiconductor(gallium arsenide,GaAs), and a metal (gold,Au), obtained with ?100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

Durbin, Stephen M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

SMB, X-ray Emission Spectroscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emission Spectroscopy Beam Line 6-2b X-ray Emission Spectroscopy Beam Line 6-2b is an advanced spectroscopy experimental station on the multidisciplinary general user wiggler Beam...

354

X-raying galaxies: A Chandra legacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 This presentation...stellar x-ray sources in the solar neighborhood (8). The...elementsMeteoritic and solar . Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53...Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA...

Q. Daniel Wang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

Hessler, Jan P.

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

357

Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography Authors: Chapman, H.N., Fromme, P., Barty, A., White, T.A., Kirian, R.A., Aquila, A., Hunter, M.S., Schulz, J., DePonte, D.P.,...

358

Practical Performance of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy with a High-Voltage TEM up to 1,000 kV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......microprobe and electron energy-loss spectroscopy on...microscope equipped with EDS and energy filtered imaging system...Hashimoto H. Kanao Y: Energy dependence of contamination...beam testing technology. New York and London: Plenum Press......

Kazuo Furuya; Mitsuaki Osaki; Mitsuhiro Awaji; Tetsuya Saito

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization for a Berea Sandstone: Resolution Effect. Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization for...

360

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

362

Argonne CNM: X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Microscopy Facilities X-Ray Microscopy Facilities The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial resolution of 30 nm over a spectral range of 6-12 keV. Modes of Operation Full-Field Transmission Imaging and Nanotomography X-ray transmission imaging uses both the absorption and phase shift of the X-ray beam by the sample as contrast mechanisms. Absorption contrast is used to map the sample density. Elemental constituents can be located by using differential edge contrast in this mode. Phase contrast can be highly sensitive to edges and interfaces even when the X-ray absorption is weak. These contrast mechanisms are exploited to image samples rapidly in full-field transmission mode under various environmental conditions, or combined with nanotomography methods to study the three-dimensional structure of complex and amorphous nanomaterials with the HXN.

363

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

364

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

365

Development of x-ray laminography under an x-ray microscopic condition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An x-ray laminography system under an x-ray microscopic condition was developed to obtain a three-dimensional structure of laterally-extended planar objects which were difficult to observe by x-ray tomography. An x-ray laminography technique was introduced to an x-ray transmission microscope with zone plate optics. Three prototype sample holders were evaluated for x-ray imaging laminography. Layered copper grid sheets were imaged as a laminated sample. Diatomite powder on a silicon nitride membrane was measured to confirm the applicability of this method to non-planar micro-specimens placed on the membrane. The three-dimensional information of diatom shells on the membrane was obtained at a spatial resolution of sub-micron. Images of biological cells on the membrane were also obtained by using a Zernike phase contrast technique.

Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Yagi, Naoto [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

X-ray absorption and resonant x-ray emission spectra by electric quadrupole excitation in light rare-earth systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have made precise theoretical calculations for both 2p3/2?4f x-ray absorption spectra and 3d?2p3/2 resonant x-ray emission spectra involving electric quadrupole excitations at the L3 edge of light rare-earth elements from La to Eu. It is shown that the energy separation of a double-peak structure observed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) does not agree with that determined from resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES), in contrast to recent experimental results by Bartolom et al. The reason for this difference is that the energy separation in XAS is determined by the 4f-4f interaction only, while that in RXES is determined by both 4f-4f and 3d-4f interactions.

M. Nakazawa; K. Fukui; H. Ogasawara; A. Kotani; C. F. Hague

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

367

Using computational modeling to compare X-ray tube Practical Peak Voltage for Dental Radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Practical Peak Voltage-PPV has been adopted to measure the voltage applied to an X-ray tube. The PPV was recommended by the IEC document and accepted and published in the TRS no. 457 code of practice. The PPV is defined and applied to all forms of waves and is related to the spectral distribution of X-rays and to the properties of the image. The calibration of X-rays tubes was performed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. An X-ray tube for Dental Radiology (operated from a single phase power supply) and an X-ray tube used as a reference (supplied from a constant potential power supply) were used in simulations across the energy range of interest of 40kV to 100kV. Results obtained indicated a linear relationship between the tubes involved.

Deisemar Holanda Cassiano; Samanda Cristine Arruda Correa; Edmilson Monteiro de Souza; Ademir Xaxier da Silva; Jos Guilherme Pereira Peixoto; Ricardo Tadeu Lopes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Tailoring a plasma focus as hard x-ray source for imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An investigation on temporal and spatial properties of hard x-rays (1588 keV) emitted in a 5.3 kJ plasma focus using Si pin diodes and a pinhole camera is reported. The maximum yield of hard x-rays of 1588 keV range is estimated about 4.7 J and corresponding efficiency for x-ray generation is 0.09%. The x-rays with energy > 15 ? keV have 1520 ns pulse duration and ? 1 ? mm source size. This radiation is used for contact x-ray imaging of biological and compound objects and spatial resolution of ? 50 ? ? m is demonstrated.

S. Hussain; M. Shafiq; M. Zakaullah

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and {gamma}-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification.The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations.Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

Vink, Jacco [Astronomical Institute Utrecht, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Host Galaxies of X-ray Quasars Are Not Strong Star Formers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use ultradeep SCUBA-2 850um observations (~0.37 mJy rms) of the 2 Ms CDF-N and 4 Ms CDF-S X-ray fields to examine the amount of dusty star formation taking place in the host galaxies of high-redshift X-ray AGNs. Supplementing with COSMOS, we measure the submillimeter fluxes of the 4-8 keV sources at z>1, finding little flux at the highest X-ray luminosities but significant flux at intermediate luminosities. We determine grey body and MIR luminosities by fitting spectral energy distributions to each X-ray source and to each radio source in an ultradeep Karl G. Jansky VLA 1.4 GHz (11.5uJy at 5-sigma) image of the CDF-N. We confirm the FIR-radio and MIR-radio correlations to z=4 using the non-X-ray detected radio sources. Both correlations are also obeyed by the X-ray less luminous AGNs but not by the X-ray quasars. We interpret the low FIR luminosities relative to the MIR for the X-ray quasars as being due to a lack of star formation, while the MIR stays high due to the AGN contribution. We find that the FIR...

Barger, A J; Owen, F N; Chen, C -C; Hasinger, G; Hsu, L -Y; Li, Y

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Is linear response to x-rays suitable for digital dental x-ray imaging systems? Theoretical and experimental considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to consider theoretically and experimentally the suitability of linear response to x-rays for digital dental x-ray imaging systems.

Keiichi Nishikawa PhD; Mamoru Wakoh DDS; PhD; Kinya Kuroyanagi DDS; PhD

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

X-Ray Measurements Of A Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X rays are a normal byproduct from neutron generators, but depending on their intensity and energy, x rays can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60 deg. between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and its x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric. A thin lead shield, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick, reduced the 70-keV generator x rays to negligible levels.

Wharton, C. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Caffrey, A. J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Avenue, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Simpson, J.; Lemchak, M. [Thermo-Fisher Scientific/MF Physics, 5074 List Drive, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80919 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Xrays from stars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of the thermal structure and energy release in stellar coronae...of the thermal structure and energy release in stellar coronae...the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modi cation...generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A strategy to measure the dark energy equation of state using the H II galaxy Hubble function and X-ray active galactic nuclei clustering: preliminary results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......or are at various stages of development, viz. the Dark Energy Survey: http://www.darkenergysurvey.org/ , the Joint Dark Energy Mission: http://jdem.gsfc.nasa.gov/ , the......

M. Plionis; R. Terlevich; S. Basilakos; F. Bresolin; E. Terlevich; J. Melnick; R. Chavez

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

Hailey, Charles J. (San Francisco, CA); Ziock, Klaus-Peter (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

SANDlA REPORT Unlimited Release  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SANDlA REPORT SANDlA REPORT Unlimited Release Printed October 1995 SAND95-2129 UC-607 '4 d Oleoresin Capsicum Toxicology Evaluation and Hazard Review Melecita M. Archuleta Issued by Sandia National Ldxratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by a n agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Govern- ment nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, prod- uct, or process disclosed, or represents that its

377

X-ray Pinhole Camera Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of the rod pinch diode [1] has led to high-resolution radiography for dynamic events such as explosive tests. Rod pinch diodes use a small diameter anode rod, which extends through the aperture of a cathode plate. Electrons borne off the aperture surface can self-insulate and pinch onto the tip of the rod, creating an intense, small x-ray source (Primary Pinch). This source has been utilized as the main diagnostic on numerous experiments that include high-value, single-shot events. In such applications there is an emphasis on machine reliability, x-ray reproducibility, and x-ray quality [2]. In tests with the baseline rod pinch diode, we have observed that an additional pinch (Secondary Pinch) occurs at the interface near the anode rod and the rod holder. This suggests that stray electrons exist that are not associated with the Primary Pinch. In this paper we present measurements on both pinches using an x-ray pinhole camera. The camera is placed downstream of the Primary Pinch at an angle of 60 with respect to the diode centerline. This diagnostic will be employed to diagnose x-ray reproducibility and quality. In addition, we will investigate the performance of hybrid diodes relating to the formation of the Primary and Secondary Pinches.

Nelson, D. S. [NSTec; Berninger, M. J. [NSTec; Flores, P. A. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Hogge, K. W. [NSTec; Huber, S. R. [NSTec; Lutz, S. S. [NSTec; Mitchell, S. E. [NSTec; Howe, R. A. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Bozman, D. R. [SNL; Cordova, S. R. [SNL; Mitchell, D. R. [SNL; Oliver, B. V. [SNL; Ormond, E. C. [SNL

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

379

Oscillations During Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High amplitude, nearly coherent X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, a long sought goal of X-ray astronomy. Studies carried out over the past year have led to the discovery of burst oscillations in four new sources, bringing to ten the number with confirmed burst oscillations. I review the status of our knowledge of these oscillations and indicate how they can be used to probe the physics of neutron stars. For a few burst oscillation sources it has been proposed that the strongest and most ubiquitous frequency is actually the first overtone of the spin frequency and hence that two nearly antipodal hot spots are present on the neutron star. This inference has important implications for both the physics of thermonuclear burning as well as the mass - radius relation for neutron stars, so its confirmation is crucial. I discuss recent attempts to confirm this hypothesis for 4U 1636-53, the source for which a signal at the putative fundamental (290 Hz) has been claimed.

Tod E. Strohmayer

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

380

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

Howells, Malcolm S. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

X-ray Emission Processes in Radio Jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The emission processes responsible for the observed X-rays from radio jets are commonly believed to be non-thermal, but in any particular case, it is unclear if synchrotron emission or one or more varieties of inverse Compton emission predominates. We present a formulation of inverse Compton emission from a relativistically moving jet (``IC/beaming'') which relies on radio emitting synchrotron sources for which the energy densities in particles and fields are comparable. We include the non-isotropic nature of inverse Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons on photons of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and provide beaming parameters for a number of jets. A list of X-ray emitting jets is given and the jets are classified on the basis of their morphology and spectral energy distribution to determine their likely emission process. We conclude that these jets have significant bulk relativistic velocities on kpc scales; that higher redshift sources require less beaming because the energy density of the CMB is significantly greater than locally; and that for some nearby sources, synchrotron X-ray emission predominates because the jet makes a large angle to the line of sight.

D. E. Harris; H. Krawczynski

2001-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

382

An X-ray study of residual macrostresses in protective coatings for gas-turbine blades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The x-ray method is used to determine residual macrostresses in the surface layer of protective coatings on high-temperature alloys. Coatings deposited by the high-energy vacuum-plasma (HEVP) method were subje...

Yu. D. Yagodkin; K. M. Pastukhov; E. V. Milyaeva

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - angle x-ray diffraction Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Materials Science 60 Page 12 CHESS News Magazine 2005 FacilityHighlight Impact of a Future Energy Recovery Linac Summary: -rolled Aluminum SR X-ray diffraction. Map grain...

384

Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Rosser, Roy (Princeton, NJ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Xray and neutron diffraction studies and MD simulation of atomic configurations in polyamorphic Y2O3-Al2O3 systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...McMillan and David C. Clary X-ray and neutron diffraction studies and MD simulation...new results of structural studies using neutron and high-energy X-ray diffraction...pair-correlation functions obtained from X-ray and neutron scattering data. Unexpectedly large density...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

X-RAY VARIABILITY COHERENCE: HOW TO COMPUTE IT, WHAT IT MEANS, AND HOW IT CONSTRAINS MODELS OF GX 339 4 AND CYGNUS X-1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-RAY VARIABILITY COHERENCE: HOW TO COMPUTE IT, WHAT IT MEANS, AND HOW IT CONSTRAINS MODELS OF GX of the spectrum and variability of X-ray binaries. Here we present a procedure for estimating the coherence and GX 339 4 and find that the near-perfect coherence between low- and high-energy X-ray photons rules

Faraon, Andrei

388

Kaonic hydrogen X-ray measurement in SIDDHARTA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kaonic hydrogen atoms provide a unique laboratory to probe the kaon-nucleon strong interaction at the energy threshold, allowing an investigation of the interplay between spontaneous and explicit chiral symmetry breaking in low-energy QCD. The SIDDHARTA Collaboration has measured the $K$-series X rays of kaonic hydrogen atoms at the DA$\\Phi$NE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, and has determined the most precise values of the strong-interaction induced shift and width of the $1s$ atomic energy level. This result provides vital constraints on the theoretical description of the low-energy $\\bar{K}N$ interaction.

M. Bazzi; G. Beer; L. Bombelli; A. M. Bragadireanu; M. Cargnelli; G. Corradi; C. Curceanu; A. d'Uffizi; C. Fiorini; T. Frizzi; F. Ghio; C. Guaraldo; R. S. Hayano; M. Iliescu; T. Ishiwatari; M. Iwasaki; P. Kienle; P. Levi Sandri; A. Longoni; V. Lucherini; J. Marton; S. Okada; D. Pietreanu; T. Ponta; A. Rizzo; A. Romero Vidal; A. Scordo; H. Shi; D. L. Sirghi; F. Sirghi; H. Tatsuno; A. Tudorache; V. Tudorache; O. Vazquez Doce; E. Widmann; J. Zmeskal

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

X-ray variability in M87  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the evidence for X-ray variability from the core and from knot A in the M87 jet based on data from two observations with the Einstein Observatory High Resolution Imager (HRI) and three observations with the ROSAT HRI. The core intensity showed a 16% increase in 17 months ('79-'80); a 12% increase in the 3 years '92 to '95; and a 17% drop in the last half of 1995. The intensity of knot A appears to have decreased by 16% between 92Jun and 95Dec. Although the core variability is consistent with general expectations for AGN nuclei, the changes in knot A provide constraints on the x-ray emission process and geometry. Thus we predict that the x-ray morphology of knot A will differ significantly from the radio and optical structure.

D. E. Harris; J. A. Biretta; W. Junor

1996-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

390

On the role of reverse current on the hard X-ray production in solar flares and time-lags between high- and low-energy photons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The evolution of energy and angular distributions of electrons has been studied accounting for the reverse current effect by combining analytically treated small angle multiple scatterings with large angle Mon...

Ranjana Bakaya; S. A. Chasti; R. R. Rausaria

391

Swift and Fermi observations of X-ray flares: the case of Late Internal Shock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer a unique broadband view of their afterglow emission, spanning more than ten decades in energy. We present the sample of X-ray flares observed by both Swift and Fermi during the first three years of Fermi operations. While bright in the X-ray band, X-ray flares are often undetected at lower (optical), and higher (MeV to GeV) energies. We show that this disfavors synchrotron self-Compton processes as origin of the observed X-ray emission. We compare the broadband properties of X-ray flares with the standard late internal shock model, and find that, in this scenario, X-ray flares can be produced by a late-time relativistic (Gamma>50) outflow at radii R~10^13-10^14 cm. This conclusion holds only if the variability timescale is significantly shorter than the observed flare duration, and implies that X-ray flares can directly probe the activity of the GRB central engine.

Troja, E; Vasileiou, V; Omodei, N; Burgess, J M; Cutini, S; Connaughton, V; McEnery, J E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

STATE-DEPENDENT ORBITAL MODULATION OF X-RAYS IN CYG X-3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze all of the available RXTE observations of Cyg X-3 in order to investigate the connection between the central X-ray source and its surrounding environment. The hardness-intensity diagram of Cyg X-3 displays a 'shoe' shape rather than the Q-type shape commonly seen in other black hole X-ray binary, and exhibits no apparent hysteresis effect. During the {gamma}-ray outbursts, no existing data are located in the hard and intermediate states, which suggest the absence of a significant population of non-thermal electrons when the source is in these states. For the first time, we present the orbital modulation of the X-ray light curve (LC) of all five states. The different energy band LCs are in phase with each other in all five states, and the modulation amplitude of both soft and hard X-ray LCs monotonously increases with decreasing hardness from hard to soft non-thermal states. We confirm that the modulation depth decreases with increasing energy in the hard, intermediate, and very high states, as originally reported by Zdziarski et al. However, in the soft non-thermal state, the hard X-ray modulation strength significantly increases and is even larger than the soft X-ray one. Our results rule out both wind absorption and jet origins of the hard X-ray LC modulation in the soft non-thermal state, and challenge our understanding of the states of Cyg X-3.

Weng, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Ge, Ming-Yu; Li, Jian; Zhang, Shu, E-mail: zhangsn@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: wengss@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

393

On the diffuse X-ray emission from the Wolf-Rayet Bubble NGC 2359  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent XMM-Newton observation (Zhekov 2014) has revealed diffuse X-ray emission inside the nebula NGC 2359 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 7. Taking advantage of an improved point-source rejection and background subtraction, and a detailed comparison of optical and X-ray morphology, we have reanalyzed these X-ray observations. Our analysis reveals diffuse X-ray emission from a blowout and the presence of emission at energies from 1.0 to 2.0 keV. The X-ray emission from NGC 2359 can be described by an optically-thin plasma emission model, but contrary to previous analysis, we find that the chemical abundances of this plasma are similar to those of the optical nebula, with no magnesium enhancement, and that two components at temperatures T_1=2x10^6 K and T_2=5.7x10^7 K are required. The estimated X-ray luminosity in the 0.3 - 2.0 keV energy range is L_X=2x10^33 erg s^-1. The averaged rms electron density of the X-ray-emitting gas (n_e \\lesssim 0.6 cm^-3) reinforces the idea of mixing of material from the outer ...

Toal, J A; Chu, Y -H; Gruendl, R A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter (SLAC, January 23-24, 1997) During the last five years studies have been conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg concerning the feasibility of driving an Angstrom-wavelength Free-Electron Laser (FEL) with a high energy rf linac. Recent promising advances in linac, rf gun, and insertion device technologies make it seem likely that such a device can be constructed. The output radiation predicted for this type of source will be characterized by full transverse coherence, extreme pulse brevity (~50-100 fs), high peak power (10-100 GW), and very high unfocused peak power density (0.4-4.1013

395

An X-ray Polarimeter for Constellation-X  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polarimetry remains a largely unexploited technique in observational X-ray astronomy which could provide insight in the study of the strong gravity and magnetic fields at the core of the Constellation-X observational program. Adding a polarization capability to the Constellation-X instrumentation would be immensely powerful. It would make Constellation the first space observatory to simultaneously measure all astrophysically relevant parameters of source X-ray photons; their position (imaging), energy (spectroscopy), arrival time (timing), and polarization. Astrophysical polarimetry requires sensitive well-calibrated instruments. Many exciting objects are extra-galactic (i.e. faint) and may have small polarization. Recent advances in efficiency and bandpass make it attractive to consider a polarimetry Science Enhancement Package for the Constellation-X mission.

Jahoda, K; Deines-Jones, P; Hill, J E; Kallman, T; Strohmayer, T E; Swank, J H

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

An X-ray Polarimeter for Constellation-X  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polarimetry remains a largely unexploited technique in observational X-ray astronomy which could provide insight in the study of the strong gravity and magnetic fields at the core of the Constellation-X observational program. Adding a polarization capability to the Constellation-X instrumentation would be immensely powerful. It would make Constellation the first space observatory to simultaneously measure all astrophysically relevant parameters of source X-ray photons; their position (imaging), energy (spectroscopy), arrival time (timing), and polarization. Astrophysical polarimetry requires sensitive well-calibrated instruments. Many exciting objects are extra-galactic (i.e. faint) and may have small polarization. Recent advances in efficiency and bandpass make it attractive to consider a polarimetry Science Enhancement Package for the Constellation-X mission.

K. Jahoda; K. Black; P. Deines-Jones; J. E. Hill; T. Kallman; T. Strohmayer; J. H. Swank

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

397

Dense Plasma X-ray Scattering: Methods and Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed accurate x-ray scattering techniques to measure the physical properties of dense plasmas. Temperature and density are inferred from inelastic x-ray scattering data whose interpretation is model-independent for low to moderately coupled systems. Specifically, the spectral shape of the non-collective Compton scattering spectrum directly reflects the electron velocity distribution. In partially Fermi degenerate systems that have been investigated experimentally in laser shock-compressed beryllium, the Compton scattering spectrum provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. We show that forward scattering spectra that observe collective plasmon oscillations yield densities in agreement with Compton scattering. In addition, electron temperatures inferred from the dispersion of the plasmon feature are consistent with the ion temperature sensitive elastic scattering feature. Hence, theoretical models of the static ion-ion structure factor and consequently the equation of state of dense matter can be directly tested.

Glenzer, S H; Lee, H J; Davis, P; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Fortmann, C; Hammel, B A; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Munro, D H; Redmer, R; Weber, S

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

398

Rotational Doppler effect in x-ray photoionization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy of the photoelectron experiences a red or blue Doppler shift when the molecule recedes from the detector or approaches him. This results in a broadening of the photoelectron line due to the translational thermal motion. However, the molecules also have rotational degrees of freedom and we show that the translational Doppler effect has its rotational counterpart. This rotational Doppler effect leads to an additional broadening of the spectral line of the same magnitude as the Doppler broadening caused by translational thermal motion. The rotational Doppler broadening as well as the rotational recoil broadening is sensitive to the molecular orbital from which the photoelectron is ejected. This broadening should be taken into account in analysis of x-ray photoemission spectra of super-high resolution and it can be directly observed using x-ray pump-probe spectroscopy.

Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, 250014 Jinan (China); Theoretical Chemistry, Roslagstullsbacken 15, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gel'mukhanov, Faris [Theoretical Chemistry, Roslagstullsbacken 15, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Rotational Doppler effect in x-ray photoionization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy of the photoelectron experiences a red or blue Doppler shift when the molecule recedes from the detector or approaches him. This results in a broadening of the photoelectron line due to the translational thermal motion. However, the molecules also have rotational degrees of freedom and we show that the translational Doppler effect has its rotational counterpart. This rotational Doppler effect leads to an additional broadening of the spectral line of the same magnitude as the Doppler broadening caused by translational thermal motion. The rotational Doppler broadening as well as the rotational recoil broadening is sensitive to the molecular orbital from which the photoelectron is ejected. This broadening should be taken into account in analysis of x-ray photoemission spectra of super-high resolution and it can be directly observed using x-ray pump-probe spectroscopy.

Yu-Ping Sun; Chuan-Kui Wang; Faris Gelmukhanov

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

400

Soft X-ray Pulsations in Solar Flares  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The soft X-ray emissions of solar flares come mainly from the bright coronal loops at the highest temperatures normally achieved in the flare process. Their ubiquity has led to their use as a standard measure of flare occurrence and energy, although the bulk of the total flare energy goes elsewhere. Recently Dolla et al. (2012) noted quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in the soft X-ray signature of the X-class flare SOL2011-02-15, as observed by the standard photometric data from the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) spacecraft. We analyze the suitability of the GOES data for this kind of analysis and find them to be generally valuable after Sept. 2010 (GOES-15). We then extend Dolla et al. results to a list of X-class flares from Cycle 24, and show that most of them display QPP in the impulsive phase. During the impulsive phase the footpoints of the newly-forming flare loops may also contribute to the observed soft X-ray variations. The QPP show up cleanly in both channels of the GOES dat...

Simes, Paulo J A; Fletcher, Lyndsay

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

Gilbert, Hubert W. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

X-ray Science Division: Groups  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Division: Groups Division: Groups Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (AMO) Primary Contact: Stephen Southworth Work focuses on understanding how strong optical and x-ray fields interact with matter, with an emphasis on photonic control of electronic, atomic and molecular motion. Chemical and Materials Science (CMS) Primary Contact: Randy Winans Research Disciplines: Chemistry, Materials Science Detectors (DET) Primary Contact: Antonino Miceli GMCA Structural Biology Facility (MX) Primary Contact: Robert Fischetti Research Disciplines: Biology, Life Sciences Imaging (IMG) Primary Contact: Francesco DeCarlo Research Disciplines: Materials Science, Biology, Physics, Life Sciences Inelastic X-ray & Nuclear Resonant Scattering (IXN) Primary Contact: Thomas Gog Research Disciplines: Condensed Matter Physics, Geophysics, Materials

403

Phase recovery for x-ray crystallography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years people have believed that in conventional x-ray crystallography one can only record the diffraction intensities but not the phases. In order to obtain the atomic arrangements, one usually has to guess a structure and then fit the intensity data by refining its parameters. Here, we show that the phases are in fact hidden in the intensity data, and can be directly recovered from the peak profiles. This method is demonstrated by the normal two-beam x-ray diffraction of a noncentrosymmetric crystal, and nontrivial phases are recovered from the intensity data alone.

G. Xu, G. E. Zhou, and X. Y. Zhang

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Time-resolved x-ray diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Techniques for time-resolved x-ray diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on systems utilizing x-ray diodes or scintillators. System design concerns for high-bandwidth (> 1 GHz) diagnostics will be emphasized. The limitations of a coaxial cable system and a technique for equalizing to improve bandwidth of such a system will be reviewed. Characteristics of new multi-GHz amplifiers will be presented. An example of a complete operational system on the Los Alamos Helios laser will be presented which has a bandwidth near 3 GHz over 38 m of coax. The system includes the cable, an amplifier, an oscilloscope, and a digital camera readout.

Lyons, P.B.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Titanium dioxide nanofiber-cotton targets for efficient multi-keV x-ray generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27{+-}7 mg/cm{sup 3}) nanofiber-cotton targets composed of titanium dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency [(3.7{+-}0.5)%] from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that [(1.4{+-}0.9)%] for a planar Ti-foil target.

Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nagai, Keiji; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Mima, Kunioki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Gu, Zhong-Ze; Pan, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096 (China); Girard, Frederic; Primout, Michel; Villette, Bruno; Brebion, Didier [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DAM-Ile-de-France, Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91297 Arpajon, Cedex (France); Fournier, Kevin B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-473, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fujishima, Akira [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, 3-2-1 Sakato, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

406

X-ray absorption spectroscopy on solid krypton up to 20 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-pressure properties of krypton were investigated by energy-dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The equation of state agrees very well with x-ray diffraction data. The pressure dependence of the Debye-Waller factor was determined and compared with calculations using pair potentials. The analysis of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure part of the spectrum shows the possibility of measuring the pressure in bubbles of krypton implanted in metallic matrices.

A. Polian; J. P. Itie; E. Dartyge; A. Fontaine; G. Tourillon

1989-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

A Sealed, UHV Compatible, Soft X-ray Detector Utilizing Gas Electron Multipliers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An advanced soft X-ray detector has been designed and fabricated for use in synchrotron experiments that utilize X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the study a wide range of materials properties. Fluorescence X-rays, in particular C{sub K} at 277eV, are converted in a low pressure gas medium, and charge multiplication occurs in two gas electron multipliers, fabricated in-house from glass reinforced laminate, to enable single photon counting. The detector satisfies a number of demanding characteristics often required in synchrotron environments, such as UHV compatibility compactness, long-term stability, and energy resolving capability.

Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.

2009-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

408

Structured x-ray beams from twisted electrons by inverse Compton scattering of laser light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The inverse Compton scattering of laser light on high-energetic twisted electrons is investigated with the aim to construct spatially structured x-ray beams. In particular, we analyze how the properties of the twisted electrons, such as the topological charge and aperture angle of the electron Bessel beam, affects the energy and angular distribution of scattered x-rays. We show that with suitably chosen initial twisted electron states one can synthesize tailor-made x-ray beam profiles with a well-defined spatial structure, in a way not possible with ordinary plane-wave electron beams.

Seipt, D; Fritzsche, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

X-Ray Entangled Photon Production in Collisions of Laser Beams with Relativistic Ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method is suggested to produce, with the help of colliding laser photons with bunches of relativistic ions having two energy levels, both intense beams of monochromatic polarized X-ray fluorescence photons and significant number of X-ray entangled photons, via double Doppler transformation. Nonlinear susceptibility of the ions, the cross section and the rate of production of such photons at RHIC are estimated. Such beams of X-ray photons can be detected and applied to solve various problems, in a manner similar to the usage of optical photons.

K. A. Ispirian; M. K. Ispiryan

2010-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

410

Methods development for diffraction and spectroscopy studies of metalloenzymes at X-ray free-electron lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...on electrofocusing, an energy dispersive von Hamos X-ray...spectroscopy data collected by us at the Linac Coherent...deposition of radiation energy by the X-ray pulse was...we review the current status of methods developed in...packages developed by us to process both spectroscopic...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Double-Layer Silicon PIN Photodiode X-Ray Detector for a Future X-ray Timing Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A double-layer silicon detector consisting of two 500micron-thick silicon PIN photodiodes with independent readouts was mounted in a vacuum chamber and tested with X-ray sources. The detector is sensitive from 1-30 keV with an effective area of 6 mm^2. The detector performs best at -35 C with an energy resolution of 220 eV (FWHM, full width at half maximum) at 5.9 keV, and is able to operate at room temperature, +25 C, with moderate resolution around 760 eV (FWHM). The response of the top layer sensor is highly uniform across the sensitive area. This large-format silicon detector is appropriate for future X-ray timing missions.

Hua Feng; Philip Kaaret; Hans Andersson

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

K Series X-Ray Wavelengths in Rare Earth Elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The K-series x-rays in ten rare earth elements have been studied with a two-meter-radius bent-quartz-crystal spectrograph. The 3.7-Mev proton beam of the A-48 accelerator (UCRL, Livermore) was used to produce the atomic excitations. The wavelengths obtained for the K?1, K?2, K?3, and K?1 lines are compared with previous wavelength measurements. Two weaker transitions, K?5 and KOIIOIII, were also observed and the energies are compared with energies obtained from tables of known atomic energy levels.

E. L. Chupp, J. W. M. Du Mond, F. J. Gordon, R. C. Jopson, and Hans Mark

1958-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

GIANT H II REGIONS IN M101. I. X-RAY ANALYSIS OF HOT GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We performed a Chandra X-ray study of three giant H II regions (GHRs), NGC 5461, NGC 5462, and NGC 5471, in the spiral galaxy M101. The X-ray spectra of the three GHRs all contain a prominent thermal component with a temperature of {approx}0.2 keV. In NGC 5461, the spatial distribution of the soft (<1.5 keV) X-ray emission is generally in agreement with the extent of H1105, the most luminous H II region therein, but extends beyond its southern boundary, which could be attributed to outflows from the star cloud between H1105 and H1098. In NGC 5462, the X-ray emission is displaced from the H II regions and a ridge of blue stars; the H{alpha} filaments extending from the ridge of star cloud to the diffuse X-rays suggest that hot gas outflows have occurred. The X-rays from NGC 5471 are concentrated at the B-knot, a 'hypernova remnant' candidate. Assuming a Sedov-Taylor evolution, the derived explosion energy, on the order of 10{sup 52} erg, is consistent with a hypernova origin. In addition, a bright source in the field of NGC 5462 has been identified as a background active galactic nucleus, instead of a black hole X-ray binary in M101.

Sun Wei; Chen Yang; Feng Li [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chu, You-Hua [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen, C.-H. Rosie [Max Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wang, Q. Daniel [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Li Jiangtao [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

Radioactive Thulium for X-Rays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radioactive power from thulium makes Argonne x-ray unit a potential for medical and industrial use ... Active component of the instrument is a tiny particle (one-fifth gram) of thulium-170 which has been made radioactive in a heavy water nuclear reactor at Arco, Idaho. ...

1954-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

415

Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

416

Soft x-ray laser microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL's 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

Hessler, Jan P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

419

Element-specific structure of materials with intrinsic disorder by high-energy resonant x-ray diffraction and differential atomic pair-distribution functions: A study of PtPd nanosized catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate how high-energy resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential atomic-pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis can be used to characterize the atomic ordering in materials of limited structural coherence with both excellent spatial resolution and element specificity. First we prove that this experimental approach is feasible by probing the K-absorption edge of Au(?81?keV) atoms in chemically ordered and disordered bulk Cu3Au alloys. The resulting Au-differential PDFs show very clearly the different ways Au atoms are known to occupy the sites of otherwise identical cubic lattices of those materials. Next we apply it to a more complex material: PtPd alloy and core-shell nanosized (?24?nm) particles by probing the K-absorption edge of Pt(?78?keV). The resulting Pt-differential atomic PDFs reveal how exactly the atomic ordering of catalytically active Pt atoms is affected by the nanoparticles design, thus providing a firm structural basis for understanding their properties. The work is a step forward in expanding the limits of applicability of nontraditional XRD to the rapidly growing field of materials of unusual structural complexity.

V. Petkov and S. D. Shastri

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhancement in both thermal parameters. The relation between spectral index and the non-thermal flux is an intrinsic feature of the particle acceleration process, depending on flare size. This property affects the reported frequency distribution of flare energies.

Marina Battaglia; Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

X Ray Scattering | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

X Ray Scattering X Ray Scattering Materials Sciences and Engineering (MSE) Division MSE Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs BES Funding Opportunities The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Scientific Highlights Reports and Activities Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas X Ray Scattering Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page This activity supports basic research on the fundamental interactions of photons with matter to achieve an understanding of atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures and excitations and their relationships to materials properties. The main emphasis is on x-ray scattering, spectroscopy, and imaging research, primarily at major BES-supported user facilities.

422

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC; ,

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-4352P Unlimited Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

352P 352P Unlimited Release Printed September 2007 Calendar Year 2006 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Matthew Sneddon, Susan Koss, Rebecca Sanchez and Charlene Cunningham Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94Al85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States

424

Borman effect in resonant diffraction of X-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamic theory of resonant diffraction (occurring when the energy of incident radiation is close to the energy of the absorption edge of an element in the composition of a given substance) of synchronous X-rays is developed in the two-wave approximation in the coplanar Laue geometry for large grazing angles in perfect crystals. A sharp decrease in the absorption coefficient in the substance with simultaneously satisfied diffraction conditions (Borman effect) is demonstrated, and the theoretical and first experimental results are compared. The calculations reveal the possibility of applying this approach in analyzing the quadrupole-quadrupole contribution to the absorption coefficient.

Oreshko, A. P., E-mail: ap.oreshko@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has led to a significant increase in activity in many areas of science dealing with the interaction of x-rays with matter. Synchrotron radiation provides intense, linearly polarized, naturally collimated, continuously tunable photon beams, which are used to determine not only the elemental composition of a complex, polyatomic, dilute material but also the chemical form of the elements with improved accuracy. Examples of the application of synchrotron radiation include experiments in synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. New synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobes for elemental analysis in the parts per billion range are under construction at several laboratories. 76 references, 24 figures.

Chen, J.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

Bitter, Manfred L. (Princeton, NJ); Fraenkel, Ben (Jerusalem, IL); Gorman, James L. (Bordentown, NJ); Hill, Kenneth W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Roquemore, A. Lane (Cranbury, NJ); Stodiek, Wolfgang (Princeton, NJ); von Goeler, Schweickhard E. (Princeton, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

428

X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

Scaling Laws of Nitrogen Soft X-ray Yields from 1 to 200kJ Plasma Focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical experiments are carried out systematically to determine the nitrogen soft X-ray yield for optimized nitrogen plasma focus with storage energy E0 from 1 to 200kJ. Scaling laws on nitrogen soft X-ray yie...

M. Akel; S. Lee

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Pump pulse-width dependence of grazing-incidence pumped transient collisional soft-x-ray lasers M. Berrill,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pump pulse-width dependence of grazing-incidence pumped transient collisional soft-x-ray lasers M 2007 The output energy dependence of high repetition rate grazing incidence pumped Ni-like Mo, Ni-like Ag, and Ne-like Ti transient collisional soft x-ray lasers on the duration of the pump pulse

Rocca, Jorge J.

431

The Road to Ultrahigh-Resolution X-ray Spectrometers | Advanced Photon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Atoms Behave: Characteristics of Microstructural Avalanches How Atoms Behave: Characteristics of Microstructural Avalanches Iodate Refuses to Intimidate Creating the Heart of a Planet in the Heart of a Gem How a Powerful Antibody Neutralizes HIV Taking a Page from Nature to Build Better Nanomaterials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed The Road to Ultrahigh-Resolution X-ray Spectrometers NOVEMBER 22, 2011 Bookmark and Share Basic phenomena underlying the AD&AT x-ray optics. In x-ray Bragg diffraction from atomic planes composing nonzero angle η to the crystal entrance face, the crystal acts (a) like an optical prism dispersing the photons into a divergent x-ray fan with photons of different energies E

432

Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BL6-2c / Transmission X-ray Microscopy BL6-2c / Transmission X-ray Microscopy Home Researchers Publications Science Highlights Department of Energy Office of Science Search form Search Search TXM Search Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy Capabilities Full-field TXM is an excellent method to examine nanoscale heterogeneties in many materials, including complex hierarchical systems such as catalysts, fuel cells and battery electrodes, and biological and environmental samples, at 30 nm resolution.The transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) on beam line 6-2c at SSRL is capable of 2D imaging and tomography, as well as spectroscopic imaging for 2D and 3D elemental mapping and chemical mapping over tens of microns (up to mm in 2D). The field of view (FOV) is 30 microns, but mosaic images can be collected to

433

Optics for x-ray microfluorescence to be used at the European Synchroton Radiation Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-SRXRF (Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray Fluorescence) is a microanalytical technique which utilizes an intense, polarized X-ray micro beam originating from the storage ring to induce X-ray fluorescence in a microscopic volume of the sample under investigation. The emerging fluorescent and scattered radiation is normally detected by an energy-dispersive Si(Li) detector. The recorded fluorescent spectra provide qualitative and quantitative information on the examined material yielding minimum detection limits in the ppm and in favourable cases in the sub-ppm range at current SRXRF-facilities. Possible applications of synchrotron X-ray microprobes are the mapping of chemical elements in biological tissues, investigation of element migration and partitioning in geological systems, the analysis of individual microscopic particles and a variety of topics in applied research. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Vincze, L.; Janssens, K.; Adams, F. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Chandra X-Ray Detection of the Radio Hotspots of 3C295  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An observation of the radio galaxy 3C295 during the calibration phase of the Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals X-ray emission from the core of the galaxy, from each of the two prominent radio hotspots, and from the previously known cluster gas. We discuss the possible emission processes for the hotspots and argue that a synchrotron self-Compton model is preferred for most or all of the observed X-ray emission. SSC models with near equipartition fields thus explain the X-ray emission from the hotspots in the two highest surface brightness FRII radio galaxies, Cygnus A and 3C295. This lends weight to the assumption of equipartition and suggests that relativistic protons do not dominate the particle energy density.

D. E. Harris; P. E. J. Nulsen; T. P. Ponman; M. Bautz; R. A. Cameron; L. P. David; R. H. Donnelly; W. R. Forman; L. Grego; M. J. Hardcastle; J. P. Henry; C. Jones; J. P. Leahy; M. Markevitch; A. R. Martel; B. R. McNamara; P. Mazzotta; W. Tucker; S. N. Virani; J. Vrtilek

1999-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

435

Measurement of 238U muonic x-rays with a germanium detector setup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the field of nuclear non-proliferation muon interactions with materials are of great interest. This paper describes an experiment conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland where a muon beam is stopped in a uranium target. The muons produce characteristic muonic x-rays. Muons will penetrate shielding easily and the produced characteristic x-rays can be used for positive isotope identification. Furthermore, the x-rays for uranium isotopes lie in the energy range of 6-7 MeV, which allows them to have an almost optimal mean free path in heavy shielding such as lead or steel. A measurement was conducted at PSI to prove the feasibility of detecting muonic x-rays from a large sample of depleted uranium (several kilograms) with a germanium detector. In this paper, the experimental setup and analysis of the measurement itself is presented.

Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyadera, Haruo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoteling, Nathan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heffner, Robert H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adelmann, Andreas [PAUL SCHERRER INSTITUT; Stocki, Trevor [HEALTH CANADA; Mitchell, Lee [NAVAL RESEARCH LAB

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

437

MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

438

A high-resolution large-acceptance analyzer for X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A newly designed multi-crystal X-ray spectrometer and its applications in the fields of X-ray fluorescence and X-ray Raman spectroscopy are described. The instrument is based on 8 spherically curved Si crystals, each with a 3.5 inch diameter form bent to a radius of 86 cm. The crystals are individually aligned in the Rowland geometry capturing a total solid angle of 0.07 sr. The array is arranged in a way that energy scans can be performed by moving the whole instrument, rather than scanning each crystal by itself. At angles close to back scattering the energy resolution is between 0.3 and 1 eV depending on the beam dimensions at the sample. The instrument is mainly designed for X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of transition metals in dilute systems such as metalloproteins. First results of the Mn K{beta} (3p -> 1s) emission in photosystem II are shown. An independent application of the instrument is the technique of X-ray Raman spectroscopy which can address problems similar to those in traditional soft X-ray absorption spectroscopies, and initial results are presented.

Bergmann, Uwe; Cramer, Stephen P.

2001-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

439

X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Related Links: Related Links: May 2005 Headlines TIP Article Press Release Walters Art Museum SSRL Home Page SLAC Home Page Stanford Home Page Tuesday, 31 May 2005 X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text (contact: Uwe Bergmann, bergmann@slac.stanford.edu) Archimedes Figure Image provided by Will Noel, The Walters Art Museum An early transcription of Archimedes' mathematical theories has been brought to light through the probing of high-intensity x-rays at SSRL's BL6-2. The text contains part of the Method of Mechanical Theorems, one of Archimedes' most important works, which was probably copied out by a scribe in the tenth century. The parchment on which it was written was later scraped down and reused as pages in a twelfth century prayer book, producing a document known as a palimpsest (which comes from the Greek,

440

Element 104 identified by characteristic x rays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A research team at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has recently announced that they have conclusively identified the 257 isotope of element 104. This new work shows promise of shedding light on the controversy between Albert Ghiorso and Georgi N. Flerov the leaders respectively of the groups at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Dubna. The isotope 104 X 257 decays by alpha emission to 102 No 253 with a half?life of 4.3 seconds. The Oak Ridge group observed the K?series x rays from nobelium in coincidence with the alpha particles from 104 X 257 ; the observation of x?ray spectra has never been reported previously by the Berkeley or Dubna workers according to Curtis E. Bemis Jr spokesman for the group.

Ronald J. Cohn

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Thickness measurement of aluminum, titanium, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films by x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has received a great deal of attention in the last few years as a quantitative means of determining both the stoichiometry and thickness of many different kinds of films. Examples include Ag and Cu films on mica substrates, Sn-Pb alloys on steel substrates, Al-Ti multilayers on Cu substrates and oxide films on silicon substrates. In XRF the sample is irradiated with x-rays which in turn cause x-rays to be given off by the sample. These x-rays that are given off by the sample can then be analyzed both for energy and intensity. The energy of the x-rays is characteristic of the elemental makeup of the sample and the intensity of the x-rays is dependent on how much of the particular element is present. The intensity then can be related to the thickness of a film if the stoichiometry of the film can be assumed constant. With the increased interest in silicides and more recently, the self-aligned silicide (salicide) process (8-10) for VLSI applications, in-line process monitoring of silicide film thickness has become important to integrated circuit manufacturing. In this study, the number of x-ray photons given of by Al, Ti, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films on silicon-based substrates was quantified so that a film thickness for an unknown sample could then be determined easily. In addition, XRF is a more accurate technique, limited principally by the accuracy technique, limited principally by the accuracy of the reference used and the amount of time the x-ray photons are counted.

Ernst, S.; Lee, C.O.; Lee, J.J. (Motorola, Inc., Advanced Products Research and Development Lab., Austin, TX (US))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Production of hard x rays in a plasma focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model of the plasma focus is considered in which large axial electric fields are induced by the imploding current sheet during the final few nanoseconds of the collapse phase. This field provides a mechanism for creation of a beam of electrons of highly suprathermal energies. For such a beam having a power?law energy spectrum the bremsstrahlung radiation above 100 keV to be expected from it both from electron?deuteron collisions in the focused plasma itself and when the beam reaches the walls of the device is calculated. The expected radiation from the walls is found to be several orders of magnitude higher than that from the plasma. Thus since experimental evidence indicates that little or no radiation above 100 keV originates in the walls the conclusion is drawn that the electrons in the beam must be decelerated after leaving the plasma and before reaching the walls. Upon comparison with experimental results qualitative agreement of the expected angular distribution of hard x rays with experiment is found. The total energy in accelerated electrons required to produce the observed total energy in hard x rays by this mechanism is also reasonable when compared with the total energy of the device.

C. E. Newman; Vah Petrosian

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Sample holder for X-ray diffractometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sample holder for use with X-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

Hesch, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

Seely, John F. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob [International Radiation Detectors, Inc., Torrance, CA 90505-5243 (United States); Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

445

Installation of soft X-ray array diagnostics and its application to tomography reconstruction using synthetic KSTAR X-ray images  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four-array system of soft X-ray diagnostics was installed on KSTAR tokamak. Each array has 32 viewing chords of two photo-diode array detectors with spatial resolution of 2 cm. To estimate signals from the soft X-ray radiation power, typical n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and argon impurity line radiation profiles in KSTAR are chosen. The photo-diodes were absolutely calibrated as a function of the incident photon energy in 240 keV range with a portable X-ray tube. Two-dimensional T{sub e} image properties by multi-energy method were simulated and visualized with six combinations of beryllium filter sets within the dynamic range of signal ratio.

Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Juhyeok; Hong, Joohwan; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Impurity and Edge Research Center, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati 00044 (Italy); Kim, Junghee [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Major of Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Science Department, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

X-ray holography at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The x-ray holography program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has two principal goals: (1) the development of x-ray diffraction techniques for DNA sequence analysis and (2) the development of x-ray laser holography for structural analysis of intact biological cells and organelles. DNA sequence analysis will be accomplished by applying x-ray diffraction techniques to determine the ensemble average of the sequence of labels along the individual elements of crystalline DNA. X-ray laser holographic imaging will be accomplished by applying three dimensional x-ray holography to elucidate the structure of few hundred angstrom objects such as 300 {Angstrom} chromatin fibers, nuclear pores and nucleic acid replication complexes in living cells. Existing laboratory x-ray lasers will be utilized to produce flash x-ray holograms of the biological structures.

Trebes, J.; Annese, C.; Birdsall, D.; Brase, J.; Gray, J.; Lane, S.; London, R.; Matthews, D.; Peters, D.; Pinkel, D.; Stone, G.; Rapp, D.; Rosen, M.; Weier, U.; Yorkey, T.

1990-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

447

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

448

X-ray diffraction study of zirconia pillared clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray radial electronic distribution density (RED) of initial and zirconia-pillared interlayered clays (Zr-PILC) were studied. After pillaring, the basal ... under air to 17.7 ...

D.A. Zyuzin; E.M. Moroz; T.G. Kuznetsova

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Development of a Schwarzschild-type x-ray microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Schwarzschild-type x-ray microscope has been designed, constructed, and tested. Ni/C multilayers were used as the x-ray mirrors, with a thickness (2d) of 7 nm and 30 layer pairs. The...

Kado, M; Yamashita, K; Ohtani, M; Tanaka, K A; Kodama, R; Kitamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Nakai, S

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

451

A Record Run for the APS X-ray Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed A Record Run for the APS X-ray Source FEBRUARY 23, 2012 Bookmark and Share The APS storage ring. X-ray beams and...

452

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscop...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Refinement Friday, September 28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray...

453

The X-ray Telescope of CAST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

M. Kuster; H. Bruninger; S. Cbrian; M. Davenport; C. Elefteriadis; J. Englhauser; H. Fischer; J. Franz; P. Friedrich; R. Hartmann; F. H. Heinsius; D. H. H. Hoffmann; G. Hoffmeister; J. N. Joux; D. Kang; K. Knigsmann; R. Kotthaus; T. Papaevangelou; C. Lasseur; A. Lippitsch; G. Lutz; J. Morales; A. Rodrguez; L. Strder; J. Vogel; K. Zioutas

2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

454

Applications of holography to x-ray imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we consider various applications of holographic techniques to the problem of soft x-ray imaging. We give special attention to imaging biological material using x-rays in the wavelength range 24 to 45A. We describe some experiments on formation and reconstruction of x-ray holograms and propose some ways in which holographic techniques might contribute to the difficult problem of fabricating optical elements for use in the soft x-ray region.

Howells, M.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Rarback, H.; Rosser, R.; Yun, W.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Applications of holography to X-ray imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the authors consider various applications of holographic techniques to the problem of soft x-ray imaging. Special attention is given to imaging biological material using x-rays in the wavelength range 24-45A. The authors describe some experiments on formation and reconstruction of x-ray holograms and propose some ways in which holographic techniques might contribute to the difficult problem of fabricating optical elements for use in the soft x-ray region.

Howells, M.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Rarback, H.; Rosser, R.; Yun, W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

X-ray MicroCT Training Presentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray MicroCT Training Presentation T. Fettah Kosar, PhD Center for Nanoscale Systems Harvard) Model: HMXST225 (max. 225 kV) #12;Overview 3 Introduction to X-ray imaging and Computed Tomography (CT) · What are X-rays and how do we generate and image them? · How do we magnify X-ray images and keep them

457

Growing Cutting-edge X-ray Optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ever imagined that an Xbox controller could help open a window into a world spanning just one billionth of a meter? Brookhaven Lab's Ray Conley grows cutting-edge optics called multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) one atomic layer at a time to focus high-energy x-rays to within a single nanometer. To achieve this focusing feat, Ray uses a massive, custom-built atomic deposition device, an array of computers, and a trusty Xbox controller. These lenses will be deployed at the Lab's National Synchrotron Light Source II, due to begin shining super-bright light on pressing scientific puzzles in 2015

Ray Conley

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

458

Improvement of YOHKOH Hard X-Ray Imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Figure la shows the X-ray penetration rate through a single, 0.5 mm...index Fig. 1. (a) X-ray penetration rate through a single tung- sten...the K-escape. (b) X-ray penetration rates averaged over the HXT M2 and......

Jun Sato; Takeo Kosugi; Kazuo Makishima

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Laboratory Learning Experiences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.A. & Svergun D.I. (1987). Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering. NY: Plenum PressSmall Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Laboratory Learning Experiences o - Use of small angle X-ray scattering instrumentation o - Programs that you will use SAXS (BRUKER AXS) PRIMUS (Konarev, Volkov, Koch

Meagher, Mary

460

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory Department of Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University College Station, Texas Phone : 979-845-9125 www.chem.tamu.edu/xray xray@tamu.edu X-rayDiffractionLaboratory DepartmentofChemistry 3255TAMU CollegeStation,TX77843-3255 Mission The purpose of our laboratory is to provide X-ray

Meagher, Mary

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unlimited x-ray energy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

X-ray Diffraction Practicals 1 Graphics Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Practicals 1 Graphics Programs that will read SHELX or CIF files J. Reibenspies, N. Bhuvanesh ver 1.0.0 #12;X-ray Diffraction Practicals 2 Free software. Gretep : Reads SHELX files shelx files or output thermal ellipsoid plots. http://www.umass.edu/microbio/rasmol/ #12;X-ray

Meagher, Mary

462

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore University, Oct. 13, 2005 astro.swarthmore.edu/~cohen/ #12;Outline 1. What you need to know: a. X-rays from the Sun - magnetic activity, x-ray spectra b. Hot stars c. Radiation-driven winds and the Doppler shift d

Cohen, David

463

INTEGRAL discovery of unusually long broad-band X-ray activity from the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J18483-0311  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a broad-band X-ray study (0.5-250 keV) of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J18483-0311 using archival INTEGRAL data and a new targeted XMM-Newton observation. Our INTEGRAL investigation discovered for the first time an unusually long X-ray activity (3-60 keV) which continuously lasted for at least 11 days, i.e. a significant fraction (about 60%) of the entire orbital period, and spanned orbital phases corresponding to both periastron and apastron passages. This prolongated X-ray activity is at odds with the much shorter durations marking outbursts from classical SFXTs especially above 20 keV, as such it represents a departure from their nominal behavior and it adds a further extreme characteristic to the already extreme SFXT IGR J18483-0311. Our IBIS/ISGRI high energy investigation (100-250 keV) of archival outbursts activity from the source showed that the recently reported hint of a possible hard X-ray tail is not real and it is likely due to noisy background. The new XMM-Newton targeted...

Sguera, V; Bird, A J; Bazzano, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Giant H II Regions in M101. I. X-ray Analysis of Hot Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We performed a Chandra X-ray study of three giant H II regions (GHRs), NGC 5461, NGC 5462, and NGC 5471, in the spiral galaxy M101. The X-ray spectra of the three GHRs all contain a prominent thermal component with a temperature of ~0.2 keV. In NGC 5461, the spatial distribution of the soft (< 1.5 keV) X-ray emission is generally in agreement with the extent of H1105, the most luminous H II region therein, but extends beyond its southern boundary, which could be attributed to outflows from the star cloud between H1105 and H1098. In NGC 5462, the X-ray emission is displaced from the H II regions and a ridge of blue stars; the H-alpha filaments extending from the ridge of star cloud to the diffuse X-rays suggest that hot gas outflows have occurred. The X-rays from NGC 5471 are concentrated at the B-knot, a "hypernova remnant" candidate. Assuming a Sedov-Taylor evolution, the derived explosion energy, on the order of 10^52 ergs, is consistent with a hypernova origin. In addition, a bright source in the field ...

Sun, Wei; Feng, Li; Chu, You-Hua; Chen, C -H Rosie; Wang, Q Daniel; Li, Jiang-Tao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE Be/X-RAY BINARY MXB 0656-072  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present and analyze the optical photometric and spectroscopic data of the Be/X-ray binary MXB 0656-072 from 2006 to 2009. A 101.2 day orbital period is found, for the first time, from the present public X-ray data (Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM). The anti-correlation between the H{alpha} emission and the UBV brightness of MXB 0656-072 during our 2007 observations indicates that a mass ejection event took place in the system. After the mass ejection, a low-density region might develop around the Oe star. With the outward motion of the circumstellar disk, the outer part of the disk interacted with the neutron star around its periastron passage and a series of X-ray outbursts were triggered between MJD 54350 and MJD 54850. The Proportional Counter Array-HEXTE spectra during the 2007-2008 X-ray outbursts could be well fitted by a cutoff power law with low-energy absorption, together with an iron line around 6.4 keV, and a broad cyclotron resonance feature around 30 keV. The same variability of the soft and hard X-ray colors in 2.3-21 keV indicated that there were no overall changes in the spectral shape during the X-ray outbursts, which might only be connected with the changes of the mass accretion rate onto the neutron star.

Yan Jingzhi; Li Hui; Liu Qingzhong [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zurita Heras, Juan Antonio; Chaty, Sylvain, E-mail: jzyan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: hli@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: qzliu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: juan-antonio.zurita-heras@cea.fr, E-mail: sylvain.chaty@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, FR-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch implosion experiments at the Z machine with high accuracy. The Z machine is capable of outputting 2 MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics improvements to existing diagnostics and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments on the Z machine were conducted in which the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series it was observed that the total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power a Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the total power and energy diagnostic gave 449 TW and 323 TW respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring x-ray powers from z-pinch sources.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

An UHV apparatus for X-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity in the hard X-ray range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the development of a novel UHV compact reflectometer designed and developed for the investigation of magnetic properties of thin films at the ID12-E.S.R.F. beamline. This new instrument is dedicated to x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity experiment from thin film or multilayered sample. We present the principles of this versatile and simple instrument. We report also the results of resonant magnetic reflectivity experiments carried out for the Fe/Ir multilayers. This will demonstrate the capability to record either angle or energy dependent measurements at the L edges of Ir simultaneously to the XMCD spectra.

Jaouen, N.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Goulon, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Tonnerre, J.M. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

468

The ASTRO-H X-ray Astronomy Satellite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), with a planned launch in 2015. The ASTRO-H mission is equipped with a suite of sensitive instruments with the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 3 keV and a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with the high spectral resolution of Delta E < 7 eV of the micro-calorimeter, will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in scientific areas as diverse as the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behavior of matter in the gravitational strong field regime, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts.

Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kelley, Richard; Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Asai, Makoto; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Azzarello, Philipp; Baluta, Chris; Bamba, Aya; Bando, Nobutaka; Bautz, Marshall; Bialas, Thomas; Blandford, Roger; Boyce, Kevin; Brenneman, Laura; Brown, Greg; Cackett, Edward; Canavan, Edgar; Chernyakova, Maria; Chiao, Meng; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; de Plaa, Jelle; Herder, Jan-Willem den; DiPirro, Michael; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Doty, John; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi; Gandhi, Poshak; Gilmore, Kirk; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haas, Daniel; Haba, Yoshito; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Harayama, Atsushi; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishimura, Kosei; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ito, Masayuki; Iwata, Naoko; Iyomoto, Naoko; Jewell, Chris; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Taro; Kawasaki, Shigeo; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kimball, Mark; Kimura, Masashi; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Konami, Saori; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Koujelev, Alex; Koyama, Katsuji; Krimm, Hans; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; LaMassa, Stephanie; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Franccois; Leutenegger, Maurice; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox; Lumb, David; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Masters, Candace; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; Mcguinness, Daniel; McNamara, Brian; Miko, Joseph; Miller, Jon; Miller, Eric; Mineshige, Shin; Minesugi, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Koji; Mori, Hideyuki; Moroso, Franco; Muench, Theodore; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshio; Mushotzky, Richard; Nagano, Housei; Nagino, Ryo; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakashima, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu; Natsukari, Chikara; Nishioka, Yusuke; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Nomachi, Masaharu; Dell, Steve O'; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Mina; Ogi, Keiji; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Okajima, Takashi; Okamoto, Atsushi; Okazaki, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, St'ephane; Parmar, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pinto, Ciro; Pohl, Martin; Pontius, James; Porter, F Scott; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ramsey, Brian; Reis, Rubens; Reynolds, Christopher; Ricci, Claudio; Russell, Helen; Safi-Harb, Samar; Saito, Shinya; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Sato, Goro; Sato, Yoichi; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Rie; Sawada, Makoto; Serlemitsos, Peter; Seta, Hiromi; Shibano, Yasuko; Shida, Maki; Shimada, Takanobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter; Simionescu, Aurora; Simmons, Cynthia; Smith, Randall; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Takeda, Shin-ichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Y