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Sample records for units combustion system

  1. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  2. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  3. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  4. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  5. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  6. Tire gassification and combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nance, D.; Towne, G.A.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a system for disposing of a material such as vehicle tires and similar substantially organic matter and generating useful heat therefrom. It comprises gasification means for holding an amount of the material to be disposed while the material is allowed to partially combust and for containing combustible gas produced thereby, the gasification means comprising a substantially air tight gasification chamber having at least one access way for inserting the material therein; inlet means for receiving a controlled amount of oxygen containing gas into the gasification means, the inlet means comprising a tuyere disposed in the air tight gasification chamber and a blower connected to the tuyere; removal means for removing the combustible gas from the gasification means, the removal means comprising a gas outlet located above the tuyere in the gasification chamber such that substantially amounts of the combustible gases produced by the partially combusted material exits through the gas outlet; primary combustion means for receiving and mixing the combustible gas removed from the gasification means with an oxygen containing gas and burning the combustible gas; and means for directing the combustion products to a heat utilizing device.

  7. Biomass Combustion Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Combustion Systems Inc Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBiomassCombustionSystemsInc&oldid768602" Feedback Contact needs updating Image...

  8. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  9. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lacon, IL)

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  10. Repowering with pressurized fluidized-bed combustion units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goidich, S.J. ); Rubow, L.N. ); Kumar, S. . Environmental Services and Technologies Div.); Mukherjee, D. ); Childress, N.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Turbocharged pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plants operating with a gas turbine inlet temperature lower than 800{degrees}F can produce electricity more efficiently (34.2 vs. 33.5% net plant efficiency) and at a lower cost of electricity (87.8 vs. 96. 6 mill/kWh over 30 years) than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. Since the PFBC process produces lower NO{sub x} emissions than conventional pulverized-coal combustion systems and captures sulfur as part of the combustion process, and since major equipment components can be shop-assembled and shipped by barge, retrofit of an existing unit with a turbocharged PFBC boiler can be a cost-effective means for extending the life of the unit and meeting NSPS without retrofitting flue gas desulfurization systems. Using the Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Port Washington Unit 5 as an example, preliminary engineering and economic evaluations were made to investigate the merits of turbocharged PFBC retrofits. This report describes the conceptual designs of the new, major plant components; discusses how the new components are integrated with the existing balance-of-plant equipment; describes the proposed plant control system; and presents an overall economic evaluation. Because design and economic evaluations were prepared on the basis of a commercial design, first-of-a-kind costs and test programs are not included. 5 refs., 58 figs., 55 tabs.

  11. Low NO{sub x} combustion system with DSVS{trademark} rotating classifier retrofit for a 630 MW{sub e} cell burner unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryk, S.A.; Maringo, G.J.; Shah, A.I.; Madden, V.F.

    1996-12-31

    New England Power Company`s (NEP) 630 MW{sub e} Brayton Point Unit 3 is a universal pressure (UP) type supercritical boiler originally equipped with pulverized coal (PC) fired cell burners. In order to comply with the Phase 1 NO{sub x} emissions requirements under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the unit has been retrofitted with a low NO{sub x} staged combustion system during the spring 1995 outage. The unit was restarted in early May 1995 and was operating under the State Compliance emission levels by the end of the month. Additional optimization testing was performed in August, 1995. The retrofit scope consisted of replacing the cell burners with low NO{sub x} DRB-XCL{reg_sign} type PC/oil burners and overfire air ports within the existing open windbox, with no change in the firing pattern. A 70% NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels was achieved while maintaining acceptable unburned carbon (UBC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels. To maintain low UBC levels, the scope included modifying the MPS-89 pulverizers by replacing the existing stationary classifiers with the B and W DSVS{trademark} (Dynamically Staged Variable Speed) two stage rotating classifiers. The DSVS{trademark} classifiers provide higher fineness for UBC control without derating the mill capacity. This paper will describe the project and discuss the retrofit emissions data. The paper will conclude with recommendations for retrofitting other similarly designed units.

  12. Combustion pinhole camera system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Witte, Arvel B. (Rolling Hills, CA)

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  13. Combustion pinhole camera system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Witte, A.B.

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor. 2 figs.

  14. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_gustafson.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Heavy-Duty HCCI Development

  15. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (ACCESS) for High Efficiency Light Duty Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for ...

  16. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  17. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  18. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  19. Method and system for controlled combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

  20. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - ...

  1. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  2. Control system for supercharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A control system for controlling an internal combustion engine is described having a supercharge including a rotatable shaft and an exhaust turbine driven by exhaust gas. The control system comprising: a rotary electric machine mounted on the rotatable shaft of the supercharger for imposing a load on the exhaust turbine of the supercharger; setting means for setting an engine brake mode of the internal combustion engine; and operating means for operating the rotary electric machine when the engine brake mode is set by the setting means.

  3. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  4. Advanced Combustion Systems Projects Selected for Funding | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Advanced Combustion Systems Projects Selected for Funding Advanced Combustion Systems Projects Selected for Funding June 8, 2015 - 9:06am Addthis The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected ten projects to receive funding through NETL's Advanced Combustion Systems Program. The program focuses on lowering costs and improving performance of combustion systems that generate electricity with near-zero emissions, including CO2. Central to the

  5. Combustion pinhole-camera system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Witte, A.B.

    1982-05-19

    A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  6. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  7. Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Srinivasan, Shiva (Greer, SC); Lynch, John Joseph (Wilmington, NC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Kim, Kwanwoo (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Crothers, Sarah (Greenville, SC); Singh, Kapil Kumar (Rexford, NY)

    2009-08-25

    Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction are provided. A combustion chamber may include a first premixer and a second premixer. Each premixer may include at least one fuel injector, at least one air inlet duct, and at least one vane pack for at least partially mixing the air from the air inlet duct or ducts and fuel from the fuel injector or injectors. Each vane pack may include a plurality of fuel orifices through which at least a portion of the fuel and at least a portion of the air may pass. The vane pack or packs of the first premixer may be positioned at a first axial position and the vane pack or packs of the second premixer may be positioned at a second axial position axially staggered with respect to the first axial position.

  8. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet, 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Fact Sheet, 2011 Frito-LayPepsiCo, in cooperation with the Energy Solutions Center, is demonstrating...

  9. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combustion Turbine CHP System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry Reducing Industry's Environmental Footprint and Easing Transmission Congestion Based at a...

  10. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2011-07-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  11. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winsor, Richard Edward (Waterloo, IA); Chase, Scott Allen (Cedar Falls, IA)

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  12. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  13. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  14. Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Products & Technologies » Technology Deployment » Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System Technical staff are making boiler adjustments with the control and monitoring system. Photo courtesy of the Department of Defense’s Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. Technical staff are making boiler adjustments with the control and monitoring system. Photo courtesy of the Department of Defense's Environmental Security

  15. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-03-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore, they performed a sensitivity analysis for velocity, height and polydispersity and compared results against literature data for experimental studies of CLC beds with no reaction. Finally, they present an optimization space using simple non-reactive configurations. In Subtask 5.3, through a series of experimental studies, behavior of a variety of oxygen carriers with different loadings and manufacturing techniques was evaluated under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The influences of temperature, degree of carrier conversion and thermodynamic driving force resulting from the difference between equilibrium and system O{sub 2} partial pressures were evaluated through several experimental campaigns, and generalized models accounting for these influences were developed to describe oxidation and oxygen release. Conversion of three solid fuels with widely ranging reactivities was studied in a small fluidized bed system, and all but the least reactive fuel (petcoke) were rapidly converted by oxygen liberated from the CLOU carrier. Attrition propensity of a variety of carriers was also studied, and the carriers produced by freeze granulation or impregnation of preformed substrates displayed the lowest rates of attrition. Subtask 5.4 focused on gathering kinetic data for a copper-based oxygen carrier to assist with modeling of a functioning chemical looping reactor. The kinetics team was also responsible for the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material.

  16. Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_sisken.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Engine Technologies Session Introduction Demonstrating and Validating a Next Generation Model-Based Controller for

  17. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Light Duty Vehicles | Department of Energy Discusses development highly capable and flexible advanced control concepts and enabling system to manage multi-mode/multi-fuel combustion events and achieve an up to 30 percent fuel economy improvement PDF icon deer11_yilmaz.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency Light Duty Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced

  18. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 GE Global Research developed and tested new fuel-flexible gas turbine nozzle technology concepts that will enable end users to efficiently generate power and heat from industrial off-gases and gasified industrial,

  19. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  20. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ? A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ? Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ? Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ? Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal.

  1. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2015-09-01

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface. A divider inside a tube bundle defines a diluent passage that extends axially through the downstream surface, and a diluent supply in fluid communication with the divider provides diluent flow to the diluent passage. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing a fuel through tube bundles, flowing a diluent through a diluent passage inside a tube bundle, wherein the diluent passage extends axially through at least a portion of the end cap into a combustion chamber, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between the tube bundle and at least one other adjacent tube bundle.

  2. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2013-08-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend through the end cap. A diluent supply in fluid communication with the end cap provides diluent flow to the end cap. Diluent distributors circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle extend downstream from the downstream surface and provide fluid communication for the diluent flow through the end cap. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing fuel through tube bundles that extend axially through an end cap, flowing a diluent through diluent distributors into a combustion chamber, wherein the diluent distributors are circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle and each diluent distributor extends downstream from the end cap, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between at least one pair of adjacent tube bundles.

  3. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  4. Sealed Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet discusses the benefits of sealed combustion appliance units in order to ensure good indoor air quality.

  5. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 | Department of Energy Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Presentation on Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry, given by Kevin Chilcoat of Frito-Lay North America, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011. PDF icon chp_food_chilcoat.pdf

  6. Evaluation of industrial combustion control systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presser, C.; Semerjian, H.G.

    1984-10-01

    This study evaluated O/sub 2/ and CO monitoring systems used for combustion controls to provide reliable data on their performance, operating range and accuracy. The study concentrated on three in-situ O/sub 2/ and two in-situ CO monitoring systems which are applicable to furnace and boiler controls. The project provides technical information for cost/benefit analysis of combustion control systems and to help expedite implementation of combustion control technology by industry. The evaluation of the stack gas monitoring systems was carried out for ranges of furnace operating parameters such as fuel to air mixture ratio, burner firing rate, heat extraction rate, fuel type, combustion air preheat temperature, and cyclic operating conditions, which are based on information gathered from typical operational practices of representative industrial furnaces and boilers. The experiments were performed in the NBS experimental furnace under both natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil fired conditions. An on-line gas sampling/analysis system was used as a reference system for comparative evaluation of the stack gas monitors. The system is set up to determine the level of CO, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, NO/NO/sub x/ and total hydrocarbons in the stack gases.

  7. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  8. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  9. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  10. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  11. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters- Fact Sheet 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet summarizing a project to develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel handling and combustion system

  12. Overview of Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines Overview of Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines The SCS system has undergone computational and experimental verification and allows for controlled auto-ignition of low-cetane fuels. PDF icon deer08_pouring.pdf More Documents & Publications Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Clean Technology for Diesel Expansion High-Load Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Eng

  13. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Fact Sheet,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 | Department of Energy Fact Sheet, 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Fact Sheet, 2011 Frito-Lay/PepsiCo, in cooperation with the Energy Solutions Center, is demonstrating and evaluating a CHP plant at a large food processing facility in Connecticut. CHP generation is reducing the energy costs and environmental impact of the facility while easing congestion on the constrained Northeast power grid. The fact sheet contains performance data from the plant

  14. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

  15. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Halow, John S. (Waynesburg, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste.

  16. Advanced Combustion FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen production technology, an air separation unit operating a cryogenic distillation process. For further information, see: - Oxy-Combustion - Advanced Combustion...

  17. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 | Department of Energy Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 The goal of this research effort was to develop and demonstrate a combustion system capable of automatic, safe, reliable, efficient, and low-emission operation across a broad range of fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery

  18. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  19. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  20. Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-12-15

    An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

  1. Chapter 8: Advancing Clean Transportation and Vehicle Systems and Technologies | Internal Combustion Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engines Chapter 8: Technology Assessments Introduction to the Technology/System Overview of Internal Combustion Engines and Potential Role Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) already offer outstanding drivability and reliability to over 240 million on-road passenger vehicles in the U.S. Over 16 million ICE-powered new passenger and commercial vehicles are sold annually, some replacing older vehicles and the remainder adding to the vehicle population. Currently, on-road

  2. Low emission U-fired boiler combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ake, Terence (North Brookfield, MA); Beittel, Roderick (Worcester, MA); Lisauskas, Robert A. (Shrewsbury, MA); Reicker, Eric (Barre, MA)

    2000-01-01

    At least one main combustion chamber contains at least one pulverized coal burner. Each pulverized coal burner is operatively arranged for minimizing NO.sub.X production and for maintaining a predetermined operating temperature to liquefy ash within the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber includes a slag drain for removing slag from the combustion chamber. A slag screen is positioned in a generally U-shaped furnace flow pattern. The slag screen is positioned between the combustion chamber and a radiant furnace. The radiant furnace includes a reburning zone for in-furnace No.sub.X reduction. The reburning zone extends between a reburning fuel injection source and at least one overfire air injection port for injecting air.

  3. Japanese RDF-fired power generation system and fundamental research on RDF combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narukawa, Kimihito; Goto, Hidenori; Chen, Y.; Yamazaki, Ryouhei; Moi, Shiegkatsu; Fujima, Yukihisa; Hirama, Toshimasa; Hosoda, Hideo

    1997-12-31

    Power generation from refuse derived fuel (RDF) is one of the new technologies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This technology is strongly attracting the attention of the Japanese government. The results of a feasibility study of this system in Japan is presented. To develop this highly efficient RDF-fired CFB generating process, combustibility and dechlorination characteristics of RDF were investigated by both the thermo-balance technique and combustion tests with an electric furnace. RDF combustion tests by a bench scale CFBC were carried out and then the following experimental results were obtained: (1) RDF can be combusted almost completely even in small scale CFBC; (2) HCl and N{sub 2}O emissions are quite low at any conditions; and (3) NO{sub x} emissions are a little higher in single stage combustion, however they are reduced at 50% air bias ratio. Some of the results can be explained by a RDF combustion model.

  4. United Solar Systems Corp USSC aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Corp USSC aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Solar Systems Corp (USSC) (aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems LLC) Place: Middletown...

  5. System and method for optical monitoring of a combustion flame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Dale M; Sandvik, Peter M; Fedison, Jeffrey B; Matocha, Kevin S; Johnson, Thomas E

    2006-09-26

    An optical spectrometer for combustion flame temperature determination includes at least two photodetectors positioned for receiving light from a combustion flame, each of the at least two photodetectors having a different, overlapping bandwidth for detecting a respective output signal in an ultraviolet emission band; and a computer for subtracting a respective output signal of a first one of the at least two photodetectors from a respective output signal of a second one of the at least two photodetectors to obtain a segment signal, and using the segment signal to determine the combustion flame temperature.

  6. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40 mils for all of Solar's advanced backside-cooled combustor liners (Centaur 50, Taurus 60, Mars 100, Taurus 70,

  7. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  8. Advanced Combustion Systems Project Information | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Oxy-combustion Agreement Number Project Title Performer FE0009448 Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor Development and Scale-up for New and Retrofit Coal-fired Power Plants Aerojet Rocketdyne FE0009702 Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-combustion Technology: Development and Scale-up Washington University in St. Louis FE0025160 Enabling Technologies for Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor Development Aerojet Rocketdyne FE0025168 Characterizing Impacts of High Temperatures

  9. Emission control system and method for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, L.

    1980-06-03

    Fresh air is introduced into the exhaust pipe leading to the muffler for an internal combustion engine, while the air and exhaust gas mixture is cooled, not only in the muffler but also in a circuitous tube which extends from the muffler to the normal discharge or tail pipe and in which a special cooler may be installed. From the outlet of the special cooling tube, which faces forwardly, a portion of the air and exhaust gas mixture, now cooled, is led from a Y-connection to the intake tube of the air filter, so that the air and exhaust gas mixture will be introduced into the intake system prior to the carburetor. A rearwardly slanting arm of the Y-connection connects the front end of the special cooling pipe with the normal tail pipe. The carburetor has one or more air bleed tubes leading into the mixture passage at or below the butterfly valves, so that at idling speeds, a small amount of fresh air is introduced, irrespective of the position of the butterfly valves, to overcome any tendency for the engine, when idling, to cough or sputter due to the introduction of an air and exhaust gas mixture to the air filter intake.

  10. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  11. Ultrafast Structural Dynamics in Combustion Relevant Model Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Peter M.

    2014-03-31

    The research project explored the time resolved structural dynamics of important model reaction system using an array of novel methods that were developed specifically for this purpose. They include time resolved electron diffraction, time resolved relativistic electron diffraction, and time resolved Rydberg fingerprint spectroscopy. Toward the end of the funding period, we also developed time-resolved x-ray diffraction, which uses ultrafast x-ray pulses at LCLS. Those experiments are just now blossoming, as the funding period expired. In the following, the time resolved Rydberg Fingerprint Spectroscopy is discussed in some detail, as it has been a very productive method. The binding energy of an electron in a Rydberg state, that is, the energy difference between the Rydberg level and the ground state of the molecular ion, has been found to be a uniquely powerful tool to characterize the molecular structure. To rationalize the structure sensitivity we invoke a picture from electron diffraction: when it passes the molecular ion core, the Rydberg electron experiences a phase shift compared to an electron in a hydrogen atom. This phase shift requires an adjustment of the binding energy of the electron, which is measurable. As in electron diffraction, the phase shift depends on the molecular, geometrical structure, so that a measurement of the electron binding energy can be interpreted as a measurement of the molecules structure. Building on this insight, we have developed a structurally sensitive spectroscopy: the molecule is first elevated to the Rydberg state, and the binding energy is then measured using photoelectron spectroscopy. The molecules structure is read out as the binding energy spectrum. Since the photoionization can be done with ultrafast laser pulses, the technique is inherently capable of a time resolution in the femtosecond regime. For the purpose of identifying the structures of molecules during chemical reactions, and for the analysis of molecular species in the hot environments of combustion processes, there are several features that make the Rydberg ionization spectroscopy uniquely useful. First, the Rydberg electrons orbit is quite large and covers the entire molecule for most molecular structures of combustion interest. Secondly, the ionization does not change vibrational quantum numbers, so that even complicated and large molecules can be observed with fairly well resolved spectra. In fact, the spectroscopy is blind to vibrational excitation of the molecule. This has the interesting consequence for the study of chemical dynamics, where the molecules are invariably very energetic, that the molecular structures are observed unobstructed by the vibrational congestion that dominates other spectroscopies. This implies also that, as a tool to probe the time-dependent structural dynamics of chemically interesting molecules, Rydberg spectroscopy may well be better suited than electron or x-ray diffraction. With recent progress in calculating Rydberg binding energy spectra, we are approaching the point where the method can be evolved into a structure determination method. To implement the Rydberg ionization spectroscopy we use a molecular beam based, time-resolved pump-probe multi-photon ionization/photoelectron scheme in which a first laser pulse excites the molecule to a Rydberg state, and a probe pulse ionizes the molecule. A time-of-flight detector measures the kinetic energy spectrum of the photoelectrons. The photoelectron spectrum directly provides the binding energy of the electron, and thereby reveals the molecules time-dependent structural fingerprint. Only the duration of the laser pulses limits the time resolution. With a new laser system, we have now reached time resolutions better than 100 fs, although very deep UV wavelengths (down to 190 nm) have slightly longer instrument functions. The structural dynamics of molecules in Rydberg-excited states is obtained by delaying the probe ionization photon from the pump photon; the structural dynamics of molecules in their ground state or e

  12. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford Smith

    2003-09-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 12th quarterly report. In this quarter, continued validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-SimVal combustor. Also, beta testing by six consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. A list of suggested code improvements by the beta testers was itemized. Work will continue in FY04. A conditional modification to the contract will be granted. The additional work will focus on modeling/analyzing the SimVal experiments.

  13. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  14. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  15. Device to lower NOx in a gas turbine engine combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laster, Walter R; Schilp, Reinhard; Wiebe, David J

    2015-02-24

    An emissions control system for a gas turbine engine including a flow-directing structure (24) that delivers combustion gases (22) from a burner (32) to a turbine. The emissions control system includes: a conduit (48) configured to establish fluid communication between compressed air (22) and the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24). The compressed air (22) is disposed at a location upstream of a combustor head-end and exhibits an intermediate static pressure less than a static pressure of the combustion gases within the combustor (14). During operation of the gas turbine engine a pressure difference between the intermediate static pressure and a static pressure of the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24) is effective to generate a fluid flow through the conduit (48).

  16. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  17. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford E. Smith; Steven M. Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; David L. Black; Karl V. Meredith

    2005-01-01

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool was developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. Vision 21 combustion systems, such as combustors for gas turbines, combustors for indirect fired cycles, furnaces and sequestrian-ready combustion systems, will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. The simulation tool will greatly reduce the number of experimental tests; this is especially desirable for gas turbine combustor design since the cost of the high pressure testing is extremely costly. In addition, the software will stimulate new ideas, will provide the capability of assessing and adapting low-emission combustors to alternate fuels, and will greatly reduce the development time cycle of combustion systems. The revolutionary combustion simulation software is able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled (e.g. natural gas, low BTU syngas, hydrogen, biogas etc.) turbulent combustion and assess innovative concepts needed for Vision 21 plants. In addition, the software is capable of analyzing liquid-fueled combustion systems since that capability was developed under a concurrent Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The complex physics of the reacting flow field are captured using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods, in which large scale transient motion is resolved by time-accurate numerics, while the small scale motion is modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. In this way, LES combustion simulations can model many physical aspects that, until now, were impossible to predict with 3D steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis, i.e. very low NOx emissions, combustion instability (coupling of unsteady heat and acoustics), lean blowout, flashback, autoignition, etc. LES methods are becoming more and more practical by linking together tens to hundreds of PCs and performing parallel computations with fine grids (millions of cells). Such simulations, performed in a few weeks or less, provide a very cost-effective complement to experimental testing. In 5 years, these same calculations can be performed in 24 hours or less due to the expected increase of computing power and improved numerical techniques. This project was a four-year program. During the first year, the project included the development and implementation of improved chemistry (reduced GRI mechanism), subgrid turbulence (localized dynamic), and subgrid combustion-turbulence interaction (Linear Eddy) models into the CFD-ACE+ code. University expertise (Georgia Tech and University of California, Berkeley) was utilized to help develop and implement these advanced submodels into the unstructured, parallel CFD flow solver, CFD-ACE+. Efficient numerical algorithms that rely on in situ look-up tables or artificial neural networks were implemented for chemistry calculations. In the second year, the combustion LES software was evaluated and validated using experimental data from lab-scale and industrial test configurations. This code testing (i.e., alpha testing) was performed by CFD Research Corporation's engineers. During the third year, six industrial and academic partners used the combustion LES code and exercised it on problems of their choice (i.e., beta testing). Final feedback and optimizations were then implemented into the final release (licensed) version of the combustion LES software to the general public. An additional one-year task was added for the fourth year of this program entitled, ''LES Simulations of SIMVAL Results''. For this task, CFDRC performed LES calculations of selected DoE SIMVAL cases, and compared predictions with measurements from NETL. In addition to comparisons with NOx and CO exit measurements, comparisons were made to measured pressure oscillations. Potential areas of improvement for combustion and turbulence models were identified. In conclusion, this program advanced the state-of-the-art in combustion LES an

  18. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program. Emissions measurements were obtained over a variety of operating conditions. A kinetics model is formulated to describe the emissions performance. The model is a tool for determining the conditions for low emission performance. The flow field was also modeled using CFD. A first prototype was developed for low emission performance on natural gas. The design utilized the tools anchored to the atmospheric prototype performance. The 1/6 scale combustor was designed for low emission performance in GE's FA+e gas turbine. A second prototype was developed to evaluate changes in the design approach. The prototype was developed at a 1/10 scale for low emission performance in GE's FA+e gas turbine. The performance of the first two prototypes gave a strong indication of the best design approach. Review of the emission results led to the development of a 3rd prototype to further reduce the combustor emissions. The original plan to produce a scaled-up prototype was pushed out beyond the scope of the current program. The 3rd prototype was designed at 1/10 scale and targeted further reductions in the full-speed full-load emissions.

  19. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  20. Methods and systems to facilitate reducing NO.sub.x emissions in combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Clifton Park, NY); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Lipinski, John Joseph (Simpsonville, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

    2011-02-15

    A method for assembling a gas turbine combustor system is provided. The method includes providing a combustion liner including a center axis, an outer wall, a first end, and a second end. The outer wall is orientated substantially parallel to the center axis. The method also includes coupling a transition piece to the liner second end. The transition piece includes an outer wall. The method further includes coupling a plurality of lean-direct injectors along at least one of the liner outer wall and the transition piece outer wall such that the injectors are spaced axially apart along the wall.

  1. Burner systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, Brian J. (Marblehead, MA)

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  2. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' in this quarter (September-December of 2003). The main tasks in this quarter consisted of the following four parts. First, all documents for managing this project have been prepared and sent to the Office of Project Management at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Second, plans for the renovation of space for a new combustion laboratory for the CFBC system has progressed smoothly. Third, considerable progress in the design of the CFBC system has been made. Finally, a lab-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility has been set up in order to make some fundamental investigations of the co-firing of coal with waste materials in the next quarter. Proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  3. Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture The purpose of this project was to evaluate the performance of ION's lead solvent and determine if ION's solvent candidate could potentially meet DOE's target of achieving 90% CO{sub 2} Capture from a 550 MWe Pulverized Coal Plant without resulting in an

  4. Progress towards an Optimization Methodology for Combustion-Driven Portable Thermoelectric Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Karri, Naveen K.; Gogna, Pawan K.; Chase, Jordan R.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Hendricks, Terry J.

    2012-03-13

    Enormous military and commercial interests exist in developing quiet, lightweight, and compact thermoelectric (TE) power generation systems. This paper investigates design integration and analysis of an advanced TE power generation system implementing JP-8 fueled combustion and thermal recuperation. Design and development of a portable TE power system using a JP-8 combustor as a high temperature heat source and optimal process flows depend on efficient heat generation, transfer, and recovery within the system are explored. Design optimization of the system required considering the combustion system efficiency and TE conversion efficiency simultaneously. The combustor performance and TE sub-system performance were coupled directly through exhaust temperatures, fuel and air mass flow rates, heat exchanger performance, subsequent hot-side temperatures, and cold-side cooling techniques and temperatures. Systematic investigation of this system relied on accurate thermodynamic modeling of complex, high-temperature combustion processes concomitantly with detailed thermoelectric converter thermal/mechanical modeling. To this end, this work reports on design integration of systemlevel process flow simulations using commercial software CHEMCADTM with in-house thermoelectric converter and module optimization, and heat exchanger analyses using COMSOLTM software. High-performance, high-temperature TE materials and segmented TE element designs are incorporated in coupled design analyses to achieve predicted TE subsystem level conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%. These TE advances are integrated with a high performance microtechnology combustion reactor based on recent advances at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Predictions from this coupled simulation established a basis for optimal selection of fuel and air flow rates, thermoelectric module design and operating conditions, and microtechnology heat-exchanger design criteria. This paper will discuss this simulation process that leads directly to system efficiency power maps defining potentially available optimal system operating conditions and regimes. This coupled simulation approach enables pathways for integrated use of high-performance combustor components, high performance TE devices, and microtechnologies to produce a compact, lightweight, combustion driven TE power system prototype that operates on common fuels.

  5. Address conversion unit for multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fava, T.F.; Lary, R.F.; Blackledge, R.

    1987-03-03

    An address conversion unit is described for use in one processor in a multi-processor data processing system including a common memory, the processors and common memory being interconnected by a common bus including means for transferring address signals defining a common address space. The processor includes private bus means including means for transferring signals including address signals defining a private address space. A processor unit means is connected to the private bus means and includes means for transmitting and receiving signals including address signals over the private bus means for engaging in data transfers thereover. The address conversion unit is connected to the private bus means and common bus means for receiving address signals over the private bus means from the processor unit means in the private address space. The unit comprises: A. pointer storage means for storing a pointer identifying a portion of the common bus memory space; B. pointer generation means connected to receive a common bus address and for generating a pointer in response thereto for storage in the pointer storage means; and C. common bus address generation means connected to the private bus and the pointer storage means for receiving an address from the processor unit means and for generating a common bus address in response thereto. The common bus address is used to initiate transfers between the processor unit means and the common memory over the common bus.

  6. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  7. Sources of CO and UHC Emissions in Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sources of unburned hydrocarbons and CO emissions from a PCI-like, early-injection low-temperature combustion system are examined through a combination of homogeneous reactor modeling employing detailed kinetics, multi-dimensional modeling using a reduced kinetic scheme, engine-out emissions measurements, and in-cylinder imaging of the spatial distributions of UHC and CO.

  8. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO{sub 2} FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run first pilot scale production run with coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the second full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch also conducted modeling work to study the change in alkalinity in the medium resulting form microalgal photosynthesis and growth. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  9. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO{sub 2} FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2004-07-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run first pilot scale production run with coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the second full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch also conducted modeling work to study the change in alkalinity in the medium resulting form microalgal photosynthesis and growth. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  10. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2003-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the first full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch started to model the costs associated with biomass harvest from different microalgal strains. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  11. LASER STABILIZATION FOR NEAR ZERO NO{sub x} GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Khanna

    2002-09-30

    Historically, the development of new industrial gas turbines has been primarily driven by the intent to achieve higher efficiency, lower operating costs and lower emissions. Higher efficiency and lower cost is obtained through higher turbine operating temperatures, while reduction in emissions is obtained by extending the lean operating limit of the combustor. However reduction in the lean stability limit of operation is limited greatly by the chemistry of the combustion process and by the occurrence of thermo-acoustic instabilities. Solar Turbines, CFD Research Corporation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have teamed to advance the technology associated with laser-assisted ignition and flame stabilization, to a level where it could be incorporated onto a gas turbine combustor. The system being developed is expected to enhance the lean stability limit of the swirl stabilized combustion process and assist in reducing combustion oscillations. Such a system has the potential to allow operation at the ultra-lean conditions needed to achieve NO{sub x} emissions below 5 ppm without the need of exhaust treatment or catalytic technologies. The research effort was focused on analytically modeling laser-assisted flame stabilization using advanced CFD techniques, and experimentally demonstrating the technology, using a solid-state laser and low-cost durable optics. A pulsed laser beam was used to generate a plasma pool at strategic locations within the combustor flow field such that the energy from the plasma became an ignition source and helped maintain a flame at ultra lean operating conditions. The periodic plasma generation and decay was used to nullify the fluctuations in the heat release from the flame itself, thus decoupling the heat release from the combustor acoustics and effectively reducing the combustion oscillations. The program was built on an existing technology base and includes: extending LANL's existing laser stabilization experience to a sub-scale combustor rig, performing and validating CFD predictions, and ultimately conducting a full system demonstration in a multi-injector combustion system at Solar Turbines.

  12. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2005-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

  13. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2004-12-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

  14. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2002-01-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this fifth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was further tested in the LES code. The use of multiple trees and periodic tree dumping was investigated. Implementation of the Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid chemistry was finished for serial applications. Validation of the model on a backstep reacting case was performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment were performed for various barrel lengths, equivalence ratio, combustor shapes, and turbulence models. The effects of these variables on combustion instability was studied. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. Next quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting will be held at CFDRC. LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, should be accomplished.

  15. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 demonstration project utilizing Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClung, J.D.; Provol, S.J.; Morehead, H.T.; Dodd, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The City of Lakeland, Florida, Foster Wheeler and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation have embarked on the demonstration of a Clean Coal Technology at the City of Lakeland`s McIntosh Power Station in lakeland, Polk County, Florida. The project will demonstrate the Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (PCFB) technology developed by Foster Wheeler and Westinghouse. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project is a nominal 170 MW power plant designed to burn a range of low- to high-sulfur coals. The combined cycle plant employs a Westinghouse 251B12 gas turbine engine in conjunction with a steam turbine operating in a 2400/1000/1000 steam cycle. The plant will demonstrate both the PCFB and topped PCFB combustion technologies. This paper provides a process description of the Foster Wheeler PCFB and Topped PCFB technologies and their application to the Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project.

  16. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  17. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  18. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  19. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan, Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-07-30

    This report presents the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter April 1--June 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the final specifications for the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the CFB Combustor Building have been delivered to the architect, and invitations for construction bids for the two tasks have been released. Second, the component parts of the CFBC system have been designed after the design work for assembly parts of the CFBC system was completed. Third, the literature pertaining to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) released during the incineration of solid waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) have been reviewed, and an experimental plan for fundamental research of MSW incineration on a simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facility has been prepared. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  20. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-01-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2004 through December 31, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have proceeded well. Second, the detailed design of supporting and hanging structures for the CFBC was completed. Third, the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility was modified after completing a series of pretests. The two problems identified during the pretest were solved. Fourth, the carbonization of chicken waste and coal was investigated in a tube furnace and a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  2. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong H.; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-11-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the tube bundle comprises an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the upstream and downstream surfaces. A plurality of tubes extends through the tube bundle from the upstream surface through the downstream surface, wherein the downstream surface is stepped to produce tubes having different lengths through the tube bundle. A method for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor includes flowing a working fluid through a plurality of tubes radially arranged between an upstream surface and a downstream surface of an end cap that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the downstream surface is stepped.

  3. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Chemistry/DISI Combustion - DISI Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:44:30+00:00

  4. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Steven M.; Adumitroaie, Virgil; McDaniel, Keith S.; Smith, Clifford E.

    2001-11-06

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool will be developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. This computational tool will utilize Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods to predict the highly transient nature of turbulent combustion. The time-accurate software will capture large scale transient motion, while the small scale motion will be modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. This three-year project is composed of: Year 1--model development/implementation, Year 2--software alpha validation, and Year 3--technology transfer of software to industry including beta testing. In this first year of the project, subgrid models for turbulence and combustion are being developed through university research (Suresh Menon-Georgia Tech and J.-Y. Chen- UC Berkeley) and implemented into a leading combustion CFD code, CFD-ACE+. The commercially available CFDACE+ software utilizes unstructured , parallel architecture and 2nd-order spatial and temporal numerics. To date, the localized dynamic turbulence model and reduced chemistry models (up to 19 species) for natural gas, propane, hydrogen, syngas, and methanol have been incorporated. The Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid combustion-turbulence interaction has been developed and implementation into CFD-ACE+ has started. Ways of reducing run-time for complex stiff reactions is being studied, including the use of in situ tabulation and neural nets. Initial validation cases have been performed. CFDRC has also completed the integration of a 64 PC cluster to get highly scalable computing power needed to perform the LES calculations ({approx} 2 million cells) in several days. During the second year, further testing and validation of the LES software will be performed. Researchers at DOE-NETL are working with CFDRC to provide well-characterized high-pressure test data for model validation purposes. To insure practical, usable software is developed, a consortium of gas turbine and industrial burner manufacturers has been established to guide and direct the software development/validation effort. The consortium members include Siemens- Westinghouse, GE Power Systems, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce, Honeywell, Solar, Coen, McDermott, Vapor Power, Woodward FST, Parker Hannifin, John Zink, RamGen Power, Virginia Tech, DOE-NETL, Air Force Research Laboratory, DOE-ANL, and NASA GRC. Annual consortium meetings are being held in Huntsville, with the 2nd meeting scheduled for January 31-February 1, 2002. 2 Benefits of the program will include the ability to assess complex combustion challenges such as combustion instability, lean blowout, flashback, emissions and the effect of fuel type on performance. The software will greatly reduce development costs and the time cycle of combustor development. And perhaps the greatest benefit will be that the software will stimulate new, creative ideas to solve the combustion challenges of the Vision 21 plant.

  5. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are contained in Appendix 'C'. It was implemented between 1994 and 1998 after the entire 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was relocated to Philadelphia, PA in 1994. A new test facility was designed and installed. A substantially longer combustor was fabricated. Although not in the project plan or cost plan, an entire steam turbine-electric power generating plant was designed and the appropriate new and used equipment for continuous operation was specified. Insufficient funds and the lack of a customer for any electric power that the test facility could have generated prevented the installation of the power generating equipment needed for continuous operation. All other task 5 project measures were met and exceeded. 107 days of testing in task 5, which exceeded the 63 days (about 500 hours) in the test plan, were implemented. Compared to the first generation 20 MMBtu/hr combustor in Williamsport, the 2nd generation combustor has a much higher combustion efficiency, the retention of slag inside the combustor doubled to about 75% of the coal ash, and the ash carryover into the boiler, a major problem in the Williamsport combustor was essentially eliminated. In addition, the project goals for coal-fired emissions were exceeded in task 5. SO{sub 2} was reduced by 80% to 0.2 lb/MMBtu in a combination of reagent injection in the combustion and post-combustion zones. NO{sub x} was reduced by 93% to 0.07 lb/MMBtu in a combination of staged combustion in the combustor and post-combustion reagent injection. A baghouse was installed that was rated to 0.03 lb/MMBtu stack particle emissions. The initial particle emission test by EPA Method 5 indicated substantially higher emissions far beyond that indicated by the clear emission plume. These emissions were attributed to steel particles released by wall corrosion in the baghouse, correction of which had no effect of emissions.

  6. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run further, pilot and full scale, carbon sequestration tests with actual propane combustion gases utilizing two different strains of microalgae. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns. Aquasearch also tested an alternative cell separation technology. University of Hawaii performed experiments at the Mera Pharmaceuticals facility in Kona in mid June to obtain data on the carbon venting rate out of the photobioreactor; gas venting rates were measured with an orifice flow meter and gas samples were collected for GC analysis to determine the carbon content of the vented gases.

  7. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Cannon; Clifford Smith

    2003-04-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 10th quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation has developed the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-Simval combustor. Also, Beta testing by consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. In the two quarters ahead, CFDRC will validate the code on the new DOE SimVal experiments. Experimental data from DOE should be available in June 2003, though LES calculations are currently being performed. This will ensure a truly predictive test of the software. CFDRC will also provide help to the consortium members on running their cases, and incorporate improvements to the software suggested by the beta testers. The beta testers will compare their predictions with experimental measurements and other numerical calculations. At the end of this project (October, 2003), a final released version of the software will be available for licensing to the general public.

  8. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ENVIRON International Corporation, in collaboration with Callidus Technologies by Honeywell and Shell Global Solutions, Inc., will develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel blending and combustion system. This system will allow a broad range of opportunity fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas, to be safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria pollutants. The project will develop a commercial technology for application in refinery and chemical plant process heaters where opportunity fuels are used.

  9. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Moses, William W

    2015-11-06

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  10. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  11. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  12. United States Industrial Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment: Charting a Roadmap to Energy Savings for Industry United States Industrial Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment: Charting a Roadmap to ...

  13. United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment The objectives of the Market Assessment were...

  14. United States Industrial Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment: Executive Summary United States Industrial Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment: Executive Summary In addition to serving...

  15. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  16. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  17. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith

    2002-04-30

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished.

  18. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  19. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Zhongxian Cheng; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-09-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2006. The following activities have been completed: the steel floor grating around the riser in all levels and the three-phase power supply for CFBC System was installed. Erection of downcomers, loop seals, ash bunker, thermal expansion joints, fuel and bed material bunkers with load cells, rotary air-lock valves and fuel flow monitors is underway. Pilot-scale slipstream tests conducted with bromine compound addition were performed for two typical types of coal. The purposes of the tests were to study the effect of bromine addition on mercury oxidization. From the test results, it was observed that there was a strong oxidization effect for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The proposed work for next quarter and project schedule are also described.

  20. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  1. National Energy Modeling System (United States) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentnational-energy-modeling-system-unite Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  2. Methods and systems to thermally protect fuel nozzles in combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helmick, David Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-17

    A method of assembling a gas turbine engine is provided. The method includes coupling a combustor in flow communication with a compressor such that the combustor receives at least some of the air discharged by the compressor. A fuel nozzle assembly is coupled to the combustor and includes at least one fuel nozzle that includes a plurality of interior surfaces, wherein a thermal barrier coating is applied across at least one of the plurality of interior surfaces to facilitate shielding the interior surfaces from combustion gases.

  3. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system.

  4. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Twerdochlib, Michael (Oviedo, FL)

    1999-01-01

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature.

  5. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  7. Task 2 Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph

    2013-08-28

    Exposures were completed to ~1400 hr. Analysis of kinetics are close to completion. No oxy-combustion gas phase effects were found at 700{degrees}C.

  8. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did not have the diluent requirements of Prototype-1 and was demonstrated at targeted gas turbine conditions. The TVC combustor, Prototype-2, premixes the syngas with air for low emission performance. The combustor was designed for operation with syngas and no additional diluents. The combustor was successfully operated at targeted gas turbine conditions. Another goal of the program was to advance the status of development tools for syngas systems. In Task 3 a syngas flame evaluation facility was developed. Fundamental data on syngas flame speeds and flame strain were obtained at pressure for a wide range of syngas fuels with preheated air. Several promising reduced order kinetic mechanisms were compared with the results from the evaluation facility. The mechanism with the best agreement was selected for application to syngas combustor modeling studies in Task 6. Prototype-1 was modeled using an advanced LES combustion code. The tools and combustor technology development culminate in a full-scale demonstration of the most promising technology in Task 8. The combustor was operated at engine conditions and evaluated against the various engine performance requirements.

  9. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  10. Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

    1994-05-17

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  11. Catalytic Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Combustion Catalytic Combustion Advanced Catalytic Combustion System Reduces NOx Emissions Natural-gas-fired turbine systems currently require complex after-treatment systems to clean the exhaust of harmful emissions. Many of these emissions could be reduced by lower operating temperatures during the combustion process. With the support and recognition from many organizations, including AMO, the California Air Resources Board, the California Energy Commission, and the U.S.

  12. Low and High Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Butanol Isomers in Premixed Flames and Autoignition Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K

    2010-12-12

    Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.

  13. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2001-05-01

    Further development of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this second quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. CFDRC has implemented and tested Smagorinsky and localized dynamic subgrid turbulence models on a 2.1 million cell DOE-NETL combustor case and a 400,000 cell nonreacting backstep case. Both cases showed good agreement between predicted and experimental results. The large DOE-NETL case results provided better agreement with the measured oscillation frequency than previous attempts because massive parallel computing (on a cluster of 24 pcs) allowed the entire computational domain, including the swirler vanes and fuel spokes, to be modeled. Subgrid chemistry models, including the conditional moment closure (CMC) and linear eddy model (LEM), are being tested and implemented. Reduced chemical mechanisms have been developed for emissions, ignition delay, extinction, and flame propagation using a computer automated reduction method (CARM). A 19-species natural gas mechanism, based on GRI2.11 and Miller-NO{sub x}, was shown to predict rich NO{sub x} emissions better than any previously published mechanisms. The ability to handle this mechanism in CFD-ACE+ was demonstrated by implementing operator splitting and a stiff ODE solver (DVODE). Efficient tabulation methods, including in situ adaptation and artificial neural nets, are being studied and will be implemented in the LES code. The LES combustion code development and testing is on schedule. Next quarter, initial results (including the DOE-NETL unstable combustor) with the CMC and LEM subgrid chemistry models will be completed and summarized.

  14. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  15. Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Fossil fuel fired electric generating plants are the cornerstone of America's central power system. Currently, the existing fossil fuel fleet accounts for about two-thirds of all electricity generated domestically, over 40% from coal alone. Electricity demand is expected to increase dramatically over the next 30 years, and adding new generating capacity typically requires long lead time. In the meantime, the United

  16. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  17. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, Donald W

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energys Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over todays state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  18. Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, John V. (Glendora, CA)

    1987-12-15

    A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

  19. Intelligent Control via Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Coal Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aman Behal; Sunil Kumar; Goodarz Ahmadi

    2007-08-05

    Numerical Modeling of Solid Gas Flow, System Identification for purposes of modeling and control, and Wireless Sensor and Actor Network design were pursued as part of this project. Time series input-output data was obtained from NETL's Morgantown CFB facility courtesy of Dr. Lawrence Shadle. It was run through a nonlinear kernel estimator and nonparametric models were obtained for the system. Linear and first-order nonlinear kernels were then utilized to obtain a state-space description of the system. Neural networks were trained that performed better at capturing the plant dynamics. It is possible to use these networks to find a plant model and the inversion of this model can be used to control the system. These models allow one to compare with physics based models whose parameters can then be determined by comparing them against the available data based model. On a parallel track, Dr. Kumar designed an energy-efficient and reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks, where the sensors could be different types of wireless sensors used in CFB based coal combustion systems and actors are more powerful wireless nodes to set up a communication network while avoiding the data congestion. Dr. Ahmadi's group studied gas solid flow in a duct. It was seen that particle concentration clearly shows a preferential distribution. The particles strongly interact with the turbulence eddies and are concentrated in narrow bands that are evolving with time. It is believed that observed preferential concentration is due to the fact that these particles are flung out of eddies by centrifugal force.

  20. Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels/Spray Combustion - Spray Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00

  1. High-heat transfer low-NO.sub.x combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid A.; Hobson, Jr., William J.; Rue, David M.; Smirnov, Valeriy

    2005-09-06

    A combustion apparatus comprising a pre-combustor stage and a primary combustion stage, the pre-combustor stage having two co-axial cylinders, one for oxidant and one for fuel gas, in which the fuel gas is preheated and the primary combustion stage having rectangular co-axial passages through which fuel and oxidant are admitted into a refractory burner block. Both passages converge in the vertical plane and diverge in the horizontal plane. The passage through the refractory burner block also has a rectangular profile and diverges in the horizontal plane. The outlets to the primary combustion stage are recessed in the refractory burner block at a distance which may be varied.

  2. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  3. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Methane Flame Simulations Run 6x Faster on NERSC's Hopper Supercomputer November 25, 2014 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Turbulent combustion simulations, which provide input to the design of more fuel-efficient combustion systems, have gotten their own efficiency boost, thanks to researchers from the Computational Research Division (CRD) at Lawrence Berkeley National

  4. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  5. Submerged combustion melting processes for producing glass and similar materials, and systems for carrying out such processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charbonneau, Mark William

    2015-08-04

    Processes of controlling submerged combustion melters, and systems for carrying out the methods. One process includes feeding vitrifiable material into a melter vessel, the melter vessel including a fluid-cooled refractory panel in its floor, ceiling, and/or sidewall, and heating the vitrifiable material with a burner directing combustion products into the melting zone under a level of the molten material in the zone. Burners impart turbulence to the molten material in the melting zone. The fluid-cooled refractory panel is cooled, forming a modified panel having a frozen or highly viscous material layer on a surface of the panel facing the molten material, and a sensor senses temperature of the modified panel using a protected thermocouple positioned in the modified panel shielded from direct contact with turbulent molten material. Processes include controlling the melter using the temperature of the modified panel. Other processes and systems are presented.

  6. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls

    2011-10-01

    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  7. Sandia Energy - Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and modeling of turbulent combustion. Diagram of the new RamanRayleighCO-LIF detection system and table of representative signal-to-noise ratios, comparing the point measurement...

  8. Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Duty/Spray Combustion - Spray Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:00:56+00:00 Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber Fuel spray injection is expected to be one of the key elements for enabling high-efficiency, low-emission engines of the future. Understanding the details of the spray combustion process is therefore now more important than ever. But investigating engine combustion processes is

  9. Advanced Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Combustion Fact Sheet Key Contacts Advanced Combustion Background Conventional coal-fired power plants utilize steam turbines to generate electricity, which operate at efficiencies of 35-37 percent. Operation at higher temperatures and pressures can lead to higher efficiencies. Oxy-combustion comes with an efficiency loss, so it will actually increase the amount of CO2 to be captured. But without so much N2 in the flue gas, it will be easier and perhaps more efficient to capture,

  10. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-05

    Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

  11. Engineering systems analysis of pressurized fluidized-bed-combustion power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.L.; Griffin, F.P.; Lackey, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    This effort was conducted to provde supporting data for the research and development program on pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) systems being continued under the auspices of the Office of Coal Utilization of DOE. This report deals with the first phase of the effort, designated Task 1, which was scoped to be a somewhat broad review of PFBC technology and an analysis to determine its potential and sensitivity to key development needs. Background information pertaining to the application of PFBC to the market for coal-fired technology is included. The status of development is reviewed and the deficiencies in data are identified. Responses to a survey of PFBC developers are reviewed with emphasis on the high risk areas of the PFBC concept. Some of these problems are: uncertainty of life of gas turbine components; lack of demonstration of load following; and hot solids handling. Some high risk areas, such as the gas cleanup or gas turbine systems, can be relieved by reducing the severity of design conditions such as the turbine inlet temperature. Alternate turbine designs or plant configurations are also possible solutions. Analyses were performed to determine whether the advantages held by PFBC systems in cost, efficiency, and emissions would be nullified by measures taken to reduce risk. In general, the results showed that the attractive features of the PFBC could be preserved.

  12. Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Presentation given at the 16th Directions...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  14. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit test report. Test report, August 6--October 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1993-06-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology M demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective NonCatalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the third phase of the test program, where the performance of the retrofit low-NO{sub x} combustion system is compared to that of the original combustion system. This third test phase was comprised of an optimization of the operating conditions and settings for the burners and overfire air ports, followed by an investigation of the performance of the low-NO{sub x} combustion system as a function of various operating parameters. These parameters included boiler load, excess air level, overfire air flow rate and number of mills in service. In addition, emissions under normal load following operation were compared to those collected during the optimization and parametric performance tests under baseloaded conditions. The low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit resulted in NO{sub x} reductions of 63 to 69 percent, depending on boiler load. The majority of the NO{sub x} reduction was obtained with the low-NO{sub x} burners, as it was shown that the overfire air system provided little additional NO{sub x} reduction for a fixed excess air level. CO emissions and flyash carbon levels did not increase as a result of the retrofit.

  15. Design, operation, and performance of a modern air pollution control system for a refuse derived fuel combustion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, E.H.; Azzinnari, C.

    1997-12-01

    The Robbins, Illinois refuse derived fuel combustion facility was recently placed into service. Large and new, the facility is designed to process 1600 tons of waste per day. Twenty-five percent of the waste, or 400 tons per day, is separated out in the fuel preparation process. The remaining 1200 tons per day is burned in two circulating fluidized bed boilers. The system is designed to meet new source performance standards for municipal waste combustion facilities, including total particulate, acid gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, HF), heavy metals (including mercury), and dioxins. The system utilizes semi-dry scrubbers with lime and activated carbon injected through dual fluid atomizers for control of acid gases. Final polishing of acid gas emissions, particulate control, heavy metals removal, and control of dioxins is accomplished with pulse jet fabric filters. This paper discusses the design of the facility`s air pollution control system, including all auxiliary systems required to make it function properly. Also discussed is the actual operation and emissions performance of the system.

  16. Method and systems for power control of internal combustion engines using individual cycle cut-off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorenko, Y.; Korzhov, M.; Filippov, A.; Atamanenko, N.

    1996-09-01

    A new method of controlling power has been developed for improving efficiency and emissions performance of internal combustion engines at partial load. The method involves cutting-off some of the work cycles, as the load decreases, to obtain required power. Theoretical and experimental material is presented to illustrate the underlying principle, the implementation means and the results for the 4- and 8-cylinder piston engine and a twin rotor Wankel engine applications.

  17. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  18. Modeling the behavior of selenium in Pulverized-Coal Combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senior, Constance; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost O.L.; Sarofim, Adel

    2010-11-15

    The behavior of Se during coal combustion is different from other trace metals because of the high degree of vaporization and high vapor pressures of the oxide (SeO{sub 2}) in coal flue gas. In a coal-fired boiler, these gaseous oxides are absorbed on the fly ash surface in the convective section by a chemical reaction. The composition of the fly ash (and of the parent coal) as well as the time-temperature history in the boiler therefore influences the formation of selenium compounds on the surface of the fly ash. A model was created for interactions between selenium and fly ash post-combustion. The reaction mechanism assumed that iron reacts with selenium at temperatures above 1200 C and that calcium reacts with selenium at temperatures less than 800 C. The model also included competing reactions of SO{sub 2} with calcium and iron in the ash. Predicted selenium distributions in fly ash (concentration versus particle size) were compared against measurements from pilot-scale experiments for combustion of six coals, four bituminous and two low-rank coals. The model predicted the selenium distribution in the fly ash from the pilot-scale experiments reasonably well for six coals of different compositions. (author)

  19. Partially Premixed Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partially Premixed Combustion Partially Premixed Combustion Published materials on partial premixed combustion (PPC) combined with Volvo's own combustion research provides understanding of how to proceed for future work that enables PPC to reach the market PDF icon deer11_andersson.pdf More Documents & Publications Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term Endurance

  20. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  1. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  2. United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    O R E W O R D I United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment December 2002 This document was originally published by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in Decem- ber 1998. As of fiscal year 2000, DOE's Motor Challenge Program was inte- grated into BestPractices, a broad initiative within EERE. EERE's BestPractices introduces industrial end users to emerging technolo- gies and cost-saving opportunities

  3. Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automotive/Spray Combustion - Spray Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:10:49+00:00 Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber

  4. Combustion Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pictured here is an animation showing the basic mechanics of how an internal combustion engine works. With support from the Energy Department, General Motors researchers developed a new technology ...

  5. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  6. Apparatus and filtering systems relating to combustors in combustion turbine engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Stevenson, Christian Xavier (Inman, SC)

    2012-07-24

    A combustor for a combustion turbine engine, the combustor that includes: a chamber defined by an outer wall and forming a channel between windows defined through the outer wall toward a forward end of the chamber and at least one fuel injector positioned toward an aft end of the chamber; a screen; and a standoff comprising a raised area on an outer surface of the outer wall near the periphery of the windows; wherein the screen extends over the windows and is supported by the standoff in a raised position in relation to the outer surface of the outer wall and the windows.

  7. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 3, Appendices: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  8. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  9. Applied combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  10. chemical-looping-combustion | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant applications. Oxy-combustion power generation provides oxygen to the combustion process by separating oxygen from air. However, chemical looping systems produce oxygen...

  11. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system. STEAM TIP SHEET 4 Improve...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Advanced Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

  13. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  14. Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-01-15

    In the third quarter of calendar year 1997, 10 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of September 1997 was 93, of which 19 tests were implemented as part of another DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. Key project objectives have been exceeded, including NO emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO emissions as low as 0.2 x 2 lb/MMBtu. The tests in the present quarter focussed on further optimizing post-combustion sorbent injection for SO2 and NOx control processes. The results were in the same range as in previous tests. In addition, initial tests of Coal Tech?s post-combustion NOx control process were implemented on a 100 MW and a 37 MW utility boiler, and NOx reductions as high as 40% were measured in the latter boiler.

  15. Application of charge stratification, lean burn combustion systems and anti-knock control devices in small two-stroke cycle gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuentscher, V.

    1986-01-01

    For essentially reducing the specific fuel consumption in two-stroke cycle engines and the concentration of hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust gas, the normal engine was equipped with a new ram tuned fuel injection system. By the application of charge stratification, lean burn combustion, different ignition systems and a special anti-knock device, considerable fuel consumption and HC emission reductions were obtained.

  16. A study of the effect of chloride on mercury removal in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, K.; Gao, Y.; Li, F.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Mehta, A.K.; Ho, K.K.; Smith, S.R.

    2000-07-01

    Mercury exists in three forms, which are elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury. Each form of mercury has a very different exposure potential. Oxidized mercury is soluble and has a tendency to associate with particles. Nearly all the post-combustion flue gas cleaning systems proposed to remove mercury may be categorized as either scrubbers or adsorbers. Therefore, the mercury sink in the cleaning system will be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the mercury laden sorbent from an absorber. The major problem for post-combustion mercury capture systems is capturing the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury. Co-firing with high chlorine coal or RDF in utility boiler systems can provide an HCI atmosphere for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas at relatively low temperatures (500--600 C). The objective of this study is to increase the efficiency of mercury emission cleaning methods by using HCl to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury species at low monetary costs and lower other toxic air emissions. When high chlorine (0.3--0.5%) coals were burned and a high intensity vortex flow (from secondary air) was used, around 70% of the total mercury in the fuel was condensed and absorbed by the fly ash (including calcium compounds). The remaining 30% of total fuel mercury was emitted in the gas phase in the flue gas. As for the gas phase mercury, about 98% of it exists in an oxidized form with a higher boiling temperature than elemental mercury and can be easily captured by an ESP or FGP apparatus. Only about 0.5% of the total fuel mercury was released to the atmosphere in elemental form.

  17. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  18. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  19. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Oxygen-Enriched Combustion This tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #3 PDF icon Oxygen-Enriched Combustion (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A

  20. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas. To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization issues of fabrication and reliability, availability and maintenance. The program that has sought to develop and implement these HIPPS designs is outlined below.

  1. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00 Fuel...

  2. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Automotive DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:06:42+00:00 DISI...

  3. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:44:30+00:00...

  4. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Automotive Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:10:49+00:00...

  5. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Heavy Duty Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:00:56+00:00...

  6. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:15:13+00:00 In order to...

  7. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  8. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the project’s technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

  9. Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erlendur Steinthorsson; Brian Hollon; Adel Mansour

    2010-06-30

    The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% carbon dioxide dilution. Superior operability was demonstrated for the hydrogen-natural gas fuel. The micro-mixing fuel injectors show great promise for use in future gas turbine engines operating on hydrogen, syngas or other fuel mixtures of various compositions, supporting the Department of Energy goals related to increased energy diversity while reducing greenhouse gases.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts- Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency Light Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced combustion concepts -...

  11. Apparatus and filtering systems relating to combustors in combustion turbine engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Stevenson, Christian Xavier (Inman, SC)

    2012-03-27

    A combustor for a combustion turbine engine that includes: a chamber defined by an outer wall and forming a channel between windows defined through the outer wall toward a forward end of the chamber and at least one fuel injector positioned toward an aft end of the chamber; and a multilayer screen filter comprising at least two layers of screen over at least a portion of the windows and at least one layer of screen over the remaining portion of the windows. The windows include a forward end and a forward portion, and an aft end and an aft portion. The multilayer screen filter is positioned over the windows such that, in operation, a supply of compressed air entering the chamber through the windows passes through at least one layer of screen. The multilayer screen filter is configured such that the aft portion of the windows include at least two layers of screen, and the forward portion of the windows includes one less layer of screen than the aft portion of the windows.

  12. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system low-NO{sub x} combustion system SNCR test report. Test period, January 11--April 9, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1994-06-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2}, Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be tested. This report documents the fourth phase of the test program, where the performance of the SNCR system, after the low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit, was assessed. Previous to this phase of testing, a subsystem was added to the existing SNCR system which allowed on-line conversion of a urea solution to aqueous ammonium compounds. Both convened and unconverted urea were investigated as SNCR chemicals.

  14. Preheated Combustion Air | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preheated Combustion Air Preheated Combustion Air This tip sheet describes how to improve process heating efficiency by preheating combustion air for burners. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #1 PDF icon Preheated Combustion Air (November 2007) More Documents & Publications Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Load

  15. Internal Combustion Engine Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engine Basics Internal Combustion Engine Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:02pm Addthis Internal combustion engines provide outstanding drivability and durability, with more than 250 million highway transportation vehicles in the United States relying on them. Along with gasoline or diesel, they can also utilize renewable or alternative fuels (e.g., natural gas, propane). They can also be combined with hybrid electric powertrains to increase fuel economy or plug-in hybrid electric

  16. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  17. Regenerative combustion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  18. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  19. Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  20. Engine Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  1. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and ...

  2. Environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion in power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    All the recent developments in the combustion systems employed for power generation have been based on environmental considerations. Combustion modifications have been developed and utilised in order to control NO{sub x} emissions and improvements continue to be made as the legislative requirements tighten. Chemical processes and fuel switching are used to control SO{sub x} emissions. After nitrogen, carbon dioxide is the major gas emitted from the combustion process and its potential potency as a greenhouse gas is well documented. Increased efficiency cycles, mainly based on natural gas as the prime fuel, can minimise the amount of CO{sub x} produced per unit of power generated. As the economics of natural gas utilisation become less favourable a return to clean coal technology based power generation processes may be required.

  3. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automotive/DISI Combustion - DISI Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:06:42+00:00 DISI engine in all-metal configuration with lower oil-collection cylinder installed. DISI engine in all-metal configuration with lower oil-collection cylinder installed. In order to reduce our dependence on petroleum and to reduce CO2emissions, it is important to both supplement traditional gasoline with renewable fuels and to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive engines. Under the Energy Independence and Security

  4. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels/DISI Combustion - DISI Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:15:13+00:00 In order to reduce our dependence on petroleum and to reduce CO2emissions, it is important to both supplement traditional gasoline with renewable fuels and to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive engines. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, the volume of renewable fuel required to be blended into transportation fuel will increase from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons by 2022. At

  5. Sources of UHC and CO in Low Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UHC and CO in Low Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion Systems Sources of UHC and CO in Low Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion Systems Presentation given at the 16th...

  6. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  7. Intelligent Monitoring System With High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor For Power Plant Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman

    2005-12-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first develop an analytic description and then extend that model along a single axis. Extrapolation capability was demonstrated for estimating enthalpy in a power plant.

  8. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, P.C.; Hansen, C.N.

    1994-11-18

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multi-fuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this Final Report.

  9. Boosting Small Engines to High Performance - Boosting Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Combustion Development Methodology Boosting Small Engines to High Performance - Boosting Systems and Combustion Development Methodology Overview on combustion approaches ...

  10. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    General Electric Global Research will define, develop, and test new fuel nozzle technology concepts for gas turbine operation on a wide spectrum of opportunity fuels and/or fuel blends. This will enable gas turbine operation on ultra-low Btu fuel streams such as very weak natural gas, highly-diluted industrial process gases, or gasified waste streams that are out of the capability range of current turbine systems.

  11. Control methods and valve arrangement for start-up and shutdown of pressurized combustion and gasification systems integrated with a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Provol, Steve J. (Carlsbad, CA); Russell, David B. (San Diego, CA); Isaksson, Matti J. (Karhula, FI)

    1994-01-01

    A power plant having a system for converting coal to power in a gas turbine comprises a coal fed pressurized circulating bed for converting coal to pressurized gases, a gas turbine having a compressor for pressurizing air for the pressurized circulating bed and expander for receiving and expanding hot combustion gases for powering a generator, a first fast acting valve for controlling the pressurized air, a second fast acting valve means for controlling pressurized gas from the compressor to the expander.

  12. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  13. System and method for improving performance of a fluid sensor for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubinski, David (Canton, MI); Zawacki, Garry (Livonia, MI)

    2009-03-03

    A system and method for improving sensor performance of an on-board vehicle sensor, such as an exhaust gas sensor, while sensing a predetermined substance in a fluid flowing through a pipe include a structure for extending into the pipe and having at least one inlet for receiving fluid flowing through the pipe and at least one outlet generally opposite the at least one inlet, wherein the structure redirects substantially all fluid flowing from the at least one inlet to the sensor to provide a representative sample of the fluid to the sensor before returning the fluid through the at least one outlet.

  14. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  15. Combustion Energy Postdoctoral Research Fellowships - Combustion Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier Research Center Application Schedule Sample Projects How to Apply Combustion Energy Research Fellows 2016 Combustion Summer School News, Events & Publications Contact CEFRC CEFRC In Pictures CEFRC Intranet (Members Only) Home » Combustion Energy Postdoctoral Research Fellowships Program Description Two-year positions as Combustion Energy Research Fellows are available for co-sponsored postdoctoral or more senior research associates to perform joint, high-risk/high-payoff

  16. Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion System of a HD Single Cylinder Engine Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion System of a HD Single ...

  17. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test & Evaluation Fuels Performance Combustion & Engines Fuel Chemistry Emissions & Fuel Economy Power Electronics & Electric Machines Sustainable Mobility Systems Analysis &...

  18. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, L.K.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising; a rotary compressor mechanism; a rotary expander mechanism; and combustion chamber means disposed between the compressor mechanism and the expander mechanism, whereby compressed air is delivered to the combustion chamber through the compressor discharge port, and pressurized gas is delivered from the combustion chamber into the expander mechanism through the pressurized gas intake port.

  19. Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Combustion To develop a more thorough understanding of combustion, scientists and engineers must be able to analyze the interaction of many different chemical species at high temperatures and pressures. Making combustion more efficient requires a holistic view of chemical reactions that integrate theoretical and applied chemistry, physics, and advanced computing. Combustion research at Argonne emphasizes studies of the dynamics and rates of gas-phase chemical reactions and the

  20. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  1. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  2. Use of aromatic salts for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levendis, Yiannis A. (Boston, MA); Wise, Donald L. (Belmont, MA)

    1994-10-04

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium benzoate. The calcium benzoate is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since calcium benzoate is a water-soluble form of calcium. When the dispersed particles of calcium benzoate are heated to a high temperature, the organic benzoate burns off and fine calcium oxide particles are formed. These particles are cenospheric (hollow) and have thin and highly porous walls, thus, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic benzoate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  3. Evolution of Westinghouse heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scalzo, A.J.; Bannister, R.L.; DeCorso, M.; Howard, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines in the United States from a Westinghouse Electric Corporation perspective. Westinghouse combustion turbine genealogy began in March of 1943 when the first wholly American designed and manufactured jet engine went on test in Philadelphia, and continues today in Orlando, Florida, with the 230 MW, 501G combustion turbine. In this paper, advances in thermodynamics, materials, cooling, and unit size will be described. Many basic design features such as two-bearing rotor, cold-end drive, can-annular internal combustors, CURVIC{sup 2} clutched turbine disks, and tangential exhaust struts have endured successfully for over 40 years. Progress in turbine technology includes the clean coal technology and advanced turbine systems initiatives of the US Department of Energy.

  4. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, clean coal combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered allowable under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Power systems simulations of the western United States region.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-03-15

    This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

  7. Alkali injection system with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 ratios for combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.

  8. United States Industrial Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment: Executive Summary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to serving DOE's program planning and evaluation needs, the Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others int he supply channels for motor systems.

  9. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  10. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  11. An Analysis of Residential PV System Price Differences between the United

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    States and Germany | Department of Energy An Analysis of Residential PV System Price Differences between the United States and Germany An Analysis of Residential PV System Price Differences between the United States and Germany Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany (median of $5.29/W vs. $2.59/W) in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or "soft" costs between the two countries, which

  12. Zinc Bromide Combustion: Implications for the Consolidated Incinerator Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.N.

    1998-12-16

    In the nuclear industry, zinc bromide (ZnBr2) is used for radiation shielding. At Savannah River Site (SRS) zinc bromide solution, in appropriate configurations and housings, was used mainly for shielding in viewing windows in nuclear reactor and separation areas. Waste stream feeds that will be incinerated at the CIF will occasionally include zinc bromide solution/gel matrices.The CIF air pollution systems control uses a water-quench and steam atomizer scrubber that collects salts, ash and trace metals in the liquid phase. Water is re-circulated in the quench unit until a predetermined amount of suspended solids or dissolved salts are present. After reaching the threshold limit, "dirty liquid", also called "blowdown", is pumped to a storage tank in preparation for treatment and disposal. The air pollution control system is coupled to a HEPA pre-filter/filter unit, which removes particulate matter from the flue gas stream (1).The objective of this report is to review existing literature data on the stability of zinc bromide (ZnBr2) at CIF operating temperatures (>870 degrees C (1600 degrees F) and determine what the combustion products are in the presence of excess air. The partitioning of the combustion products among the quencher/scrubber solution, bottom ash and stack will also be evaluated. In this report, side reactions between zinc bromide and its combustion products with fuel oil were not taken into consideration.

  13. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Jan. 23, 1997 -- A new technology brief published by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes how ash use can reduce the cost of waste management and not harm the environment. Communities in the United States typically dump municipal solid waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash

  14. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P. (Windsor, CT); Matthews, Francis T. (Poquonock, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  15. Thermal performance of concrete masonry unit wall systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.

    1995-12-31

    New materials, modern building wall technologies now available in the building marketplace, and unique, more accurate, methods of thermal analysis of wall systems create an opportunity to design and erect buildings where thermal envelopes that use masonry wall systems can be more efficient. Thermal performance of the six masonry wall systems is analyzed. Most existing masonry systems are modifications of technologies presented in this paper. Finite difference two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer modeling and unique methods of the clear wall and overall thermal analysis were used. In the design of thermally efficient masonry wall systems is t to know how effectively the insulation material is used and how the insulation shape and its location affect the wall thermal performance. Due to the incorrect shape of the insulation or structural components, hidden thermal shorts cause additional heat losses. In this study, the thermal analysis of the clear wall was enriched with the examination of the thermal properties of the wall details and the study of a quantity defined herein the Thermal Efficiency of the insulation material.

  16. NETL: Energy Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Gasifier Optimization | Syngas Processing | Systems Analyses | Gasification Plant Databases Advanced Combustion The Advanced Combustion Program is developing technologies and...

  17. United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objectives of the Market Assessment were to: Develop a detailed profile of the stock of motor-driven equipment in U.S. industrial facilities; Characterize and estimate the magnitude of opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of industrial motor systems; Develop a profile of motor system purchase and maintenance practices; Develop and implement a procedure to update the detailed motor profile on a regular basis using readily available market information; and, Develop methods to estimate the energy savings and market effects attributable to the Motor Challenge Program.

  18. 16 USC 797c - Dams in National Park System Units | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    16 USC 797c - Dams in National Park System Units Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 16 USC 797c - Dams in National...

  19. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Lott, Stephen E. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Steven J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  20. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  1. High Efficiency Combustion and Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Controls High Efficiency Combustion and Controls 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace042_sisken_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Development for HECC Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion

  2. Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_pratapas.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes

  3. Proceedings of the 1996 spring technical conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division. Volume 2: Engine design and engine systems; ICE-Volume 26-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzkan, T.

    1996-12-31

    Although the cost of the petroleum crude has not increased much within the last decade, the drive to develop internal combustion engines is still continuing. The basic motivation of this drive is to reduce both emissions and costs. Recent developments in computer chip production and information management technology have opened up new applications in engine controls and monitoring. The development of new information is continuing at a rapid pace. Some of these research and development results were presented at the 1996 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division in Youngstown, Ohio, April 21--24, 1996. The papers presented covered various aspects of the design, development, and application of compression ignition and spark ignition engines. The conference was held at the Holiday Inn Metroplex Complex and hosted by Altronic Incorporated of Girard, Ohio. The written papers submitted to the conference have been published in three conference volumes. Volume 2 includes the papers on the topics of engine design, engine systems, and engine user experience.

  4. Rotary reciprical combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, D.H.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a rotary-reciprocal combustion engine having a cycle which includes the four strokes of intake, compression, expansion and exhaustion, the engine. It comprises: a housing formed with a peripheral wall with side walls, a rotor in the housing, the inner surface of the peripheral inner wall being cylindrical; a shaft; mounted in the center of the housing, passing through the rotor's hub and extending through the side walls of the housing, the hub having means to allow the rotor to reciprocate on the shaft while the shaft is rotating with the rotor; a reciprocal and rotary guide having means to guide the rotary and reciprocal motions of the rotor while keeping the rotor's piston in continuous sealing contact with the cylinder chamber walls and varying the volume of the cylinder chambers enabling a compression of a gaseous mixture to take place after aspirating a gaseous mixture; an ignition system having means for igniting compressed gaseous mixture and expansion of the cylinder chambers due to pressure of the combustion products.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  6. Optimal control of the heave motion of marine cable/subsea-unit systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, S.; Vassalos, D.

    1995-12-31

    One of the key problems associated with subsea operations involving tethered subsea units is the motions of support vessels on the ocean surface which can be transmitted to the subsea unit through the cable and increase the tension. In this paper, a theoretical approach for heave compensation is developed. After proper modeling of each element of the system, which includes the cable/subsea-unit, the onboard winch, control theory is applied to design an optimal control law. Numerical simulations are carried out, and it is found that the proposed active control scheme appears to be a promising solution to the problem of heave compensation.

  7. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  8. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  9. United States Industrial Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment: Charting a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap to Energy Savings for Industry | Department of Energy Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment: Charting a Roadmap to Energy Savings for Industry United States Industrial Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment: Charting a Roadmap to Energy Savings for Industry This paper is an overview of the results of a market assessment commissioned by the DOE Motor Challenge program in 1995 to better understand the characteristics of the installed population of motor systems in the manufacturing

  10. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  11. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

  12. United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment - Executive Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY T O F E N E R G Y D E P A R T M E N U E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C A M OFFICE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment Executive Summary United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment Executive Summary TABLE OF CONTENTS PROJECT OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OVERVIEW OF FINDINGS . . . . . . . .

  13. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2008-10-21

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  14. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  16. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  17. Multiple vane rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pangman, E.L.

    1994-01-11

    A three-piece housing enclosing a cavity has rotatably mounted therein a rotor having a plurality of slots, each slot supporting a vane. Each vane has a retention end guided in its revolution around the rotor by an internal, non-circular vane retention track. Two adjacent vanes define opposite sides of a combustion chamber, while the housing and the portion of the rotor between the adjacent vanes form the remaining surfaces of the combustion chamber. Each combustion chamber is rotated past an intake port, a diagonal plasma bleed-over groove, and an exhaust port to accomplish the phases of a combustion cycle. Fuel ignition is provided to more than one combustion chamber at a time by expanding gases passing through a plasma bleed-over groove and being formed into a vortex that ignites and churns the charge in a succeeding combustion chamber. Exhaust gases remaining after primary evacuation are removed by a secondary evacuation system utilizing a venturi creating negative pressure which evacuates the combustion chamber. Lubrication is circulated through the engine without the use of a lubricant pump. The centrifugal force of the rotating rotor causes the lubricant therein to be pressurized thereby drawing additional lubricant into the closed system and forcing lubricant within the engine to be circulated. 9 figs.

  18. Design and performance of a fluidized-bed incinerator for TRU combustible wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems encountered in the incineration of glovebox generated waste at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) led to the development of a fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) system for transuranic (TRU) combustible wastes. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the process preceded the installation of an 82-kg/h production demonstration incinerator at RFP. The FBI process is discussed, and the design of the demonstration incinerator is described. Operating experience and process performance for both the pilot and demonstration units are presented.

  19. J.K. Spruce power plant, Unit 1, San Antonio, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    CPS Energy's J.K. Spruce power plant, Unit 1 was recently recognised by the EUCG Fossil Productivity Committee as the best performer in the large coal plant category over the 2002-2006 evaluation period. The competition was tough, with more than 80 plants in the running, but Unit 1 emerged as the clear winner by earning top points for high plant reliability and very low nonfuel O & M costs. It meets its environmental goals when burning PRB coal in its tangentially fired furnace with recently upgraded low NOx burners, overfire air and a new combustion control system. A baghouse and wet flue gas desulfurization system clean up combustion products. 3 photos.

  20. Internal combustion engine injection superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, F.G.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a method for introducing water vapor to the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing a metered amount of liquid water into a heat exchanger; contacting the heat exchanger directly with hot exhaust gases emanating from the exhaust manifold; maintaining the water in the heat exchanger for a period sufficient to vaporize the water into steam and superheat same; reducing pressure and increasing temperature to create superheated steam; introducing the superheated steam into the air supply proximate to the air induction system, upstream of any carburetion, of the internal combustion engine.

  1. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally, the transient demonstration was performed in Phase IV. The project demonstrated the achievement of meeting US10 emissions without NOx aftertreatment. The successful execution of the project has served to highlight the effectiveness of closely matched combustion predictive tools to engine testing. It has further served to highlight the importance of key technologies and future areas of research and development. In this regard, recommendations are made towards further improvements in the areas of engine hardware, fuel injection systems, controls and fuels.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced combustion concepts - enabling systems and solutions for high efficiency light duty...

  3. Integrated CHP/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to meet local air quality authority emissions restrictions. Integrated Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to...

  4. 33rd International Symposium on Combustion Hottel Lecture Applications of Quantitative Laser Sensors to Kinetics, Propulsion and Practical Combustion Systems Ronald K. Hanson Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University, Stanford CA, 94305

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Combustion Science Stanford University Contribution R. K. Hanson and D. F. Davidson Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University 1 * Butanol Studies * Ignition Delay Times * Species Time-Histories * Reaction Rate Constants * Methyl Ester Studies * Ignition Delay Times Long-Term Objectives * Generate high-quality fundamental kinetics database using shock tube/laser absorption methods Leading to: * Improved detailed mechanisms for next-generation fuels First Targets: * Isomers of

  5. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    D;F&g,8 C-r-I 3-3 .*. United States Government . memorandum DATE: JUNZO 1994 -... REPLY TO A?TN OF: EM-421 (W. A. Williams, 903-8149) Authority Determination -- Combustion Engineering Site, Windsor, SUBJECT: Connecticut To' The File The attached review, documents the basis for determining whether the Department of Energy (DOE) has authority for taking remedial action at the Combustion Engineering (CE) Site in Windsor, Connecticut, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CE

  6. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  7. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  9. Remedial System Performance Improvement for the 200-ZP-1_PW-1 Operable Units at Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Operations Review Report: Feasibility Study Strategies and Remedial System Performance Improvement for the 200- ZP-1/PW-1 Operable Units at Hanford Prepared for Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation Office of Environmental Management February 9, 2007 i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, Headquarters' Office of Environmental Management, the Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation (EM-22), performed a Remediation System Evaluation (RSE) of the

  10. Plum Combustion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plum Combustion Place: Atlanta, Georgia Product: Combustion technology, which reduces NOx-emissions. Coordinates: 33.748315, -84.391109 Show Map Loading map......

  11. Real-time combustion controls and diagnostics sensors (CCADS)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Dodrill, Keith A. (Fairmont, WV); Nutter, Jr., Roy S. (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas (Morgantown, WV)

    2005-05-03

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for the monitoring of the combustion process within a combustion system. The apparatus comprises; a combustion system, a means for supplying fuel and an oxidizer, a device for igniting the fuel and oxidizer in order to initiate combustion, and a sensor for determining the current conducted by the combustion process. The combustion system comprises a fuel nozzle and an outer shell attached to the combustion nozzle. The outer shell defines a combustion chamber. Preferably the nozzle is a lean premix fuel nozzle (LPN). Fuel and an oxidizer are provided to the fuel nozzle at separate rates. The fuel and oxidizer are ignited. A sensor positioned within the combustion system comprising at least two electrodes in spaced-apart relationship from one another. At least a portion of the combustion process or flame is between the first and second electrodes. A voltage is applied between the first and second electrodes and the magnitude of resulting current between the first and second electrodes is determined.

  12. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  13. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  14. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  15. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  16. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Merit review of DOE FCVT combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels research. PDF icon Annual Progress Report More Documents & Publications Heavy Vehicle Systems Optimization Peer Review 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 7. Combustion Research 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion

  17. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the countrys significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  18. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the countrys significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  19. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  20. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-01-03

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1995 the installation and checkout of the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor and auxiliary equipment in Philadelphia was completed. The task 5, Site Demonstration Testing, combustor-boiler tests on gas, oil, and coal were initiated. The task 5 effort involves testing the combustor over extended periods under conditions that fully simulate commercial operation and that meet the combustion and environmental specifications for this project. To meet this project objective within the current work scope requires up to 500 hours of testing. The focus of this testing will be on the component and environmental performance of combustor, boiler, coal preparation and feeding, and the stack gas equipment. The facility can be converted to a 500 kW power plant by the addition of a steam turbine, condenser, and cooling tower. However, this added effort is beyond the current work scope and its implementation will depend on recovering the added costs by placing the steam production from the boiler to beneficial use. During the present quarterly reporting period, all the components needed to implement the initial 100 hours of testing under task 5 were installed at the test site, and checkout of this equipment was performed. Since the present installation contained substantial improvements and simplifications to all sub-systems that had been used in the Williamsport facility, each component and sub-system had to be tested individually.

  1. Stratified cross combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, J.L.

    1981-06-23

    A piston engine is provided in which adjacent cylinder pairs share a common combustion chamber and the pistons are mounted to reciprocate substantially in phase, one of the pistons in each piston pair receiving a rich mixture which is ignited by a sparkplug in that cylinder, with the other cylinder in the cylinder pair being passive in its preferred form, and receiving through a separate intake valve either pure air or a leaner mixture into which the combusted richer mixture pours, insuring that the greatest combustion possible resulting in the greatest percentage of carbon dioxide formation as opposed to carbon monoxide is created.

  2. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  3. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  4. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyches, G.M.; Dudar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a patent description for a system to start an internal combustion engine. Remote starting and starting by hearing impaired persons are addressed. The system monitors the amount of current being drawn by the starter motor to determine when the engine is started. When the engine is started the system automatically deactivates the starter motor. Five figures are included.

  5. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  6. Sandia Energy - Combustion Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    knowledge that combustion is governed by chain reactions of radicals. Diesel and Otto didn't need to know any chemistry beyond fuel + air heat However, in the intervening...

  7. Combustion and Emissions Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Emissions Modeling This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background Modern transportation engines are designed to use the available fuel resources efficiently and minimize harmful emissions. Optimization of these designs is based on a wealth of practical design, construction and operating experiences, and use of modern testing facilities and sophisticated analyses of the combustion

  8. Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carteret, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the {open_quotes}Shelter{close_quotes} was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems.

  9. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  10. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Guidance System for a Dedicated Intracranial Radiosurgery Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruschin, Mark; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ; Komljenovic, Philip T.; Ansell, Steve; Menard, Cynthia; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ; Bootsma, Gregory; Cho, Young-Bin; Chung, Caroline; Jaffray, David; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Image guidance has improved the precision of fractionated radiation treatment delivery on linear accelerators. Precise radiation delivery is particularly critical when high doses are delivered to complex shapes with steep dose gradients near critical structures, as is the case for intracranial radiosurgery. To reduce potential geometric uncertainties, a cone beam computed tomography (CT) image guidance system was developed in-house to generate high-resolution images of the head at the time of treatment, using a dedicated radiosurgery unit. The performance and initial clinical use of this imaging system are described. Methods and Materials: A kilovoltage cone beam CT system was integrated with a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery unit. The X-ray tube and flat-panel detector are mounted on a translational arm, which is parked above the treatment unit when not in use. Upon descent, a rotational axis provides 210 Degree-Sign of rotation for cone beam CT scans. Mechanical integrity of the system was evaluated over a 6-month period. Subsequent clinical commissioning included end-to-end testing of targeting performance and subjective image quality performance in phantoms. The system has been used to image 2 patients, 1 of whom received single-fraction radiosurgery and 1 who received 3 fractions, using a relocatable head frame. Results: Images of phantoms demonstrated soft tissue contrast visibility and submillimeter spatial resolution. A contrast difference of 35 HU was easily detected at a calibration dose of 1.2 cGy (center of head phantom). The shape of the mechanical flex vs scan angle was highly reproducible and exhibited <0.2 mm peak-to-peak variation. With a 0.5-mm voxel pitch, the maximum targeting error was 0.4 mm. Images of 2 patients were analyzed offline and submillimeter agreement was confirmed with conventional frame. Conclusions: A cone beam CT image guidance system was successfully adapted to a radiosurgery unit. The system is capable of producing high-resolution images of bone and soft tissue. The system is in clinical use and provides excellent image guidance without invasive frames.

  11. Sources of UHC and CO in Low Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy UHC and CO in Low Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion Systems Sources of UHC and CO in Low Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion Systems Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_miles.pdf More Documents & Publications Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Sources of CO and UHC Emissions in

  12. Solutions for Combustion Safety in Existing Homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions for Combustion Safety in Existing Homes Solutions for Combustion Safety in Existing Homes It is often challenging for residential contractors to conduct appropriate combustion safety test procedures in existing homes and use effective actions to address any failures. Commonly used testing methods can be complicated to follow and may be overly conservative, producing false positive results without addressing the fundamental need for inspection of the venting system itself. Additionally,

  13. Development of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System (GIS) for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Herzog; Holly Javedan

    2009-12-31

    In this project a Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) for the US was developed. The GIS stored, integrated, and manipulated information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS was used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. This report documents the key deliverables from the project: (1) Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) Documentation; (2) Stationary CO{sub 2} Source Database; (3) Regulatory Data for CCS in United States; (4) CO{sub 2} Capture Cost Estimation; (5) CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity Tools; (6) CO{sub 2} Injection Cost Modeling; (7) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport Cost Estimation; (8) CO{sub 2} Source-Sink Matching Algorithm; and (9) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport and Cost Model.

  14. COMBUSTION-ASSISTED CO2 CAPTURE USING MECC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-03-30

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO{sub 2} capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO{sub 2} driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO{sub 2} product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO{sub 2} capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE's goal that deployment of a CO{sub 2} capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  15. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.

    1993-07-20

    A multi bank power plant is described comprising at least a first and a second rotary internal combustion engine connectable together in series, each of the engines comprising: a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing and rotatable about a central axis; an output shaft extending axially from each the engine block, each output shaft being coaxial with the other; means for coupling the output shafts together so that the output shafts rotate together in the same direction at the same speed; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on each block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; a combustion chamber, means permitting periodic introduction of air and fuel into the combustion chamber, means for causing combustion of a compressed mixture of air and fuel within the combustion chamber, means permitting periodic exhaust of products of combustion of air and fuel from the combustion chamber, and means for imparting forces and motions of the piston within the cylinder to and from the cam track, the means comprising a cam follower operatively connected to the piston; wherein the cam track includes at least a first segment and at least a second segment thereof, the first segment having a generally positive slope wherein the segment has a generally increasing radial distance from the rotational axis of the engine block whereby as a piston moves outwardly in a cylinder on a power stroke while the cam follower is in radial register with the cam track segment, the reactive force of the respective cam follower against the cam track segment acts in a direction tending to impart rotation to the engine block.

  16. Quantum combustion chamber for the digital engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evers, L.W.; Baasch, V.

    1985-01-01

    For increasing fuel economy and reducing hydrocarbon emissions, a two-stoke-cycle, loop-scavenged single cylinder engine was modified by replacing the head with a head having three subchambers and incorporating a distributing pump fuel injection system. The fuel injection system allowed one subchamber to be operated at a time. The quantum combustion system demonstrated both lower fuel consumption and lower hydrocarbon emissions than a conventional homogeneous charge engine. The experimental evidence also indicates that the combustion essentially occurred in the one chamber into which fuel was injected. Establishing stratified charge combustion by mechanically separating the regions of air from the regions of air/fuel mixtures by means of subchambers is feasible.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research and...

  18. Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray A for different combustion vessels Title Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research...

  20. Chemical Kinetic Models for HCCI and Diesel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W J; Westbook, C K; Mehl, M

    2008-10-30

    Hydrocarbon fuels for advanced combustion engines consist of complex mixtures of hundreds or even thousands of different components. These components can be grouped into a number of chemically distinct classes, consisting of n-paraffins, branched paraffins, cyclic paraffins, olefins, oxygenates, and aromatics. Biodiesel contains its own unique chemical class called methyl esters. The fractional amounts of these chemical classes are quite different in gasoline, diesel fuel, oil-sand derived fuels and bio-derived fuels, which contributes to the very different combustion characteristics of each of these types of combustion systems. The objectives of this project are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for diesel and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate fuel models to represent real fuels and model low temperature combustion strategies in HCCI and diesel engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on low temperature combustion modes of advanced combustion engines.

  1. Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Lissianski; P. Maly; T. Marquez

    2005-01-22

    In this project EER conducted a preliminary field evaluation of the integrated approach for mercury (Hg) and NO{sub x} control. The approach enhanced the 'naturally occurring' Hg capture by fly ash through combustion optimization, increasing carbon in ash content, and lowering ESP temperature. The evaluation took place in Green Station Units 1 and 2 located near Henderson, Kentucky and operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Units 1 and 2 are equipped with cold-side ESPs and wet scrubbers. Green Station Units 1 and 2 typically fire two types of fuel: a bituminous coal and a blend of bituminous coals based on availability. Testing of Hg emissions in Unit 2 without reburning system in operation and at minimum OFA demonstrated that efficiencies of Hg reduction downstream of the ESP were 30-40%. Testing also demonstrated that OFA system operation at 22% air resulted in 10% incremental increase in Hg removal efficiency at the ESP outlet. About 80% of Hg in flue gas at ESP outlet was present in the oxidized form. Testing of Hg emissions under reburning conditions showed that Hg emissions decreased with LOI increase and ESP temperature decrease. Testing demonstrated that maximum Hg reduction downstream of ESP was 40-45% at ESP temperatures higher than 300 F and 60-80% at ESP temperatures lower than 300 F. The program objective to demonstrate 80% Hg removal at the ESP outlet has been met.

  2. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  3. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  4. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  5. Internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  6. Internal combustion rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.P.

    1993-08-24

    An internal combustion rotary engine is described comprising: an internal combustion chamber wherein a combustible fuel-air mixture is ignited for producing a driving gas flow; a central rotor having an outer surface in which at least one group of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the central rotor; and at least one annular rotor each enclosing the central rotor having an inner surface in which a corresponding number of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the annular rotor; when the curved channels in the central rotor communicate with the curved channels in the annular rotor, the driving gas flow circumferentially-and-axially passing between the outer surface of the central rotor and the inner surface of the annular rotor for rotating the central rotor and the annular rotor in opposite directions.

  7. 2016 Combustion Summer School - Combustion Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Course Descriptions Lecturers Lecture Notes Logistics & Fees Application Schedule of Events Past Sessions 2016 FAQ Lecture Videos News, Events & Publications Contact CEFRC CEFRC In Pictures CEFRC Intranet (Members Only) Home » 2016 Combustion Summer School 2016 Combustion Summer School Our Mission To provide the next generation of combustion researchers with a comprehensive knowledge in the technical areas of combustion theory, experiment, computation, fundamentals, and

  8. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  9. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  10. Advanced Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Advanced Combustion Combustion engines drive a large percentage of our nation's transportation vehicles and power generation and manufacturing facilities. Today's combustion engines rely heavily on non-renewable petroleum-based fuels that produce harmful emissions and carbon dioxide. Understanding how those engines work and developing approaches to improving them requires unique multidisciplinary expertise and sophisticated facilities that are available together only at Argonne

  11. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  12. Transonic Combustion ’ - Injection Strategy Development for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy ...

  13. Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies 2005 ...

  14. Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Computational Fluid Dynamics ...

  15. Coal Combustion Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  16. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  17. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  18. Technical Report: Rayleigh Scattering Combustion Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Wyatt; Hecht, Ethan

    2015-07-29

    A laser Rayleigh scattering (LRS) temperature diagnostic was developed over 8 weeks with the goal of studying oxy-combustion of pulverized coal char in high temperature reaction environments with high concentrations of carbon dioxide. Algorithms were developed to analyze data collected from the optical diagnostic system and convert the information to temperature measurements. When completed, the diagnostic will allow for the kinetic gasification rates of the oxy-combustion reaction to be obtained, which was previously not possible since the high concentrations of high temperature CO2 consumed thermocouples that were used to measure flame temperatures inside the flow reactor where the combustion and gasification reactions occur. These kinetic rates are important for studying oxycombustion processes suitable for application as sustainable energy solutions.

  19. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, Jiri (Richland, WA); McVay, Gary L. (Richland, WA); Peden, Charles H. (West Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO.sub.2 is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine.

  20. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  1. High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize engine-out emissions while optimizing fuel economy. PDF icon deer09_zhang.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy Truck Engine Development & HECC High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions

  2. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETLs Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-28

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Closure activities were conducted from September to November 2009 in accordance with the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 563. The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure.

  4. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  5. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  6. Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Brown, Daryl R.; Mizoguchi, Akiyoshi; Shiozaki, Mai

    2001-04-03

    While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on carbon capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States. The GIS system contains information (e.g., fuel type, location, vintage, ownership, rated capacity) on all fossil-fired generation capacity in the Untied States with a rated capacity of at least 100 MW. There are also data on other CO2 sources (i.e., natural domes, gas processing plants, etc.) and associated pipelines currently serving enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Data on current and prospective CO2 EOR projects include location, operator, reservoir and oil characteristics, production, and CO2 source. The system also contains information on priority deep saline aquifers and coal bed methane basins with potential for sequestering CO2. The GIS application not only enables data storage, flexible map making, and visualization capabilities, but also facilitates the spatial analyses required to solve complex linking of CO2 sources with appropriate and cost-effective sinks. A variety of screening criteria (spatial, geophysical, and economic) can be employed to identify sources and sinks most likely amenable to deployment of carbon capture and sequestration systems. The system is easily updateable, allowing it to stay on the leading edge of capture and sequestration technology as well as the ever-changing business landscape. Our paper and presentation will describe the development of this GIS and demonstrate its uses for carbon management analysis.

  7. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System (DCS). In order to provide user friendly software for the process personnel, the software was broken down into just a few software modules. These software modules are the Application Window, Detector Selection, Detector Configuration Settings, Background Counting, and Routine Data Acquisition. Instructions for using the software have been included in a user's manual that is appended to this report. The work presented in this report meets all of the requirements set forth in the project task plan to design and implement gamma ray monitors for the MCU. Additional setup and testing of the system will be required when it implemented in the process.

  8. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloiu, Valentin

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels?? combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  9. Lean Premixed Combustion/Active Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. J. Seery

    2000-02-01

    An experimental comparison between two contrasting fuel-air swirlers for industrial gas turbine applications was undertaken at the United Technologies Research Center. The first, termed an Aerodynamic nozzle, relied on the prevailing aerodynamic forces to stabilize the downstream combustion zone. The second configuration relied on a conventional bluff plate for combustion stability and was hence named a Bluff-Body nozzle. Performance mapping over the power curve revealed the acoustic superiority of the Bluff-Body nozzle. Two dimensional Rayleigh indices calculated from CCD images identified larger acoustic driving zones associated with the Aerodynamic nozzle relative to its bluff counterpart. The Bluff-Body's success is due to increased flame stabilization (superior anchoring ability) which reduced flame motion and thermal/acoustic coupling.

  10. APBF Effects on Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FT001 - APBF Effects on Combustion (advanced petroleum based fuels, DOE project # 18546) Bruce G. Bunting, Jim Szybist, Scott Sluder, John Storey, Sam Lewis, Robert Wagner, Jun Qu, Robert Crawford 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-10, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE management team: Kevin Stork, Drew Ronneberg, Dennis Smith, Steve Przesmitzki 2

  11. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Combustion and Gasification - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  12. improve combustion models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combustion models - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  13. Applied Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbulent Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  14. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  15. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  16. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  17. Tracking the Sun VIII: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015.

  18. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  19. Internal combustion engine with rotary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a block having at least one cylindrical wall surrounding a piston chamber, piston means located in the piston chamber means operable to reciprocate the piston means in the chamber, head means mounted on the block covering the chamber. The head means has an air and fuel intake passage, and exhaust gas passage, a rotary valve assembly operatively associated with the head means for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gas from rotary valve assembly and the piston chamber. The means has a housing with a bore open to the piston chamber accommodating the rotary valve assembly, the valve assembly comprising a cylindrical sleeve located in the bore, the sleeve having an inner surface, an ignition hole, and intake and exhaust ports aligned with the intake passage and exhaust gas passage, spark generating means mounted on the housing operable to generate a spark. The rotatable valving means is located within the sleeve for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gases out of the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber.

  20. United States Environmental Monitoring EPAJ60014-901016 Environmental Protection Systems Laboratory DOE/DP/00539-062

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    EPAJ60014-901016 Environmental Protection Systems Laboratory DOE/DP/00539-062 Agency P.O. Box 93478 May 1990 Las Vegas NV 891 93-3478 Research and Development - Offsite Environmental lcrgw Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring d ,& Around United States Nuclear Test Areas Calendar Year 1989 This page intentionally left blank EPN60014-90/016 DOEIDP100539-062 May 1990 Offsite Environmental Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1989

  1. Combustion Energy Research Fellows - Combustion Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Combustion Energy Research Fellows Combustion Energy Research Fellows Enoch Dames Co-sponsored by Professor William H. Green, MIT, Professor Ronald K. Hanson, Stanford University, and Professor Hai Wang, University of Southern California. Dr. Dames will apply recently advanced uncertainty quantification/minimization tools and determination of multi-species time histories behind reflected shock waves towards the development of high-fidelity kinetic models for combustion applications.

  2. Experience in preparing fuel for combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rude, J.

    1995-09-01

    The key phase seems to be that wood is the ORIGINAL FUEL. Certainly as man discovered fire, it was the most obvious as well as abundantly available fuel and it burned very well because man was smart enough to select the dry wood once he understood the basics of combustion. As the needs started to go beyond the most elementary, designs for burning ideal fuels were pretty well perfected, however, the burning of less ideal fuels still remain a challenge. To provide plant steam requirements by burning waste that must be disposed of anyway can reduce operating cost considerably. For most of us involved in producing steam, the experience we have with fuels such as bark, wood waste, sludge, and miscellaneous forms of solid combustible waste material, are a result of burning these fuels in an existing boiler supposedly designed for wood waste or possibly a combination of wood and other fuels such as coal, oil, or gas. For a supplier of fuel preparation systems, the typical application involves the sizing, cleaning, and drying of wood waste, and sludge from a pulp and/or paper mill. Other forms of combustible waste are dealt with occasionally and after proper preparation fired in the combustion system for the purpose of generating hot gas and/or steam for the plant process.

  3. Vehiculos de combustible flexible: brindando opciones en combustible...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    actualizada para convertidores de combustible alternativo de la EPA en su sitio web, www.epa.govotaq certdearmfrcisd0602.pdf. El E85 afecta el desempeo del...

  4. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins to explore strategies for fuel economy improvements (PCCI and HECC) and redced engine-out NOx emissions.

  5. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion ...

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work.

  7. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2006-03-15

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain CAS 02-59-01, Septic System CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain CAS 02-60-02, French Drain CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain CAS 02-60-04, French Drain CAS 02-60-05, French Drain CAS 02-60-06, French Drain CAS 02-60-07, French Drain CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  9. Optimal integrated design of air separation unit and gas turbine block for IGCC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, R.; Grossman, I.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  10. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  11. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Wednesday, 22 October 2014 11:43 Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In

  12. Ancillary Services in the United States: Independent System Operator (ISO) Perspective (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2013-05-01

    The presentation provides an overview of how increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy on the electricity grid are impacting ancillary services markets in the United States.

  13. Real-time combustion controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindner, J.S.; Shepard, W.S.; Etheridge, J.A.; Jang, P.R.; Gresham, L.L.

    1997-02-04

    A method and system are disclosed for regulating the air to fuel ratio supplied to a burner to maximize the combustion efficiency. Optical means are provided in close proximity to the burner for directing a beam of radiation from hot gases produced by the burner to a plurality of detectors. Detectors are provided for sensing the concentration of, inter alia, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. The differences between the ratios of CO to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO are compared with a known control curve based on those ratios for air to fuel ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.30. The fuel flow is adjusted until the difference between the ratios of CO to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO fall on a desired set point on the control curve. 20 figs.

  14. Real-time combustion controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindner, Jeffrey S. (Starkville, MS); Shepard, W. Steve (Starkville, MS); Etheridge, John A. (Starkville, MS); Jang, Ping-Rey (Starkville, MS); Gresham, Lawrence L. (Starkville, MS)

    1997-01-01

    A method and system of regulating the air to fuel ratio supplied to a burner to maximize the combustion efficiency. Optical means are provided in close proximity to the burner for directing a beam of radiation from hot gases produced by the burner to a plurality of detectors. Detectors are provided for sensing the concentration of, inter alia, CO, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. The differences between the ratios of CO to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O to CO are compared with a known control curve based on those ratios for air to fuel ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.30. The fuel flow is adjusted until the difference between the ratios of CO to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O to CO fall on a desired set point on the control curve.

  15. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and...

  16. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    used in DNS studies of combustion is the numerical integration of the reacting, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Although these types of DNS codes have been successful,...

  17. Sandia Energy - Applied Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    submodels that bridge fundamental energy sciences with applied device engineering and optimization. Turbulent-combustion-lab1-300x218 Complementary burner facilities with...

  18. Advanced concepts for controlled combustion in engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheim, A.K.

    1991-12-15

    Studies carried out at the University of California, Berkeley, over a period of four years were concerned with fluid mechanical properties of turbulent pulsed jet plumes - systems that are of particular relevance to the initiation and control of combustion in engines. The eventual purpose of this program was to provide a rational background for a fundamental refinement of stratified charge diesel engines - the development of a combustion system where the formation of pollutants is minimized, fuel economy is maximized, while fuel tolerance is optimized. The results demonstrated that this goal is attainable by means of appropriate Pulsed Jet Combustion (PJC) generators. The exothermic process of combustion is executed thereby in the form of a fireball taking place in a stratified charge generated by turbulent plumes of a PJC system.

  19. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  1. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  2. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  3. AOI 1 COMPUTATIONAL ENERGY SCIENCES:MULTIPHASE FLOW RESEARCH High-fidelity multi-phase radiation module for modern coal combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modest, Michael

    2013-11-15

    The effects of radiation in particle-laden flows were the object of the present research. The presence of particles increases optical thickness substantially, making the use of the optically thin approximation in most cases a very poor assumption. However, since radiation fluxes peak at intermediate optical thicknesses, overall radiative effects may not necessarily be stronger than in gas combustion. Also, the spectral behavior of particle radiation properties is much more benign, making spectral models simpler (and making the assumption of a gray radiator halfway acceptable, at least for fluidized beds when gas radiation is not large). On the other hand, particles scatter radiation, making the radiative transfer equation (RTE) much more di#14;fficult to solve. The research carried out in this project encompassed three general areas: (i) assessment of relevant radiation properties of particle clouds encountered in fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustors, (ii) development of proper spectral models for gasparticulate mixtures for various types of two-phase combustion flows, and (iii) development of a Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) solution module for such applications. The resulting models were validated against artificial cases since open literature experimental data were not available. The final models are in modular form tailored toward maximum portability, and were incorporated into two research codes: (i) the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM, which we have extensively used in our previous work, and (ii) the open-source multi-phase flow code MFIX, which is maintained by NETL.

  4. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion Engines Bunting, Bruce G ORNL; Bunce, Michael ORNL 02 PETROLEUM; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; BIOFUELS;...

  5. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PDF icon Annual Progress Report More Documents & Publications Heavy Vehicle Systems Optimization Peer Review 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 7. Combustion Research 2012...

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  7. The United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology`s Technology Benefits Recording System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology`s (OIT`s) Technology Benefits Recording System (TBRS) was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The TBRS is used to organize and maintain records of the benefits accrued from the use of technologies developed with the assistance of OIT. OIT has had a sustained emphasis on technology deployment. While individual program managers have specific technology deployment goals for each of their ongoing programs, the Office has also established a separate Technology Deployment Division whose mission is to assist program managers and research and development partners commercialize technologies. As part of this effort, the Technology Deployment Division developed an energy-tracking task which has been performed by PNL since 1977. The goal of the energy-tracking task is to accurately assess the energy savings impact of OIT-developed technologies. In previous years, information on OIT-sponsored technologies existed in a variety of forms--first as a hardcopy, then electronically in several spreadsheet formats that existed in multiple software programs. The TBRS was created in 1993 for OIT and was based on information collected in all previous years from numerous industrial contacts, vendors, and plants that have installed OIT-sponsored technologies. The TBRS contains information on technologies commercialized between 1977 and the present, as well as information on emerging technologies in the late development/early commercialization stage of the technology life cycle. For each technology, details on the number of units sold and the energy saved are available on a year-by-year basis. Information regarding environmental benefits, productivity and competitiveness benefits, or impact that the technology may have had on employment is also available.

  8. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume V. Appendix: stability and instability in fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the fifth of the seven volumes series of our Phase II Final Report. The material developed in this volume has not been incorporated into the system model. It will be used as a precursor of a transient model to be developed in the next phase of our model work. There have been various fluidized combustor models of differing complexity and scope published in the literature. Most of these models have identified and predicted - often in satisfactory agreement with results from pilot units - the key steady state combustor characteristics such as the mass of carbon in the bed (carbon loading), the combustion efficiency, the sulfur retention by the solid sorbent and the pollutant (mainly NO/sub x/) emissions. These models, however, cannot be in most instances successfully used to study the extinction and ignition characteristics of the combustor because they are isothermal in structure in the sense that the bed temperature is not an output variable but rather an input one and must be a priori specified. In order to remedy these inadequacies of the previous models, we here present a comprehensive account of the formulation and some typical results of a new nonisothermal model which has been developed in order to study, among other things, the ignition and extinction characteristics of the AFBC units. This model is able to predict the temperature patterns in the bed, the carbon loading, the combustion efficiency and the O/sub 2/ and CO concentration profiles in the combustor for the different design or operational characteristics.

  9. advanced combustion engines | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Combustion Engines Improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is one of the most promising and cost-effective near- to mid-term approaches to increasing...

  10. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in Improving Thermal Efficiency Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities at Caterpillar Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine...

  11. Advanced Combustion Technologies | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Separation Oxycombustion cannot be simply substituted for air combustion in existing fossil-fueled power plants due to differences in combustion characteristics. For...

  12. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Two U.S. Department of Energy Building ...

  13. AVTA: Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Specifications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures AVTA: Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures PDF icon HICEV ...

  14. Sandia Energy - Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Gasification Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Clean FuelsPower Solid Fuels Conversion Pressurized Combustion and Gasification...

  15. Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of Low Heat Rejection Concepts Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of ...

  16. Hydrogen engine and combustion control process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Michael R. (Coral Gables, FL); Swain, Matthew N. (Miami, FL)

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen engine with controlled combustion comprises suction means connected to the crankcase reducing or precluding flow of lubricating oil or associated gases into the combustion chamber.

  17. Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document: ace076_mcnenly_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Matthew McNenlyPresenting Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  18. PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) turbocharged boiler design and economic study: Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    A coal combustion technology that promises to reduce the cost of electrical power is pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). Since a PFBC boiler is physically smaller than a conventional pulverized coal fired boiler with a flue gas desulfurization system (PC/FGD) and the same power rating shop assembly and modularized shipment to the power plant site can be considered. Modular construction can substantially reduce the overall design/construction time. Emission controls are equivalent to, or better than, conventional PC/FGD units, and the PFBC combustor can tolerate coals with a wider range of characteristics. Two PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant were each to have four nominal 250 MW(e) units to be completed for start-up at one year intervals. To establish a well defined consistent design basis for all units, the turbine-generator and steam cycle of a recently constructed 250 MW(e) unit (designed by Fluor and built under Fluor construction management) was selected and made the common element in both of the PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant. Steam conditions of 2400 psia, 1000/sup 0/F were to be identical for all units as were the steam flows for the design load range of 50% to steam turbine valves-wide-open with inlet steam pressure 5% over design pressure (VWO 5% OP). The study produced three plant designs - a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using bubbling bed technology, a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using circulating bed technology, and a 4-unit PC/FGD reference plant using conventional pulverized coal technology coupled with wet limestone scrubber technology. The hot gas clean-up system, operating at these more modest temperatures, is capable of reducing the particulate in the gas to a level which meets EPA/NSPS standards without further cleanup. With this level of cleanup, service conditions for the turbocharger turbine are tolerable in commercially available designs and materials. 48 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-04-30

    This Corrective Action Plan has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996; as amended March 2010). CAU 562 consists of 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site. Site characterization activities were performed in 2009 and 2010, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 562. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized. (1) CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot, will be clean closed by removing shot. (2) CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain, will be clean closed by removing paint and contaminated soil. As a best management practice (BMP), asbestos tile will be removed. (3) CAS 02-59-01, Septic System, will be clean closed by removing septic tank contents. As a BMP, the septic tank will be removed. (4) CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required; however, as a BMP, the concrete drain will be removed. (5) CAS 02-60-02, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. As a BMP, the drain grates and drain pipe will be removed. (6) CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. As a BMP, the steam cleaning sump grate and outfall pipe will be removed. (7) CAS 02-60-04, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. (8) CAS 02-60-05, French Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. (9) CAS 02-60-06, French Drain, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required. (10) CAS 02-60-07, French Drain, requires no further action. The french drain identified in historical documentation was not located during corrective action investigation activities. (11) CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall, will be clean closed by removing sediment from the mud trap. As a BMP, the mud trap and outfall pipe will be removed. (12) CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap, will be clean closed by removing sediment from the grease trap and backfilling the grease trap with grout. (13) CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil and the sludge-containing outfall pipe.

  20. Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engines | Department of Energy for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_hirs.pdf More Documents & Publications Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" (Presentation) GNEP Element:Demonstrate More Proliferation-Resistant

  1. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a proprietary stack designed thermoelectric engine to achieve high power density and reduced system weight and volume PDF icon deer11_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications TEG On-Vehicle Performance & Model Validation Thermoelectric Generator Performance for Passenger Vehicles

  2. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  3. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental understanding of flame lift-off, generate model validation data, and demonstrate LLFC concurrent with FMC efforts. Additionally, LLNL was added to the project during the second year to develop a detailed kinetic mechanism for a key oxygenate to support CFD modeling. Successful completion of this project allowed the team to enhance fundamental understanding of LLFC, improve the state of current combustion models and increase understanding of desired fuel properties. This knowledge also improves our knowledge of how cost effective and environmentally friendly renewable fuels can assist in helping meet future emission and greenhouse gas regulations.

  4. Catalytic combustion in internal combustion engines: A possible explanation for the Woschni effect in thermally-insulated diesel engines. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.L.

    1996-11-15

    This report describes research undertaken to determine if catalytic combustion effects occur with the use of zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), or other coatings, in diesel engines, and if so, whether these effects have significant impact upon engine combustion, fuel economy, or pollutant emissions. A simple furnace system was used to identify catalytic combustion effects in the ignition and combustion of propane/air mixtures over catalyst-doped m-ZrO{sub 2} spheres. Three classes of catalysts were examined: zirconia-stabilizing oxides (CeO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO), transition metal oxides (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and noble metals (Pt). Each class exhibited characteristic combustion effects, with the ignition temperature increasing, e.g., from approximately 2000 deg C for Pt to 5500 deg C for the stabilizing oxides. The results suggest that the Woschni effect, a controversial phenomenon wherein thermal-insulating measures are postulated to actually increase heat transfer from the diesel combustion chamber, may be only a manifestation of catalytic combustion. Previous research on catalytic combustion in internal combustion engines is briefly reviewed and discussed. An earlier version of this report is to be published in J. Surface and Coatings Technology as `Catalytic Combustion Effects on m-ZrO{sub 2} Doped with Various Metal Nitrates.`

  5. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Office of Research and EPA 600/R-941209 Environmental Protection Development January 1993 Agency Washington, DC 20460 Offsite Environmental 57,,7 Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1992 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY-LAS VEGAS P.O. BOX 93478 LAS VEGAS. NEVADA 891 93-3478 702/798-2100 Dear Reader: Since 1954, the U.S. Environmental Protection

  6. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.; Mosca, J.O.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine. It includes a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing, the engine block being relatively rotatable within the housing about a central axis; means connectable to an external drive member for translating the relative rotation of the engine block with respect to the housing into useful work; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on the block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; the piston, cylinder and cylinder end wall together.

  7. Internal combustion engine utilizing stratified charge combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artman, N.G.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a main air inlet passage communicating at an end thereof through the face of an cylinder head with an alternately expandable and contractable variable volume space in an end of a cylinder closed by such head, there being within the cylinder head a precombustion chamber forming a section of such passage and interposed between the space and an upstream portion of the passage, the chamber having a principal axis extending between opposite ends thereof and of which ends one is an air inlet and having a valve seat through which the chamber is communicative with the upstream passage portion and of which ends the other is an open end through which the passage has two-way communication with the space and is disposed to discharge air from the chamber into the space axially of the cylinder, the combination of air deflecting means in the chamber and operable during expansion of the space to modulate the flow of intake air passing through the chamber into the space into the form of a stream composed of a core portion flowing axially of the cylinder into the space and of a tubular portion encircling the core portion and flowing helically thereabout, fuel delivery means operable during a fuel injection period commencing during expansion of the space and subsequent to entry of a leading portion of the air stream into the space to inject evaporative fuel into the passage and into a trailing portion of the air stream therein at a rate to mix and form therewith an air-fuel mixture lean in fuel richness than flows within and at least partially through the chamber en route to the space during the expansion thereof. The fuel delivery means being operable to increase the volume of the trailing air stream portion mixed with fuel by advancing the starting time of the fuel injection period to increase the length of such period measured in units of space expansion.

  8. Theoretical Energy Release of Thermites, Intermetallics, and Combustible Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-05-14

    Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. For the specific applications of humanitarian demining and disposal of unexploded ordnance, these pyrotechnic formulations offer additional benefits. The combination of high thermal input with low brisance can be used to neutralize the energetic materials in mines and other ordnance without the "explosive" high-blast-pressure events that can cause extensive collateral damage to personnel, facilities, and the environment. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd{sup 3} of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd{sup 3} of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of universal waste in the form of fluorescent light bulbs; and approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of low-level waste in the form of a radiologically impacted fire hose rack were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis and field screening to guide the extent of excavations, were employed during the performance of closure work.

  10. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  11. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 2: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. D. Nichols; C. Mller; G. A. Necker; J. R. Travis; J. W. Spore; K. L. Lam; P. Royl; T. L. Wilson

    1998-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume III contains some of the assessments performed by LANL and FzK.

  12. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar 6.4L V8 engine with 0.2g NOx/bhp-hr operation attained at the rated 16.5 BMEP

  13. International combustion engines; Applied thermosciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on thermodynamic analysis - from the requisite first law to more sophisticated applications - and engine design, this book is an introduction to internal combustion engines and their mechanics. It covers the many types of internal combustion engines, including spark ignition, compression ignition, and stratified charge engines, and examines processes, keeping equations of state simple by assuming constant specific heats. Equations are limited to heat engines and later applied to combustion engines. Topics include realistic equations of state, stroichiometry, predictions of chemical equilibrium, engine performance criteria, and friction, which is discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic theory of lubrication and experimental methods such as dimensional analysis.

  14. Combustion Analysis Software Package for Internal Combustion Engines -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Combustion Analysis Software Package for Internal Combustion Engines Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at the Colorado State University Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory have developed a complete software package for use with National

  15. APBF Effects on Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APBF Effects on Combustion APBF Effects on Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ft001_bunting_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel and Lubricant Effects APBF Effects on Combustion Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

  16. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Slagle, Frank D. (Kingwood, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  17. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  18. Engine combustion and flow diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This informative publication discusses the application of diagnostic techniques to internal combustion engines. The papers included fall into three broad categories: flow diagnostics, combustion diagnostics, and fuel spray diagnostics. Contents include: controlling combustion in a spark ignition engine by quantitative fuel distribution; a model for converting SI engine flame arrival signals into flame contours; in-cylinder diesel flame imaging compared with numerical computations; ignition and early soot formation in a DI diesel engine using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics; investigation of diesel sprays using diffraction-based droplet sizing; fuel distribution effects on the combustion of a direct-injection stratified-charge engine; and 2-D measurements of the liquid phase temperature in fuel sprays.

  19. Rotary-reciprocal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, D.H.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine of the rotary-reciprocal type. It comprises a housing formed with a peripheral wall; a rotor; and a shaft for the rotor.

  20. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    during these next phases of combustion. Research conducted by: D.S.N. Parker and R.I. Kaiser (University of Hawaii at Manoa ), T.P. Troy and M. Ahmed (Lawrence Berkeley National...

  1. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R. |

    1997-08-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data.

  2. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL); Ochs, Thomas Lilburn (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy Ann (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul Chandler (Independence, OR)

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  3. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  4. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In addition, the results could have implications for the burgeoning field of

  5. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In addition, the results could have implications for the burgeoning field of

  6. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In addition, the results could have implications for the burgeoning field of

  7. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In addition, the results could have implications for the burgeoning field of

  8. Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Home The Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center (CEFRC) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 2009 as one of the 46 new centers around the country dedicated to addressing the pressing issues of energy sustainability, energy security, and climate change. The CEFRC, funded at $20 million over 5 years and directed by Professor Chung K. Law of Princeton University, focuses on the combustion of fossil and alternative fuels to produce heat and power. The research team

  9. Fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Lalk, T.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A 0.61 meter (2 ft) diameter fluidized-bed combustion reactor was used for tests on direct combustion of cotton gin trash. Raw gin trash was continuously augered into the unit with fuel and air rates set to maintain bed temperatures of 760/sup 0/ to 816/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/ to 1500/sup 0/F). Particulate emissions in the hot stack gases were measured and found to be lower than federal standards for incinerators. Mild steel and stainless alloy samples were placed in the hot stack gas stream to study corrosion and erosion of materials. High rates of potassium, calcium, and sodium deposits accumulated on the samples, and high erosion rates were found. A 0.3 meter (13 in) diameter fluidized-bed gasifier was used to convert raw gin trash into a combustible gas with bed temperatures between 683/sup 0/C and 881/sup 0/C (1261/sup 0/F and 1618/sup 0/F). By limiting the amount of oxygen compared to the fuel feed, only partial combustion occurs, producing heat and endothermic gasification chemical reactions. The combustible gas was composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It had a heating value ranging from 3.40 to 4.82 M Joules per standard cubic meter (98 to 142 Btu/scf), and about 50 percent of the heat value of the gin trash was converted into this low energy gas.

  10. Toward green systems for cleanrooms: Energy efficient fan-filter units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeng, Ming-Shan; Xu, Tengfang; Lan, Chao-Ho

    2004-07-12

    The paper presents results of laboratory-measured performance of fan-filter units (FFUs) used for cleanrooms. A total of twenty FFUs collected from the market were tested, including thirteen 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) units and seven 1220 mm x 1220 mm (or 4 ft x 4 ft) units. The paper concludes that there are wide variations in FFUs energy performance, and that there are opportunities in improving energy efficiency and lowering operating costs of FFUs. Furthermore, the paper suggests the benefits of having a uniform method for testing and reporting FFU performance. Such a testing method and recommended practice guideline is under development, with heavy input from FFU suppliers, users, and independent institutions that include Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), and Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST). An integrated approach with the participation from designers, suppliers, users, and utility companies can help to identify energy-efficient FFUs that are required for many cleanroom applications.

  11. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, J.; McVay, G.L.; Peden, C.H.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1998-07-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO{sub 2} is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. 4 figs.

  12. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  13. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  14. A thermochemical phase space for combustion in engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The phase space introduced in this paper is based on the recognition that the combustion system is nonlinear, and takes advantage, therefore, of the classical concept of nonlinear mechanics: a space whose coordinates are all the dependent variables of the problem. In the case at hand, they consist of all the thermochemical parameters of the system. The dimension of this space is thus equal to the number of degrees of freedom. The authors name it the Le Chatelier Space. Its major asset lies in providing a map for the global effects of the thermochemical processes occurring in the physical space of the combustion chamber, expressed in terms of trajectories or manifolds. Obtained thereby is an analytical insight into the effective mechanism of the combustion system. Application of the method is illustrated by the evaluation of advantages one can accrue on this basis for a premixed charge engine. It is shown, in particular, that if, instead of a throttled homogeneous charge combustion, the exothermic process is executed in a fireball mode of a direct injection stratified charge system, the engine can be rendered the ability for part-load operation at wide-open throttle, with significant gains in fuel economy and concomitant reduction in pollutant emissions. Such a mode of combustion takes place within large-scale vortex structures generated and sustained by pulsed jets.

  15. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  16. Control system for high power laser drilling workover and completion unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Makki, Siamak; Faircloth, Brian O; DeWitt, Ronald A; Allen, Erik C; Underwood, Lance D

    2015-05-12

    A control and monitoring system controls and monitors a high power laser system for performing high power laser operations. The control and monitoring system is configured to perform high power laser operation on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  18. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ft004_mueller_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office

  19. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

  20. Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Fuel injection strategies to extend low temperature combustion ...

  1. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion ...

  2. A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    was used to study how selected oxygenated fuels affect combustion and emissions in a modern diesel engine during conventional combustion and low-temperature combustion (LTC). ...

  3. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-combustion capture refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed. For example, in gasification...

  4. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  5. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyches, Gregory M. (Barnwell, SC); Dudar, Aed M. (Augusta, GA)

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion engine starting apparatus uses a signal from a curt sensor to determine when the engine is energized and the starter motor should be de-energized. One embodiment comprises a transmitter, receiver, computer processing unit, current sensor and relays to energize a starter motor and subsequently de-energize the same when the engine is running. Another embodiment comprises a switch, current transducer, low-pass filter, gain/comparator, relay and a plurality of switches to energize and de-energize a starter motor. Both embodiments contain an indicator lamp or speaker which alerts an operator as to whether a successful engine start has been achieved. Both embodiments also contain circuitry to protect the starter and to de-energize the engine.

  6. Stratified charge internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skopil, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a main cylinder, a main piston within the main cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the main cylinder; a smaller idle cylinder, and idle piston within the idle cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the idle cylinder; an ignition passageway leading from the idle cylinder to the main cylinder; and an ignition device within the ignition passageway operable to ignite a compressed charge discharged by the idle cylinder into the ignition passageway. The passageway being positioned to discharge the ignited compressed charge from the idle cylinder into the main cylinder to ignite the compressed charge within the main cylinder.

  7. Steam boosted internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.

    1987-01-20

    A device is described to supplement the power produced by burning fuel in an internal combustion engine with steam, the device comprising: a means for producing a constant flow of water past a boiler means; a means for allowing the water to flow in the direction of the boiler; a boiler means external to the internal combustion engine to convert the water into superheated steam; a means for controlling the pressure of the water such that the water pressure is greater than the pressure of the steam produced by the boiler; and a means for injection of the superheated steam directly into a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, a means for producing a constant flow of water at a pressure greater than the pressure of the superheated steam, wherein the constant flow means at greater pressure comprises a chamber with a gaseous component, with the gaseous component being of constant volume and exerting constant pressure upon water within the chamber.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A CARBON MANAGEMENT GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard J. Herzog

    2004-03-01

    The Lab for Energy and Environment (LFEE) at MIT is developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) for carbon management. The GIS will store, integrate, and manipulate information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS can be used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. In the first year of this three year project, we focused on two tasks: (1) specifying the system design--defining in detail the GIS data requirements, the types of analyses that can be conducted, and the forms of output we will produce, as well as designing the computer architecture of the GIS and (2) creating the ''core'' datasets--identifying data sources and converting them into a form accessible by the GIS.

  9. United States Environmental Monitoring EPA-600/4-81-047 Environmental Protection Systems Laboratory DOE/DP/00539-043

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    EPA-600/4-81-047 Environmental Protection Systems Laboratory DOE/DP/00539-043 Agency P.O. Box 15027 June 1981 Las Vegas NV 891 14 Research and Development Offsite Environmental Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1980 prepared for the Nevada Operations Office U.S. Department of Energy This page intentionally left blank EPA-60014-81-047 DOE/DP/00539-043 June 1981 OFFSITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT Radiation moni t o r i ng around U n

  10. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.; Sheppard, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  11. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  12. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  13. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  14. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  15. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. The search utility for experimental data is located at http://public.ca.sandia.gov/ecn/cvdata/frameset.html (Specialized Interface)

  16. Integrated self-cleaning window assembly for optical transmission in combustion environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2007-07-24

    An integrated window design for optical transmission in combustion environments is described. The invention consists of an integrated optical window design that prevents and removes the accumulation of carbon-based particulate matter and gaseous hydrocarbons through a combination of heat and catalysis. These windows will enable established optical technologies to be applied to combustion environments and their exhaust systems.

  17. Gasdynamic enhancement of nonpremixed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marble, F.E.

    1994-12-31

    To promote efficient performance of very high speed air-breathing propulsion systems, the combustor Mach number must be of the order of six for a flight Mach number of 18. Because of this high gas speed through the combustor, mixing rates of hydrogen fuel with air must be very rapid in order to allow a combustor of reasonable length. It is proposed to enhance the rate of mixing and combustion of hydrogen and air, and thereby reduce combustor length, through the introduction of streamwise vorticity generated by the interaction of a weak oblique shock wave with the density gradient between air and a cylindrical jet of hydrogen. Because of the high Mach number flow in the combustor, the oblique shock traverses the jet at a small angle with respect to the free stream direction, and the principle of slender body theory allows one conceptually to replace the three-dimensional steady flow with a two-dimensional unsteady flow. As a consequence, two-dimensional time-dependent computational studies and an extensive experimental shock tube investigation were employed to assess mixing rates for the steady flow in the combustor. The results indicated that under realistic conditions, adequate mixing could be accomplished within 1 ms, a rate that was technologically interesting. Encouraged by these experiments, a ``practical`` injector, utilizing shock-enhanced mixing, was designed for a combustor having a free stream Mach number of 6.0. A detailed aerodynamic and mixing investigation was carried out in the Mach 6 High Reynolds Number Tunnel at the NASA-Langley Research Center. The results confirmed both the details and the overall effectiveness of the shock-enhanced mixing concept.

  18. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of fuels, oxyprocess variables and boiler design parameters. Significant improvement of CFD modeling tools and validation against 15 MWth experimental data has been completed. Oxy-boiler demonstration and large reference designs have been developed, supported with the information and knowledge gained from the 15 MWth testing. The results from the 15 MWth testing in the BSF and complimentary bench-scale testing are addressed in this volume (Volume II) of the final report. The results of the modeling efforts (Volume III) and the oxy boiler design efforts (Volume IV) are reported in separate volumes.

  19. Co-combustion feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handcock, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates the technical and economic feasibility of co-combusting municipal sewage sludge produced by the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 with paper mill sludge produced by the Cottrell Paper Company, Encore Paper Company, International Paper Company, Mohawk Paper Mills, and TAGSONS Papers at the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1`s secondary wastewater treatment plant and recovering any available energy products. The co-combustion facility would consist of sludge and wood chip storage and conveying systems, belt filter presses, screw presses, fluidized-bed incinerators, venturi scrubbers and tray cooling systems, ash dewatering facilities, heat recovery steam generators, gas-fired steam superheaters, and a back-pressure steam turbine system. Clean waste wood chips would be used as an auxiliary fuel in the fluidized-bed incinerators. It is recommended that the ash produced by the proposed facility be beneficially used, potentially as a raw material in the manufacture of cement and/or as an interim barrier layer in landfills.

  20. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on fuel economy was determined, either through on-road testing or full-size wind tunnel testing. All of the manufacturers worked with devices and systems that offer practical solutions to reduce aerodynamic drag, accounting for functionality, durability, cost effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability. The project team members and their roles and responsibilities are shown in Figure 2-1. Figure 2-2 shows the Phase I and II project schedules for all four projects and associated management activities.

  1. Open cycle, internal combustion Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thring, R.H.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an internal- combustion fluid engine. It comprises means, including a hot piston, for defining a combustion chamber; means for causing combustion within the combustion chamber; means, including a cold piston, for defining a compression chamber for pressurizing a fluid; inlet control means for controlling flow of the fluid into the compression chamber; cooling means for maintaining lower temperature in the compression chamber than in the combustion chamber; means, comprising linkage between the hot piston and the cold piston, for varying the volume of the compression chamber in relation to the volume of the combustion chamber in a manner characteristic of a conventional Stirling engine; a manifold connected in fluid communication between the combustion chamber and the compression chamber for enabling flow of the fluid from the compression chamber to the compression chamber; transfer control means for controlling the flow of the fluid from the compression chamber to the combustion chamber.

  2. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Song Wu; Richard G. Herman

    2004-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the April 1 to June 30, 2004 time period.

  3. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-09-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the July 1 to September 30, 2005 time period.

  4. H2 ICE Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H2 ICE Combustion Share Description Hydrogen combustion inside a direct injection H2 engine Topic Energy Energy efficiency Vehicles Hydrogen & fuel cells Credit S. Ciatti This video captures the OH * radicals that are produced during the hydrogen combustion process inside a direct injection H2 engine. It provides a qualitative assessment of where (areas in white, red, and green) and how rapidly those combustion reactions occur. The video was recorded at 3,000 RPM and with 6 bar indicated

  5. Course Descriptions - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lecture Videos News, Events & Publications Contact CEFRC CEFRC In Pictures CEFRC Intranet (Members Only) Home » 2016 Combustion Summer School » Course Descriptions Course Descriptions Combustion Dynamics Lecturer: Prof. Sébastien M. Candel, École Centrale Paris Course Length: 15 hours (Mon - Fri) Session: Morning Session Objective: This course provides an introduction to the analysis of combustion dynamics problems. It includes a tutorial on acoustics and on early combustion instability

  6. Lecture Notes - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    point and Mach stem formation. Lecture XV: Cellular detonations Combustion Chemistry: Thermochemistry Chemical Physical and Thermochemical Properties of Hydrocarbons Basic...

  7. Thermionic system evaluation test (TSET) facility construction: A United States and Russian effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wold, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) is a ground test of an unfueled Russian TOPAZ-II in-core thermionic space reactor powered by electric heaters. The facility that will be used for testing of the TOPAZ-II systems is located at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) complex in Albuquerque, NM. The reassembly of the Russian test equipment is the responsibility of International Scientific Products (ISP), a San Jose, CA, company and Inertek, a Russian corporation, with support provided by engineers and technicians from Phillips Laboratory (PL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the University of New Mexico (UNM). This test is the first test to be performed under the New Mexico Strategic Alliance agreement. This alliance consist of the PL, SNL, LANL, and UNM. The testing is being funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) with the PL responsible for project execution.

  8. Benchmarking Soft Costs for PV Systems in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents results from the first U.S. based data collection effort to quantify non-hardware, business process costs for PV systems at the residential and commercial scales, using a bottom-up approach. Annual expenditure and labor hour productivity data are analyzed to benchmark business process costs in the specific areas of: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection; (3) labor costs of third party financing; and (4) installation labor.

  9. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-03-01

    Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

  10. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naïm R.; Millstein, Dev; Spears, Mike; Wiser, Ryan H.; Buckley, Michael; Widiss, Rebecca; Grue, Nick

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  11. Chemistry: Theory - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theory Chemistry: Theory Presentations from 2010 CEFRC First Annual Conference MultireferenceCorrelated WavefunctionCalculations and Reaction Flux Analyses of Methyl Ester Combustion Emily A. Carter, Princeton University Constructing Accurate Combustion Chemistry Models William H. Green, MIT Theoretical Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics Stephen J. Klippenstein, Argonne National Laboratory Theoretical Chemical Kinetics and Combustion Modeling James A. Miller, Argonne National Laboratory Computation of

  12. Combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, W.; Macek, A.; Domalski, E.; Walker, J.A.; Charagundla, S.R.; Colbert, J.C.; Kirklin, D.R.; Ledford, A.E. Jr.; Decker, P.H.; Ryan, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the laboratory studies presented here is to furnish preliminary input to the technologists in the sense of providing relative rankings through comparisons of appropriate coal and MSW combustion related properties. Support for a future program of sub-scale (demonstration or pilot) experiments to expand on the concepts and quantify them for scale-up to industrial sizes should be provided. A complete plan for this second phase study is included as an appendix to this report. With respect to the actual experimental investigations; these consist of three main tasks. Specifically: (a) static measurements (calorimetry, proximates and ultimate analysis; (b) dynamic measurements using the full range of modern thermoanalytical instrumentation; and (c) combustion of particulates in a specially constructed laboratory furnace as well as studies on the entrainment properties of MSW. The first two tasks deal mainly with the chemical properties of municipal solid waste and is of general utility. The latter is more specifically orientated. The scale of laboratory instrumentation set definite to the limits particle size with respect to the intrainment and combustion studies. Thus the most straightforward application is to combustion in stokers, including semi-suspension units.

  13. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  14. Real-time combustion control and diagnostics sensor-pressure oscillation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2009-07-14

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and controlling the combustion process in a combustion system to determine the amplitude and/or frequencies of dynamic pressure oscillations during combustion. An electrode in communication with the combustion system senses hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by the combustion process and calibration apparatus calibrates the relationship between the standard deviation of the current in the electrode and the amplitudes of the dynamic pressure oscillations by applying a substantially constant voltage between the electrode and ground resulting in a current in the electrode and by varying one or more of (1) the flow rate of the fuel, (2) the flow rate of the oxidant, (3) the equivalence ratio, (4) the acoustic tuning of the combustion system, and (5) the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber such that the amplitudes of the dynamic pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber are calculated as a function of the standard deviation of the electrode current. Thereafter, the supply of fuel and/or oxidant is varied to modify the dynamic pressure oscillations.

  15. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  16. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace001_musculus_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion &

  17. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  18. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  19. Kerosene space heaters--combustion technology and kerosene characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubayashi, k.; I Wasaki, N.

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes kerosene combustion technology. Unvented wick-type kerosene space heaters are very popular in Japan because of their economy and convenience. In recent years new vaporized kerosene burners having premixed combustion systems have been developed to solve some of the problems encountered in the older portable type. Some of the features of the new burners are instantaneous ignition, no vaporizing deposit on the burner and a wide range heating capacity. These new kerosene heaters have four major components: an air supply fan, a fuel supply assembly, a burner assembly and a control assembly. These heaters are designed to be highly reliable, have stable combustion characteristics, yield minimum carbon deposit. Finally, they are simple and inexpensive to operate.

  20. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  1. National resource accounting for a sustainable energy system in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorsey, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    The conflict resulting in Operation Desert Storm re-enforces the fact that nations of the Persian Gulf are in no position to provide a steady, long-term supply of oil. It is imperative that the US take account of itself and seek ways and means to lessen its dependence on oil and other non-renewable sources of energy, whether foreign or domestic. A national energy policy that focuses on energy efficiency through taxes, conservation, investment in new technologies and alternate fuels can provide a broad base to established an autonomous and sustainableenergyy system, freer of outside influence. This paper contains the following major sections in discussing the topic: History; Present Situation; Probable Solutions; Projections for the Future; Conclusions.

  2. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-06-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are inactive or abandoned. However, some leachfields may still receive liquids from runoff during storm events. Results from the 2000-2001 site characterization activities conducted by International Technology (IT) Corporation, Las Vegas Office are documented in the Corrective Action Investigation Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This document is located in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 262. Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. (DOE/NV, 2001).

  3. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  4. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  6. Penetration of gas delivery systems in the United States: A state-level data analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guldmann, J.M. . Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div. Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH )

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the degree to which the gas delivery infrastructure penetrates US regions and states and to pinpoint those areas in which the lack of a sufficient infrastructure impedes the expansion of the natural gas market. Regions and states are ranked according to several indicators developed with data published by the American Gas Association, the US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration, and the US Bureau of the Census. These include the numbers of gas customers and gas deliveries by sector, mileages of distribution and transmission pipelines, underground storage capacities and operating characteristics, heating degree-days, populations and numbers of households, and areal measures of states and metropolitan areas. The market penetration of gas distribution systems is measured by two indicators: (1) the ratio of the number of residential gas customers to the number of households in 1985 and (2) the distribution pipeline density, measured by the ratio of the 1985 distribution mileage divided by the number of households, while accounting for the effect of urban population density (using earlier econometric results). 11 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs.

  7. Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Jr., Johney Boyd (Knoxville, TN); Daw, Charles Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Wagner, Robert Milton (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-10-02

    This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.

  8. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume VII. FBC Data-Base-Management System (FBC-DBMS) users manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    The primary goal of the Fluidized Bed Combustor Data Base (FBCDB) is to establish a data repository for the express use of designers and research personnel involved in FBC development. FBCDB is implemented on MIT's 370/168 computer, using the Model 204 Data Base Management System (DBMS) developed by Computer Corporation of America. DBMS is a software that provides an efficient way of storing, retrieving, updating and manipulating data using an English-like query language. The primary content of FBCDB is a collection of data points defined by the value of a number of specific FBC variables. A user may interactively access the data base from a computer terminal at any location, retrieve, examine, and manipulate the data as well as produce tables or graphs of the results. More than 20 program segments are currently available in M204 User Language to simplify the user interface for the FBC design or research personnel. However, there are still many complex and advanced retrieving as well as applications programs to be written for this purpose. Although there are currently 71 entries, and about 2000 groups reposited in the system, this size of data is only an intermediate portion of our selection. The usefulness of the system at the present time is, therefore, limited. This version of FBCDB will be released on a limited scale to obtain review and comments. The document is intended as a reference guide to the use of FBCDB. It has been structured to introduce the user to the basics of FBCDB, summarize what the available segments in FBCDB can do, and give detailed information on the operation of FBCDB. This document represents a preliminary draft of a Users Manual. The draft will be updated when the data base system becomes fully implemented. Any suggestions as to how this manual may be improved will be appreciated.

  9. HICEV America: Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (HICEV) Technical Specifications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HICEV AMERICA: HYDROGEN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE VEHICLE (HICEV) TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Revision 0 November 1, 2004 Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications HICEV America Vehicle Specification i TABLE OF CONTENTS Minimum Vehicle Requirements 1 1. Regulatory Requirements 7 2. Chassis 8 3. Vehicle Characteristics 10 4. Drive System 11 5. Vehicle Performance 12 6. Hydrogen Fuel Storage System (HFSS) 14 7. Additional Vehicle Systems 17 8. Documentation 18 Appendices Appendix A - Vehicle

  10. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems` variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems' variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included. (Contains a minimum of 223 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Conceptual design of the solar repowering system for West Texas Utilities Company Paint Creek Power Station Unit No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-15

    A conceptual design of a sodium-cooled, solar, central-receiver repowering system for West Texas Utilities' Paint Creek Unit 4 was prepared, solely under funds provided by West Texas Utilities (WTU), the Energy Systems Group (ESG) of Rockwell International, and four other support groups. A central-receiver repowering system is one in which a tower, surrounded by a large field of mirrors, is placed adjacent to an existing electric power plant. A receiver, located on top of the tower, absorbs solar energy reflected onto it by the mirrors and converts this solar energy to heat energy. The heat energy is transported by the liquid sodium to a set of sodium-to-steam steam generators. The steam generators produce steam at the same temperature and pressure as that produced by the fossil boiler in the existing plant. When solar energy is available, steam is produced by the solar part of the plant, thus displacing steam from the fossil boiler, and reducing the consumption of fossil fuel while maintaining the original plant output. A means for storing the solar energy is usually provided, so that some energy obtained from the solar source can be used to displace natural gas or oil fuels when the sun is not shining. This volume presents an executive summary of the conceptual design, performance, economics, development plans, and site owner's assessment. (WHK)

  13. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  14. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD); Chandran, Ravi (Ellicott City, MD)

    1994-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  15. Algorithm for Screening Phasor Measurement Unit Data for Power System Events and Categories and Common Characteristics for Events Seen in Phasor Measurement Unit Relative Phase-Angle Differences and Frequency Signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.; Santoso, S.; Muljadi, E.

    2013-08-01

    A network of multiple phasor measurement units (PMU) was created, set up, and maintained at the University of Texas at Austin to obtain actual power system measurements for power system analysis. Power system analysis in this report covers a variety of time ranges, such as short- term analysis for power system disturbances and their effects on power system behavior and long- term power system behavior using modal analysis. The first objective of this report is to screen the PMU data for events. The second objective of the report is to identify and describe common characteristics extracted from power system events as measured by PMUs. The numerical characteristics for each category and how these characteristics are used to create selection rules for the algorithm are also described. Trends in PMU data related to different levels and fluctuations in wind power output are also examined.

  16. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.; Eddings, E.; Lighty, J.; Ring, T.; Smith, P.; Thornock, J.; Y Jia, W. Morris; Pedel, J.; Rezeai, D.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Kelly, K.

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  17. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maupin, Gary D. (Richland, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA); Kurosky, Randal P. (Maple Valley, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  18. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  19. Internal combustion engine fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochard, P.; Guicherd, C.

    1980-02-19

    In a method and apparatus for controlling the fuel feed to a stratified-charge internal combustion engine, from idle up to the position corresponding with the maximum flow of air, the overall richness (Rg) of the combustible mixture is reduced by acting simultaneously upon the flow of fuel feeding the main chamber and upon the flow of fuel injected into the auxiliary chamber. For higher loads the maximum flow of air is kept constant and rg is increased by continuing to act upon both fuel flows. By keeping the richness of the mixture in the auxiliary chamber substantially constant, it is possible to obtain the best compromise between the performance of the engine and the emission of pollutant gases.

  20. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  1. Impacts of Advanced Combustion Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Advanced Combustion Engines This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information VSS140 2015 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting June 9, 2015 Principal Investigators: Scott Curran, Presenter Zhiming Gao, David Smith, Stuart Daw 2 ORNL - 2015 VSS 140 AMR OVERVIEW Timeline * Project start date: Oct. 2013 * Project end date: Continuing * Activity scope changes to

  2. Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

  3. Particle Ignition and Char Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignition and Char Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  4. Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Post-Doctoral Position in Direct Numerical Simulations of Low-Dimensional Reacting Flows The Combustion EFRC seeks outstanding applicants for the position of post-doctoral research associate to perform research at the University of Southern California and the Sandia National Laboratories on multi-dimensional simulations of a number of experimental configurations. The development of detailed kinetic models describing the pyrolysis and oxidation of fuels depends heavily on experimental data that

  5. Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Diesel Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  6. Pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary combustion engine and fuel injector therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyd, R. W.

    1980-02-12

    For a pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary, internal combustion engine, the fuel injection system and a fuel injector therefor comprises a fuel injector having plural discharge ports with at least one of the discharge ports located to emit a ''pilot'' fuel charge (relatively rich fuel-air mixture) into a passage in the engine housing, which passage communicates with the engine combustion chambers. An ignition element is located in the passage to ignite the ''pilot'' fuel (a relatively rich fuel-air mixture) flowing through the passage. At least one other discharge port of the fuel injector is in substantially direct communication with the combustion chambers of the engine to emit a main fuel charge into the latter. The ignited ''pilot'' fuelair mixture, when ignited, flashes into the combustion chambers to ignite the main, relatively lean, fuel-air mixture which is in the combustion chambers.

  7. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume VI. FBC-Data Base-Management-System (FBC-DBMS) development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    The primary goal of the Fluidized Bed Combustor Data Base, (FBCDB), situated in MIT's Energy laboratory, is to establish a data repository for the express use of designers and research personnel involved in FBC development. DBMS is a software that provides an efficient way of storing, retrieving, updating and manipulating data using an English-like query language. It is anticipated that the FBCDB would play an active and a direct role in the development of FBC technology as well as in the FBC commercial application. After some in-house experience and after a careful and extensive review of commercially available database systems, it was determined that the Model 204 DBMS by Computer Corporation of America was the most suitable to our needs. The setup of a prototype in-house database also allowed us to investigate and understand fully the particular problems involved in coordinating FBC development with a DBMS. Various difficult aspects were encountered and solutions had been sought. For instance, we found that it was necessary to rename the variables to avoid repetition as well as to increase usefulness of our database and, hence, we had designed a classification system for which variables were classified under category to achieve standardization of variable names. The primary content of FBCDB is a collection of data points defined by the value of a number of specific FBC variables. A user may interactively access the database from a computer terminal at any location, retrieve, examine, and manipulate the data as well as produce tables or graphs of the results.

  8. Is combustion of plastics desirable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piasecki, B.; Rainey, D.; Fletcher, K.

    1998-07-01

    Managing waste will always entail some tradeoffs. All of the three options--recycling, landfilling and combustion--have some disadvantages. Even landfilling, which produces no emissions, fails to take advantage of the energy value inherent in plastic. Waste combustion, on the other hand, recovers the energy in plastic materials and reduces the volume of disposed solid waste by up to 90% of its initial preburn volumes. However, this management option generates emissions and produces an ash residue that must be managed. As demonstrated by recent test burns, improvements in combustion and air-pollution-control technology have dramatically reduced the health risks from emissions and ash. Recent studies have shown that plastics--in quantities even higher than those normally found in municipal solid waste--do not adversely affect levels of emissions or the quality of ash from waste-to-energy facilities. In addition, waste-to-energy facilities may be a relatively economical source of fuel, and may be a more economic solution to waste management than the other available options. A waste-to-energy plant generally produces electricity that is sold to the electric utilities for approximately six cents per kilowatt-hour, a rate that is competitive with those offered by nuclear power plants and power plants that generate energy by burning fossil fuels.

  9. Oil shale combustion/retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Summary Max Total Units

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  11. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  12. Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion Documents effects of variable valve actuation in implementing low temperature combustion in production engine platform. PDF icon deer10_de_ojeda.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low

  13. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace043_de_ojeda_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator

  14. US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap The ACEC focuses on advanced engine and aftertreatment technology for three major combustion strategies: (1) Low-Temperature Combustion, (2) Dilute Gasoline combustion, and (3) Clean Diesel Combustion. PDF icon acec_roadmap_june2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Overview of DOE

  15. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  16. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  17. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  18. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

    2001-06-30

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

  19. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for todays engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  20. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.